Pope Leo XIII-Rerum Novarum Essay

Pope Leo XIII-Rerum Novarum Essay.

Encyclical is a letter from a Christian leader, particularly the pope, which is intended for general distribution among churches. The tern originally applied to some of the letters written by Saint Paul and early church writers called Apostolic Fathers that were sent to many churches. After the time of the Apostolic Fathers, bishops wrote encyclicals to the churches in their care. In modern times, encyclical has come to mean a letter written by the pope to Roman Catholic churches throughout the world.

These letters have addressed such topics as church teachings, church discipline, current social and moral issues, peace, the rights of workers, and the plight of people living under oppression. Pope Leo XIII With the election to papacy by Leo XII in 1878 comes a new age in the history of the Roman Catholic Church. His reign was the second longest in papal history. Only Pius IX served longer. Leo wrote many encyclicals. One of the most famous was Rerum Novarum which he wrote in May 15, 1891.

The aforementioned encyclical upheld the rights of labor.

Pope Leo XIII sought to convince liberal administrations that it is possible for the church and the state to live in harmony. During his papacy, particularly intense anti-church feelings were expressed by Italy, France, and Germany. The pope was successful in reducing the liberal administrations limitations against the church. However he was a failure in Italy and France. If truth be told, in 1880, new anti-church laws were submitted by the French government. Such laws eliminated the church from several other areas of French lifestyle, prohibited religious education in academic institutions, and banished religious orders from the country.

On the other hand, in Italy, oppositions against the church were expressed by both the government and its citizens. The pope started a new policy of maintaining an open communication between the church government and the daily life of the Catholics. To achieve this end, he authored several writings addressed to the Catholic community. His pronouncements covered different subjects ranging from the relationship between the state and the working class, theology and church decrees, Bible teachings, and philosophy. Rerum Novarum was his most important statement on social questions.

Leo was open to new forms of government, but he still remained suspicious of democracy. In a letter to United States Catholics in 1895, he warned against seeing the American separation of church and state as an ideal for all nations. In 1899, he addressed another letter to the American church condemning Americanism, a movement that had many followers in France and Italy. It was an adaptation of such American concepts as religious liberty and the need to adjust the presentation of Catholic teachings to modern ideas and practices.

Leo was born in Carpineto, Italy, near Rome. His given and family name was Giocchino Vincenzo Pecci. Rerum Novarum The expansion of factories and industry in the nineteenth century created a class of wealthy owners, a class of industrial workers, and a host of new social problems. The socialists proposed that the state should take over the factories from private ownership. In this official papal statement, Pope Leo XIII sought a middle ground, recognizing the oppression workers could suffer but rejecting the abolition of private property as a solution.

In the Catholic tradition, Pope Leo XIII thinks of a job primarily as a way to support one’s family, not as a calling in itself – and this may be a more realistic approach to factory work. Rerum Novarum is conservative on issues of the father’s place in the family, but it was and is radical on issues of labor and capital. Rerum Novarum is the magna carta of Catholic social endeavor. Subtitled as “On Capital and Labor,” this encyclical expressed the Roman Catholic Church’s response to the labor tensions and social instability which have emerged in the advent of industrialization and ultimately marked the beginning of socialism.

The Pope articulated that the function of the state is to maintain social justice by upholding the rights of the citizens, while the church must make a stand on social concerns to demonstrate proper social principles as well as to guarantee class harmony. Leo XIII reiterated the church’s ancient teaching concerning the central value of the rights to private property, but acknowledged, in one of the most popular passages of the encyclical that moral considerations must temper the free operation of market forces.

Even while Rerum Novarum adheres to position of the conventional teaching regarding the duties and rights of property and the employee-employer relationship, it employs the ancient teachings particularly to current conditions. Describing the plight of the working class as an introduction, the encyclical then disputes the false Socialist philosophies and protects the right of private ownership. The real solution, as prescribed by the pope may be obtained through the united action between the employee, the employer, the state, and the church.

The church as it should be is concerned in the social matter because of its moral and religious outlooks. The state, on its part has both the duty and right to interfere in the name of individual and social welfare and justice. Moreover, the workers and their employers should coordinate in separate and joint relations for their common protection. All of these were laid out with substantial details to address the main issues and interactions of social and industrial life. Further identifying the Catholic Church with labor, while vehemently criticizing socialism, Pope Leo XIII released the first of the social encyclicals.

In 1891, eight years after the death of Karl Marx, Pope Leo XIII begins this encyclical by describing the industrialization in terms consistent with socialist analysis. In describing this process of industrialization, Pope Leo XIII clearly sympathizes with the plight of the common laborers who must sell their labor in exchange for less than a just wage to owners of the means of production who are not equally compelled to enter this contractual relationship. He recognizes that workers must unite and organize if they are to restore the power imbalances between laborers and the owners of the means of production.

He clearly rejects a socialist revolution; instead, he calls for reforms that would mitigate the negative effects of the free market. He argues that socialism is misguided for at least two reasons. First, he states that the socialist cure, eliminating private property, is unjust for those owners of the means of production who have acquired their property through legitimate means. Second, workers would actually be worse off, he argues, if in the name of justice they lost their freedom to use the fruits of their labor as they pleased.

Perhaps, no other proclamation on social concerns reached a wide audience or enjoyed broad influence. Rerum Novarum inspired an extensive Catholic social writings, as many non-Catholics regarded it as one of the most sensible and explicit pronouncements ever made concerning the issue in question. At times dismissed as vague, this encyclical is as precise as any text could be written for a number of nations in varying levels of industrial progress. Even while Rerum Novarum had formed a part of the established Catholic teachings for several years now in no way had it ever been expressed with distinct articulation and authority.

Over the years, humanity has come towards a realization of how hard it is to describe the complete requirements of justice in terms of wages, a continuously growing number of persons turn to the message sent by the pope as the most successful and valuable principle of industrial justice that has ever been expressed in recorded history. The significance of Rerum Novarum lies in its clear depiction of the troubles confronting the urban poor during the 19th century. Also, this encyclical was remarkable for its condemning open capitalism.

One of the solutions it recommended were the creation of trade unions as well as the introduction of collective bargaining, chiefly as a substitute to state intervention. It also acknowledged that the poor deserves to be considered when addressing social concerns. Such consideration is stressed by the concept of “preferential option for the poor” which is a contemporary Catholic principle. God’s special preference for the poor was initially expressed in Pope Leo’s Rerum Novarum.

Pope Leo XIII-Rerum Novarum Essay

Main cause of the Pilgrimage of Grace was a widespread dislike of religious changes Essay

Main cause of the Pilgrimage of Grace was a widespread dislike of religious changes Essay.

Do you agree with the view that the main cause of the Pilgrimage of Grace was a widespread dislike of religious changes? There were three main rebellions in Henry VIII’s reign as king; The Lincolnshire Rising, The Pilgrimage of Grace and Cumberland Rebellion. These rebellions were all connected because each one triggered off the next one. The three main factors that set off the rebellions were the economic state of the country, the political state and the religious activities at the time.

There are evidences that support the view that the main cause of the Pilgrimage of Grace was a widespread dislike of religious changes. Source 6 states that “… Pilgrimage of Grace was a reaction against the religious changes”. Everything about the rising was to do with religion, the banners that the rebels carried had the five wounds of Christ on it, and all the rebels had to take the pilgrims oath. Where they swore not to carry out violence and that the pilgrimage was all to do with God and not overthrowing the king.

This is supported by the evidence in source 7 where it says “except for the love you bear to Almighty God”. The author for source 7 is Robert Aske, who led the Pilgrimage of Grace to defend the religious houses that were being closed and property seized by the king. This goes to show that religion seemed to be the main cause of the uprisings against the king; the evidence shows that the Pilgrimage of Grace was named due to religion. Source 6 also mentions “brought to the boil by the dissolution of the smaller monasteries”.

The timing of the rebellions started when the smaller monasteries were closed down and while commissioners were in progress of shutting other ones. Many monks and clergymen were now starring at homelessness and unemployment and many felt that standing up to the kings new policy was all they could do-they had nothing left to lose. They didn’t have the skills in the fast paced world and no financial means to survive and were on poor pensions. However, the monks could easily gain the support of the local people as the monks had looked after them, and the fact that the monks would of most probably have come from the surrounding areas.

Even though the monks could gain the support of the locals, many of them would join the rebellion as they would lose their place of worship and pray. Source 7 also mentioned “maintenance of the Holy Church” this suggests that people started to see that Henry VIII was moving away from the traditional Catholic methods and starting to take up protestant views. Robert Aske named this uprising using a religious name. This meant that many more people would join, as all the people in England didn’t agree with Henry VIII’s new religious policy.

The audience for source 6 are for the general public most importantly history students however this source was written 400 years after the event and could be argued if the memory of the author is distorted or have the author done an extensive research. On the other hand, there are evidences in the sources to suggest that religion was not the main cause for the Pilgrimage of Grace. Source 8 mentions “involving many social elements” it can be inferred from source 8 that the rebellions wasn’t only focused on religious activities but also socio-economic factors.

England at the time of the Lincolnshire Uprisings was in turmoil, especially in the north of the country. The successful resistance to the amicable grant had stopped the government, but the English people were now weary and didn’t hold complete support for the English government. The north had been in a poor economic situation for a long time, the economy wasn’t the biggest reason for the fights and rebellions, but it would have played a part. This is supported by evidence in source 6 where it states “those responsible to be punished” suggests religion wasn’t the only thing the rebels were fighting for.

Source 8 also mentions “high taxes, enclosure, the statue of uses….. ” the harvest of 1535 had been terrible and 1536 had seen little improvement in the produce. Which then in turn lead to hunger and poverty. What also didn’t help was the introduction of an extra tax. This ‘new’ tax soon aroused suspicion as this use of premium income was only used at a time of conflict for the country. The government also introduced new policies which involved tax being paid to landowners and these caused landowners to cheat and charge extra amounts.

This could have really frustrated the common people and might have pushed them or the force behind the Pilgrimage of Grace. Also the introduction of enclosures really affected large populated areas like York due to the shortage of land and this would have caused the people of the north to call for a rebellion. Moreover it can also be argued that there were political reasons for the outbreaks. This is caused due to Henry’s attempt to end his marriage with Catherine of Aragon. This was intensified because of Henry’s idea to centralised power, which meant excluding the north.

Thomas Cromwell, who was no important noble family, carried out the centralising of the power to the south, was just a commoner turned king’s main advisor. Many people, especially in the north felt that Cromwell had no right to be advising the king. This is supported through evidence in source 7 where is says “…. bad counsel from his advisers”. In conclusion, it can be argued that most of the reasons for the outbreaks are religious based, but the risings started due to taxes, bad harvest, the introduction of protestant methods in church and the dissolution of the monasteries and the dislike for Cromwell and his new policies.

These all surely added up to the triggering of the revolts. However, the amount of people that took part in the rebellion depended on the issue that they weren’t happy about. So for example if some people didn’t like the closing of the monasteries, they would have felt angry and frustrated enough to have to join the ‘Pilgrimage’. The fact the it was named the Pilgrimage of Grace seems to hint that Aske and others that started it only felt it was meant to be purely religious affair and that the other groups that joined in used as a front for their anger.

Main cause of the Pilgrimage of Grace was a widespread dislike of religious changes Essay

Everything Comes to Him Who Waits Essay

Everything Comes to Him Who Waits Essay.

If there would be someone impatient would ask for my words of wisdom, these are the words I would say: everything is possible if you believe, if you pray for it, if you work for it and if you really mean it, then why think negative and act too impatient? For all things are possible if just God really permits it. Faith without work is dead, the bible says. There’s simple Filipino story and everybody in this room might have heard it.

The story of Juan Tamad. This guy craves for something and didn’t move to have it though the guava was within his reach. He just waited and waited for it to fall into his hands. Well, expecting something from nothing is impossible. I mean to wait is to work.

How could you sit back and relax when you have the wish in your heart? There’s a saying, “do your best and let God do the rest.

” Most Filipinos are just expecting to receive something from their dead faith. Dead faith means, having faith without work. Resulting, disappointments and sometimes unbelief. When a person hoped for something and was disappointed, it’s more likely that he would forget God’s reasons in giving him his disappointment. If the thing you hope for is really for you, it will come at the right time. You just have to wait. If it didn’t, it wasn’t for you. God has his reasons for doing so and we knew that it’s always for the best.

Everything Comes to Him Who Waits Essay

The Principle Teachings About Peace in Judaism and Christianity Essay

The Principle Teachings About Peace in Judaism and Christianity Essay.

Living and perpetuating a life of peace are central to the Christian and Jewish religious expressions. The teachings of peace which underpin both Christianity and Judaism are existent in their sacred texts; The Bible for Christians, The Torah and Mishnah Torah for Jewish adherents. Albeit peace is of paramount importance to both traditions, the concept of peace is expressed differently. Christians believe the only way complete peace can be attained is through the full acceptance of Jesus Christ, the incarnate.

Analogously, Jews believe that true peace can only ever be attained is if the person achieves inner peace, through the development of potent interrelationships with the divine realm, humanity as a collective can bind together through the likeliness and guidance of the monotheistic, metaphysical divine being, known as God.

These principle teachings play a significant role in the lives of Christian and Jewish adherents, as they ignite the spark that calls individuals to attain inner peace.

And as such, it is through the essences of developing inner peace as an individual, in which ultimately influences the notion of world peace as a whole by virtue of mankind.

In Christianity, peace is immortalized through the teachings of Jesus Christ, the Old Testament and the New Testament. Peace is more than merely an absence of violence and conflict. Inner peace is attained through being at peace with God; to maintain it the person must retain a continual relationship with God.

The act of penance is crucial in attaining a sense of peace as it absolves the person from all sin and guilt – in (2 Corinthians 13:11 NIV), Jesus explains that you should “aim for perfection, listen to my appeal, be of one mind, and live in peace. And the God of love and peace will be with you. ” Adherents are called to act as people who actively seek reconciliation over retaliation. The crucifixion of Jesus Christ is the ultimate symbol of this belief – forgiveness is also carried out by Jesus “forgive us our trespasses as we forgive those who trespass against us. One of the principal teachings of peace is that the Peace of God is beyond the peace of this world – in (John 16:33 NIV), Jesus asserts that ultimate peace comes in faith in the lord God “I have told you these things, so that in me you may have peace. In this world you will have trouble. But take heart! I have overcome the world. ” In (Mathew 5:9 NIV), it is expressed that those who advocate peace will be able to ultimately call themselves the sons of God.

The beatitudes illustrate the many virtues that man will be rewarded for having; Jesus states that the peacemakers will be called to be sons of God “blessed are those who are peacemakers as they will be called the sons of God. ” Jesus Christ was the apotheosis of peace, he taught that loving your enemy and praying for those that persecute you “But I tell you, love your enemies and pray for those who persecute you” (Matthew 5:44 NIV) as well as turning the other cheek, “But I tell you, Do not resist an evil person.

If someone strikes you on the right cheek, turn to him the other also. This teaching reflects the Christian belief in fairness amongst all people; everyone is the same in the eyes of the Lord, even if they are enemies and as such, it is fundamental that mankind live their lives in accordance to integrity and fidelity just as Jesus Christ did. Paul of Tarsus reiterated the peace championing works of Jesus in (Galatians 5:22-23 NIV) “But the fruit of the Spirit is love, joy, peace, patience, kindness, goodness, faithfulness, gentleness and self-control. ” Against such things there is no law, where he explained that inner peace comes from the Holy Spirit, which dwells in the hearts and bodies of Christians.

The teachings of Christ impact heavily on the lives of Christians, they follow in the footsteps of Jesus so that they too can live a tranquil and peaceful life. In (Matthew 6:6 NIV), Jesus explains the merits of praying to the lord God and the reward of inner peace, “But whenever you pray, go into your room and shut the door and pray to your Father who is in secret: and your father who sees in secret will reward you. ” It is through this conversation with God that Christians pursue peace in their lives. Prayer can either be private or communal, spontaneous prayer is one way that charismatic communities can come closer to God.

The act of prayer allows believers to have a personal conversation with God; it alleviates stress attributed to the monotony of everyday life. Besides prayer, meditation is another way of attaining inner peace, it is an ancient practice within the Christian tradition, which has undertaken a recent revival, a global group that reaffirms the concept of praying and meditating for inner peace is Taize. Not as popular as prayer and meditation, Lectio Divina, generally known as bible studies is a way for Christians to feel connected to God and to finally attain inner peace.

The studying of the sacred scriptures on a day to day basis and reflecting on prayers also maintain a continual connection with God. It is vital to maintain equilibrium between prayer and service, whereby an individual fathoms the notion ‘ora et labora’, in order to equally partake in both prayer, and the concept of action whereby ora develops inner peace, which is mirrored through the actions taken from this inner peace to promote world peace through labora, and as such it is the steps that a Christian individual takes in order to do good deeds in the name of Jesus Christ.

Although ‘God is the ultimate deliverer of peace’ (Isaiah 26:12), it is through the principal teachings on peace in Judaism, in which guide the contribution of individuals and Jewish communities to sustain inner peace, hitherto foreshadowing world peace. It is peace that is highly valued and should be sought after at all times.

This is largely because the imitations of God’s righteous and compassionate nature is required of all observant Jews in (Deuteronomy 28:9 NIV) “walk in his ways” and (Leviticus 19:2 NIV) “You shall be holy; for I the Lord your God am holy”, whereby in order to sustain inner peace one must acknowledge The Golden Rule; “You shall love your neighbour as yourself” (Leviticus 19:18 NIV).

Judaism adheres to the concept that; every human life is sacred, based on the creation account in (Genesis 1:27 NIV) which records human kind as being made “in God’s image”. Genesis 9:6 NIV) “Whoever sheds the blood of a human being by human beings shall his blood be shed, for in the divine image did God make humanity”, whereby it is interpreted that when one destroys a single individual, it is as if that person destroyed the whole world. (Sanhedrin 4:5). Judaism teaches that, in order for the individual to attain inner peace, the individual must be faithful to God. Judaism is unequivocal in regards to guiding the individual towards achieving inner peace, affirming repeatedly that it is only attained through obedience to God.

Such a view is existent ithin the Tenakh, whereby it states “The fruit of righteousness will be peace… the effect of righteousness will be quietness and confidence forever. My people will live in peaceful dwelling places” (Isaiah 32:18 NIV). Thus, faithful observance of the necessary mitzvot is positively required in order for the individual to enjoy God’s peace. Judaism places great emphasis on the notion that without inner peace a person is torn; without communal peace people are isolated; without global peace, the world is fractured and shalom remains an unrealized ideal, whereby Jewish life is a struggle to cleave to the commandments of the halahcah.

A core commandment of the halahcah is to fulfill deeds of loving kindness, in which is derived from the development of inner peace within the individual, and as such, Jews work towards a personal peace through living out their faith in which is mirrored through the daily recitement of the Shemma – “Here O Israel, the Lord our God, the Lord is One. You shall love the Lord your God with all your heart and with all your soul and with all your might” (Deuteronomy 6:4-9 NIV).

And it is by virtue of this, in which the Jewish individual adheres to the demands of the Lord our God, by way of partaking in the constant attempt to ‘repair the world’. The Tikkun Olam encompasses both service to society by helping those in need and service to the divine by liberating the spark within. The essence of the divine spark, known as our conscience, lies hidden beneath the layers of our egoistic self-centeredness.

This is achieved by pursuing spiritual inner work to strengthen our soul and conscience without shattering, willingness to act on what we know to be right, unwillingness to act in harmful or grasping ways, and capability to notice the quiet presence of conscience beneath the din of our chattering minds and reactive emotions, in which ultimately enlightens an individual to live life based on Jewish morals and values, in order to sustain inner peace in which eventually fabricates itself to promoting world peace, as an act of repairing the world.

As such, the notion of repairing the world intertwines with the fundamental belief that world peace will be achieved when every Jewish individual returns back to the ‘chosen land’ of Israel, and that peace will be an ever living fundamental condition to mankind when; “The wolf will sit with the Lamb, the leopard will lie with the goat, the calf and the lion and the yearling together, and a little child will lead them” (Isaiah 11:6 NIV).

Overall, the principle teachings of peace in Christian and Jewish religious expression substantially impact on the lives of adherents, especially in relation to achieving inner peace as inner peace lies at the quintessence of Judaism and Christianity. The principle beliefs in Christianity are of compassion, kindness and love as a means of attaining inner peace, whereby Judaism follows similar principles, which are based upon the notion of repairing the world and living Jewish life in accordance to the halahcah through it’s sacred texts.

Through prayer to the lord God, Christians and Jews move closer to achieving inner peace, however, it is only through unmovable faith in God that inner peace can truly be achieved for the individual. However, it is vital for both religious expressions to maintain the equilibrium between prayer and the act of service or work in order to mould the notion of peace to the world as an ongoing fundamental human condition, ultimately allowing mankind to live in such utopic nature, diminishing the notions of sin and suffering within the world we live in today.

The Principle Teachings About Peace in Judaism and Christianity Essay

What Is Religion Essay

What Is Religion Essay.

Religion is a hard concept to comprehend. It is showing us a different side to look at our life. Instead of having hard facts that can be physically proven, religion shows us to take a leap of faith and believe the impossible. In The Nature of Existence Charles Messer says: “Religion is simply a system of actions meant to give you access to God and Heaven. (eternal Life)”. In my faith I am taught that we are created by a higher being; God.

That He is omnipotent and he loves all human beings, even if we do not believe in him and follow him.

That he sent his only son, to die on the cross for all of us. Other religions may say the opposite: that there is more than one god and that Jesus was not the messiah. Edward and people with similar beliefs say, “Religions are man-made world-views that help those in charge to control the masses. They are completely and utterly useless.

”, but the only problem with this statement is that man also created science. Man has a lust for power and because religious leaders have so much power over so many people, others assume that religion is being used to gain power . (Your Thesis is not clearly visible, you are thinking with emotion instead of stating clear facts with passion)

In today’s world there are too many religions to count. “There are as many ‘religions’ as there are believers since each person has a different understanding of what their religion is.”: as Nancy M has put it. Nancy brings up a great point by saying this. People might think they have the same views on religion but no one really does. That is one of the points of this documentary: to show different views on what they believe in. Free will gives us the power to choose our own paths, whether it is in speech or in religion. The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy says, “Free will is to say that the agent has the capacity to choose his or her course of action.” We have the choice to believe in God or not to believe in God. That is the beauty of free will, that our decisions are our own.

The biggest confrontation in religion is: which religion is right? People who have a strong faith in what they believe in, and will say that their religion is the true religion. I am one who believes that my religion is the correct. But like Nancy says; I have created my own religion. I discovered my own belief system, by challenging other religions and figuring out what others have to say about their own beliefs.

Brother Jed Smock is one who challenges our faith, by going to college campuses and spreading his beliefs onto others. What he talks about at the colleges, causes the students to question and challenge Brother Jed’s beliefs. While asking these questions, the students have to also look at their own beliefs and may question them as well. To truly grasp our religion we need to ask questions and find answers. One of the best ways to do this is to challenge others and to break down the answer they have provided. It strengthens us and takes our beliefs to a whole new level.

Believing in something is a way of life. Everyone has some kind of belief system. We can believe that there is a God or believe that there is no God. This is the same as an opinion: we all have opinions on everything no matter what. If no one had an opinion then there would not be discussions or arguments.(Without this progress could not be made) Whether or not we belive in a religion or science or even both, there is a reason why we do. It is a way to explain things we cannot explain (it is a way to ease our minds from fear of the unknown and to explain away the unexplainable). For example, where we go after we die or if something miraculous (Or tragic) happens in our life. We cannot explain these events, and therefore we look for answers (in a higher power, whether that power is religion or science) because as humans we do not like Uncertainty.

(many people of faith turn to determinism, when something unexplainable happens, whether that something, is good or bad. According to Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, “Causal determinism is, roughly speaking, the idea that every event is necessitated by antecedent events and conditions together with the laws of nature.” Simply saying that everything happens for a reason.

It is a way to avoid the confrontation, of questioning a belief system by putting life solely in the hands of a higher power. It is mainly used as a way to explain away tragedy and an attempt to console us in a time of grief. When something unexplainable happens, people (do not ) like to question why, they would rather move on with their life and accept what they believe to be inevitable. In my opinion I believe that I will make my own future and it is always changing and nothing is set until it happens. Nothing can determine our future except ourselves.

What Is Religion Essay

Importance of Uttarayan Essay

Importance of Uttarayan Essay.

Shivya: Hi Shivam, how is your uttarayan going?

Shivam: Very nice. How about you?

Shiyya: Enjoying. But I do not know why uttarayan is celebrated. Can you lighten me?

Shivam: Well shivya there is more to Uttarayan than just holding a string and a kite. Let us today understand the religious aspect of Uttarayan. Het can you pls. share with us the information that you have?

[By that time their other 5 friends join them and take part in the conversation. All of them give information about the topic which entilighten us about the religious aspect of Uttarayan]

Het: Hello everybody. Well Uttarayan is celebrated in many parts of the country and also in some other parts of the world with great zeal and enthusiasm. It is a harvest festival which is basically celebrated in the Hindu communities. In Indian, the states of Bihar, Bengal, Punjab, Maharashtra, Gujarat, Rajasthan and Tamil Nadu celebrate the festival with great fervor and gusto. Now I will tell Harsh to share some of information that he has.

Harsh: U know Het, In Tamil Nadu the festival is known as Pongal, in Assam as Bhogali Bihu, in Punjab, as Lohiri, in Gujarat and Rajasthan, as Uttararayan. In Uttar Pradesh it is celebrated as Khichdi or Donation festival. In Bihar it is known as Til Sankranti or Khichdi festival. Outside India, the festival is given due importance in the countries like Nepal where it is celebrated as Maghe Sakrati or Maghi, in Thailand where it is named as Songkran and in Myanmar where it is called Thingyan.

Shivya: Wow I thought Uttarayan is celebrated only in Gujarat. But I can bet it must not be celebrated anywhere like in Gujarat with the sky becoming so colourful. Devayani what information you have to share with us.

Devayani: Well you know the way Makar Sankranti is celebrated in every state of India with faith and joy, it can be guessed that the festival has some religious beliefs. This festival is mentioned in many of our religious text, which enlighten about the festival’s religious significance.

The religious scripture, “Gita” which is known as the voice of Lord Krishna, illustrates that six months of Uttarayan is the day time of deity. And, the 6 months of Dakhshinayan is the night for Gods. It is believed that person who scarifies his body in Uttarayan get a position in ‘Krishna Lok’. That person gets liberation, whereas, the one who dies in Dakhshinayan, has to be reborn.

In the era of Mahabharata, Bhishma Pithama had a blessing of wish death. Although lying on the bed of arrows, he did not sacrifice his life in the Dakhsinayan, and waited for the Sun to go in Uttarayan. It is believed that on the day of Makar Sankranti, when sun entered in the Uttarayan, Bhishma Pithama, discarded his body.

Scientifically, this day the sun begins its northward journey and enters the sign of Makar (the Capricorn) from the Tropic of Cancer. It is like the movement of sun from Dakshinayana (south) to Uttarayana (north) hemisphere. It is the one of the few chosen Indian Hindu festivals which has a fixed date. This day falls on the 14th of January every year according to the Hindu Solar Calendar. The festival is considered to be a day from where onwards all the auspicious ritualistic ceremonies can be solemnized in any Hindu family. This is thus considered as the holy phase of transition

What do you say Ashiti. Am I right?

Ashiti: Yes Deyanai, in fact another one religious story is also there which states that, Yashoda Mata kept fast to have Lord Krishna as her son. The story of Gangawatran is also linked with Makar Sankranti. It is said that on the day of Makar Sankranti, Ganga followed Bhagirath Muni and met the ocean. Conjunction of Ganga and ocean is the reason behind crowd of devotees taking bath in Ganagasagar on Makar Sankranti.

Capricorn is a sign of Saturn. On the day of Makar Sankranti, sun enters into the sign of Saturn. Sun God is the father of Saturn. Father goes to meet his son in his home. Saturn and Sun, both are might planets, who’s auspicious blessings can make humans achieve great success. Hence, on the holy festival of Makar Sankranti people delight sun and Saturn.

Shankranti means transmigration of Sun from one zodiac in Indian astrology to the other. As per Hindu customary beliefs, there are 12 such Sankrantis in all. But the festival is celebrated only on the occasion of Makara Sankaranti i.e. the transition of the Sun from Sagittarius (‘Dhanu’ Rashi ) to Capricorn(‘Makara’ Rasi).

Lastly Jai can you put some more information on the topic.

Jai: Yes my dear friends. Makar Sankranti holds special significance as on this day the solar calendar measures the day and night to be of equal durations on this day. From this day onwards, the days become longer and warmer. It is the day when people of northern hemisphere, the northward path of the sun marks the period when the sun is getting closer to them. The importance of the day was signified by the Aryans who started celebrating this day as an auspicious day for festivities. The reason behind this may be the fact that it marked the onset of harvest season.

Married women pray to Sun God for long life of their husbands and give gifts to their elders, in return take blessing that the way days are getting longer, similarly, the life of their husbands also keep increasing.

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Importance of Uttarayan Essay

Major Differences Between Islam and Judaism Essay

Major Differences Between Islam and Judaism Essay.

After doing some research on the religions Islam and Judaism, I’ve found many links between the two as well as many differences and similarities.

Some major similarities are: Both religions are monotheistic, meaning belief in one only true God. Both religions believe in a distinct afterlife being either good or bad depending on how a person has led their life according to their religion. Judaism and Islam both have writings with describings of how one should live as a part of either religion (Qur’an and the Torah).

There are rules regarding eating restrictions such as only being able to consume Halal (in the name of Allah) produced goods in Islam and eating Kosher meat in Judaism. Both religions have special holidays to celebrate various historical and spiritual events of their beliefs. Both religions have special headwear – a Jewish yarmulke worn by men during prayer and a hijab worn by Islamic women conforming to a standard of modesty.

Some major differences are: Judaism is over one millenium older than Islam.

Islam is a far more strict belief with many more demands and rules compared to Judaism. Judaism has a sabbath – day of rest while Islam believes that Allah – God does not need rest.

Similarities include belief in one God, preserving the faith through prophets, scriptures and observance of religious laws through expression of faith or submission. The major difference is that while Islam acknowledges that the Old Testament once was Allah’s true revelation, they believe it was altered by the Jews to reflect Jewish views and opinions. The Jews are seen by Muslims as once having true revelation and submitting to Allah, but now being misled, unbelieving and no longer in submission.

Both Judaism and Islam have changed over time. Judaism began with Abraham essentially promising to only worship the one true God in which God pledged to uphold a special relationship with Abraham’s descendants. Over time, God introduced the law to the people of Israel of which to observe their faith in him as the one and only God, but by the time of Jesus, the law had merely become a stone cold tradition and faith of something of the past.

Islam, too, has changed over time though there are some uncertainties of the details. Islam began with Allah’s first revelation to Muhammad. It was mainly a warning to the Arabs who were practicing polygamy and worshipping false gods to turn to the one and only true Allah.

Yet, there is a strong probability that Muhammad was simply influenced by Christian and Jewish traders coming through his city. The idea is that he wasn’t thoroughly impressed by their behavior, so he sought his own version of a monotheistic religion by adding commands from Allah regarding issues in life. Later on, people realized that the Qur’an didn’t fully cover how to be a muslim in everyday life. The Hadith was created. The Hadith is a saying or a sort of guidance sought to relate to how Muhammad or his close friends would have decided on a particular issue. These have some authority within Islam today.

Believers of Judaism more or less see Islam as an attempted copy and distortion of Jewish monotheism because Islam dismisses the Jewish revelation in scripture and therefore seeks a path other than the one described in Jewish scripture. Also, Islam rejects Jews as God’s chosen people, which goes against the basic Jewish belief.

The subject at hand could be, and has been, argued for an eternity. It is clear there are vast similarities, likewise differences between Judaism and Islam. Personally, I do not believe in any religion, though they are quite interesting to study.

Major Differences Between Islam and Judaism Essay

Spiritual Diversity Essay

Spiritual Diversity Essay.

Many people describe “faith” in different ways. However, many studies indicate patients of all faiths tend to utilize familiar components such as meditation and prayer, as well as the patient’s own perspective on how their personal culture and tradition affect their care. Simply put, a person’s faith, religion, or spirituality can be a critical component in their healing process. Although different religions may have differing views on providing care, one thing remains the same. All things being equal, people of “faith” tend to heal faster.

This paper will explore three different religions and compare the differing philosophies they present as it relates to faith and healing. The paper will address each faith individually and compare any differences to the Christian faith. Spiritual Diversity in Healthcare The healthcare industry is comprised of medical providers from diverse backgrounds, nationalities, and faiths. Due to the nature of their profession, these professionals are often faced with caring for patients that are also from diverse backgrounds.

This paper will address three of those different faiths and compare their philosophies regarding healing through culturally competent care. It is critical for health care providers to put aside their own religious and cultural beliefs and be sensitive to the needs of their patients. Healthcare providers, “speak a different language filled with medical terminology, and our understanding and beliefs regarding health and illness can differ greatly from the population we serve” (Wintz & Coope, 2009). A healthcare provider can provide culturally competent care by accommodating, promoting and encourage healing by utilizing their patient’s faith.

This may consist of an assortment of components such as meditation, prayer and the patient’s own perspective on how they would like to receive their care. A person’s faith, religion, or spirituality is very important in the healing process. In fact, studies have shown that accommodating and respecting patient beliefs actually promotes and encourages the healing process. “Approximately seventy-nine percent of Americans believe that praying can help people recover from illness, injury or disease,’ and nearly seventy-seven percent of American patients would like spiritual issues discussed as part of their care” (Tovino, 2005).

Different religions may or may not have similar views on providing care. Although some may be similar, all faiths practice religion in disparate ways. “Many medical doctors report people with a religious faith sometimes heal faster than those without. This is most often attributed to their attitude of hope and optimism” (Caldwell, 2003). Faith can be defined as “something that is believed especially with strong conviction; especially: a system of religious beliefs” (Merriam-Webster Dictionary, 2013). Healthcare professionals have the responsibility to treat and care for their patients mind, body and spirit.

The medical profession is one that encompasses an interdisciplinary approach. It is vital this approach is sensitive to a person’s cultural and spiritual needs. In order to do this, health care professionals need to have the knowledge and skills to be able to handle the culturally sensitive needs of all their patients. The foundation of the Baha’i faith is the belief that humanity is one single race. “True health extends beyond the physical and encompasses the emotional, intellectual, spiritual, and physical well-being of individuals and communities” (Baha’i International Community, 2013).

Members of the Baha’i faith are encouraged to obtain medical care. It is the desire of the Baha’i members to have their dignity and spiritual needs supported whenever possible. The critical factors of healing are through the power of prayer and through the power of science combined. According to Baha’i International Community (2013), prayer is encouraged daily and it is believed that sickness can be healed through the power of prayer and the use of medicine. In the Baha’i faith, there are no clergy members. Therefore, any individual within the local Baha’i community can give spiritual support or prayer.

The governing council may also give support. Devotional symbols, such as photographs of the prophet founder, his sons, their faith shrines, or holy places can be present in the room. It is common holy books are read to an ill Baha’i member. Just as the Baha’i have symbols of faith to aid in healing or prayer, the Christian faith uses the cross as a devotional symbol. The Christians, unlike the Baha’i, have clergy members who also support and pray for them. The Buddhist believes that a person’s mind is “non-physical, formless, shapeless, colorless, genderless” (Hawter 1995). The mind is compared to sun in a clear sky.

Sickness is seen as temporary and is compared to clouds that block the sun. They believe that the causes of illness or sickness can be removed by the mind. The mind is the mastermind or controller of all their problems. It is believed to heal an illness; the person has to be involved in positive actions and thoughts. To prevent illness, the person needs to clear all negative karmic impressions they may have to prevent health consequences. Prayer, meditation, and rituals are all critical components in healing for the Buddhist. In addition, the Buddhist uses medications that are “blessed. (Hawter, 1995) Ultimately, it is believed if the cause of the disease is healed, you will also heal the mind. In modern medicine, physicians believe there is a physical cause to an illness.

Because this is in such sharp contrast to what the Buddhist believes, it would be imperative to first collaborate with the patient, and secondly a Tibetan physician/healer to ensure the patients spiritual needs are met. Buddhism has no belief in a “God,” whereas Christians do believe in a God. Christians believe in the power to pray to a divinity to heal, whereas Buddhists believe a person’s mind is the cornerstone to healing a person of their illness. Hawter, 1995) People of the Sikhism faith believe “there is only One God. He is the same God for all people of all religions” (Sikhs. org, 2011). During times of illness, Sikhs believe in the power of prayer to ask God for help and forgiveness.

They also listen and repeat the words from scripture because they believe this will give them both spiritual and physical strength. Sikhs view illness as the will of God, and believe the person needs to make an effort and seek treatment to get well. To promote comfort and healing, Sikhism may want Keertan music to be played at their bedside.

Sikhs feel it is essential for healthcare providers to be sensitive to the patients needs and to care for those needs beyond the medical aspects. (SikhWomen. com, 2001) Similarly, in the Christian faith, it is also believed there is only one God. In addition, Christians believe, he has a son, Jesus Christ. Christians also have a strong belief in the power of prayer and reading scriptures. (Health care in relation to faith diversity. 2012) This paper addressed the role of faith as it relates to three distinct religions around the world. It compared and contrasted similarities and differences among them.

One fact remains the same. Each and every person, regardless of their culture, religious, or ethnic backgrounds, desires to have their needs met with respect and dignity. There are a variety of cultures with varied beliefs on healing. These beliefs may dictate certain practices that may need to be addressed in order to maintain a person’s total health. Healthcare professionals must be culturally sensitive to these diverse needs by respecting differences and incorporating each unique practice and belief into the patient’s plan of care. In so doing, the healthcare provider creates an ideal environment conducive to healing.

Spiritual Diversity Essay

Hinduism Essay

Hinduism Essay.

Hinduism is the religion of the great majority of the people of India. The word comes from the Sanskrit sindhu, “river,” and originally referred to the Indus. Hinduism is actually a collection of many native Indian religions, past and present. It is responsible for the social structure of India, especially for the caste system (a hereditary class system). The oldest of the world’s great religions, Hinduism is the only one without a founder. It has never tried to win converts by force and has always tolerated other religions and absorbed ideas from them.

Hinduism has about 20 sects, with beliefs that range from primitive forms of animism to the highest reaches of mysticism and philosophy. Many of the sects and cults seem to be separate religions. Yet all have a family relationship since they spring from common traditions and thrive on the conditions peculiar to India. Most have a mystic strain and all stress nonviolence. • Describe the major tenets of the Hindu belief system.

Hinduism has many sacred objects and places. The cow is the most sacred of animals and must be protected.

Most sacred of all places is the Ganges River, to which millions go each year to bathe and to become purified. Hindus believe in rebirth, or reincarnation, and in what they call the law of karma. Under this law the conditions of each new lifetime are determined by the actions of the preceding life. To the Hindu, salvation consists of liberating the soul from attachment to worldly desires in order to gain union with Brahman. If a Hindu dies liberated he must be born again into this world and again endure its suffering.

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Hinduism Essay

Peace Essay

Peace Essay.

Christianity and Islam have similar teachings on peace and it is evident that there is a strong relationship between these fundamental teachings and the ways in which the religious traditions and their organizations actively strive towards world peace. World peace is understood in both faiths, not just as an absence of violence and conflict, but also as an overall sense of wellbeing and social cohesion. Inner peace is essential in achieving world peace, and must be attained in order to work towards peace at a higher level.

Christianity teaches that peace is Christ’s parting gift and a concept that begins with Him, “Peace I leave with you; My peace I give you” (John 14:27). The Catholic peace movement “Pax Christi” stands for the ‘peace of Christ’ and has launched a policy for a culture of peace and non-violence. “Pax Christi” uses the teaching of the peace of Christ to guide them, calling adherents to state that they are recognizing their responsibility to “respect life…practice active non-violence [and] defend freedom” (Pax Christi International Manifesto for a Culture of Peace and Non Violence 1999) in order to contribute to the achievement of world peace.

Islam teaches that peace can only be attained through the submission to Allah’s will. One is able to submit to Allah through the process of jihad, which is to struggle to overcome the obstacles in the way of submission, or the process of Shahada. The Sufism movement provides Muslims with a path to follow in order to contribute to the attainment of world peace through 3 stations. These mirror the teaching that peace can only be found in Allah, encouraging the submission as the initial step in moving towards world peace, “Submitting our…bodies to Allah is Sufism” (Sufism Equals to Islam).

The teaching of submission and anticipation of pleasing Him, establishes a Muslims role in actively working towards achieving world peace. The Quakers are a Christian denomination that follows the principal teaching of pacifism, as modelled by Jesus’ ministry. Christ’s teaching of the Beatitudes is fundamental in guiding the Quakers, especially in “Blessed are the peacemakers” (Matthew 5:9). The Quakers work towards world peace through things such as rallies and marches for peace and justice, as well as campaigning and raising awareness about social justice and supporting those looking for an alternative to violence.

The Quaker’s choice to refrain from war to contribute to world peace can be seen by their silent vigils against war, such as that in King George Square. In 1660, the Quakers presented “A Declaration from the Harmless and Innocent…Quakers”, which has been the basis for the Quaker’s peace testimony in which they strive towards attaining world peace. Rufus Jones, a Quaker, stated that Quakers have an “obligation to assist and to forward movements and forces which make for peace in the world” (The Quaker Peace Position).

Peace is a fundamental aim of Islam and teaches that war is only permitted to overcome oppression and tyranny. The Qur’an teaches that “whosoever killed a soul…it is as if he had killed all mankinds” (Al-Madiah 5:32). However, this is overlooked due to common misconceptions about the Islamic faith, especially due to exploitation by the media. After the violent aftermath of the London bombings in 2005, the NSW Islamic Council stated on their website, “We firmly hold the view that these killings and atrocities have absolutely no sanction in Islam…terrorism…has no support from…the Islamic community…and would never be endorsed”.

Partnerships exist between Muslim, Jewish and Christian organizations so that their voices aren’t overlooked, for example the 1991 ‘Prayer for Peace’ in which it was asked, “Forgive our violence towards each other”. Even though overlooked by the media, Muslims work tirelessly towards world peace. Christianity expresses that justice must come before peace is achieved. In 1972, in the World Day of Peace Message, the Catholic Pope Paul VI said, “If you want peace, act for Justice”. Accordingly, the Decade to Overcome Violence (DOV), seek peace, justice and reconciliation.

In a report titled, “Called Together to be Peacemakers”, Catholics and Mennonites hoped to work together to assist the WCC’s DOV, stating, “Our similar identities as ‘peace churches’…our commitment to be followers…of Jesus Christ…Prince of Peace. ” They quote John Paul II in the World Day of Peace (2002), “no peace without justice”, adding, “in the absence of justice…peace is a mirage…justice is an inseparable companion of peace” (CTBP 177). It is evident, the relationship between the doctrine of justice before peace, and then the actions to chieve this to strive towards world peace. The Qur’an teaches that, “Allah guides those…to the ways of peace…and guides them to a straight path” (5:16), often termed ‘the paths of peace’. This teaching of being guided on a path of peace is demonstrated by the organization Muslim Peace Fellowship, declaring on their website that their main objectives are to “work together with all people of good will to keep open the straight path” and to “work against injustice and for peace…in our world” (Muslim Peace Fellowship Blog).

This organization actively seek world peace through the use of conferences, publications, speeches and interreligious action, as well as interior work and prayer. Evidently, principal teachings in both Christianity and Islam help to guide and encourage both their roles in the attainment of world peace. The fundamental teachings act as guidelines to be interpreted by current followers in order to play a role in the triumph of world peace. There is a strong correlation between the theoretical principal teachings and he actions performed by leaders and adherents to gain peace at a world level.

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Peace Essay