Quirino Grandstand Hostage Drama Essay

Quirino Grandstand Hostage Drama Essay.

I. INTRODUCTION

Although the history of kidnapping and hostage-taking is a very long one, it is only relatively recently that there has been a systematic attempt to understand the effects, both long-term and short-term, on individuals and their families. This is an important issue for clinical and academic reasons. The advice of mental health professionals is sought with increasing frequency with regard to the strategic management of hostage incidents and the clinical management of those who have been abducted. There is evidence to suggest that how best to help those who have been taken hostage is a sensitive and complex matter, and those who deal with such individuals should be as well informed as possible since such events can have long-term adverse consequences, particularly on young children.

The Manila hostage crisis, officially known as the Rizal Park hostage-taking incident occurred when a dismissed Philippine National Police officer took over a tourist bus in Rizal Park, Manila, Philippines on August 23, 2010. Disgruntled former senior inspector Rolando Mendoza of the Manila Police District (MPD) hijacked a tourist bus carrying 25 people (20 tourists and a tour guide from Hong Kong, and four Filipinos) in an attempt to get his job back.

He said that he had been summarily and unfairly dismissed, and that all he wanted was a fair hearing and the opportunity to defend himself. Negotiations broke down dramatically about ten hours into the stand-off, when the police arrested Mendoza’s brother and thus incited him to open fire. As the shooting began, the bus driver managed to escape, and was shown on television saying “Everyone is dead” before being whisked away by policemen.

Mendoza and eight of the hostages were killed and a number of others injured. The MPD’s failed rescue attempt and gun-battle with the hijacker, which took around 90 minutes, were watched by millions on live television and the internet. The Philippine and Hong Kong governments conducted separate investigations into the incident. Both inquiries judged that the victims had been unlawfully killed, and identified the Philippine officials’ poor handling of the incident as the cause of the eight hostages’ deaths. The assault mounted by the MPD, and the resulting shoot-out, have been widely criticized by pundits as “bungled” and “incompetent”, and the Hong Kong Government has issued a “black” travel alert for the Philippines as a result of the affair.

II. BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

It was August 23, 2010 when the whole world alarmed in one of the most tragic hostage taking happened in Quirino Grandstand Manila, Philippines. Many people were sad and shocked to what happened in the said event. At about 9:30 in the morning, dismissed commission police officer Rolando Mendoza took hostage 25 tourists from Hongkong and some Filipino staff who were in a bus to leave Fort Santiago for Manila’s Rizal Park. The ensuing hostage lasted 11 hours and ended with nine individuals, including the hostage taker, dead.1 and the other hostages were injured.

According to the report Mendoza is a hard-working and kind. He received lots of award for being brave and loyal to his profession. Mendoza said he was summarily dismissed without the opportunity to properly defend himself, and that all he wanted was a fair hearing.2 and to get his job back. He did this way just to get attention the government official.

As we all know Media is the most likely source of information for most people. In this kind of situation it is very dangerous job for the media because he has to put himself in a place that should be right.3 but in what happened in the Quirino Grandstand Hostage taking crisis it seem that many media people were blamed because they reported beyond the limit.

We are in the fact that a media person serve as access of information of issues that are of public concern even if they are at risk. There were many media lapses in that incident. Towards the evening of the hostage taking, many media networks were covering the hostage taking crisis live. Among none of them did it seem to have occurred to that irresponsible coverage of the event could cost lives.4 Some of them during the hostage event reported the unconfirmed information, they revealed the police and troops movement and many more lapses that caused the anger of Mendoza.

III. BEHAVIORAL ANALYSIS (HOSTAGE TAKER AND CAPTIVE/S)

IV. MOTIVES IN THE INCIDENT

Taking hostages has a long history as a method, with variable effectiveness, of securing concessions from individuals, organisations and governments. More recently, it has become a popular tactic among terrorist organisations. Although the resilience of individuals should never be underestimated, there is evidence that being taken hostage can have enduring effects, particularly on children. Individuals vary in how they cope with such an experience, both during and subsequent to it.

The literature demonstrates that the research base is limited, and many important questions remain to be answered. Hostage-taking is an area of clinical and scientific interest. Apart from the need to establish the most effective post-incident interventions for individual hostages and their families, there are opportunities to develop further insights into the dynamics and effects of unequal power relationships.

V. PROBLEMS

The ideal equipment of a SWAT team more or less are as follows: communication apparatus, armor vest, helmets, gas mask, pistols, assault rifles for close quarter battle, handcuffs, synchronized watches, binoculars, telescopes, night vision goggles, battering rams, ladders, ropes, stun grenades, teargas, smoke grenades, stick lights, flashlights, spotlights, telescopic gun sights, hydraulic jacks, bolt cutters, glass shutter explosives, fire extinguisher, fireman’s ax, chain saw, SWAT van, gloves, carpentry tools, acetylene torch and rain gears. There was lack of equipment on the part of Manila SWAT to handle the situation. Although they had their basic weapons such as their armor vest (the effectiveness are already in deep question), their rifles, pistols and Kevlar helmets but still by standards, these are not adequate to address the hostage crisis situation.

It is very evident that they were not even carrying with them flashlights but all of the time they were reporting and complaining that the interior of the bus was dark. The lack of equipment already put the breaching operation into a compromise. The element of surprise was gone that resulted into a stall that lasted for sometime thereby endangering lives. The doubt regarding the effectiveness of their armor vest contributed to the apprehension of the SWAT members to rush inside the bus during the assault.

The Manila SWAT was not only ill-equipped but they were not trained in different kinds of situations. In fact they had to rehearse on the very day of the hostage situation. The trainings of the Manila SWAT as provided by the Manila Police District are not updated and simulated operations were conducted, if ever conducted, was a long time ago. They don’t even know the serial numbers of their guns at an instant query. They train on their own personal account. Skill acquired through trainings diminishes after some time and needs to be constantly updated.

VI. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF THE CRISIS MANAGEMENT TEAM

VII. CONCLUSIONS

The reasons presented for the decriminalization are obviously overwhelming. In a nutshell, by all standards, Gen. Magtibay was an incompetent commander, organizer and manager. To top this off, he was also grossly and recklessly insubordinate at a most crucial moment. One is tempted to put the whole blame on the hostage debacle upon him, if not for the equally incomprehensible lapses and indecisions committed by both his superiors and men all throughout the hostage crisis, specifically on strategy, intelligence, coordination, and deployment. But it is without question that he carries the biggest accountability for the disastrous and murderous outcome of the hostage crisis. As such, it stands to reason for the Senate and the House of Representatives to give decriminalization of libel a chance.

Honestly, as an individual I got pissed off because those people tasked to handle the situation didn’t do it by the book. First and foremost to be considered is the safety of the hostages which as viewed was never the order of priority of those people expected to save same. In all hostage-taking drama that I’ve known, neutralizing the hostage-taker is no. 1 in the agenda, which if initially done could have prevented the carnage. I just hope this won’t happen again, but if it does- just neutralize the hostage-taker once and the drama will end! It’s such a shameful and horrific event that the only positive thing we get out of the experience is to learn something from it. From that Learn we have to our mistakes. .

VIII. RECOMMENDATION

The investigation report also recommended administrative or criminal charges for 15 individuals and organizations, including Manila mayor Alfredo Lim, Vice-Mayor Isko Moreno, ombudsmen Merceditas Gutierrez and Emilio Gonzales III, government undersecretary Rico J. Puno, retired Philippine National Police chief director general Jesus Verzosa, National Capital Region Police Office director Leocadio Santiago Jr., Manila Police District chief superintendent Rodolfo Magtibay, MPD hostage negotiator Orlando Yebra, SWAT commander Santiago Pascual, journalists Erwin Tulfo and Mike Rogas, and three broadcasting networks.

The IIRC recommended that an administrative case be filed against negotiator police Superintendent Orland Yebra and that possible criminal liability should be determined, but the Palace only recommended neglect of duty without any recommendation on possible criminal case. The IIRC also recommended that Chief Inspector Santiago Pascual be held liable for gross incompetence and possible criminal action, but the Palace affirmed the gross incompetence case without recommendation for possible criminal liability. The filing of administrative and criminal cases against Manila Mayor Alfredo Lim, but Malacanang said that Lim should be held liable for simple neglect of duty and misconduct. Charges be filed against several personalities but the recommendation was revised when it reached Malacañang.

IX. REFERENCES
1.First Report of the INCIDENT INVESTIGATION and REVIEW COMMITTEE on the August, 23, 2010 Rizal Park Hostage-taking Incident: SEQUENCE OF EVENTS, EVALUATION and RECOMMENDATIONS, Incident Investigation and Review Committee, September 16, 2010, pp. 9–10, 16, 22, 24. 2.”Hong Kong criticizes handling of Manila hostage crisis”. Reuters. August 23, 2010. http://www.reuters.com/article/2010/08/23/us-philippines-hostage-hongkong-idUSTRE67M35B20100823. Retrieved July 14, 2011. 3.Mair, John; Blanchard, Ben (August 24, 2010). “Philippines defends handling of bus hostage crisis”. International Business Times. 4.http://uk.ibtimes.com/articles/45880/20100824/philippines-defends-handling-

Quirino Grandstand Hostage Drama Essay

The Shoe-Horn Sonata Essay

The Shoe-Horn Sonata Essay.

“This is a fear that is inexpressible, incomprehensible to those who have never experienced it, a dread that strikes at the root of one’s survival – an existential fear. ” Experiences suffered by women and children in WWII Japanese POW camps are reflected in John Misto’s play, The Shoe-Horn Sonata. This is shown through a wide range of distinctively visual techniques such as stage directions, language, lighting, music and sound effects that are designed to put the audience in his characters positions.

The fear confronted by the women of the play can be shown with visual elements of ruthless treatment by the Japanese and betrayal by the British Government. The frightening experiences endured during the women’s imprisonment are visualised in Act 1, Sc. iii, where Sheila is mostly documented. This scene is Bridie and Sheila’s story about how the ship sunk by the Japanese bombing and reflecting the death of many women and children aboard.

At the start of the scene the technique music is used as a soundtrack, “Something to Remember You By” is playing in the background to create a nostalgic mood of the 1940’s which gives the audience a visual moving experience with the song lyrics indicating that someone will be introduced and give the characters a visual way to remember the experiences endured by both of the women.

This technique is therefore enhanced by the dramatic device of an ‘On-Air’ sign which lights up to indicate the audience that Bridie and Sheila are on television and being recorded of what they act.

The technique gives the audience an indication of visualising the rest of the scene. Another technique which John Misto emphasises with recording of Sheila is ellipses. This language technique makes Sheila seem hesitant and cautious of the content she says because it’s public. By Misto creating this technique, Sheila may be ashamed of the experiences and consequences she has endured where she visually remembers. This technique is referenced by, “I … suppose they couldn’t believe it”.

This technique therefore enhanced the audiences understanding of the visually distinctive ways of creating emotive language. John Misto’s main intention in this play was to identify the mostly forgotten women who suffered in the POW camps in Japan during WWII. Misto is very effective in evoking emotion and irony in the audience by reliving the experiences endured by the women in a distinctively visual manner and also by focusing on Act 1, Sc iii where emotion is depicted in various distinctively visual techniques.

This scene evokes the use of the dramatic technique of projected images that are referenced by, “the women and children boarding ships, clutching toys and waving goodbye. It is hard to believe from their happy smiles [… ]”. This quote is further enhanced by the technique irony which Misto visually gives motive that the women and children are soon to die which gives credibility to Bridie and Sheila as this technique reinforces the words spoken by both of the women.

This technique is further reflected by the use of stage setting and lighting where there is a spotlight that isolates Sheila from the “world” and creates an emotional response in the audience. This technique gives the audience an impression that Sheila is hypnotised in her memory when fixed by a very bright spotlight in acting of the Japanese’s search light. This technique is referenced by, “SHEILA stands, fixed by a very, very bright spotlight”. Therefore the technique distinctively visually enhances the audience’s attention to see and visualise the experiences endured by the women.

The Shoe-Horn Sonata Essay

The Movie Glory Genre Questions Essay

The Movie Glory Genre Questions Essay.

1. Glory the movie has many different types of genres which includes: drama, epic film, action film, costume drama, war film, period piece, and political drama. 2. The main characters is Glory are Matthew Broderick as Col. Robert Gould Shaw, Denzel Washington as Trip, and Morgan Freeman as John Rawlins.. these three chracters changed the movie dramatically making it easy for the viewers to feel the passion and pain going on throughout this movie.

3. The genre throughout the film flips back and forth from drama to epic to action.

This makes the movie more in depth and makes the viewer’s really get a feel for the characters and who they are depicting. 4. The main character Col. Robert Gould Shaw is a a good hearted man throughout the film. He fought for his regiment and believed in them more than anymore. Having his best friend in his regiment made it difficult for him to train his men but also a joy for him.

Shaw sought to that his men got the proper materials needed in order to fight better and feel better. Shaw fought for his men’s boots and socks. 5. This film differs from those who has the same genre. Glory is a great movie that really catches its viewers and makes them want to watch it. While as other movies who lassify in the same genre or time period can be quite boring. 6. This film captures bonds that were damaged to great bonds with different characters.

It is a film that shows how two people who did not get a long come together at a time of need and become friends and respect each other. The story line is great and the actors portrayed the characters beautifully. 7. This movie in my opinion is better than band of brothers, the actors and characters really tried hard to get their role perfectly. The story line as well is very interesting; nothing is expected or obvious to the viewers. I would recommend this movie to my friends because I enjoyed it so much.

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The Movie Glory Genre Questions Essay

Elements of Drama Essay

Elements of Drama Essay.

The Essential elements of drama are present in any play that you see, but the ideas have changed slightly over the years. Aristotle was the first to write about these essential elements, more than two thousand years ago, yet we still discuss his list when talking about what makes the best drama. Aristotle considered six things to be essential to good drama. Plot, Character, Theme, dialogue, music/rhythm and spectacle. In modern theater, this list has changed slightly, although many of the elements remain the same.

The list of essential elements in modern theater are: * Character

* Plot
* Theme
* Dialogue
* Convention
* Genre
* Audience

Plot: It is the sequence of events or incidents of which the story is composed. It refers to the action; the basic storyline of the play. Characters: They are the figures that acts in a play. a Flat character is known by one or two traits; a Round character is complex and many-sided; a Stock character is a stereotyped character; a Static character remains the same from the beginning of the plot to the end; and a Dynamic (developing) character undergoes permanent change.

This change must be 1. within the possibilities of the character; 2. sufficiently motivated; and 3. allowed sufficient time for change. Theme: While plot refers to the action of the play, theme refers to the meaning of the play. Theme is the main idea or lesson to be learned from the play. In some cases, the theme of a play is obvious; other times it is quite subtle. Conflict:

It is a clash of actions, ideas, desires or wills. A conflict is a person against person, a person against environment or a person against herself/himself. Spectacle: It refers to the visual elements of a play: sets, costumes and special effects. Spectacle is everything that the audience sees as they watch the play. Genre: Genre refers to the type of play. Some examples of different genres include, comedy, tragedy, mystery and historical play.

Dialogue: This refers to the words written by the playwright and spoken by the characters in the play. The dialogue helps move the action of the play along. Music/Rhythm: While music is often featured in drama, in this case Aristotle was referring to the rhythm of the actors’ voices as they speak.

Convention: These are the techniques and methods used by the playwright and director to create the desired stylistic effect.

Audience: This is the group of people who watch the play. Many playwrights and actors consider the audience to be the most important element of drama, as all of the effort put in to writing and producing a play is for the enjoyment of the audience.

Elements of Drama Essay

The English Restoration Essay

The English Restoration Essay.

The Restoration was a revolutionary period for both history and literature. Before the Restoration period began, England was under rule of the Protectorate. They believed in strict Puritan law. Under this law, Protestants and Jews were accepted, but they would not accept the Episcopalians or Roman Catholics. There was one man who acted as the dictator of England, and that was Oliver Cromwell. Things were conducted in a very traditional way. At this point in time people were getting very tired of the Puritan regime.

They were tired of being treated unfairly by the government (Fletcher). The literature at this time was somewhat strict.

Most of the writers wrote in a very simple style that created complex images. Not many authors ever thought of writing outside the form of that day. Many writers of the time wrote plays, but were unable to have them acted out because the Puritans closed all of the theaters, believing that theaters were evil places (Merritt 245).

This Puritanical order only lasted eighteen years. The Restoration started in 1660 when the people had finally had enough of the Protectorate. England regained its monarchy, as Charles II was named king. Charles II was seen as the lands savior. Along with his arrival came a more relaxed country.

The people exiled everything that reminded them of the Puritans. One of the significant events of this time was when the theaters opened up once again. The writings of many authors now were morally loose as most people now felt carefree, and self-indulged. The transition from the strict, overbearing type of government to this one that was relaxed and less stressful is comparable to Rome, when Augustus took the throne to try and settle things down after Caesar died. There was an uproar from the people about Caesar’s death. They wanted and needed a ruler that would bring stability Luloff 2 back to the land.

They wanted someone who would help them get back to their normal lives. This desire for normalcy was evident throughout England. They felt Charles II could help them settle into a better life with fewer restrictions (Restoration Period). One of the most important things to come out of the Restoration Period was the literature. Whether it was prose, or a theatric work, literature was revolutionized during this period. The literature of this period varied from one extreme to another. There were works on everything from the politics of Charles II, to sexual comedies of a housewife (Restoration Literature).

One style of writing that changed during the Restoration was prose. Before the Restoration, prose was something that became fashionable to elaborate in. During the Restoration that became less important to the writers. What did become important to the writers was that they were able to express themselves clearly, simply, and directly (Merritt 254). There were several different types of prose that were written at this time. Two particular types of prose were fostered into something that would rule over literature later in time. Those two types were fiction and journalism. Christian religious prose dominated the subjects discussed.

Most prose tended to be about economic and political issues. Another form of literature that changed during the Restoration period was drama. Drama was banned from the people previous to the Restoration. When Charles II came into power he saw into making sure that all of the theaters were open. By law, each theater had to play so many plays in a certain amount of time. Drama evolved so much that during the Restoration actresses were first seen. Drama also was very diverse. Most drama of the time was full of wit (Restoration). The most popular genres of plays were serious drama and comedy.

The serious dramas were often about a hero facing various problems. The hero would have some feature that was either physical or mental that makes the audience see him as the leader. At the Luloff 3 end of the play the hero would bring justice back to the land using his sword. The rise of actresses in drama demanded that some plays center around females. They wanted larger parts where more attention could be brought to them. This created the pathetic tragedy. The pathetic tragedy centered on love and domestic issues. This type of tragedy was first to bring tears to the audience.

The plays dealt with things that touched home for everyone in the audience. Another form of drama that was popular was the comedy. The comedy often dealt with matters that were sexually explicit, which was what Charles II often preferred. Later in the Restoration, plays became softer and they mostly dealt with cultural issues. Many plays made light of different aspects of life that were changing (Restoration Literature). Poetry was also a type of literature that changed. Most all poetry was written in the form of a heroic couplet. Along with writing these was a want of regularity.

There was not one particular genre of poetry that was written more than others. All genres were put into the heroic couplet format. Many writers also tended to put some sort of virtue in everything that was written (Wright 228). During the Restoration there were many authors that sort of shaped the period. The most important person was John Dryden. Dryden’s works defined the ideals of balance, judgement, and social responsibility that were important at that time (Wright 228). Dryden at one time was a supporter of the Puritans, but over time he switched over to supporting the restored monarchy.

Dryden had also converted from Angelican faith to Roman Catholicism. He justified himself in several of his works. He wrote all different types of things that showed his diverse writing skills. Dryden wrote everything from plays to poetry. Some of his works were criticisms of people in power at the time. The way in which Dryden wrote became the standard during the Restoration (Restoration Literature). Other important writers of the time include John Milton, Samuel Butler Luloff 4 who wrote satires, and Edmund Waller who was considered a very important author of the time.

The people considered him to be just as important as John Dryden (Fletcher). The Restoration period was a very important part of English literature and language. It allowed the time for everything to revolutionize and give a fresh perspective to the readers then and now. This was a very important historical event also with the fall of a dictatorship- like government and the rebirth of the monarchy which still kind of stands today. The Restoration has made an incredible impact in both history and literature. If the Restoration had never taken place, it is hard to say what life and literature would be like today.

Works Cited Fletcher, Robert. “A History of English Literature. ” About. 8 May 2006. Main, C. F.. “The Restoration and the Eighteenth Century. ” Elements of Literature. Brinnen, John Malcolm. Austin: Holt, Rhinehart and Winston. Merritt, James. “English Literature. ” The World Book Encyclopedia. 1985. “Restoration, in English History. ” Bartleby. 6 May 2006 “Restoration Literature. ” Wikipedia. 8 May 2006. “The Restoration Period and the 18th Century. ” Encarta. CD-ROM. Microsoft. 2000. Wright, H. Bunker. “History of the English Language. ” Collier’s Encyclopedia. 1995.

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The English Restoration Essay

Genre: Drama Essay

Genre: Drama Essay.

Dramas are serious, plot-driven presentations, portraying realistic characters, settings, life situations, and stories involving intense character development and interaction. Usually, they are not focused on special-effects, comedy, or action, Dramatic films are probably the largest film genre, with many subsets. See also melodramas, epics (historical dramas), or romantic genres. Dramaticbiographical films (or “biopics”) are a major sub-genre, as are ‘adult’ films (with mature subject content). Drama film is a genre that relies on the emotional and relational development of realistic characters.

While Drama film relies heavily on this kind of development, dramatic themes play a large role in the plot as well. Often, these dramatic themes are taken from intense, real life issues. Whether heroes or heroines are facing a conflict from the outside or a conflict within themselves, Drama film aims to tell an honest story of human struggles. Drama Film Examples: The Shawshank Redemption – A former banker convicted of murdering his wife develops a lifelong friendship with a fellow prisoner, and ultimately tries to defy the odds by keeping hope alive inside prison walls.

The Godfather – The aging patriarch of an organized crime circle must secure the future of his family’s empire by leaving it in the hands of his reluctant son. Casablanca – A jaded nightclub owner must choose whether or not to help his ex-lover and her husband flee Nazi-occupied Morocco. ________________________________________ DRAMA Sub-genres Biography A Biography drama incorporates dramatic elements into a biographical film. These films differ from Historical and “based in truth” films because they specifically chronicle the life of a person or a group of people.

Biography films attempt to show a comprehensive and accurate picture of the specific subject, thus they tend to be serious and intense. Examples: Ray, Monster, Blow ________________________________________ Courtroom Courtroom drama film uses the justice system as a main component of the plot. The story usually unfolds inside a courtroom with the prosecutor, judge, jury, and the defense. Tension plays a large part in courtroom dramas as the verdict can often mean life or death. Examples: A Few Good Men, To Kill a Mockingbird, 12 Angry Men ________________________________________

Dramedy Dramedy film is a genre that has a dramatic tone yet important elements of comedy. In Dramedy film, the amount of drama and comedy are almost equally balanced. This balance provides comedic relief for the audience, while still addressing serious issues. Examples: Little Miss Sunshine, The Royal Tenenbaums, Lost in Translation ________________________________________ Historical Historical is a sub-genre of Drama film that examines a specific time in history or group of people. Many Historical films aim to portray true events and people.

However, most Historical films are only loosely based on these events and people. These films tend to focus on the more glorified societies and people in history such as the Romans, specific Kings and Queens, or important political figures. Examples: 300, Frost/Nixon, Hotel Rwanda ________________________________________ Melodrama Melodrama film is a sub-genre that appeals to the heightened emotions of the audience. The plot and characters often are more unrealistic than those found in the traditional drama film.

Melodramas usually cater towards a female audience and tell a story that centers on a great crisis and a heroic protagonist. Examples: The Bridges of Madison County, Steel Magnolias, Sophie’s Choice ________________________________________ Period Piece Period Piece is a sub-genre of Drama film that focuses on a specific time era. The era in which the film is set adds not only to the plot, but to the characters and costumes as well. A Period Piece films are often based on a novel. These films tend to have a longer run time than traditional Dramas.

Examples: Pride and Prejudice, Mansfield Park, Romeo and Juliet ________________________________________ Political Political drama film contains themes, characters, and a plot specifically about politics and the political scene. The main protagonist is often at odds with the harsh reality of corruption in politics. Many Political Dramas are based in fact but focus on exploring conspiracy theories. Examples: Mr. Smith Goes to Washington, Wag The Dog, The Manchurian Candidate ________________________________________

Romance Romantic Drama film is a genre that explores the complex side of love. The plot usually centers on an obstacle that is preventing love between two people. The obstacles in Romantic Drama film can range from a family’s disapproval, to forbidden love, to one’s own psychological restraints. Many Romantic Dramas end with the lovers separating because of the enormity of the obstacle, the realization of incompatibility, or simply… fate. Examples: Romantic Drama film include Titanic, Breakfast at Tiffany’s, Dr.

Zhivago ________________________________________ Tragedy Tragedy Drama is a genre wherein the downfall of the character is caused by a flaw within the character. While Tragedy Dramas sometime put the character in extraordinary circumstances, this genre is really about the self-destructive behavior of the character. The flaws of the character come to a head and ultimately result in death or other form of degradation. Examples: American Beauty, Death of a Salesman, The Great Gatsby

Genre: Drama Essay

Drama Paper on Trifles – Susan Glaspell Essay

Drama Paper on Trifles – Susan Glaspell Essay.

Susan Glaspell’s one act play Trifles is based upon actual events which occurred in Iowa at the turn of the century. Between 1899 and 1901 she worked as a reporter for the Des Moines News, during which time she covered a murder trial of a farmer’s wife, Margaret Hossack. The play was written some years later. (enotes. com, 2005) This essay aims to analyze the themes and ideas presented here by analyzing the central character. The full text of this play can be retrieved from http://www.

vcu. edu/engweb/eng384/trifles. htm

This paper aims to show, by conducting an analysis of the central character, Mrs. Wright (the accused), and discussing her thoughts, feelings and actions, how she is affected by events, other characters and environmental culture and values. Mrs. Wright is a farmer’s wife at the turn of the century, at a time when feminism was beginning to come to the fore, but many years before the active burning of bras, in the 1960s, without children.

Moreover, she is married to a man who is not known in the outside community for his social skills – to quote Mrs.

Hale, one of the female characters in the play, to pass the time of day with him would be like a raw wind that gets to the bone. We never actually meet Mrs. Wright in person, but it is from the conversation of the others that we learn about her. For instance, from the women’s observations, and despite the comments of the men, we learn that Mrs. Wright is in fact a good homemaker – she quilts well, is diligent about her preserves, the pans were neatly arranged under the sink, and the roller towel was in fact clean prior to Mrs.

Wright’s departure (it was dirtied by the man who came in later). She also had bread set ready to be baked. This attitude displayed by the males in the play is indicative of unfair judgements made by men at the time. Even the title of the play, Trifles, indicates that what women worried about at the time was considered unimportant. Thoughts, feelings and actions Mrs. Wright, prior to her marriage, was a singer. We learn also that later in her marriage, she buys a bird. It becomes apparent that Mr. Wright cannot tolerate the bird’s singing and kills it.

The women deduce that Mrs. Wright has begun to equate herself with the bird – initially feeling caged, stifled and killed – prior to her marriage, she went out, sang and had fun, and in the very last act, the cage broken, symbolizing freedom, if not of the bird’s body, at least of its spirit. Unwittingly, in one of the opening sentences, Mr. Hale contributes to this image of Mrs. Wright being oppressed by commenting that he didn’t think that what his wife wanted mattered much to Mr. Wright. Having lost everything prior to this, Mrs.

Wright could not tolerate the loss of the one thing that she loved. This death of the bird was the act of anger that the men did not find. Her marriage has been similar to a caging, killing (of herself), and in the final act of killing her husband, she has in fact set herself free – although ironically she is now in jail. Mrs. Hale hits the nail on the head when in hindsight she realizes indirectly that Mrs. Wright was lonely – the unpleasantness and coldness of the place which kept her away kept others away too. With the death of the bird the one thing that was fun had now gone too.

Interestingly, the bird died of strangulation – and Mr. Wright also died because of being constricted around his neck. Environmental culture The men have gone there with their minds made up and to them it is just a matter of trying to find the proof. The women have gone there with no such convictions, through going about their business they find the truth and yet are still able to show compassion – they decide to take Mrs. Wright the quilt, so that she can undo the last untidy square and complete a nice piece of work. Doing this, they find the dead body of the bird.

Having been constricted and confined in life, the bird has been laid to rest in the most beautiful place Mrs. Wright can think of. They also find good fruit and decide to take this to her to convince her that after all her fruit did not rot. Instinctively, they know that this will make her feel better about herself. It is interesting that although it is the men who are there to investigate the case and get to the bottom of things, it is the women, through their observations and insight, get to the truth of the matter.

They are the ones who notice, and understand, the erratic sewing of the last quilted square, for instance. The men believe that everything is clear, except for a reason for doing it – which they have not discovered despite having occupied the same premises as the women for the same amount of time. The women think briefly about disclosing this – their eyes meet – but they say nothing. They do not discuss it with the men – it would not be their place. Women at the time were considered inferior, the men where the authority.

Thus, although some do know the truth, in fact, because of environmental cultures and the norm of the time, it is never discovered fully. Over 100 years later, one must believe, and be grateful that this would no longer happen. We have learned through trial and error and instances such as this that there are a variety of viewpoints and insights that can help us get to the truth. Works Cited Enotes. com, 2005, retrieved 10 April 2006 from the website http://www. enotes. com/trifles/ Trifles, Susan Glaspell, 1916, retrieved 10 April 2006 from the website http://www. vcu. edu/engweb/eng384/trifles. htm

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Drama Paper on Trifles – Susan Glaspell Essay

Dramatism and Meet the Parents Essay

Dramatism and Meet the Parents Essay.

The theory of Burke’s dramatism provides another view of rhetoric analysis of symbolisms that have been utilized in the film. With this, the theory analyzes human relations, culture-usage, lingual properties, and the intentions and motives present within the act. The theory of dramatism by Kenneth Burke applies to the philosophical grounds of the movie, Meet the Parents.

Hence, within this study, the main aim is to apply the theoretical concepts of Kenneth Burke in analyzing the proposed film, Meet the Parents. The theory presents itself in number of different arguments and contents.

With the very concept of Burke presented in the theory of dramatism that states, “life is a stage where the drama continues”, he has proposed five components that guide the analysis of human intentions, culture and other symbols present within the drama. Burke contends that every act in every given scene should possess the appropriate purpose. He further emphasizes these subtheoretical components in his dramatism pentad. Within the film of “Meet the Parents”, various concepts of Burke’s theory have been portrayed.

Under this theory, Burke bases the analysis under the concepts of philosophy and symbolical criticisms.

From the angles of Greg Focker and her girl friend Pam Byrnes together with her family and relatives, each component of dramatism pentad forms an interacting drama throughout the film. In this study, the film is analyzed through the different components of Burke’s theory, namely: the dramatism pentad, and the implications of human relations, culture and language. Discussion Theoretical Explanation of Kenneth Burke’s Theory of Dramatism Dramatisim Methodology The concept of dramatism involves the concept of Shakespearian idealism of “world stage” wherein it considers the realistic events or practical applications of real life scenario.

As for Kenneth Burke, the theoretical framework considers the world as a drama wherein real-life scenarios are placed into a theatrical presentation. The methodology of dramatism incorporates analysis and reviewing of human relations and their motives. As supported by the Gusfield (1989), dramatism is designed to show that the most direct route to the study of human relations and human motives is via a methodical inquiry into cycles or clusters of terms and their functions (p. 135).

Under this consideration, the study identifies the function of dramatism framework as an approach in emphasizing the act of language symbolism that illustrates the conception of man and of human relations. The dramatism methodology is an ideal point of perspective to analyze human acts, relations, and motives in the subjects of philosophy, political science, economics, religion, literature and arts. Upon implementation, the theory suggests the importance of determining of the following variables in order to analyze the components of human acts, relations, and motives: these are speech used, the writing, and the artistic styles present.

According to the book of Kennedy (1989), Burke exercises his dramatism primarily upon acts that produces written texts, although he approaches all human actions as essentially dramatic and active, having a dynamic and being analyzable in the same terms (p. 100). Even with a static and immutable character of a play, the theory of dramatism considers the presence of dynamic, changeable and elusive components that maybe present within such plays. The dramatism form of analysis considers the inquiries: “what are involved in the play? What are the people doing in it?

And, why are they doing these acts? ” (with this, the pentad form of analysis can be considered). Burke’s dramatism analyzes the content and thoughts of the drama though philosophical and conceptual framework. Dramatism is commonly placed alongside classical rhetoric and tagmemics as one of the standard heuristic methods of invention. The analogy of Burke’s argument provides the thought that in every actions human make, there is always an incorporation of motives or intentions. Through critical analysis under the components of pentad, these motives of actions can be revealed.

Under the concept of how drama proceeds, Burke considers the need for participants in order to establish the act. The theory of dramatism considers the human world as the continued version of what has occurred in a drama; hence, calling this perspective as the rhetoric of drama. According to Styan (1992), Burke holds that man tries to control and humanize his world by means of symbolism. Symbols and symbolic structures in art are not only typically human, but all forms of symbolism must be derived ultimately from the senses (p. 4).

Burke believes that the concept of symbolism can be applied in the context of human intentions like the ones present in the theatrical drama presentations. It is not surprising since his concepts are very much related to the belief that reality is just the continuity of the drama. With these principles of dramatism methodology, he has proposed five components to instruct the appropriate pattern analyzing given subjects under the concept of dramatism. Dramatism Pentad: Personalization and Depersonalization The concept of Burke ties the two perspectives of personalization and depersonalization.

Burke is considering the subject of personification as part of the theatrical drama. These components should be considered in the dramatization method as well. In addition, the theory of dramatization incorporates the ideas of act, agent, scene, agency and purpose that are all incorporated to the aspects of personification. According to Krasner and Saltz (2006), dramatism is not limited in a spatial sense, as if there were one sphere to which it can be comfortably applied and a second sphere from which it should be kept away (p.

53). With this, the theoretical framework of Burke does not consider the non-personal components under the act, agent, scene, agency and purpose; hence, he has conceptualized the idea of non-dramatist. The concept of non-dramatist is limited compared to the dramatist personification, which gives birth to the concept of outer limit in a double term scene. Within the aspect of personalization, the concept of dramatism centers into critical observation of the drama’s five components: act, agent, scene, agency and purpose.

In order for an act to appear, an agent must be present to perform this act within the coverage of scene. In order to facilitate and implement the acting within the scene, the agent needs to utilize various agencies that should enable the requirements of acting. The full realization of the act is then realized by providing the appropriate and pre-determined purpose within the act. The five elements that composed the theoretical foundation of dramatism are known as the “dramatism pentad”.

In every term of the pentad, significant type of analysis can be employed through the means of ratio, such as “Scene-Act Ratio” or the “Scene-agent ratio”, which interlinks different variables present in the pentad (Kennedy, 1989 p. 100). In Burke’s dramatism pentad, every component should always be present in every given act in order to acquire significance and utility. In the perspective of dramatism, these pentad components are related and form part of the entire thought of the given drama; hence, every component is associated to one another.

Human Interaction: Language and Culture The theory of dramatism emphasizes the use of language in facilitating communication and interaction. In addition, the theory understands the social actors possess different cultural and language variations that need to be considered in interaction. As according to Emmelman (2003), Burke’s dramatism considers the angles of cultural domains and language systems under the social actors that behave according to their cultural and social hierarchies (p. 5).

The concept of theoretical Dramatism has been considered part of the influential modern rhetoric that attracted sufficient adherents and influenced the conditions of rhetoric in the twenty-first century. As according to Burke’s definition, the concept of Dramatism is a method of analysis and a corresponding critique of terminology designed to show that the most direct route to the study of human relations and human motives is via methodical inquiry into cycles or clusters of terms and their functions is a loosely constructed theory (Benoit, Hample and Benoit, 1992 p. 279).

Burke in his theory considers man as an animal that is characterized by symbolic action that identifies itself within the context of language use. Burke considers language, cultural origin and the history of the agent as important symbolisms that provide the message and theme of the drama. Theoretical Application in the Film “Meet the Parents” Film Overview With the overview of the film, the study obtains the elements portraying the possible parts of the dramatism analysis. The story of “Meet the Parents” revolves in the two characters Greg Focker and her girlfriend, Pam Byrnes.

The couple is actually planning to have their wedding the soonest possible time; hence, as part of tradition, Focker tries to foster some sort of familial attachments to his fiance’s family. In doing so, Focker has been confronted by the relatives of Byrne, including his fiance’s ex-boyfriend and the annoying cat. Being a type of family that is over-protective and amazingly paranoid, Pam’s family intensively tests the credibility of Focker as the rightful man for their daughter. The protagonist is somehow confronted by the Byrneses’ interrogative actions towards him.

Unfortunately, the father of Pam, Jack Byrnes, has been part of the CIA investigatory team, who somehow brought Focker in the extensive examination. Despite of the troublesome scenario that Focker is facing, he is aware that this is all part of the test in order to acquire the hands of Pam. Hence, he is determined to do all his best to please and establish a good image towards his family. However, with his frequent attempts, Focker always ends up being ignored or placed in a more complicated scenario.

In the film, Focker has realized the virtue that he learned from Jack, which is the Circle of Trust. This idea has facilitated the value and resolution between the courting and doubting parties. Within the circle, Focker and Jack are able to foster trust and relationship that in the end paved the way for another task, which is to meet the Fockers. In the concept of dramatism, the ending of the film provides a notion of practical continuity of the drama. Application of Dramatism Pentad Act

In application of the first level of the dramatism theory, the act component presented in the film institutes the element of family versus couple’s plan of marriage. This is a typical scenario in the reality setting wherein the male is confronted by interrogations of family members, which is most commonly from the woman’s side. In this category, the main act of Jack Byrne is to initially counter the desire of Focker to marry their daughter, Pam. On the other hand, the act of Focker is to pursue the reward, that he wants to claim, which is his marriage to Pam.

Despite of his efforts and negative impression towards the family of Pam, Focker manages to build some sense of rapport towards the family of Byrnes, while Jack uses this as an advantage for further his investigation on Focker’s identity and intention. The overall act of the film does not actually revolve in a quarrel between the woman’s family against Greg Focker, but rather, the act only shows the attitude of over-protectiveness of the family and tradition that they are following.

Agent The agents presented within the film, mainly Greg Focker, Pam Byrnes and Jack Byrnes, facilitates the act. These characters possess different roles and perspectives in terms of rightful marriage and the obligations of establishing a relationship. The agent Focker possesses the personality of perseverance and focus in his goal for marriage. Pam Byrnes, on the other hand, has acquired the role of a clueless fiance in terms of the dispute occurring between her father and Greg.

Lastly, the agent Jack Byrnes serves as the main antagonist of the film that facilitates the act of examining Focker’s credentials and candidacy for their daughter. Scene The scene of the film involves the two parties, the Focker and Byrnes, under the traditional setting of family introduction prior to marriage. The scenario in the film provides the aspect of human relationships and the type of culture being employed within the film itself. Somehow, the scenes provide an idealistic perspective on what men and women should do prior to marriage.

However, within the context of the film, the incorporation of exaggerations (e. g. the examinations instituted by Jack, the character backgrounds employed within the film – Jack being CIA, etc. ) have given the scene some property of comedy out of the tradition theme that it aims to portray. Hence, the scene of the movie provides the traditional content in a comedy approach, which is facilitated by the agents present in the film. Agency As with the theory of dramatism, the component of agency facilitates the means for the agents to implement their acts.

Within the novel, there are three possible agencies that have been utilized in order to illustrate the act of the three main agents: (a) For Greg, he is able to facilitate his act as the one being scrutinized by his’ fiance’s family by his decision of meeting the Byrne family; (b) For Pam, she is able to facilitate her act of being the clueless fiance by her distinct attachment towards Greg (being his fiance) and Jack (being the favorite of her father), which has given her the idea that everything is getting smooth with the two of them; (c) lastly, Jack earns his role of being the detective of her daughter’s fiance, which has been facilitated through his background of being under the CIA profession. Purpose As per analysis of the overall plot of the story, the story illustrates its very purpose by conveying the message of how the traditional scenario should be for a family introduction in couples who are planning to get married. Somehow, the story incorporates the sense of comedy for the sake of entertainment. It has utilized some sorts of exaggerations in the characters of Jack and Greg in order to provide the aspect of their theme of comedy.

Meanwhile, the message of the story is the tradition of marriage wherein the family, most especially the father of the woman, scrutinizes the man before he allows his daughter to be married. It may sometimes be as complex as shown in the movie but not that exaggerated since the movie somehow incorporates almost impossible events. Application of Human Relations, Culture and Language In application of the other concepts of the theory, the components of human relations, culture and language are illustrated in diverse forms within the story. Evidently, the form employed by the film to demonstrate human relations is by the multi-links present between Greg Focker and the Byrne family.

Meanwhile, the culture presented in the film is the traditional concept of marriage employed by American from the past up until today. Lastly, to further agree with the traditions and culture the film have presented, the lingual use of American English – between the colloquial (Focker) and Byrnes (Formal) – has somehow provided a realistic features for the two opposing parties in the film. Conclusion In the conclusion of this study, the discussion has included the theoretical frameworks of dramatism by Kenneth Burke and the film Meet the Parents. The thesis of the study subjects the application of Burke’s theory of dramatism to the film Meet the Parents.

As per the discussion of the theory, the concept of dramatism has involved different subcomponents that serve as guide in analyzing the human intentions, cultural background and lingual properties of the drama. The theory of dramatism moves in the idea of Shakespearean thought of the world as a stage; hence, it has provided five subcomponents to guide the critical analysis of a drama under the rhetoric philosophy. These five subcomponents involve act, agent, scene, agency and purpose, which are all interrelated and should be present in any given drama. As per application of the theory in the given film, Meet the Parents is able to acquire all these subcomponents mainly through the character symbolisms of Greg Focker, Pam Byrne and Jack Byrne.

The act of the film involves the argument between the two parties due to the decision of marriage by Greg and Pam. As part of the traditional American culture in the ideal family scenery, the film has incorporated the need for family introduction prior to marriage. However, with the diverse agencies present in the characters, the act of employing intensive examination towards the male has been portrayed. Although, the film has incorporated some aspects of exaggerations for the sake of entertainment and comedy, it was still able to relay its purpose in the message of how an American family of the female treats male whenever a family introduction is initiated. Reference

Benoit, W. L. , Hample, D. , & Benoit, P. J. (1992). Readings in Argumentation. Walter de Gruyter. Emmelman, D. S. (2003). Justice for the Poor: A Study of Criminal Defense Work. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.. Gusfield, J. R. (1989). On symbols and society. University of Chicago Press. Kennedy, M. (1989). Theorizing Composition: A Critical Sourcebook of Theory and Scholarship in Contemporary Compositions. Greenwood Publishing Group. Krasner, D. S. , & Saltz, D. (2006). Staging Philosophy: Intersections of Theater, Performance, and Philosophy. University of Michigan Press. Styan, J. L. (1992). Modern Drama in Theory and Practice. Cambridge University Press.

Dramatism and Meet the Parents Essay

Dramatic Dialogue Analysis Essay

Dramatic Dialogue Analysis Essay.

Language is a natural process of living. It plays a great part in our lives. Its effects are remarkable, and include much of what distinguishes man from animals. We use it to interact with one another, to construct and maintain our interpersonal relations and order. In doing so, we interpret and represent the world for one another and for ourselves. Language is used to store the experiences built up, both personal and collective. It is a tool for constructing knowledge and for constructing meaning.

The study of language is an inquiry into the nature of mind and thought on the assumption that languages are the best mirror of the human mind (Stainton, 1999). Analysis of everyday language use affirms that it is in the realm of art that their challenges are most evident and tangible (Gerbig and Muller-Wood, 2006). Linguistics shares a common tradition with literary study. Not so long ago, language and literature were studied together by philologists, who saw the study of both areas as mutually beneficial.

Later development and the advent of specialization in both fields have oven produced scholars whose work does not cross over form one field to another (Oaks, 1998). Even so, scholars in either discipline regularly voice the truism that there is natural conjunction between literature and linguistics. After all, both fields deal with the raw material of human communication and expression – language. There is a need for interdisciplinary cooperation between the disciplinary identity of linguistics as empirical and descriptive while literary study being interpretative and analytical (Gerbig and Muller-Wood, 2006).

Linguistics helps us to “trust the text” (Gerbig and Muller-Wood, 2006), to interpret the text, rather than impose interpretations upon on it. Application of linguistic empirical tools to literature may not lead to ultimate truths. It can nevertheless bring precision to otherwise often impressionistic treatment of text. There is a need to treat text as interchangeable products of a discursive system. Mogliola (1981) posed the question: “what are the structural conditions for the valid reading of a text, in so far as these conditions are revealed by a phenomenology of interpretative experience?

” Heideggerian hermeneutics takes as its origin the pre-objective oneness of interpreter and phenomenon (be the literary text) – sees in interpretation a reading that is faithful to this oneness. Interpreter is never neutral, but always approaches a text with an explicit or implicit question. Interpretative activity manifests three functions: the interpretative question, the textual aspect, and the interpretation which is the meaning. Any given interpretative question should select and illuminate its affiliated “textual aspect”, an aspect which is there is the text.

Linguistics can place literature more firmly and credibly in its context for other aspects of meaning depend more on the context and the communicative intention of the speakers. Communication clearly depends not only on recognizing the meaning of words in an utterance, but recognizing what speakers mean by their utterances. The principles and rules of grammar are the means by which the forms of language are made to correspond with the universal form of thought. The study of generative grammar represented a significant shift of focus in the approach to problems of language.

The shift focus was from behavior or the products of behavior to states of mind/brain that enter into behavior, the central concern becomes knowledge of language: its nature, origins, and use. The three basic questions arise: ‘What constitute knowledge of language? ’, ‘How is knowledge of language acquired? ’, and ‘How is knowledge of language put to use? ’. The answer to the third question would be a theory how the knowledge of language attained enters into the expression of thought and the understanding of presented specimen of language, and derivatively, into communication, an other special uses of language (Stainton, 1999).

The third question takes an important part in this study, particularly in the performance of the language which main purpose is communication. Communication is conceived as a relation that binds together the three elements: sender, receptionist, and topic. Corresponding to the three elements are three distinct functions: expression, appeal, and representation. These functions consist communicative function depending on what takes the center-stage. The function does exclusively what is represented or depicted in the communicative act.

The three functions become the explicit focus of conversation (Medina, 2005). Alongside communication is conversation. Smith (2001) describes conversation as a process of two people understanding each other. Thus it is a characteristic of every true conversation that each opens himself to the other person, truly accepts his point of view as worthy of consideration and gets inside the other to such an extent that he understands not a particular individual, but what he says.

The thing that has to be grasped is the objective rightness or otherwise of his opinion, so that they can agree with each other as a subject. Furthermore, in conversation, knowledge is not fixed thing or commodity to be grasped. It is an aspect of process. It arises out of interaction. In conversation, there is a to-and-fro play of dialogue. Dialogue is the encounter between men, mediated by the world, in order to name the world. It is culturally and historically specific way of conceiving certain verbal transactions and as such has considerable rhetorical force (Maranhao, 1990).

The root sense of dialogue is that of talk (logos) that goes across or back and forth (dia). In contemporary English, dialogue is a conversation of two persons. At formal level, it is an economics of verbal exchange. In the functional usage of dialogue, a text or social interaction is treated as a social field across which multiple voices and multiple cultural logics contend with each other (Tedlock and Mannheim, 1995). What makes something as dialogue? The spirit of its participants of the form its utterances take?

In Plato’s inception, dialogue has always been and continues to be programmatically liminal: interstructural, between two states or conditions, essentially unstructured rather than structured by contradictions; because of its deliberate avoidance of closure and finality. It serves perpetually as a vehicle for reformulating old elements into new patterns. Dialogue provides a meeting ground, community, and manifests itself in a variety of spontaneous and ritual modes of discourse in which nature and structure meet.

Understood as a conceptualization of a kind of discourse and also a way of viewing and interpreting discourse, dialogue shares with narrative the characteristic of being atemporal, existing in many times and places. As discourse phenomena, it is internally atemporal. It does not talk about events in time; instead it spans in ‘dialectic event (i. e, discourse event) and meaning’; it presents utterances, ideas, and undertakings in nonlinear, recursive, diaeretical, and synthesizing sequences (Maranhao, 1990). Treating dialogue as an ideal evidently has an ethical implication.

Furthermore, when a particular mode of communication is chosen as a model of dialogue, it becomes identified with the sense of goodness or rightness adhering in the ideal to the exclusion of other modes of communication. (Maranhao,1990). Spoken and written languages are what Maranhao (1990) termed as modes of communication. Although written and spoken languages are very different, they are not easy to separate. In fact, they are closely intertwined, and in daily life people participate in literacy events where reading and writing are mixed with spoken language and with other means of communication.

Writing is based on speech in some very real ways; spoken language is the basis for the most people’s learning of written language, for instance, and the very form of written language gets inspiration form spoken language. However, other aspects of communication come into play with written language. Most significantly, it is visual: laid out in some way and displayed. The importance of the role design, layout and other aspect of the physical context should be evident and they form part of what is meant by writing.

Writing enables us to go much further than spoken language: its ability to fix things in space and time. Writing results in text. It extends the functions of language, and enables to do different things (Barton, 2006). It is in the realm of art where study of language is evident and tangible. Dramatic dialogue, the interplay between written and spoken language, fits for the study. It is therefore desirous to investigate the workings of dramatic dialogue. Dramatic dialogues usually serve a number of purposes such as developing the plot, and presenting the characters and providing information about them.

Playwrights attempt to achieve balance between some features of actual speech and the employment of dialogue by putting not too much closeness to actual speech so as not to make dialogues dull and uninteresting (Al-Rubai’i and Al-ani, 2004). Dramatic dialogues (plays) exist in two ways – on the page and on the stage. It is therefore necessary to adhere to the argument that sensitive understanding of plays (explicitly contains dramatic dialogue) can be arrived at through “mere reading” through linguistic analyses that dramatic text contains very rich indications as to how they should be performed.

Dramatic dialogue takes into account that one crucial aspect in which drama differs from poetry and fiction is in its emphasis on verbal interaction, and the very relationship between people are constructed and negotiated through what they say. It is where linguistics takes into its own. Linguistics, and the techniques of discourse analyses in particular, can help analyze the exchanges between characters, in order to: help us understand the text, help us understand how conversation works, and allow us to appreciate better the skill demonstrated by the playwright (Thornborrow and Wareing, 1998).

Chapter 2 Dialogue as discourse is characterized by a fundamental structural principle: it is interactive and interactional. It is a mode of speech exchange among participants, speech in relation to another speech not merely the verbal expression of one character or actors’ part. In the study of dialogue as interaction, the dramatic text as written text, addresses a context of performance which requires a change in mode of discourse – the transformation and transmutation of the written lines into dynamics of speech, which involve more than recitation of the lines by the actors (Herman, 1995).

In the study of dramatic dialogue, understanding the workings of the dialogue as interaction and conversational speech versus dramatic speech are taken into account. It is also important to note that dramatic dialogue, taking part in the speech exchange system, must be safeguarded from conversation in order to preserve the formers’ ‘literary’ quality (Herman, 1995). In the construction of conversational practices and actions, participants use co-occurring structures and devices from different levels of linguistic organization as well as the employment of linguistic features in conversation.

In the linguistic analyses of dramatic dialogue, Gricean semantics and analyses on the linguistic features: turns, pauses or silences, adjacency pairs, chaining, and back channel support, will be employed. According to Gricean Semantics, in ordinary conversation exchanges, there is much more to the meaning of an utterance than what appears on the grammatical and logical surface: utterances often convey things other than what they literally mean and they often imply things other than what they strictly entail.

The adequate understanding of meaning requires the processing of what has been termed as ‘an invited inference’. Grice formulated the maxims as follows: ‘Make your contribution to the conversation as informative as possible, but not more informative or less informative that is required (Maxims of Quantity); ‘Do not say what you believe to be false’ and ‘Do not say that which for you lack adequate evidence (Maxims of Quality); ‘Avoid obscurity’, ‘Avoid ambiguity’, ‘Be brief’, Be orderly’ (Maxims of Manner), and ‘Be relevant’ (Maxims of Relevance).

According to Grice, all these different maxims are corollaries of the most fundamental principle of communication that governs all conversation. This is what he called as Cooperative Principle which read as follows: ‘Make your conversational contribution such as is required, at the stage at which it occurs by the accepted purpose or direction of the talk-exchange in which you all engaged. ’ (Medina, 2005).

The central premise of the Gricean approach is that the communicative intention of a normal speaker under normal circumstances conforms to the cooperative principle and the conversational maxims that derive from it. For Gricean semantics, the speakers’ conversational contributions are governed first and foremost by these general rules of cooperative communication, rather than by the semantic conventions that fix word-meanings and sentence-meanings. It is also important to note that intended meanings of speakers can depart sometimes even wildly like that of ironic utterances.

Grice’s analyses of intended meanings put a lot of weight in the speaker’s communicative intentions undermining the traditional emphasis on linguistic conventions, which on his view become mere tools to be used and bent in all kinds of ways (Medina, 2005). One of the linguistic features in conversation which tends to be modified in dramatic dialogue is the way turns are taken, the way people having a conversation organize who is going to speak next.

Schegloff (1995) had the idea that syntax of spoken language in interaction should be looked upon as resource that is deployed and exploited for the organization of turns and sequence in conversation. Turn-taking is one important communication skill emerging during preverbal routines. It is a mechanism use to reorganize conversation so that interactants smoothly exchange speaking consequences. Through turn-taking, participants coordinate their conversational contributions to each other.

Turn-taking works as the onset of dialogue and is a prerequisite for latter emergence of communicative rule (Haslett and Samter, 1997). In general, for the construction of conversational practices and actions, participants use co-occurring structures and devices from different levels of linguistic organization, not only from prosodic, phonetic-phenological, but also form morpho-syntactic and lexico-semantic structures in turns-at-talk in their sequential context. The possible types for turn constructional units (TCU), for English, are sentential, clausal, phrasal, and lexical.

Syntactic units are important resources for the construction of TCU and turns. TCU is a linguistic unit in talk constructed in the interplay of syntax and prosody in its sequential context. For spoken language in interaction, syntactic entities like sentences are not to be conceived as static or fixed, but flexible. That is why when talking about transmission relevance placed as the relevant loci for the negotiation of turn-taking; ends of sentences, clauses or phrases etc. are not talked about but the ‘possible completion points’ of sentences, clauses, phrases, and one-word construction.

It is the flexibility of the possible syntactic unit that enables them to be used for the organization of turn-taking in conversation (Hakulinen and Selting, 2005). In the construction of conversation, participants are not concerned with the construction of units as such, but the construction of units is contingent upon practices or activities such as holding, organizing, and yielding the turn. TCUs are not themselves relevant for participants, but for the practices and activities of turn-taking and activity constitution (Haslett and Samter, 1997).

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Dramatic Dialogue Analysis Essay

Dramatic Incident Essay

Dramatic Incident Essay.

“Never messed up with me or else, I will get back on you! ” This is the line that the people around me were used in hearing for almost 5 years, since my college days. I was such a braggart, an attention deficit student in our College Department in BS Psychology. I wanted to be always the center of attraction to anyone. All I wanted was attention, love and respect. The things which were deprived by my family, friends and peers. I can say that because of what and how people treated me when I was still in high school made me in to who I was in College and until now.

When I was in high school, I used to be the laughing stock in our room.

Why? because of how I looked. I did not appear appealing to my classmates and even teachers. They based their respect and love with looks. I was so devastated that time that it came to a point where I asked myself.

Why am I like this? Why do I look like this? Why do I have to be laughed of? Do not I have to right also to be respected and loved? All these things ruled in my mind for 4 years in high school. It was not just in school, but also in my family, in my home! They thought of me as nobody. They even didn’t recognize my achievement. I tried my best to be an honor student for them to appreciate me, but I was just frustrated.

They never did! All their attention was with my beautiful sister. My ever loving, pretty and obedient sister named Grace. They always supported her on everything she does, in everything! I was so mad at this reality! That I decided that when I finished high school, I will get my freedom. I will redeem my being back, the one they stole from me. Then I graduated high school as a Valedictorian. Never have I received any appreciation or any rewards from them. But they did not know that it was already my time to see and let them see the side of me that they would not want to see. I enrolled at a known University as a scholar.

I enrolled in BS Psychology. Then after one semester, I flanked all my subjects, I quarreled with a professor, I had a fight with Mrs. McGowan, who is the Dean of our College. I was so happy upon seeing my family suffer because of what I have done. They were so angry that their anger put me into the insanity of happiness. It was just the start of my revenge. Then second semester came, I enrolled in BS Nursing. After one week they found out that I did not paid the money they gave me which was intended for my tuition. They were horrified at this! Again, I was so happy. My mouth was filled with laughter then.

After that event, I had a physical fight with a classmate. It made the Dean of Nursing call their attention for my detention. Then a week after that, I met a Mark. Our neighbor which was my long time friend. I courted the guy. Yes! I was the one who courted him and good thing he said yes. We went out for 3 weeks then suddenly, one cold night. I asked him to elope with me. At first he said no, for surely my parents were going to kill him. But I insisted and insisted. I blackmailed him that if he won’t agree, I will kill myself. Then he finally said yes. In the morning after that, we did it.

We went to a place where nobody knew about us. In a secluded place, there we stayed for two days. After those days, I received a phone call saying that my mom had a heart attack. I was horrified upon hearing this. Even if I am such a stupid and disobedient daughter, I still love and cherish my mother so much. My mother who brought us up. The one toiled a living just for us to be in school and have a future. In hearing that bad news, I was so devastated and immediately decided to go back in our place. My boyfriend allowed me then so I immediately packed my things up and proceed to our home. I went there with my boyfriend.

When we stepped into the house, all my siblings welcomed me with arms wide open. I could feel their love and care. They were all asking forgiveness at me. They were sorry for they knew they caused me too much hurt starting from the past. We exchanged forgiveness. I have nothing to do but to forgive them. I love my siblings so much that I do not want any trouble between us anymore. After we reconciled, we then went to the hospital to visit my mom. Upon arriving their, I talked with my mom. I asked forgiveness and her too. I explained my part and poured everything that I felt from the start.

Just after I embraced my mom, she died. She held my hand so tight that I shouted from the very top of my voice. “Oh Lord! What have I done! If not of what I did, she should have been alive” talking to myself in front of the mirror. I was so guilty; my conscience was eating me up. I cried, and cried. I asked forgiveness for all the things that I have done that caused her so much hurt. I regretted the day when I decided to take my revenge against them. I was so downcast, I was so gloomy. I thought to myself, I should have been the one lying dead in the hospital bed and not my mother! I felt like I was the killer.

But my siblings hugged me and said they did not blame me for what happened. It should not have been that way if I was not eaten up by my anger. But then things already happened. I guess things happen for a reason. They happen for a specific purpose in our lives, in my life. We should learn to forgive and forget. Forgive even if that person caused you too much pain, and forget, even if the experience and hurt is unforgettable. God has a purpose in everything. He let things happen in our lives for us to become strong and firm in our faith in Him. We should learn to rely on Him and not to ourselves.

God would not give us something we can not bear. He will never leave us nor forsake us, even to the lowest valleys in our lives. He will always be there for us. I have realized that He is the only one that I need. I do not need anybody to feel love. I just need my Lord, my God! He is all that I wanted which I should have realized from the beginning. He is my only refuge and strength in times of trouble. His love is just enough and very satisfying in my soul. He is my all in all. I believe that my mother is already happy in heaven. I know she has forgiven me already. And I know she is there with God, eternally.

Dramatic Incident Essay