Psychological and Sociological Insights Essay

Psychological and Sociological Insights Essay.

This essay will address how psychological and sociological insights help nurses to understand health lifestyles by exploring life sciences, focusing on people who engage in smoking and how they seem to override the fact that they are putting their health at risk. In addition to this I will also be highlighting statistics and briefly discussing the health complications that develop from smoking. Consequently, it is important for nurses to understand how people function, more so when they are healthy so we know how to help when a health problem arises.

Functioning as a person involves social and psychological aspects, as well as having functioning body systems. Over the decades there have been many different explanations on how people function, this essay will discuss psychological and sociological ideas that will give nurses an understanding of people’s behaviour, thoughts, feelings and lifestyles. For this purpose, this essay will be reflecting on the psychological perspectives of social learning theory, unrealistic optimism and the health model locus of health.

Secondly, it shall be discussing the sociological perspectives of socio-class and low-incomes and socialisation to discover why people may start to smoke and why people continue to smoke knowing the risks involved. Ironically, as recent as the 1940’s smoking was considered harmless and the overall attitude of people was that smoking relieved tension but research has since confirmed that smoking causes many diseases detrimental to one’s health such as cancer, cardiovascular and lung diseases. Smoking is a greater cause of death and disability than any single disease, says the World Health Organisation (WHO). According to WHO, smoking is responsible for approximately five million deaths worldwide every year (WHO, 2012). Presently, in the United Kingdom smoking is the leading cause of death with 120,000 people dying annually due to smoking related diseases and costs the National Health Service (NHS) the sum of £2.7 billion to provide health care for people with smoking related illnesses (Department of Health, 1998).

Even so, people still continue to engage in this life threatening behaviour despite knowing the dangers and risks that it involves. Therefore, as nurses we need to consider how addictive smoking is to some individuals (Rana, Upton. 2009) this can influence the health choices people make. Health psychologists attempt to predict how people make choices about their lifestyles. According to Albert Bandura’s theory (1965,1991) on social learning suggested that learning can occur not only by association, reward and habitation but also by observing others behaviour and by imitating it and does not require the individual to be actively involved in the learning process (Barker, 2007) this is referred to as vicarious learning through modelling. The social learning perspective implies that smoking behaviour is learned by modelling and social influences (Rana, Upton, 2009).

Statistically, most smokers start smoking as teenagers (Payne, Walker 1996) and children are more likely to smoke if their parents smoke and their parent’s attitude to smoking is an important factor (Action on Smoking and health, 2011).Valente et al (2005) suggests that one of the main reasons for adolescents to start to smoke is the influence of peers and siblings and parents generally become less influential ( Rana, Upton, 2009). Therefore leads us on to social influence, this refers to the way in which people’s behaviour is influenced by the presence and actions of others (Cialdini, 2004). Despite knowing the health risks of smoking, young people still conform to engage in smoking as the number of young people who smoke remains the same (ASH, 2012). Some will manage to quit but a good percentage will endure to smoke for decades, this increases the risk substantially in developing illness and early death (Department of Health, 1998) even though 7 out of 10 adults say that they would like to give up but continue to smoke, the reasons for continuing they say it is a way of coping with stress, a way of relaxing and women seem to be anxious with putting on excess weight.

Understanding when and why the individual started to smoke and the reasons for continuing can help the nurse understand more about the individual’s lifestyle. The nurse can then offer support and advice on how the individual can use different strategies enabling them to overcome these hurdles and promote the health benefits of quitting smoking. In an attempt to explain why individuals continue to damage their health by continuing to smoke, Weinstein (1983, 1984) suggests that the reasons people often engage in unhealthy behaviour is due to the individuals perceptions of risk and susceptibility are inaccurate (Rana, Upton. 2009). A study carried out by Weinstein, he asked subjects to examine a list of health problems and to rate their chances of developing the problem, compared to others of the same age and sex.

The outcome of this study showed that most of the subjects believed that they were less likely to develop the health problem. Weinstein called this phenomenon ‘unrealistic optimism’, as he argued that not everyone can be less likely to develop an illness (Ogden, 2007). He claims that individuals ignore their own health risks and smokers convince themselves that they are not at risk of developing illnesses, as much as other smokers. Many smokers have the belief that if there is not a problem now there will not be one in the future and their lifestyle continues knowing the risks. This model can be used in nursing to help the nurse to understand the attitudes of most smokers. Understanding the attitudes the nurse can help promote healthy lifestyle choices by providing the individual appropriate information about the impact that smoking has on their health. Reasons for continuing this lifestyle can be explained using the Health Locus of Control (HLC), people’s attributions about health and illness.

For instance, Wallaston & Wallaston 1982, states that internal control is when individuals tend to regard the control of their health there responsibility by believing that their health and recovery of illness are dependent on their own actions (Payne, Walker. 1996) or they believe it is down to fate or luck this could relate to people that continues to smoke. Whereas external control is when the individuals believes their health is not controllable by them and is controlled by powerful others, for example; doctors and nurses and are less likely to take their own action and believe that it is the responsibility of external factors. The health locus of control has been shown to relate to whether the individual changes their behaviour towards smoking. External individuals who wish to give up smoking will generally be more complying to change their lifestyle and seek advice and help from health care professionals more so than internal individuals (Odgen, 2007).

Nurses can apply this model to people with external HLC who are considering giving up smoking by providing the appropriate information enabling the individual to seek help from the available sources and work alongside them to devise a programme in which will benefit them (Rana, Upton. 2009). The sociology perspectives look at the social world and differences in lifestyles that can influence the individual’s health. Studies have shown that inequalities in health is not just down to ones behaviour but displays a connection to the social and economics and environment all of which influence peoples lifestyles (Taylor, Field. 2007). The Black Report 1980 inevitably found that poor health and earlier deaths are the magnitude to socio-economic inequalities (Denney, Earle. 2010).

The socio economic classes are still divided as the prevalence of smoking regular among people who work manual jobs are more than likely to smoke more so than people that work in non manual jobs ( Action on Smoking and Health, ASH. 2012), (appendices 1.1). Smoking prevalence is an important element of the differences in the state of health and death rates between social classes and remains high among men and women in the lower socio economic group (Richardson, 2001). As nurses we need to be aware of the social world in which we practice, understanding the differences in how people live will determine the lifestyle choices they make (Marsh, Keating. 2006). Nurses must consider the factors underlying the socio economic differences in smoking such as occupational status, income, education, housing and environment. It may be considered that the decision to smoke is influenced by social factors and social circumstances of the individual.

The behaviour of smoking is often linked to poverty and illness, as the poorest family group- single parents have the highest rates of smoking an 80% chance of being smoker if you fall into this social class (Crosier, unknown). Marsh and McKay (1994) reported that people who are living on low income are most likely to smoke; least able to quit smoking; least able to afford smoking; most likely to suffer increased hardship due to the expenditure on tobacco (Richardson, 2001). The debate about women and smoking illustrates this well. Despite over the past decade, the number of people smoking has declined but only has shown a small decrease in women smoking, yet the differentiation between the working and middle class women has increased (Nettleton, 2006). Research into women in low income families with young children, smoke as it is a means of a coping strategy to help deal with the multiple demands that are placed upon them.

Graham (1987) found that mothers on low incomes used smoking as a coping strategy that could provide ‘time out’. The mothers where all aware of the health risks associated with smoking so providing more education was unlikely to have an impact (Scambler, 2008). The nurse would, however, have to address that the added pressure for the mothers on low incomes, to give up smoking may cause more stress and could lead to additional health implications, as a result this could have a negative impact on their lives (Bury, Gabe. 2004).It is the nurses role to address this issue by providing appropriate support and information on alternative ways of coping with stress, whilst retaining their autonomy (Naidoo, Wills. 2004).

Socialization is more often than not the main reason for people to start smoking, as 82% of adult smokers started smoking in their teenage years (ASH, 2012), as adolescences are more than likely to indulge in risk taking behaviour such as smoking, to create a sense of belonging to a peer group (Clarke, 2010), this soon becomes a regular daily smoking pattern, sustained by nicotine addiction but is reinforced by social norms (Ewles, 2005). It is a nurse’s role to help change of attitudes of the younger society by continuing to provide education on the addiction of nicotine and health risks of smoking and prevention of disease.

The Department of Health brought about The White paper: Smoking Kills (1998) as they recognised the health issues of smoking and that one of their main concern was the rises in children /adolescences smoking, Appendices 1.2. They have put in measures to reduce smoking among the younger generation by minimilising tobacco adverts in shops, proof of age cards were introduced and the age to purchase tobacco has risen from 16 to 18 years old. Although in general we are living healthier and longer lives due to the overall improvements that has been made throughout the past decades there is still room for improvement in health inequalities within the top and bottom ends of the social scale (Clarke, 2010). To conclude, nurses need to understand the principles of psychological and sociological insights to health lifestyles.

As a result, this helps the nurse understand the reasons why people choose to take up smoking and continue to smoke, leading a lifestyle that is detrimental to their health. From exploring these life sciences the nurse will have a better understanding of the different attitudes, health beliefs, thoughts and feelings that differ within the socio-economic classes, this gives the nurse the ability to deliver the holistic approach relevant to the individuals needs.

As nurses by providing care to people, more often than not we do not share the same values and beliefs and may not agree with the life choices people have made but gaining an insight to their lifestyle will in turn enable us to provide the appropriate support, information and treatment. Nurses are obliged to promote good health behaviour but this does not always work towards smoking, many people will take the advice and may try to quit smoking (Appendices 1.3) but due to demands of life some have a tendency to start again but we must realise as nurses, smoking is an addiction and is not easy to give up it, so we have to respect the individuals lifestyle choices without being judgemental.

Psychological and Sociological Insights Essay

Examination of Clinical Psychology Essay

Examination of Clinical Psychology Essay.

Clinical psychology has a full history that dates back to the early days of Greek philosophy.

The combination of philosophy, current psychology and science has created a specific discipline in clinical psychology. Research continues to improve and evolve this branch of psychology. There are certain distinctions that set clinical psychology apart from other areas of this discipline and this paper will explore not only those distinctions but also the history of clinical psychology.

The History of Clinical Psychology

The beginnings of psychology in general can be found in the era of Greek philosophy. Early philosophical thinkers saw the connection between the mind and body including the influence that relationship had concerning emotional sickness. Hippocrates, Plato, and Aristotle were a few of those that recognized the soul or spirit as being the primary force of the body. They also recognized that problems within the soul could manifest in physical illness (Plante, 2011, p. 34). In the middle ages, any kind of mental, emotional or physical sickness was thought to be characteristic of sin or evil and treatments of such issues were dealt with on a spiritual level.

The following Renaissance era was all about scientific research and discovery taking the previous beliefs on spiritual origins and disproving them. Illness was established as something more explainable by scientific research rather than spiritual and metaphysical beliefs (Plante, 2011).

As the nineteenth century rolled in, members of psychological study started to have a more accurate understanding of the connection between the body and mind. Sigmund Freud was one such forward thinker and he promoted theories that unconscious thoughts of the mind can hold a strong influence on one’s health drawing on the original beliefs of the Greeks (Parsons, 1958). The actual emergence of psychology began with the development of the first laboratory and book of psychology by Wilhelm Wundt.

Development was quick after this first large step even though the new concepts and principles of psychology were being applied to peoples’ issues. Also the wars of our history provided a platform for the world of clinical psychology. Service members emerged in war required specialized treatments which led to the development of psychometric assessments. Later developments led to the creation of evolved models of guidelines and training for the education of clinical psychologists (Plante, 2011).

Clinical Psychology’s Evolving Nature

Clinical psychology has a fundamental instrument that develops its evolving nature which is described by its relationship with modern medicine and used of scientific methods (Kazdin, 2008). Clinical psychology continues to develop applications as new scientific evidence mounts. Contemporary clinical psychology embodies the scientific advances of science mixing in a deep understanding of the mind. The relationship of practice and research continue to come together to facilitate continual improvements in treatments and this relationship is a necessary element to the evolving nature (Kazdin, 2008). The only possible challenge for clinical psychology and research is the challenge of trying to customize treatment to meet the patient’s individual needs when there really is no defined outline of every individualistic need for each individual patient (Kazdin, 2008 p. 17).

The Role of Research and Statistics in Clinical Psychology

Research is a vital aspect of any psychology and clinical psychology is no different. Research provides the empirical foundation to answer questions with validity. Statistics is a vital part of this research since this area of the research facilitates researchers being able to conclude if the information is substantial and relevant. Research is also vital because to clinical psychology because it boosts therapy methods which leads to the improvement of one’s life and it also helps discover effective methods to diagnose and treat human behavioral issues (Plante, 2011). The scientific method of empirical study also benefits the researchers themselves enabling them to gain critical thinking skills. Research is one of the most fundamental practices that allows for the betterment of clinical psychology (Plante, 2011).

Clinical Psychology as it Differs from Other Disciplines

The primary differences between other disciplines and clinical psychology involve the targeted training, area of focus and possibly even the educational requirements. Some psychologists participating in the area of clinical diagnosis, such as a school psychologist or social worker, generally must earn a master’s degree but other specialized areas of clinical psychology might require a doctorate (Plante, 2011). School psychologists also specialize primarily in working with children and society’s youth whereas social workers can serve a more broad population and work in hospitals, schools or even county programs. Areas of counseling psychology are very similar to clinical psychology and there is the belief that the two separate groups do not even need to exist separately (Kazdin, 2008).

There are also psychiatrists who have the added, extensive education and training in the medical arena and for all intended purposes they are physicians. They not only counsel as psychologists but are allowed to issue psychiatric medicine. Then there are other various mental health care professionals such as psychiatric nurses, specialized counselors, and industry and organization counselors who all provide clinical services. Even though clinical psychology differs in some aspects from other counseling professions, all of them have the purpose of using psychological principles to understand human behavior, helping individuals to live healthier and happier lives (Plante, 2011).


As this paper has laid out, there are many various contributions to the formation of clinical psychology becoming its own discipline. The evolution has traveled a long road but it has been steady and continuous with new information being discovered through scientific methods. Philosophy kicked off the curiosity that lead to future contributions by pioneers such as Freud and his psychoanalytic methods. Clinical psychology does hold its differences amongst other disciplines of psychology but the overall goal of all disciplines still remains to serve the general human population, attempting to give everyone a chance at a better quality of life.

Kazdin, A. E. (2008). Evidence based treatment and practice: new opportunities to bridge clinical research and practice. American Psychologist, 63(3), 146-159. Parsons, T. (1958). Social Structure and the Development of Personality: Freud’s Contribution to the Integration of Psychology and Sociology. Psychiatry: Journal for the Study of Interpersonal Processes, 21(10), 321-340. Plante, T. (2011). Contemporary clinical psychology (3rd ed.). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.

Examination of Clinical Psychology Essay

A Balance Between Nomothetic and Idiographic Approaches Essay

A Balance Between Nomothetic and Idiographic Approaches Essay.

The idiographic and nomothetic approaches in psychology are often regarded as representing opposing and conflicting positions about how best to study people, especially intelligence and personality. However, the two may be seen as complementary, with both necessary to gain a fuller understanding of human beings. The idiographic approach focuses on: ‘the individual and recognises the uniqueness of the person in terms of their experiences, feelings, developmental history, aspirations and motivations in life, and the values and moral codes by which they live’.

The word idiograph comes from the Greek word idios, meaning ‘own’ or ‘private’.

Hence the idiographic approach in psychology is concerned with the private, subjective and unique aspects of a person and employs methods of inquiry which provide information about subjective experiences. The idiographic approach is characterised by qualitative methods of investigation. Qualitative methods include unstructured interviews, case studies, self report measures, introspection, and the psychoanalytic techniques of free association and dream analysis. The idiographic approaches is holistic and places great value on the individual’s conscious experiences.

The humanistic perspective in psychology perhaps best exemplifies the idiographic approach. Freudian psychoanalysis can also be said to adopt an idiographic approach as he did not use any scientific method to test or find evidence for his theoretical claims. Approach The nomothetic approach in psychology focuses on: ‘similarities between people and attempts to establish general laws of behaviour and thought that can be applied to large populations of people, or indeed to all people’ The word nomothetic comes from Greek words nomos, meaning ‘law’.

Hence, the nomothetic approach is most closely aligned with the scientific approaches in psychology. This means that it uses scientific methods of investigation, particularly experiments, to test hypotheses that are derived from theories about human behaviour and thought. The nomothetic approach adopts a reductionist viewpoint, placing great value on objectivity and replication. The behaviourist, cognitive ad biological perspectives best exemplify the nomothetic approach. Freudian theory also attempts to establish laws or rules about human beings, for example the psychosexual stages and the Oedipus complex.

Freud believed these were applicable to all and the theory is nomothetic in this respect. Background Humanistic psychology adopt a more idiographic approach, seeking the more unique aspects of individuals, rather than producing generalised laws of behaviour that apply to everyone. It highlighted the value of more individualistic and idiographic methods of study, particularly in areas of personality and abnormalities. Classification manuals like the DSM-IV, which lists the essential behavioural criteria of diagnosing autism, adopts a nomothetic approach and classify people according to particular type of disorders.

Traditionally, the idiographic and nomothetic approaches are seen as conflicting, with the implication that as a psychologist you can only operate from one of these positions. Cronbach (1957) identified this potential source of conflict between psychologists about how best to study the nature of what it is to be human. If the psychologist seeks to develop theories that apply to large populations then the nomothetic approach is preferable. If, however, the psychologist is interested in the uniqueness of a person, then the idiographic approach is the one to adopt.

Subjective experience The idiographic approach is often regarded as non-scientific, as subjective experience cannot be empirically tested and it is difficult to generalise from detailed subjective knowledge about a person. Some psychologists argue that scientific principles can be applied to study the uniqueness of individuals and the norms and rules by which a specific person operates can be identified. The idiographic approach can be used to study topics such as privation which are relatively rare and depends upon the circumstances surrounding the individual.

Most evidence for effects of privation has come from case studies of children who have been raised in conditions of neglect. The case of Genie (Curtiss, 1977) suggests that severe privation has permanent effects. At the age of 13 years she was unable to speak, physically underdeveloped and showed inappropriate emotional responses. Despite fostering and intellectual stimulation, Genie apparently never recovered from her years of privation, although there was a suggestion that other factors may have contributed to her problems.

Koluchova’s longitudinal study followed the long-term development of twin boys who had suffered severe privation in early childhood showed that children who have experienced severe privation seem able to overcome the effects of their early suffering with appropriate treatment and care. As such the nomothetic approach would be unsuitable and unable to gather any information which would contribute towards our understanding of the topic. The two approaches can be complementary as the idiographic approach can shed further light on a general law of behaviour established through a nomothetic approach.

Idiographic research may disprove a general law of behaviour. For example nomothetic research supported the idea of a multi-store model of memory with information flowing through the STM to LTM. However case studies of patients with brain damage suggest that the multi-store model is over-simplified. A patient known as KF suffered brain damage following a motorcycle accident, and underwent brain surgery. Some years later he was found to have normal LTM storage but an STM capacity of only two items.

If STM was necessary for the transfer of information to LTM, then KF’s LTM should also be affected. As a consequence, further models of memory have been proposed and tested. On the other hand, idiographic findings can lead to large scale research. Piaget used the idiographic approach gaining rich and detailed information about the development of his own children’s thinking. These finding inspired further nomothetic research and theories into cognitive development were developed. Scientific approach

Both approaches can contribute to the scientific approach – the aim of science are to “understand and describe” which corresponds to the idiographic approach and to “predict and control” which corresponds to the nomothetic approach. The nomothetic approach generalise findings e. g. in terms of the primacy and recency effects, more words are recalled from the beginning and the end of the list, irrespective of the length of the list. However an idiographic approach could be used to find the different techniques that people have used to recall the items

In contemporary psychology, the idiographic-nomothetic debate is still an important distinction. Attempts have been made to bring the two approaches together in an interactionist model (Bandura, 1986), but no influential solution has been found. It could be argued that the strengths of one approach compensate for the limitations of the other and so both approaches are needed for a complete study of psychology. The nomothetic approach has helped psychology to become scientific by developing laws and theories of human behaviour that can be empirically tested.

This approach attempts to determine laws and common characteristics for all people or large groups of people in a culture. It also helps to combine biological and social aspects of a person. However, the focus on general laws and theories neglects the subjective and unique experiences of the person. The extensive use of controlled laboratory experiment means that there is a problem of generalisation to everyday life. Some psychologists also argued that this approach overemphasises the similarities between people and gives little attention to differences.

Alternatively, the idiographic approach focuses on the subjective experiences of the person making the individual feeling valued and unique. Each person is valued as an individual rather than seen as one amongst many. Conclusion This approach provides detailed psychohistories and attempts to understand the many influences on how they come to be as they are. Humanistic psychology uses an idiographic approach to enable people to develop their full potential. However, this approach largely neglects biological, especially genetic influences.

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A Balance Between Nomothetic and Idiographic Approaches Essay

Famous Psychologist Essay

Famous Psychologist Essay.

Throughout psychology’s relatively brief history, there have been many famous psychologists who have left their mark both on psychology and on the world at large. While some of these individuals do not necessarily fit today’s definition of a ‘psychologist’, a term which indicates a doctoral-level degree in psychology, their influence on psychology is without question. Learn more about psychologists by browsing through this list of some of the most famous thinkers in psychology history. Alfred Adler

Public Domain Alfred Adler is known as one of the most influential thinkers in psychology.

While he was initially a member of the Vienna Psychoanalytic Society, Adler eventually departed from Freud’s theories and developed his own perspective, which he called Individual Psychology. He had a strong influence on a number of other eminent psychologists, including Carl Rogers, Abraham Maslow and Karen Horney. Mary Ainsworth

Mary Ainsworth was a psychologist best known for her research on attachment theory and the development of the “strange situation” assessment.

Her work played an important role in our understanding of child development and has influenced other fields including education. Gordon Allport

Gordon Allport was a psychologist perhaps best-known as one of the founding figures of personality psychology. He also developed a trait theory of personality that described three broad categories of personality traits. Solomon Asch

Solomon Asch was a pioneering social psychologist. His famous conformity experiments demonstrated that people will claim that something is correct when it obviously is not due to social pressure from peers. Asch also had an important influence on psychologist Stanley Milgram, whose own obedience experiments were inspired by Asch’s work. Albert Bandura

Albert Bandura is a psychologist known for his famous “Bobo doll” experiment as well as his concepts of self-efficacy and social learning. Bandura’s work is considered part of the cognitive revolution in psychology that began in the late 1960s. His theories have had tremendous impact on personality psychology, cognitive psychology, education, and therapy. Alfred Binet

Public Domain Alfred Binet was a French psychologist famous for his development of the first widely used intelligence test. He is often described as one of the most influential thinkers in psychology history and his original test still serves as the basis for modern measures of intelligence. Mary Whiton Calkins

Mary Whiton Calkins was the first female president of the American Psychological Association. She studied at Harvard with famous teachers including William James and Hugo Munsterberg. Despite completing all of the requirements for a doctorate degree in psychology, Harvard refused to grant her degree simply because she was a woman.

James McKeen Cattell Image courtesy Library of Congress James McKeen Cattell was the first U.S. psychology professor. He is an important figure in psychology thanks to his work in intelligence, his use of quantitative methods and his focus on establishing psychology as a legitimate science. Raymond Cattell

Image from Wikimedia Commons Raymond Cattell was a pioneering thinker who is perhaps best known for his use of multivariate analysis and his 16-factor personality model. Mamie Phipps Clark Mamie Phipps Clark was a pioneering psychologist known for her important research on child development and self-concept among minorities. As the first black woman to graduate from Columbia University, she faced discrimination because of her race and her gender. Her research with her husband, Kenneth Clark, played a major role in the Supreme Court’s decision in the pivotal Brown vs. Board of Education case.

Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi He’s an important contemporary psychologist, but one of your first questions is probably “How do you pronounce his name?” (It’s me-HIGH chick-sent-me-HIGH-ee, by the way.) Learn more about his work and contributions to modern psychology in this brief biography.

John Dewey Image courtesy Wikimedia Commons John Dewey was an American psychologist, philosopher, writer and educational theorist. His work had a vital influence on psychology, education and philosophy and he is often considered one of the greatest thinkers of the 20th-century. His emphasis on progressive education has contributed greatly to the use of experimentation rather than an authoritarian approach to knowledge.

Erik Erikson Public Domain Erik Erikson’s well-known stage theory of psychosocial development helped generate interest and inspire research on human development through the lifespan. An ego psychologist who studied with Anna Freud, Erikson expanded psychoanalytic theory by exploring development throughout the full lifespan, including events of childhood, adulthood and old age. Hans Eysenck

Image from the Wikimedia Commons / Sirswindon at en.wikipedia Hans Eyesenck was a very prolific psychologist, publishing more than 75 books and 1600 journal articles. Prior to his death in 1997, he was the living psychologist most frequently cited in scientific books and journal articles. He was also a very controversial figure, and his outspoken views of subjects ranging from psychotherapy to intelligence made him the subject of criticism. Leon Festinger

Leon Festinger was an influential social psychologist who is well-known for his theory of cognitive dissonance as well as his social comparison theory. Anna Freud Anna Freud began her career influenced by the theories of her father, Sigmund Freud. Far from living in her father’s shadow, Anna made important contributions of her own to psychology. She founded child psychoanalysis and summarized the ego’s defense mechanisms in her book The Ego and the Mechanisms of Defense (1936). Sigmund Freud

Public Domain Sigmund Freud may be one of the best known figures in history, but he is also one of the most controversial. He was the founder of the school of thought known as psychoanalysis. The legacy of his life and work provokes both impassioned acclaim from his supporters and disdain from his detractors. While some view him as a cultural icon and others see him as a pseudo-scientific charlatan, there is no question that Freud left an indelible mark on psychology as well as other disciplines.

Erich Fromm Liss Goldring / Erich Fromm Estate Erich Fromm was a neo-Freudian psychoanalyst who had a major influence on humanistic psychology. Today Fromm is remembered for his concept of freedom as a fundamental component of human nature.

Famous Psychologist Essay

A Reaction Paper on the TV Show Numbers Essay

A Reaction Paper on the TV Show Numbers Essay.

I have never been one to be fond of numbers. In fact, I am scared of them. Numbers especially with letters intimidate me. I normally tend to take for granted lessons that have passed. I study it, learn it, memorize it and that’s it. Ten points for me if I could actually remember and actually use those complicated equations in my day-to-day life. Though this may be the case, I find myself a bit more motivated when these mathematical figures be actually applied in real life.

I think I learn more when I see Math’s importance and essence in the ropes of everyday living. Now, here comes Numb3rs, a show that believes that everything is indeed, numbers. Though ambitious in the making, I let myself be excited over how everything would turn out. I was actually impressed with how they applied the concepts of limits, probability and conic sections into catching the culprit. How the guy connected the physics of something as mundane as a sprinkler into an equation that would eventually solve the case was a complete marvel.

Until now I think: “How on earth did he do that? ” And even though the plot seemed lackluster to me, the mathematics behind it compensated for the rather forced storyline of the show. In the end, the suspect was caught. The case was solved. Charlie was right all along. Math indeed helped big time. When it comes to the technecalities and mathematics of the show, I have no complains. But when the story in itself is in question, there I raise my hand.

I think the idea that everything can be solved by numbers is just too far-fetched. Human behavior is unpredictable, unstable and anything but elegant. It is far too unrealistic for me the way they have come to believe that the human body and personality can be translated into numbers or equations. I digress. I disagree. Sure, mathematics is fundamentally present, I know that. But to be actually glorifying it into something as unique, special and holy as the human body, I think that numbers will only remain that, numbers.

A Reaction Paper on the TV Show Numbers Essay

Good vs. Evil in Psycho Essay

Good vs. Evil in Psycho Essay.

“Psycho” is a classic suspense film directed by Alfred Hitchcock which features a central female protagonist, a seemingly ordinary young woman named Marion Crane, who crosses paths with a dangerous mentally ill motel owner, Norman Bates. As their strange relationship develops, a dominant theme of good versus evil is introduced to the audience through the use of characterisation, editing, mise-en-scene and various other media techniques. From the outset, Hitchcock introduces an initial theme of good versus evil during the opening credits.

The title scene could be seen as a reflection of the personality of Norman Bates as the credits themselves are presented as fragmented titles which come together as one on the screen but then shake and split up again, which hints towards the disjointed personality of Bates. The fact that the titles are dotted around the screen suggests that his character is severely unbalanced and not in a stable condition, foreshadowing the idea that his mind is in different places at different times and it is hard to tell when his mind-set will alter.

The contrasting colours used in this scene are also important to the later character development as the black, white and grey each reflect the constantly conflicting part of Bates’ temperament. The darker areas on the screen reflect the deepest inner shadow of his mind, while the lighter areas show that he can also be a good person. They show the persistent inner conflict and the constant battle between good and evil. The grey, however, represents the uncertain parts of his split personality but could also be interpreted to refer to the indecision and doubt seen in the character of Marion as the film develops.

This primary theme is developed as we are familiarised with the character of Marion Crane, the dominant leading role. We first see her meeting up with her boyfriend, Sam, in a hotel room during her lunch hour. The camera enters the room by zooming through the window and Hitchcock wants us to feel as if we are intruding on a private moment between the characters inside. This sense of voyeurism is clearly accentuated by the very first shot of the couple which is very personal and intimate – making the viewer feel rather awkward.

This scene acts as a vital link to the film as a whole and is fundamental for the expansion of the theme of good and evil as it gives Marion a clear reason to steal the money in the scene that follows. Marion is presented as a good character at this point as her good intentions are outlined: we see that she just wants to marry Sam and for them to be able to be together respectably. When Sam states that he would not be able to provide for her, Marion is given an obvious ulterior motive and a chance to make the transition from good to evil, therefore setting up the entire film.

We also notice that, the first time we see Marion, she is wearing white underwear: hinting to her kind and innocent personality but, when we see her after she has made the decision to steal the money, she is wearing black underwear. This visual symbolism presents a contrast between the two different stages of characterisation and depicts the character change of Marion as she goes from good to evil. Similar to the original view of Marion, when we first meet Norman Bates he seems like a very ordinary person, but as the scenes progress we begin to notice slight abnormalities in his behaviour.

When Marion arrives at the Bates Motel, the heavy rain which forces her to stop is foreshadowing her impending doom while acting as effective pathetic fallacy as she is feeling isolated and guilty at this point. The fact that Norman hesitates before giving her the key to cabin one hints at his irregularity, along with the fact that he opens the window as soon as he enters the room – as if he is setting up his own escape route – and he never mentions the bathroom, foretelling the event which will take place there.

Also, when Marion is checking into the motel, what should have been a clear view of Bates is blurred in the mirror: showing that he is changeable and that his personality is hazy. In a similar shot, only half of his face is shown and this clearly symbolises the fact that only one half of him can ever be fully good at any one time – the other half will always remain evil. However, sympathy is also evoked for Norman in this scene as we see that his mother takes an instant dislike to Marion – something which you would not normally see between two strangers.

We see how close – and slightly strange – the relationship between Norman and his mother and the unnatural dependence they have on each other, showing that Norman is trapped in his current situation and making him seem like a good person. A similar effect is used throughout the scene in Norman’s parlour by with the use of light and dark as the lighting picks out significant features such as only one side of Norman’s face and the underside of the owl’s wings.

The owl with its wings spread signifies his mother controlling his mind and shows that she is ever present, although we never see her, even when he is behaving normally she will always be inside his mind, therefore making the viewer feel sympathetic towards him as he has no control over his actions. Conversely, framing him next to an owl may suggest that Norman is a predator and the owl is his equal. Like the owl, many other birds are featured in the parlour scene, linking back to the recurring theme.

Framing Marion next to them when she first enters the room makes her seem vulnerable and presents her as equal to the birds which Norman has stuffed. The shower scene is important to the character development of Marion as we see her clear transition from the evil character she turned into after stealing the money back to the good character we saw in the beginning. She has changed her mind about stealing the money and has made the decision to go home. We are able to pinpoint the exact moment of relief as she flushes the toilet: it is as if she is flushing away her problems and guilt.

This effect is also used when the water goes down the plughole in the shower: representing the washing away of her sins. However, I feel that this image could also be taken to represent evil as Marion’s life is being washed away and she is going to down to Hell for the sins she has committed. A contrast between Norman and his Mother is clearly displayed in this scene although we also see that Norman can be evil while being totally himself as we see him spying on Marion before she is murdered.

After the murder, Norman is linked to the crime in many ways. The camera work and editing assists this by panning directly to a view of Norman’s house, telling the story without the need for dialogue. Almost immediately following this we see Norman running from the house and consequently directly linking himself to the murder. We see him automatically assume that his mother has killed Marion without questioning her, making the viewer even more suspicious of him.

Both good and evil sides of Norman are presented to the audience at this point as, although he seems flustered and hurried when he first discovers what his mother has done, he is able to relax into a state of unemotional professionalism which allows the viewer to realise that this has happened before. By pretending so strongly that it was in fact his mother who killed Marion, I think it is obvious he is trying to convince himself that he has done nothing wrong and, ultimately, that he is not mentally ill. The mise-en-scene when he sinks Marion’s car is representative of this.

We see him framed next to a tree with a split trunk, suggestive to his split personality. The contrast between the two sides of Norman’s personality is extended in the scene which features Marion’s sister, Lila, as she searches the house for evidence relating to the murder. When she enters mother’s room, it looks very inhabited: the bed seems as if someone has just gotten up and the wardrobe is full of neatly stored clothes. Despite the clutter, everything is organised and tidy. I believe this highlights the extent of Bates’ mental illness as we see how much effort he has gone to keep up the illusion.

The subjective close-up shot of the hands when Lila scans the dressing table suggests that Norman is still in the clutches of his mother and the darker side of his personality hence reminding us that he is not in control of his situation. Norman’s room provides a total contrast when compared with his mother’s. It is a lot smaller and appears to have remained the same since he was a child and contains an eclectic mix of the possessions of a childish boy and those of a twisted man.

This conveys the idea that perhaps he is refusing to grow up or his mind has never developed past this stage. This idea combined with the toys explains his dependence on his mother and why he is so unwilling to leave her. The stuffed owl which sits at his door brings back the recurring motif of birds while also representing the ever present Mrs Bates. She is always watching him and he allows her to control him completely and make his decisions – just as if he were a child. The battle between good and evil continues as Lila makes her way down to the cellar and mother is finally revealed.

As the scene ends the climax is completed with a close-up shot of “mother” which allows us to clearly see the light and dark reflecting in her eye sockets – representing the fact that it is possible for Norman to be both a fully good and fully evil character. Although we are now aware that mother is dead in reality, she continues to live on inside Norman. The last time we see the character of Norman Bates, he has been arrested and we are able to see that the dominant evil personality of “mother” has won and taken over.

To display this, we hear Norman thinking in his mother’s voice and understand that he believes that he is her – unnervingly outlining the severity of his mental illness. The medium shot of Norman sitting in the chair is effective as it shows his body language while he behaves like an old woman; the image is creepy and, in my opinion, really gets under your skin. At this stage I think that it is important we hear mother before we see Norman as it allows the audience to realise that he is not really Norman any more, showing that he is still and not fighting with his inner self as it appears the battle for good over evil has finally been lost.

As the camera zooms in on Norman, we see his blank stare change to a sinister grin and a super imposed shot of mother’s skull on his face which shows that the good side of him is trapped inside for what looks like forever. For me, the film did have a satisfying ending as we see the detective bring the case to a close so there are no more remaining questions, but the creepy smile we see at the end makes me think otherwise; leaving us at a cliff hanger of sorts. In conclusion, I believe that, with the use of media features such as characterisation and editing, Hitchcock is able to present a highly engaging struggle between good and evil.

Although I did feel sympathy for the character of Norman, I believe that he did have the option to control his actions and get help to fight back against his evil personality but, as he relied on his mother too much, he did not want to push her away. However, while Marion’s decision to steal the money was irresponsible and out of character, I still feel that she did it with good intentions. Overall, I felt that the fact that evil came out on top rather than the more typical outcome made it particularly realistic as, in a real life situation, good would not always prevail.

Good vs. Evil in Psycho Essay

Mind and Rumors Essay

Mind and Rumors Essay.

Rumors are dark, hurtful, mischievous things that are spread to cause destruction. Rumors have been around since the beginning of time, and are stronger now more than ever. Rumors are whispered, as if to indicate that they will not spread. Rumors are shouted, printed, posted, and broadcasted. Rumors are lies and those whom associate with rumors are bad people, or are they? Rumors are not always bad, and they don’t always turn out to be lies. There are many unknown things about rumors, like how and why are they really created?

DiFonzo defines a rumor as “…unverified information statements that circulate about topics that people perceive as important; arise in situations of ambiguity, threat, or potential threat; and are used by people attempting to make sense or to manage risk” (375).

A rumor starts out as an important thought in one persons mind. A thought that is kept to oneself merely stays a thought and never develops into a rumor.

But, a thought that is just important enough to share with someone else morphs into a rumor. Rumors are not always intentional lies. They do however start out as unverified information.

If a rumor is verified it is no longer a rumor, it then becomes factual information. The information that is passed from one person to many people is thought to be of importance. Whether the rumor pertains to something local, nationwide, global, social, political, public, or private it contains information that is substantial and has the possibility to be life changing. A rumor is targeted to a certain group of people. The spread of the rumor depends on the number of people who perceive the information as important. The group can range from a few people to the majority of the world.

A rumor of “Bob cheated on Mary with Susan” would certainly be very important to a small number of people and could devastate their lives. On the other side of the spectrum a rumor that “An asteroid five times the size of Saturn is headed toward earth and total death is imminent” would also be of great importance and would affect many people. Rumors are born, bred, and sought out of human emotion. The amount of rumors increase in times of perceived danger, threat, and stress. “In practice it has been found that the emotional needs most frequently served by rumors are wish, fear, and hostility” (Knapp 361).

A rumor is spread or sought to satisfy an emotional need of hope, comfort, fear, and hostility. Therefore it makes sense that the amount of rumors increases during stressful times. In the aftermath of the recent tornados in Oklahoma, rumors exploded. Social media, radio stations, and television stations broadcast the information from the moment of touchdown. Two different television stations broadcast contradicting information at the same time and facebook erupted with photos, videos, and information. People were calling other people, turning on the television, and getting on facebook to seek information or give it.

They sought answers, comfort, and hope. Why then do some rumors flourish and are known all over the world and others die out after only a short run? One reason has already been brought up, the number of people who consider the information important. A rumor can live longer if it is adaptable to its audience. A rumor that has information added to or taken out may appear more important to certain groups. Another factor in a successful rumor is the length of it. A rumor that is long and complicated will be hard to remember and hard to tell. Another reason is the desire for humans to be accepted.

People will agree with someone else even if they are not sure themselves to avoid hostility and risk losing other peoples good opinion of them. Perhaps people agree because of self-doubt. If one person thinks a rumor is wrong but is hesitant to disagree because the majority believe it to be true then they must be wrong and not the group. People’s personal and social anxiety can escalate a rumor fast and wide. If the majority of people are passive, have self-doubt, or want to avoid conflict then the number of people who perceive the rumor to be true increases.

Sunstein states, “Often people will be suspicious of a rumor, or believe that it is not true, but they will not contradict the judgment of the relevant group, largely in order to avoid social sanctions” (393-394). In conclusion, it is sufficient to say that rumors are more complex than originally thought. They have distinct characteristics and classifications that define them. The most successful rumors are important to the world. If a rumor is assembled just right under the perfect conditions, the result are everlasting.

Mind and Rumors Essay

Health Psychology Essay

Health Psychology Essay.

In this assignment I will be explain two different health psychology issues and explaining them. The two different issues I have decided to talk about are eating disorders and childbirth. I will then compare the two health psychology issues in relation to their common themes and also their different. P3 Explain specific health psychology issues. Using two health psychology issues of interest to you, you should explain the specific issue in detail Eating Disorders (anorexia and bulimia) Anorexia and bulimia are caused through psychological issues.

Eating disorders are known by an unusual attitude towards food that causes someone to change their eating habits and behaviour and also their image. An individual with an eating disorder will focus on their getting their weight, shape, size down to the least they can, and also change the way they look. This causes them to make unhealthy choices about eating which then causes damage to their health and other things. Around one in 250 women will experience anorexia at some point in their lives, and the condition usually starts around the age 16/17.

This is because at this age girls want people to like them and boys to start being attracted to them, so they feel the need to become skinny and different. Also a lot of celebrities battle with the weight and some have become anorexia so teenage girls don’t see anything wrong with it. Sometimes there are biological and other things influencing someone to have an eating disorder. They are often responsible because of the pressure from friends and the media to be thin, as a lot of young girls feel they should look a certain way to be popular and for boys to notice them.

The consequences from an eating disorder can be more serious than the way someone looks. Spotting that a person has an eating disorder can be very difficult to see, especially if it is someone close to yourself. If an eating disorder is not spotted and treat it can have a major impact on someone’s life. It can effect someone’s job or schoolwork, and can also break up relationship with family and friends. The effects of an eating disorder can sometimes be fatal. To treat an eating disorder and recovering from one can take a long time.

To treat a disorder usually involves monitoring a individuals physical health and helping them deal with psychological problem. It is important for friends and family to be there for the individual and help them believe they can get better with time and support from the loved ones. Examples of treatment could be cognitive behaviour therapy also known as CBT, another method is interpersonal psychotherapy, dietary counselling and also medication. Psychological Causes of Obesity Many people today eat when their emotionally such as because the person is bored, sad, anger or even happy.

Obesity can be caused by things like stress or depression and can cause a number of different health implications. For example a person that is obese is more likely to have diabetes later in life and also suffer heart problems. Over 30% of today’s population seek treatment for weight problems and this is all caused through binge eating. Binge eating is when someone eats large amount of food while feeling they can’t control how much they are eating, people who seriously binge and a very obese develop a disorder call binge eating disorder.

The people with this kind of eating disorder find it difficult to lose weight and also find it difficult to control how much they are eating. Many people may need serious help for example counselling or medication or even operation to make the stomach smaller to help there binge eating addiction. Childbirth Childbirth today is most likely in the hospital and a team of midwifes help delivery the baby, in today’s society childbirth is very all to do with the medication given. Epidurals are the most common drug used in childbirth, and are used for over half of all child birthday in hospitals.

An epidural interferes with normal bio-feedback between the pelvic muscles and the mother’s brain during labour. The drug slows down the labour, which can cause some serious things happen during giving birth. Things such as making the mother three times more likely to be given a drip, and it can also double the chances of the mother having to have a caesarean. There are different side effects when using an epidural such as a drop in the mother’s blood pressure leading to lack of oxygen for the baby.

When an epidural is given, the baby can have some difficulties with taking the milk from the mother and maybe some behaviour problems. Home births are now a very rare thing and can only go forward if the midwife says it can, and can only occur if the baby’s head is upside down. There can be risks and benefits to having a home birth, these are: previous difficultly giving birth or heavy bleeding after the birth, previous c section, raised blood pressure and finally anaemia. There are many different cultural and religious views of childbirth.

Caesarean section rates have been increasing due to higher number of caesarean section for the baby’s sake, and keeping the baby from getting upset and distressed through labour. Water births are a nice way for women to give birth, this is because water is an effective pain relief in labour. When women are having a water birth warm water is usually used to help the woman unwind and relax, it eases aches and pain. More woman are choosing to have a water birth, and women who have impaired mobility may find giving birth in water helpful rather than in the hospital.

The culture which the mother of the baby has been brought up in always plays a big part of how women deal with their pregnancy and labour. Some Christians believe that the labour pain can be seen as ‘the way God intended it to be’. This is something strong Christians believe and will go through labour with no pain relief, this may inspire some women who are not Christian to go through without pain relief and give a natural birth. In cultures such as Japan, the woman must not express much distress through labour, she has to be seen very calm and composed.

In the Middle East and Mediterranean area women are expected to scream and cry uncontrollably in the childbirth. The woman of the east doesn’t always use pain relief, the screaming and crying throughout labour is to express her labour pain and message to her support people that she needs loving and sympathy. The Western are often see labour pain as something to be fixed or stopped, in some cases the western turn to medical resources to relief the pain of labour with gas and air, and maybe an epidural. Now woman a trying to use natural therapies to minimise using pain relief.

Health Psychology Essay

The Psychological Causes of Homicide Essay

The Psychological Causes of Homicide Essay.

On December 14, 2012, Adam Lanza, who was only 20, shot his mother then shot twenty children and six adult staff members in a mass killing at Sandy Hook Elementary School in Newtown, Connecticut. This mass murder is on record in American history for the as being the second most deadliest mass shooting by a single person , and the second deadliest mass murder in a elementary school. Although this incident is the most fatal public school shooting in the United States. So, what causes people to kill?

Due to irrational emotions and psychological imbalances in the Anterior Rostral Prefrontal Cortex of the brain which is important for processing emotions, fear and social and motor skills, people commit violent crimes that hurt others (Kate Kelland).

Adam Lanza was diagnosed with, “sensory integration disorder”, also now known as sensory processing. People who have sensory processing disorder or SPD may over-respond to stimuli and find clothing, physical contact, light, sound, or food unbearable. They may also under-respond and feel little or no reaction to pain or extreme hot and cold.

A third form involves sensory motor problems that can cause weakness, clumsiness or delay in developing motor skills (Alaine Griffin, Josh Kovner). The disorder SPD is due to a defect in the Anterior Rostral Prefrontal Cortex of the brain, like many others that cause motor skill problems and irrational emotions and empathy to emotions and pain. The combination of these effects can cause people who experience them to be potentially dangerous and capable of committing violent crimes. The emotions that violent criminals have can be categorized into specific groups that can be considered motivations for them to commit such crimes.

Everyday Psychology has made a Typology of Violent Offenders who do not suffer from brain defects and reasons why they would commit homicide. The first group is the Chronically Aggressive Individuals. These are people who get easily frustrated, and have limited or poor impulse control. These people frequently express anger or hostility (through passive-aggressive behavior) and resent authority. They usually believe violence and/or aggression are lawful responses to various interpersonal problems in life. They find pleasure or reinforcement is derived from the expression of anger.

Often they display the characteristics of a “stimulus seeker” – they participate in bold, fearless, or reckless behavior and are more likely to exhibit substance abuse. Typically, violence occurs in a situational context: an offense, fight, or disagreement but are less likely to engage in acts of unexpected “explosive” violence (Paul G. Mattiuzzi). These types of people do not like to be caught off guard because they like to be in control. The second group is The Over-Controlled Hostility Type. These people seem to be polite, serious, sober, and rarely display or express anger.

They do not cuss or yell, and may even be offended by such behavior. They are likely to be morally righteous and see themselves as “good people”, and often see others as “not such good people”. After the violence, people say that they never expected it, “He always seemed like such a nice guy; he was always so quiet” (Paul G. Mattiuzzi). These types of offenders can be very unpredictable and unexpected. The third group is The Hurt and Resentful. They feel that people walk on them and that they are never treated fairly.

When they are passed over, the blame is always placed on someone else. They think things are easier for everyone else; other people get more and have more advantages. They do not accept criticism well and in response to reprimands; they develop grudges, which are sometimes deeply held. This is when the Violence occurs because they hold grudges and are “impotent” to deal with their anger in other ways (Paul G. Mattiuzzi). These individuals exhibit self sympathy and often feel badly for themselves. The fourth group is The Traumatized.

Whose aggression occurs in response to a single, massive assault on their individuality. Usually something happens that is potently offensive, absolutely intolerable, and which strips them of all sense of personal power (Paul G. Mattiuzzi). Usually they have a hard time coping and moving on so they display aggressive behavior. The fifth group is The Obsessive. They are immature and egotistical individuals who demand or crave attention and affection, and get upset when deprived of desired gratifications (Paul G. Mattiuzzi). The sixth group is The Paranoid.

They typically engage in behaviors which make their paranoid beliefs come true. Many times delusions may reach the point at which the person is out of contact with reality (Paul G. Mattiuzzi). People who experience this place blame on anyone else because they are in a false sense of reality. The seventh group is The Insane. Usually rare, but does not understand the nature and quality of their actions. Typically they have essential misperceptions of reality, are incapable of rational behavior, and delusional beliefs prevent them from knowing between right and wrong behavior.

Their beliefs and perceptions are different than those of reality. They confuse beliefs about what is right, what is wrong, and what is necessary (Paul G. Mattiuzzi). They have an altered state of mind that causes them to display violent behaviors. The eight and last group is The Just Plain Bad & Angry. This is a combination of the seven previous groups with the exception of the Insane group. Usually they display the characteristics of being: angry, hostile, jealous, resentful, impotent, and disturbed individuals.

They feel socially isolated, socially inadequate, and worthless (Paul G. Mattiuzzi). Abnormalities within the Anterior Rostral Prefrontal cortex and Temporal Poles have been studied to see that the lack of grey matter that triggers empathy can cause some people to commit violent crimes. A psychopath is a person with a psychopathic personality, which is apparent as amoral and antisocial behavior (such as Adam Lanza). Usually they display a lack of ability to love or establish meaningful personal relationships, extreme self-interest, and failure to learn from experience.

People who suffer from this, compared to violent offenders that are healthy, have structural differences in their brain that cause them to have less grey matter in certain areas. These areas of the brain are important for processing others people’s emotions, intentions, fear and social skills (Kate Kelland) so, when people are lacking in these areas they become dangerous. There are two divisions that separate people who commit homicide; psychopaths who are lacking normalities of the brain, and sociopaths who are individuals with irrational emotions.

The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) lists both Psychopathy and Sociopathy under the heading of Antisocial Personalities because they both engage in similar actions and have similar characteristics. People commonly group sociopaths and psychopaths as the same thing. The differences between sociopaths and psychopaths are primarily differentiated by the origin of the disorder. In the mental health field the general opinion is that psychopaths are actually much more of an inborn occurrence while sociopath, which displays clinical presentation, is the consequence of environmental stressors.

There are three general categories of therapy, behavioral therapy, cognitive therapy, and psychotherapy. Different therapy options have their advantages and disadvantages in treating Antisocial Personalities for both people who suffer from sociopathy or psychopathy, and a patient might tolerate one clinical setting or approach over another . There is no cure for sociopathy or psychopathy, but it can be managed well or it can be managed inadequately. For example, Sociopaths don’t respond very well to punishment, but they do respond to incentives.

For psychopaths Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) has become one of the most popular MRI techniques in brain research by allowing visualization and characterization of white and grey matter in the brain. ” DTI provides a capable way for comprehensive, noninvasive, functional anatomy mapping of the human brain (Assaf Y, Pasternak O)”. People that commit violent crimes have different motivations for different crimes, and most types of homicides can be characterized by the individuals that commit them (Paul G. Mattiuzzi). Antisocial Personality Disorders (ASPD) exhibit behavior that manipulates, exploits, violates the rights of others.

Many people in the world experience Antisocial Personality disorders, and while not all people who suffer from them commit homicide they are very capable of it because they are usually impulsive, irresponsible, and lack remorse or feeling towards others (Anne- Marin B). Psychopaths do not have Antisocial Personality Disorders, they have parts of the brain that are not fully functioning properly, causing for them to not be able to understand other people’s emotions or process empathy the same as a “healthy” person. Sociopaths can have Antisocial Personality Disorders.

There is not one general group that categorizes all sociopaths because they can experience many different emotions that place them in different groups. Either way people who have these disorders display irrational behavior that can come in the forms of violent abuse. There is no cure for an Antisocial Personality Disorder but there are ways to manage and control a person’s behavior so that they do not commit violent crimes. The most accurate way to do so is by knowing how they respond negatively to certain commands and trying to avoid triggering any of them so they don’t become troubled or feel the need to be aggressive.

The Psychological Causes of Homicide Essay

Frued and Modern Psychoanalysis Essay

Frued and Modern Psychoanalysis Essay.

“Modern psychoanalysis” is a term coined by Hyman Spotnitz. “Influenced by the works of Sigmund Freud, Dr. Spotnitz believed that the principles of psychoanalysis could be extended to cure the severe narcissistic disorders that Freud had deemed untreatable. ” (Sara Sheftel, 1991) Dr. Spotnitz and his colleagues described it as a “body of theoretical and clinical approaches” that could be used to envelop the full spectrum of emotional disorders and broaden the potential for treatment to pathologies thought to be untreatable by conventional methods.

Modern psychoanalysis and other forms of psychotherapy are significantly different when compared to Freud’s concept of psychoanalysis back then. However, the popularity of the “talking cure” has remained present and people today actually realize that therapy works. When Freud first started treating patients this way, most people did not believe that simply talking about their problems would somehow fix physical issues too. Modern psychoanalysis takes Freud’s basic theory of human psyche and use it as its starting point.

Modern psychoanalysis differs from other methods of psychoanalysis by following Freud’s later work and the work of Melanie Klein in stressing the importance of dealing with destructive behaviors as well as sexual motivation in order for the human psyche to evolve. (Pickren, 2010) Like all psychoanalysts, modern psychoanalysts emphasize the unconscious nature of much of human motivation, the impact of the early development of mental functioning on later functioning, and the tendency of people to repeat patterns of handling emotional arousal states.

Also similar to other schools of psychoanalysis, modern psychoanalytic treatment emphasizes helping the patient talk progressively, working on resolving resistance to putting everything into words and on analyzing the transference of repetitive emotional patterns experienced with the analyst. (New England Association Schools and Colleges, 2010) But we cannot deny the influence Freud has had upon thinking in the 20th and 21st centuries. This has spread throughout Western culture and into the international creative arts.

His thoughts can be observed in art, literature, cinema and the stage. Notions of identity, memory, childhood, sexuality, and of meaning have been shaped in relation to – and often in opposition to – Freud’s work. No doubt this influence will continue into the future. Psychoanalysis gained more popularity after Freud’s death, but then decreased in popularity again in the modern world. People today are looking for a type of “fast food, drive-thru” style of treatment. Therapy using psychoanalysis requires using a much longer amount of time than our society today have the patience for.

Less lengthy forms of psychotherapy is preferred today, such as psycho-dynamics, family therapy, and cognitive-behaviorism. Sigmund Freud completely changed how the Western world thinks of the mind and human behavior, by using and developing techniques such as dream interpretation and free association. Freud has been universally acclaimed as well as he was deeply disliked by many who knew him for his personal views and his curt and deceptive personality. But for better or worse we live with a profound influence of Freud’s style of psychoanalysis.

Frued and Modern Psychoanalysis Essay