Roman Fever Analysis Titled Essay

Roman Fever Analysis Titled Essay.

Brilliant writers possess the unique ability to turn simple words into a literary work of art. In Edith Wharton’s “Roman Fever” Wharton reveals her theme of “illicit passion” through the creative use of literary devices. On the surface, Mrs. Ansley and Mrs. Slade are two old friends reminiscing about the past. Upon closer review, a tumultuous second story emerges by way of the subtle use of symbolism throughout the story. Wharton’s adept use of symbolism foreshadows the figurative demolishing of Mrs.

Slade. Color is effectively used by Wharton to evoke a feeling of what is to come.

“Half guiltily she drew from her handsomely mounted black hand-bag a twist of crimson silk run through by two fine knitting needles” (Wharton 114). The color black is an archetypal symbol, synonymous with mystery, death and or ill will. Crimson or red identifies with strong emotions such as love, passion, aggression and excitement. Even more telling, the knitting needles are representatively impaling the red twist of silk.

Associating these colors and imagery with Mrs. Ansley suggests that her character has much more to reveal than what is on the surface.

Wharton uses Mrs. Ansley’s knitting as a way to reveal her character. When the subject of old memories comes up Mrs. Ansley nervously returns to her knitting with the hopes that Mrs. Slade will not see through her cool facade. “’Oh, no,” Mrs. Ansley hastened to assure her. “I don’t care to at all. It’s so lovely here; and so full of old memories, as you say. ” She settled herself in her chair, and almost furtively drew forth her knitting” (117). Mrs. Ansley uses the knitting as a way to avoid Mrs. Slade’s gaze. When the conversation becomes uncomfortable for Mrs.

Ansley that is when she steps up the knitting so as not to appear nervous or fidgety. She hides her feelings of guilt and uneasiness behind the busy activity of knitting. The title of the story has symbolic overtones. In earlier years, Malaria was referred to as Roman Fever. American tourists visiting Rome believed that exposure to the alternating cool and hot climates would render them ill with Roman Fever. “’The sun’s set. You’re not afraid, my dear? ” “Afraid-? ” “Of Roman Fever or pneumonia? I remember how ill you were that winter. As a girl you had a very delicate throat, hadn’t you?

”” (118). The title of the story “Roman Fever” evokes a feeling of impending doom. The Colosseum is historically known as a place of mortal combat therefore, its’ presence in the story is symbolic. The main conflict between these two women takes place where many gladiators publicly fought and lost their lives in years past. Mrs. Slade wanted to deliver the same fate to Mrs. Ansley by deceptively leading her there. Mrs. Slade proudly admits to writing the phony letter which led Mrs. Ansley to the Colosseum to meet Delphin. “Why not? Listen, if you don’t believe me.

‘My one darling, things can’t go on like this. I must see you alone. Come to the Colosseum immediately after dark tomorrow. There will be somebody to let you in. No one whom you need fear will suspect’ –but perhaps you’ve forgotten what the letter said? ” (119) Men competed and battled for their lives in the Colosseum, so too, Mrs. Slade and Mrs. Ansley compete for a man in the Colosseum. Without literary devices like symbolism the story would simply be words on a page. Wharton thoughtfully places elements of symbolism throughout the story adding depth, mystery and intrigue.

The crimson color of the silk, the way Mrs. Ansley busily knits her way out of conversations and the conflict at the Colosseum all allude to a surprising conclusion. Wharton cleverly reveals her theme “illicit passion” through this strategic symbolism foreshadowing a climatic ending. Mrs. Slade attempted to lead Mrs. Ansley to her death, but in the end it was Mrs. Ansley who figuratively stabs Mrs. Slade in the heart, a symbolic execution. Work Cited Wharton, Edith. “Roman Fever” The Norton Introduction to Literature. Eds. Alison, Booth And Kelly J. Mays. 10th ed. New York: Norton, 2010. (113-122)

Roman Fever Analysis Titled Essay

Foreshadowing and Dramatic Irony in Death and the Maiden Essay

Foreshadowing and Dramatic Irony in Death and the Maiden Essay.

Foreshadowing is the warning or the indication that something else is going to happen later on in the story. In Death and the Maiden, Ariel Dorfman uses this literary device to the maximum, exploring all the different ways he can make the reader predict or foresee what’s going to happen next. However, Dorfman also takes on the audience’s ideas and implements dramatic irony, giving the plot a twist of events and making the audience question themselves and their own theories as to why the character acts that way or why the author set things as they are.

Dorfman takes the idea of dramatic irony when referring to the characters and their roles in the play. The greatest contrast in the play is between Paulina and Gerardo. Paulina Salas, a forty year old woman, waits for her husband late at night when she sees a car come towards her house. At first, Paulina is presented as the typical housewife, scared, insecure, loyal and loving towards her husband, who might even feel inferior, since she feels safer and secure when she has the gun.

There is, however, an understatement, between the roles Paulina and her husband, Gerardo Escobar, play.

First he calls her ‘Poor little love’ (Act 1, Scene 1, p. 4) and continues to see her as his little, dependant, fragile, used woman, that can only do what women at the time were supposed to do; housework. Yet, during their conversations she only gives him sharp, short responses, most of the time seeming even a bit harsh: GERARDO: I’m really not in the mood for arguing, but we had agreed that… PAULINA: You were supposed to do it. I take care of the house, and you take care of- GERARDO: You don’t want help but afterward you… PAULINA: -the car at least.

GERARDO: …afterward you complain. PAULINA: I never complain. GERARDO: This is an absurd discussion. What’re we fighting about? I’ve already forgotten what we… PAULINA: We’re not fighting, darling. You accused me of not fixing your spare… (Death and the Maiden, Act 1, Scene 1) This conversation shapes the idea of gender roles in the play, and how later on she becomes ‘in-charge’ and Gerardo becomes the ‘wife’, she wants to be in control, wants to have authority, but in a more passive-aggressive manner.

In addition, one can also argue about Paulina’s love-hate relationship with Gerardo, as she is clearly very emotionally attached to him, yet seems as though she treats him with a sort of disrespect or harsh manner. Paulina’s strange relationship also brings the audience to question this woman’s sense of judgment, and maybe even her past.

Ironically, later she refers to him as ‘my little man’, contrasting with how he called her, and making sure that Gerardo knows that he is her husband, and she’s in charge. Furthermore, Dorfman shows the dramatic irony in the gender roles once Paulina finds out about Doctor Miranda and gets the gun.

At the beginning of the play, the gun was a sign of safety and security, and by the climax, she uses the gun to manipulate Roberto and Gerardo to do what she wants, and what she thinks is ‘fair’. GERARDO: Paulina, I’m asking you to please give me that gun. PAULINA: No. GERARDO: While you point it at me, there is no possible dialogue. PAULINA: On the contrary, as soon as I stop pointing it at you, all dialogue will automatically terminate. If it put it down, you’ll use your strength to win the argument.

(Death and the Maiden, Act 1, scene 4, pgs- 24-25) Paulina knows that without the gun, she is hopeless. Her own husband won’t listen to her, and they think she’s completely crazy. All she wants is justice and to make things even between her presumable rapist, Dr. Miranda, and her. However, the ‘strength’ she’s is referring to is open to the audience’s interpretation. It might have something to do with his metaphorical strength, his job as a lawyer, is to bring out justice and put things back the way they were; the way things have always been done.

A more farfetched idea is that it could be a reference to his physical strength, since men are generally stronger than women, which relates to the fact that Paulina was raped and tortured, making reference to sort of, in a way, daring him to physically win over her. In conclusion, Ariel Dorfman uses foreshadowing to help the audience shape their own ideas and theories regarding the play, yet uses dramatic irony to, in a way, twist the plot to sort of give it an interesting turn of events, like the gender roles in Death and the Maiden? and give the audience something they hadn’t thought of, hence, the irony.

Foreshadowing and Dramatic Irony in Death and the Maiden Essay

The Blue Bouquet Analysis Essay

The Blue Bouquet Analysis Essay.

1. a) The Blue Bouquet Analysis Essay. The setting of this story is in a small Mexican village. The sidewalks are cobblestone, the air is fresh and the sky is clear. From reading the story, I can tell that this village is very peaceful and desolate. Although the parish is bustling with secret eyes, the town itself is deserted and simple. b) The setting is appropriate for the story because it expresses the foreign nature of the town. In North America, this town is unheard of, and this makes the story intriguing.

The description of the town is almost as interesting as the story because it expresses a sense of freedom while the man is walking around, but the “garden of eyes” around him makes him look like he is being held captive. 2. a) The antagonist is attacking the protagonist because he wants blue eyes. The antagonist clearly sees a difference in the protagonist, and therefore jumps to the conclusion that he has blue eyes, and tries to attack him.

The antagonist uses a primal approach at attacking the protagonist, and uses a machete instead of any sort of culturally advanced weapon such as a gun. b) The protagonist acts very responsibly and doesn’t overreact to the attack. He tries to reason with the antagonist, and even trusts him to open his eyes, and get on his knees and submit to a power figure. 3. a) The protagonist is in this situation because he was stubborn and didn’t listen to the boardinghouse owner. The owner says “Hmm- everything’s closed. And no streetlights around here. You’d better stay put.

The Blue Bouquet Analysis Essay

” The fact that the boardinghouse owner only had one eye also foreshadows that something bad is going to happen, seeing that the Mexican man wanted to take eyes in the end. 4. a) Two examples of descriptive detail are: “One could hear the breathing of the night, feminine, enormous. ” “I shrugged my shoulders, muttered “back soon” and plunged into the darkness. ” b) The descriptive detail in the story adds a design of what the scene looks like. This author wants you to see this village like he sees it, and leaves little room for imaginative interpretation.

5. Evidence from the text that describes two different ways in which the title is interpreted is an idea that the title is referring to the bouquet of blue eyes that the Mexican man wants to collect. “Blue Bouquet” is a direct quote from what the antagonist desires, and this can be seen as a clear title and interpretation for the story. Another way of interpreting the story is that the blue bouquet is a part of the quote “The night was a garden of eyes. ” A bouquet and a garden both regularly contain a similar item, and in this case, that item is eyes.

6. Two literary devices used in the story were foreshadowing and metaphors. Foreshadowing was used by the boardinghouse owner who only had one eye. This was a subtle foreshadow, but after reading the story thoroughly you can understand how the fact that he didn’t have an eye foretells the trouble the protagonist will be having later. The other literary device was metaphors. Metaphors were used quite often in the story, and an example of one in the text is, “The night was a garden of eyes. “

7. If I was in the same situation as the protagonist I would be terrified. I would not have the courage to turn around, and would probably get myself killed. I would either try to run away or try to convince the antagonist that my eyes were hazel and not blue. I would probably be crying, and if I made it out alive I would never walk alone again. I think it is completely ridiculous to walk alone at night in a foreign country, you are like a target waiting to be hit. 8. I believe this story makes Mexico out to be a very simple city.

Everything is very primitive and untamed. This is shown because the protagonist gets out of his “hammock” and onto the floor barefoot, while bugs are inside his room. It is too hot inside, so he needs to go out for fresh air, which shows the absence of modern day luxuries like air conditioning and central air. I realize that not all of Mexico is like this, but I believe simplistic cities like this one still does exist. It really shows an easier way of life, where you need to earn what you receive, and be responsible for your own well being.

The Blue Bouquet Analysis Essay

Literary Canon Definition Essay

Literary Canon Definition Essay.

A literary canon is a classification of literature. It is compromised of literary works that share similar or related characteristics and are considered to be the most important of a specific time frame or place. The process in which a work is canonized is completely subjective. And just as the judgments and opinions of people change over time, so do literary canons. The status a work receives when it is entered into a literary canon is based on its relevance to the time period.

Therefore a social change such as the feminist movement can determine what works are added and removed from a literary canon Both the works of Gail Godwin’s “A Sorrowful Woman” and Karen Van Der Zee’s “ A Secret Sorrow” were composed during the rise of feminism. However, the perspective of woman each work has varies greatly. “

A Secret Sorrow” reflects the stereotypical view of woman that the feminist movement so strongly opposed. The view that woman are child bearing objects and should complete the role of the traditional housewife is irrelevant to the social changes happening during time period.

In stark contrast, “ A Sorrowful Woman” is written about a woman who is weary and unsatisfied with her role as a mother and child. She even goes as far as to detach herself from her family and isolate herself into one room. This perspective ties closely with way many women felt during the time period when feminism was rising. Thus its social and historical relevance to the time period makes “A Sorrowful Woman” a much better fit to be entered into the literary canon.

Literary Canon Definition Essay

Literary Analysis: Hotel on the Corner of Bitter and Sweet as a Historical Fiction Essay

Literary Analysis: Hotel on the Corner of Bitter and Sweet as a Historical Fiction Essay.

In Jamie Ford’s historical fiction Hotel on the Corner of Bitter and Sweet, this split narrative focuses on two eras: 1942 and 1986. Within these era’s, Ford’s novel focuses on a Chinese boy, Henry Lee, and what it was like to grow up in the international district with prejudice everywhere, especially in his own family being a first generation American. His novel tells the story of Henry, as well as a Japanese girl by the name of Keiko.

The novel tells the story of these two young friends and the hardships faced when the government sends Keiko and her family away to the Japanese internment camps in the Northwest in the 1940’s.

His novel displays the effects of the prejudice held against the Japanese during the 1940’s wartime, and the effects it had on the lives of not only those Japanese, but also all Americans, Chinese and other nationalities. We use Anne Scott MacLeod’s essay “Rewriting History” as a framework while reading Ford’s Hotel on the Corner of Bitter and Sweet.

“Rewriting History” is a persuasive essay giving criteria of a “good” Historical Fiction vs. “bad” Historical Fiction.

This essay focuses on three of MacLeod’s criteria for a “good” Historical Fiction: not rewarding rebellion, not appealing to “modern sensibilities”, and not overcoming social mores easily. Ford’s novel Hotel on the Corner of Biter and Sweet successfully meets MacLeod’s requirements for a “good” historical fiction in many ways, although, there are some flaws in a couple of his historical facts, nevertheless, the “good” historical facts and information in Hotel on the Corner of Bitter and Sweet out ways the few historical flaws.

First of all, Ford makes sure to give Henry consequences to his rebellious acts; something MacLeod says many “bad” historical fictions do not do, they only reward with happy endings. Secondly, Ford uses racial discriminations that would have been used back in the 1940’s; another thing MacLeod says that “bad” historical fiction accommodates to, making it non-offensive and politically correct for the readers. In addition, Henry does not easily overcome the social mores of 1942; again something MacLeod says that “bad” historical fiction makes it seem easy to overcome the social mores of the era.

First of all, meeting MacLeod’s criteria for a “good” historical fiction”, Ford’s novel does not “make overt rebellion seem nearly painless and nearly always successful”. Ford displays this when Keiko is taken away Henry keeps some of her belongings safe under his dresser, as well as when Henry sneaks into two different Japanese internment camps searching for Keiko. Though this rebellion seems rewarded at first, as we continue reading we see how, by going to the internment camps and keeping Keiko’s belongings, Henry unknowingly starts a chain of events leading to one, giant consequence.

Because Henry keeps Keiko’s belonging, and later writes her letters, his mother finds out and tells Henry’s father. Henry comes home one day and finds his parents at the kitchen table waiting for him with all of Keiko’s pictures spread all over the table. Because of this, Henry’s father gives him a choice: walk out the door and no longer be part of the family or stay and forget about Keiko. In the end Henry chooses to follow his heart and leaves his family (182-185). This forever affects the relationship between Henry and his father, even on his father’s deathbed.

Secondly, according to MacLeod’s standard, Ford’s novel is a “good” historical fiction by not appealing to “modern sensibilities, so that protagonists experience their own societies as though they were time-travelers, noting racism, sexism, religious bigotry, and outmoded beliefs as outsiders, not as people of and in their cultures. ” Ford uses dialect in his novel consisting of racial slurs and comments that would have been used back in the 1940’s. Ford doesn’t accommodate to readers by making the book non-offensive or politically correct.

Ford makes the book historically correct as possible. Thirdly, by MacLeod’s criteria, Ford’s novel is a “good” historical fiction by not “set[ing] aside the social mores of the past as though they were minor afflictions, small obstacles, easy—and painless—for an independent mind to overcome”. This is displayed near the beginning of the book after Chaz, the bully, snatches Henry’s “I am Chinese” pin off of his shirt. While walking away Keiko tries to grab Henry’s hand for comfort, but he pushes it away thinking, “My father would fall over dead… And in town, someone would see us” (23).

Ford made the transition of Henry opening up to Keiko take time; they didn’t become immediate friends. Ford makes sure to make the relationship between Keiko and Henry plausible. They both are ‘scholarshipping’ at an all-white school and met working in the school kitchen, as payment for scholarshipping. Their connection is somewhat immediate, yet their relationship progresses slowly.

Fourthly, according to MacLeod’s standard, Ford’s novel is a “good” historical fiction by not omitting “the less attractive pieces of the past to make . . . arratives meet current social and political preferences”. The 1940’s for the Japanese-Americans were dark times; Hotel on the Corner of Bitter and Sweet does anything but omit these facts. From the harsh realities of the hatred between the Chinese and the Japanese displayed between Henry’s father, Henry, and Keiko, to the removal of the Japanese, Ford’s novel spares no “less attractive piece of the past” to make this novel appealing to the average human in this generation. Ford makes sure to put historical fact ahead of the appealing story’s fiction.

Lastly, Ford’s novel is a “good” historical fiction, by MacLeod’s criteria, because It does not imply that “people of another time either understood or should have understood the world as we do now. ” Though Henry and Keiko had an unusual relationship that most Chinese and Japanese children in the 1940’s wouldn’t have had, it isn’t entirely implausible. Think of it like this… The world is always changing, so how does it change? Someone has to be the one to make those changes happen. We don’t have the same view of the Japanese, or any race for that matter, that we did in past generations.

So again, what changed? Obviously Ford’s novel is under the category of ‘fiction’ and the actions of Henry didn’t have this amazing effect of the 1940’s that changed history forever… However, someone’s actions, somewhere in the 1940’s, affected history. This fact makes the relationship between Henry and Keiko, as well as Ford’s novel as a whole, historically plausible. In conclusion Ford’s novel has an overwhelming amount of evidence backing up the hypothesis that his novel is a “good” work of historical fiction by MacLeod’s standard.

Though the end of the novel rewards you with a cheesy, sappy love story ending, something slightly implausible, Ford does his best he can to keep the history in this ‘historical fiction’ factual and true. Over all this novel is a highly plausible, and by MacLeod’s criteria, a “good” work of Historical Fiction. Ford’s novel is also a reminder of the injustice against the Japanese-Americans during the wartime of the 1940’s and cautions us to never let ourselves as a people treat anyone we see as ‘different’ with the prejudice we so easily treated the Japanese with.

Literary Analysis: Hotel on the Corner of Bitter and Sweet as a Historical Fiction Essay

The Relationship Between Reader and Writer Essay

The Relationship Between Reader and Writer Essay.

The relationship between reader and writer is intertwined. Of course, a writer can write without a reader, but if their words remain unread and unexplored, then do the words really mean anything? On the other side, a reader cannot exist without a writer. Therefore the relationship is one of symbiosis – a relationship of mutual benefit or dependence.

I view the writer as someone who is writing for my pleasure, and hopefully for theirs as well. To pick up a book and be transported to another time, place, world etc for a few hours is the ultimate experience for me, and I would assume, what the writer is aiming for when they are constructing work.

However what a reader takes from a piece of work may not be what the author intended. Because a reader’s view is skewed by their own personal experiences, their view and interpretation of the words may be different to that of the writer, or even another reader who has had different life experiences.

Not including school texts, most people read for pleasure, and so will read what they like and/or what they know. I like Scheers’ point of “Both writing and reading are, in fact, acts – that is, roles that writers and readers voluntarily take on.” (The Art of Reading) After all, if reading a fantasy or science fiction novel, you are indeed acting, taking on the belief that a particular world or skill can exist for the sake of the story.

I think one problem writer’s have is the requirement to classify their work into a certain genre for the publisher to market. This obviously effects their audience, and also what the reader expects to get from the work. As Chandler mentions in his article “It is seldom hard to find texts which are exceptions to any given definition of a particular genre” (An Introduction to Genre Theory).

Something may be classified as a fantasy novel, as it is set in another world, but the actual bones of the story may be a drama or thriller. However, because the book is marketed as a ‘Fantasy and Science Fiction’ book, a reader who might enjoy the story may never pick it up because they believe it is not something they would be interested in.

Because the way books are pigeonholed, I think that some of the responsibility also falls to the reader to not be so closed and specific about what type of books they read. Instead of always going to the same section of the bookstore, perhaps once in awhile as readers, we should head for a section we normally wouldn’t and pick up a couple of books for consideration.

BIBLIOGRAPHY (The Art of Reading) Steven C Scheer (An Introduction to Genre Theory) Daniel Chandler

The Relationship Between Reader and Writer Essay

Apocalyptic and post-apocalyptic fiction Essay

Apocalyptic and post-apocalyptic fiction Essay.

•Apocalyptic and post-apocalyptic fiction: concerned with the end of civilization either through nuclear war, plague, or some other general disaster. Post-apocalyptic fiction is set in a world or civilization after such a disaster. The time frame may be immediately after the catastrophe, focusing on the travails or psychology of survivors, or considerably later, often including the theme that the existence of pre-catastrophe civilization has been forgotten (or mythologized). Post-apocalyptic stories often take place in an agrarian, non-technological future world, or a world where only scattered elements of technology remain.

There is a considerable degree of blurring between this form of science fiction and that which deals with false utopias or dystopic societies. • •Dark fantasy: a subgenre of fantasy which can refer to literary, artistic, and filmic works that combine fantasy with elements of horror. The term can be used broadly to refer to fantastical works that have a dark, gloomy atmosphere or a sense of horror and dread and a dark, often brooding, tone.

•Gnome, being of earth (gnomus).

He describes them as two spans high, very reluctant to interact with humans, and able to move through solid earth as easily as humans move through air. [4] [5] •Undine or nymph being of water Undines are almost invariably depicted as being female, which is consistent with the ancient idea that water is a female element. [8] They are usually found in forest pools and waterfalls,[9] and their beautiful singing voices[10] are sometimes heard over the sound of water. •Sylph, being of air (sylevestris) is a mythological spirit of the air •Salamander, being of fire (Vulcanus).

Apocalyptic and post-apocalyptic fiction Essay

Describe The theme of oppression Essay

Describe The theme of oppression Essay.

The theme of oppression is examined when comparing the literary devices in the poem “As I Grew Older” by Langston Hughes and the story “The Loophole Of Retreat” by Harriet A. Jacobs. It is through the use of personification and symbolism that the theme is reflected. The oppression is in just use of authority or power.

In the poem “As I Grew Older” by Langston Hughes describes about a black girl that had a dream, but this dream was slowly disappearing from her.

She didn’t have enough freedom and she always wants it to through. The author in the poem is hiding from oppression by hiding in the attic. Also Hughes uses some literary devices such as symbolism and personification.

By saying the words the “wall rose” Langston Hughes showing personification because the wall can’t grow. Then in the second paragraph the “wall” is represent symbolism. It is symbolizes her dream with a wall because this wall is blocking her happiness and future.

In the story “Loophole Of Retreat” by Harriet A. Jacobs shows the oppression as darkness. He lived in the small garret that he called it as “den”. It was very dark didn’t have enough air in it and was not for a cold weather. A. Jacobs uses some conflict in the story by saying the words “I suffered for air even more than for light. It shows us that he wanted to have more freedom and not to depend on anybody.

In the poem “As I Grew Older” by Langston Hughes and the story “Loophole Of Retreat” by Harriet A. Jacobs use the same theme and the both have oppression. The authors both deal with oppression by breaking through it. Also the both poem and the story have the same ideas and feelings about their problems.

Describe The theme of oppression Essay

English composition drama essay Essay

English composition drama essay Essay.

Watching a drama clearly is more effective than reading a drama, and in the same perspective comparing a drama that is watched to a short fiction that is read is undeniably on two different ends of the spectrum. The usefulness of a story that has more meaning within itself than intended on when watching itself play out compared to reading a short fiction clearly holds watching the drama more advantageous. But other than just that the effectiveness between watching and reading a drama gets called into question.

Watching a drama has an advantage when compared to reading a short fiction because of the way the drama is acted out giving the audience more depth and meaning to the story. There is a clear advantage to watching a drama compared to reading a short fiction. To be able to understand the advantages, one must understand the notable differences between the two. Firstly, short fictions are designed to be read, unlike dramas, which are meant to be acted out in front of an audience.

Also, with short fictions the reader is informed about the setting or other important details that are described in the text.

However, the setting in a drama is visually portrayed by many elements. The audience sees the exact setting that the author illustrated with his wording. Besides the author’s description of the time and place, other visuals such as costumes give the audience a more definitive perception of the setting. The advantage that drama has over short fiction is that the drama provides the audience with the exact setting that the author constructed while the readers of fiction have to imagine their own setting, which will always vary between one reader and the next.

The use of tone also gives a drama the upper hand against a short fiction because short fictions lack the visual components that dramas are able to incorporate in the performance. Such as, the use of lighting, interchangeable scenery, and appropriate props that emphasize the desired tone communicated by the author’s directions. “For instance, if the playwright wants to evoke an atmosphere of anticipation, that something dreadful is about to happen, the lighting can be adjusted to create a dark, forbidding set”(LearningExpress, 2).

Watching a drama is very effective in constructing meaning because of the precision to details the author provides. When an audience can physically see what is going on in a drama, a conflict or resolution becomes easier to comprehend rather than reading a short fiction that does not have nearly as much descriptive detail that a drama expresses. “This enables the dramatist to create very realistic atmospheres that will convey to the audience a particular mood in the drama”(LearningExpress 2).

Something simple as the way characters are dressed in a drama give meaning to their social status such as, someone that is wealthy, or someone that lives in poverty. When given the option to either watch, or read the drama, the decision that is made should always be to watch the drama. It is much more effective to watch the drama in comparison to reading it. “…drama is not intended to be read off the printed page but to be acted out in front of an audience(LearningExpress, 1).

If one were to read a drama instead of watching it, then the reader will experience the possibility of misinterpreting the author’s directions for the way a character is meant to speak at a certain time in the drama, which can cause confusion for the reader. Also, the experience of being a part of a large audience watching a drama proves to be a more effective than simply reading it. “When we read the written script of a play, … but we cannot experience the reactions of other people as they watch the drama with us”(LearningExpress 5).

Seeing the reaction of an audience gives a greater sense of appreciation of dramas and their ability to affect many people at once. Dramas were written to be a performance and not to be read to one’s self. Ultimately, watching a drama over reading short fiction clearly has its advantages. The visual elements in a drama such as the set, costumes, and props are completely understood and appreciated fully compared to the two different ideas that were separately concluded from different readers of a fiction novel.

The functionality in a drama to provide the audience with the same outlook compared to the various different messages fictions can convey is the main advantage watching dramas has over reading fictions. The concise detailing an author provides in their dramas lets the audience find the meaning in a simpler way. Watching a drama is proven to be much more effective because of the overall experience each audience member get to appreciate. Work Cited “Reading Drama Study Guide: GED Language Arts, Reading. ” Education. com. LearningExpress Editors, 9 Mar. 2011. Web. 13 June 2013. .

English composition drama essay Essay

Darko Suvin’s “Metamorphoses of Science Fiction” Essay

Darko Suvin’s “Metamorphoses of Science Fiction” Essay.

In Darko Suvin’s “Metamorphoses of Science Fiction,” Suvin argues that science fiction should be considered its own literary genre. The reason he believes science fiction is distinct from other literary genres is because of its transforming aspects. Suvin describes science fiction as the literature of “cognitive estrangement,” which includes a “novum”. It is his belief that both cognition and estrangement must be both present and interactive in science fiction.

Although it can be argued that science fiction is not its own literary genre because of its similarities to myth, fantasy, and folktale, it is significantly different from these genres because of its ability to cause the reader to think in a new way about something that is familiar to him/her.

Science fiction should be its own literary genre because of its unique ability to cause readers to re-think everyday assumptions. This is important, because if we were not open to change, we would not be able to advance as a culture.

Suvin calls this idea estrangement, which he defines as “something that confronts a set normative system … with a point of view or look implying a new set of norms” (4); meaning something that appears normal, is incorporated with something unknown. Estrangement, thus, would be the process of separating or distancing ourselves from the real world and allowing our minds to imagine or create something that doesn’t exist or might exist in the future. It is taking things that are familiar and making them unfamiliar or taking two things that are meant to be together and separating them from each other.

So cognitive estrangement would be the separation or escape from our cognitive thinking or what the reader sees as the real world and allowing his/her mind to imagine and create something that is not of the real world. Suvin uses the example of the transforming mirror, which causes “a reflection of but also on reality” (10), which means a reflection of what is real and also how the viewer thinks about reality from a strange or new perspective (through the introduction of the novum).

This causes his/her view of reality to be transformed. In “Metamorphoses of Science Fiction,” Darko Suvin defends his cited definition of Science Fiction as its own literary genre, by providing examples and pointing out the similarities and differences arising from the comparison of science fiction to myth,folktale, and fantasy. Suvin says that myths are similar to science fiction in the aspect that they both incorporate the usage of estrangement.

However, he points out that there are also many differences between them as well. Science fiction sees the norms of reality as transformable and changeable, whereas myths are the complete opposites. They “conceive human relations as fixed and supernaturally determined”(8). This mean that the lives of characters are already made for them and that they do not have the ability to change what will happen to them. Folktale is also similar to science fiction where it defies the rules and laws of the empirical environment.

However, folktales go above and beyond transforming the empirical environment, it creates a “closed collateral world indifferent to cognitive possibilities”(8). This means that in the world created in a folktale, anything is possible. He uses the example of a flying carpet, stating, “The flying carpet evades the empirical law of physical gravity”(8). This quote shows the difference between folktale and science fiction because a folktale creates something that is completely unfamiliar whereas science fiction takes something familiar and makes it unfamiliar.

Similar to folktale, fantasy causes tension between the “arbitrary supernatural phenomena and the empirical norms they infiltrate. ”(8) This means things that are completely unfamiliar to the reader intrude into what they see as real. For example in Harry Potter, wizards and witches “infiltrate” the real world without non-magical people knowing. This can cause confusion, because it does not completely create its own world, and it does not go by the rules and laws of our world, so it is in between the two worlds.

Overall, in “Metamorphoses of Science Fiction”, Suvin creates a clear systematic approach to the defense of his definition of Science Fiction as “the literature of cognitive estrangement” and why it should be its own literary genre. He provides sufficient and convincing evidence to reinforce his claim by using identifying principles of science fiction, making comparisons, and providing an insightful explanation of his views.

Darko Suvin’s “Metamorphoses of Science Fiction” Essay