Synthesis Paragraph

Synthesis Paragraph

Directions: Review the following five sources (some of which you have already read). First, write a thesis statement that develops your position on what value, if any, TPS has in America’s immigration process today. Then, write a paragraph synthesising material from at least two sources to support your claim.

Source A: Tell Me How It Ends by Valeria Luiselli, p.35-36Inside, the building branches vertically and horizontally into hallways, offices, windows, courtrooms, and waiting rooms. There are few signs and few people you can ask for assistance or directions, so it’s easy to get lost. The building’s labyrinthine architecture is, in away, a replica of the U.S. immigration system. And, as in any labyrinth, some find their way out and some don’t. Those who don’t might remain there forever, invisible specters who go up and down elevators and wander the hallways, imprisoned in circular nightmares.
Source B: Biden Opened Temporary Legal Status to Thousands of Immigrants. Here’s How They Could End Up Trapped by ProPublicaThe problems posed by the temporary protective status program came into focus last week when the administration used executive authority to grant the status to as many as 300,000 Venezuelans and about 1,600 Burmese currently in the U.S. who are deemed unable to safely return home because of humanitarian emergencies in their countries. Activists and some elected Democrats are pushing the Biden administration to issue more TPS grants for immigrants whose home countries are suffering from war, natural disasters or other emergencies, including Haitians who arrived in the U.S. after 2011 and Cameroonians.But right now, there is nothing to ensure that any of these immigrants will have a path to eventual citizenship. Although the House of Representatives is working on bills that would create such a path for those who already hold TPS — most prominently the Dream and Promise Act, which the House will vote on this week — those proposals do not apply to the people who are getting temporary status now, or who might get it in the future. This threatens to leave them in a state of uncertainty that has become all too common in the 30 years since Congress created the TPS program: The relief is often not exactly temporary, but it’s not exactly permanent either.
Source C: Menjívar, Cecilia. “Liminal Legality: Salvadoran and Guatemalan Immigrants’ Lives in the United States.” American Journal of Sociology 111, no. 4 (2006): 999–1037., I would like to use the term “liminal legality” to express the temporariness of this condition, which for many Central Americans has extended indefinitely and has come to define their legal position. This “liminal legality” is characterized by its ambiguity, as it is neither an undocumented status nor a documented one, but may have both characteristics. Importantly, a situation of “liminal legality” is neither unidirectional nor a linear process, or even a phase from undocumented to documented status, for those who find themselves in it can return to an undocumented status when their temporary statuses end. When Central Americans are granted temporary legality, they are conferred the right to work and reside in the United States without access to social services. In some cases they are later allowed to renew their permits. However, when the renewed permits expire, these immigrants slip back into nonlegality. Indeed, as Uriarte et al. (2003) observe in their Boston study, nonrenewal or denial of an application means an immediate return to undocumented status or deportation; thus, some immigrants do not apply for a temporary permit even if they are eligible. Of course, these individuals do not wait passively for their statuses to change. They look for other avenues to become permanent legal residents, such as applying for asylum (see Coutin 2000 b), resorting to marriage, or seeking legalization through work. Still, these efforts do not always work out.
Source D: Department of Homeland Security. “Secretary Mayorkas Designates Burma for Temporary Protected Status.” of Homeland Security Alejandro N. Mayorkas is designating Burma for Temporary Protected Status (TPS) for 18 months. This new designation of Burma for TPS enables Burmese nationals (and individuals without nationality who last habitually resided in Burma) currently residing in the United States to file initial applications for TPS, so long as they meet eligibility requirements.“Due to the military coup and security forces’ brutal violence against civilians, the people of Burma are suffering a complex and deteriorating humanitarian crisis in many parts of the country,” said Secretary Mayorkas. “After a thorough review of this dire situation, I have designated Burma for Temporary Protected Status so that Burmese nationals and habitual residents may remain temporarily in the United States.”Secretary Mayorkas decided to designate Burma for TPS after consultation with interagency partners and careful consideration of the extraordinary and temporary conditions in Burma caused by the coup, which has led to continuing violence, pervasive arbitrary detentions, the use of lethal violence against peaceful protesters, and intimidation of the people of Burma. The coup has worsened humanitarian conditions in several areas by limiting access to life-saving assistance, disrupting flights carrying humanitarian and medical aid, and spurring an economic crisis. Such conditions prevent Burmese nationals and habitual residents from returning safely. A country may be designated for TPS if the Secretary determines that current country conditions fall into one or more of the three statutory bases for designation: ongoing armed conflict, environmental disasters, or extraordinary and temporary conditions.
Source E: “Biden expands immigration tool that doesn’t require Congress.” Roll Call years into an administration that faces legislative inaction and numerous legal challenges to its immigration agenda, the Temporary Protected Status program has emerged as a key tool for President Joe Biden.The program allows immigrants who cannot safely return to their home countries to work legally and avoid deportation for 18-month periods. And it allows Biden to designate which countries are eligible, bypassing Congress unilaterally. That has enabled Biden’s Department of Homeland Security to deliver immigration relief to hundreds of thousands of people, even as lawmakers fail to advance other immigration policies and Republican-led states use lawsuits to hamper other initiatives, including the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals program.According to an analysis from the Cato Institute, Biden has more than doubled the number of immigrants eligible for TPS. In January 2021, 411,326 people were eligible. That number has since risen to 986,881. And in 2023 — when a Republican-controlled House is unlikely to pursue any immigration overhaul — advocates and lawmakers want Biden to go even further.“He has the power and the legal authority to expand TPS,” said José Palma, a TPS recipient from Massachusetts who immigrated from Honduras more than 20 years ago and advocates for broader TPS protections. “We feel that he should use it as an opportunity to say, ‘While we continue the conversation on finding a permanent solution, at least for people who are here, for people who qualify — we’re going to provide TPS.’”

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Theories Can Be Adapted For Use In Research.

Theories can be adapted for use in research.

Theories can not only be adapted to research there are important theories for scientific research; these theories propose a concept issued from the starting point of real data that had been explained theoretically. The theory of knowledge is used in scientific research. Scientific research has an experimental component on which the researcher investigates while also observing to reach conclusions that allow him to answer the questions raised in a certain hypothesis. In this way, the theory proposed in an investigation fulfilled or failed its objective.

In medical research, input and output theories play an important role in explanatory type research, which, apart from proposing the causal relationship of the problem, also seek to find its etiology. For example, explanatory research can apply some theory that, in a certain region, when there are floods, there are outbreaks of diarrhea; The initial theory that posed that the dragging of the waters disseminates bacteria that through the drinking water reaches the patient’s mouth was fulfilled, but it does not stop there, the explanatory research wants, through the output theory, to know which is the bacteria and why it causes that problem. The same occurs with descriptive investigations.

Maslow’s theory is a clear example of the practical application of a theory in nursing. The five basic needs raised by Maslow are fundamental in many settings related to patient health, which also serve as a guide for medical and nursing institutions to direct the work, through guidelines that lead to a correct care plan considering the health characteristics presented by the patient.

Public health theories at the government level are also a practical example of theories, because depending on the effectiveness of their approach, positive or negative results will be obtained on a given population.

Evaluation of medium range theories.

Middle-range theories are dependent on facts included in grand theories or general theories. Their effectiveness or ineffectiveness is measured considering the approach with which the theory was created. In this approach, aspects or parameters that will lead to the proposed results are collected, and depending on these, the effectiveness of that theory is measured. Medium-range theories have limitations in their approaches, they may be hypotheses that need to be validated in empirical research, and these are the ones that will ultimately define how they will be evaluated.


Muguira, A. (2023) Types of research and their characteristics. QuestionPro.

Pilatuya Aman, J. Cusme Torres, N. (2022, 27 Sept) Nursing interventions based on Maslow’s theory of needs. Ocronos

Franco, A. (2007) Tendencies and theories in public health. Rev. Fac. Nac. Salud

Padrón, J. (2004) Aspectos clave en la evaluación de teorías. Revista Arbitrada de Divulgación Científica 

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Blueprint For A Healthier America

Prior to beginning work on this discussion forum, examine the Healthy People 2020: An End of Decade SnapshotLinks to an external site. reading. You will find that while Healthy People 2020 achieved many great works, nearly 50% of the 2020 objectives remain for Healthy People 2030Links to an external site.. Now, consider the following checkpoints:

  • Check the current state of public health prevention efforts and health care in the United States. Do you believe that then-Presidents Barack Obama and Donald Trump used many of the suggestions? 
  • Examine the “less than 50% of trackable objectives improved or met or exceeded” section. What organizations can you identify in your community, county, or state that have programs addressing these issues? 
  • Highlight two health programs in your state and a credible source for each that discusses its growth and impact on the community. These credible sources are sometimes referred to as Annual Reports. 
  • Check again at the list of “less than 50% of trackable objectives improved or met or exceeded.” Which two would be the most challenging to establish a program? Explain why. Use your personal and professional background and at least one credible source to support your belief.
    In your discussion:
  • Compare and Contrast U.S. Presidents Barack Obama and Donald Trump in relation to public health support efforts. 
  • How much did each give to public health prevention during their presidential terms? Account for the fact that President Obama had two terms. Refer page 14 and Figure 4-5 in Public Health: What It Is and How It Works. 
  • Describe at least one public health program that President Obama and President Trump supported. 
  • Hypothesize why these programs may have been chosen for support over other prevention programs. 
  • Highlight two programs in your state addressing the “less than 50% of trackable objectives improved or met or exceeded” from Healthy People 2020. 
  • Explain two “less than 50% of trackable objectives improved or met or exceeded” programs that you believe would be the most challenging to implement in your state and why.

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Deciding on the Most Crucial Healthcare Problem

Deciding on the Most Crucial Healthcare Problem

Decision-making is a crucial aspect of any healthcare setting. It can help save a life or end a life and therefore, it is important to make the right decisions and know the issue to focus on first for the well-being of the patients and the healthcare institution. It is always a challenge to decide the first problems to solve when several problems arise. However, Kotagal feels that the well-being of the patients is the most important aspect to consider (Tucker & Edmondson, 2011). She argues that some institutions do not offer the care best supported by clinical evidence.

Deciding on the Most Crucial Healthcare Problem

Sometimes a healthcare officer may find it hard to choose between one problem and the other and that it can be helpful if she or he decided to ask for advice from other colleagues. If the case involves a patient, it is important to consider involving the patient in decision-making, if the patient can be able to help (Vahdat, Hamzehgardeshi, & Hamzehgardeshi, 2014). The patient can be intricate in administrative or articulating feelings and sentiments about diverse treatment methods. Kotagal found out that the healthcare she was working in was hospitalizing patients who could receive care in their homes and thus opted to come up with guidelines to rectify this (Tucker & Edmondson, 2011). This means that she considered the patient’s well-being.

Kotagal’s main issue of concern was efficiency. She was faced with the fear that the institution was not being efficient n its work and thus she and her colleagues came up with a histogram constructed after every surgery. They discussed the results to try to reduce the number of damages on patients. Kotagal is also bothered by the fact that the company’s goal to be a leader in children’s health may fade away once the current regime is gone. Kotagal and the institution have to set up guidelines that will help improve efficiency. This can help ensure that whoever takes the leadership position will still prioritize children’s health and ensure that the institution offers treatment by the evidence-based practices set aside.


Tucker, A., & Edmondson, A. (2011, April 25). Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center. Harvard Business School, pp. 1-26.

Vahdat, S., Hamzehgardeshi, L., & Hamzehgardeshi, Z. (2014). Patient involvement in healthcare decision-making: A review. Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal, 16(1).

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The National Health Service

The National Health Service


The NHS, which was launched in 1948, was developed out of a long term reasoning which showed that healthcare should be available to every person regardless of his or her status (Anon. 2015). This idea that healthcare should be available to all without being limited by wealth is the core principles of the institution. The National Health Service is meant to be of national interest, and it remains free to all the United Kingdom’s residents with the exceptions of some services such as optical services, prescriptions, and dental services.

The History of the National Health Service in the United Kingdom

Aneurin Bevan, who was the health secretary on July 5th, 1948, launched the NHS. It was hurled at Park Hospital, the Trafford General Hospital (NHS 2000). It was developed out of the idea that the United Kingdom needed to come up with a platform, which gave good healthcare to all without being biased. This idea showed a welcome change in the UK whereby, for once, dentists, opticians, and pharmacists were brought together and made to serve the same purpose; ensure healthcare to all.

During this period, health care was regulated by the concept that it would be available to all people and it would not be taxed, and thus, people would pay according to their means. This was meant to ensure that no group of people was discriminated, and that the people maintained great health. In 1952, the healthcare enacted charges on prescriptions. A flat rate of £1 charges for dental treatment accompanied the prescription charges. However, these prescriptions were later abolished in 1965. This did not last long as they were reintroduced again in 1968. Their abolishment ensured that these charges did not hinder anyone from getting medical services.

The 1954 marked a transformative year in the National Health Service as they introduced hospital visits for children. Pediatricians Alan Moncriff and Sir James Spence argued that when children are hospitalized, they went through a traumatic process and thus it was important to have their parent and people who care about them around so that they can explain to them that everything will be fine (NHS 2000). Therefore, they introduced daily visiting.

The National Health Service was developed to promote good health and therefore, the institution progressed greatly in its course in 1958 when it introduced diphtheria and polio vaccine. The cases of polio have increased over the years leading to the number of death tolls at about 5,000 (NHS 2000). Therefore, the program meant to ensure that everyone below the age of 15 was immunized and thus it would lead to an instantaneous decrease in the cases of these ailments.

The National Health Service gained control of 2,751 on the             United Kingdom’s 3,000 hospitals, which was initially run by local authorities or charities (Campbell 2016). The prime minister at that period, Clement Attlee asked the people to be patient and to give the project time before it can have substantial results. This project improved many people’s life because healthcare was available to all. Initially, people had to pay to stay in the hospital or to visit a doctor, and this affected many families negatively, leading them into debts. Therefore, the idea of National Health Service was welcome to most people, and it ensured that people got health care services without drowning into debts.

The secretary of health, Bevan wanted the NHS to ensure that the best care was offered and not simply act as a savior for the poor (Campbell 2016). The idea was to offer good healthcare services not just to offer services of low quality. The project was supposed to help everyone without depriving a certain group of these services.

The National Health Service Presently

 The NHS has developed greatly since it was born in 1948. It was meant to attain better services and equality among all people regardless of the social class, and this has brought about the aspect of universal services whereby the hospitals do not discriminate, and they provide great services to the poor as well as the rich (Carrier & Kendall 2015). They have achieved to maintain their core principles by ensuring that services are provided universally. The National Health Service has often been depicted as the epitome of the kind of care that deals with welfare and universalism (Carrier & Kendall 2015). However, the NHS has not had a smooth run all through the years. In 2012, the government enacted the Health and Social Care Act (HSCA), which abolished the NHS’ foundation, which guarantees universal care (Carrier & Kendall 2015). This meant that the government had withdrawn from being directly responsible for providing care to all citizens and thus giving the responsibility to an autonomous public body.

The NHS is considered the world’s largest employer and one of the most effective institutions over the years (Chang, et al. n.d.). The UK has been ranked among the best regions and most successful regions in many areas including safety and effectiveness of healthcare, a trait attributed by the NHS (Chang, et al. n.d.). The institution may have experienced a lot of challenges, but that has not crippled it as it remains a crucial part of the healthcare sector in the United Kingdom. Both critiques and admirers will feel like the NHS has achieved a lot and failed to achieve on certain fronts. However, more than six decades since it was born, the institution has survived big odds to be still operational and considered an important aspect of the United Kingdom. NHS was developed to improve health and offer health services, and it is still doing that. However, there are still charges that apply, and people may feel like it failed to sustain its core principle.

Current Challenges

The constant reorganization and long waiting times have constantly disrupted NHS. Given, the extent to which it has developed, one can argue that it has managed to overcome all odds and develop over the years. However, it has encountered many challenges and is still having rough patches as it continues to grow. In 2014, it was placed in 10th position out of 11 nations, which were ranked on overall death rates and health outcomes (Chang, et al. n.d.). Sometimes people depend more on numbers because they are unlikely to lie.

One change that threatened what the organization stands for occurred in 2012 when the government enacted the Health and Social Care Act. The NHS England was given the direct responsibility to be directly responsible for NHS. This made the administrative system obsolete (Carrier & Kendall 2015). Clinical Commissioning Groups superseded the Primary Care Trusts as the latter were given the responsibility to offer regional healthcare under NHS England. This system has been a blow to the core principle of universalism in which the institution was born and developed under; Clinical Commissioning Groups’ service providers can set their criteria for selecting patients and eligibility of these patients (Carrier & Kendall 2015). This means that patients can be turned away, an act that shows that NHS has failed to live up to the principle they set and meant to enact all over the years.

The NHS is struggling to hire and keep permanent staff (McKenna 2016). In 2014, there was a fall of about 5.9% between the number of staff that the providers said they needed and that of the posts available (McKenna 2016). These problems also exist in the social care sector, which has seen a rise in vacancy rates from 5.4% to around 7.7% in domiciliary services of care. This shows that the institution is struggling to find new employees or to maintain the employees they have. The overall turnover has also been an issue as an estimated number of workers, around 300,000, leaves their roles at the end of each year, making the overall turnover 25.4% (McKenna 2016). The NHS has been struggling over the past couple of years, and after the UK vote to leave EU, the situation may worsen.

The NHS also encounters other lesser problems such as the issue of an aging population. The NHS was developed to offer healthcare services to all people and to treat people with diseases. Most of the illnesses that the institution set out to curb have been erradicated, and this means that people have a higher life expectancy rate. Also, it implies that people are at a risk of new diseases and they might be probably living with new threatening conditions such as heart diseases, diabetes, and kidney disease among others. This means that the NHS is still facing challenges to keep ongoing treatments and come up with new kind of treatment for the upcoming diseases.

The NHS was initially focused on tackling diseases, but the public has come to expect more from this institution. People want the health care to advise them on healthcare management to social care and mental health. This means that NHS is given charged with more responsibilities than it was initially charged with. It has to deal with the consultation of patients, vaccination programs, processing of medications and appointments, antenatal and maternity care services among others. Therefore, they have more responsibilities than they used to have, which means they have to use more of their services and responsibilities.

One of the most consistent challenges in an organization is the issue of cost. The rising costs of services, current financial crisis, and technological and innovations breakthrough has become a constant challenge to NHS. It is a business concept that when demand rises the cost rises too and thus there have been financial pressures and debts on the part of NHS. There is a growing number of immigrants in the UK, and this serves to show that there will be more people in need of care over the years (McKenna 2016). Therefore, the financial strains are bound to come up over time as the population is only expected to rise.


NHS publishes statistics about their patients every year, to show whether they are working towards their set objectives and goals and also living by their mission statement. In January they admitted 88.4% patients aged 75 years and above a rise from 87.3% admitted in December last year. This shows that the company is still living up to what it set out to do, giving healthcare services to all. The institution is still crucial to the healthcare department in the UK, and it has helped the people over the years. This shows that even if it has been faced with challenges and went through the troubling moment, it still manages to offer people the services that they need and require.


Anon., 2015. The history of the NHS in England. [Online]
Available at: [Accessed 10 April 2017].

Campbell, D., 2016. Nye Bevan’s Dream: A history of the NHS. [Online]
Available at: [Accessed 10 April 2017].

Carrier, J. & Kendall, I., 2015. Health and the national health service. London: Routledge.

Chang, J., Peysakhovich, F., Wang, W. & Zhu, J., n.d. The UK health care system. [Online]
Available at: [Accessed 10 April 2016].

McKenna, H., 2016. Five Big Issues for Health and Social Care After the Brexit Vote. [Online]
Available at: [Accessed 10 April 2017].

NHS, 2000. The NHS Plan: A plan for investment: A plan for reform, London: Crown Copyright.

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A type 2 diabetes management program developed by researchers from the UK’s University of Leicester and adapted for Qatar by a team of diabetes educators from Hamad Medical Corporation’s (HMC) Hamad General Hospital has now been delivered to over 300 patients in Qatar.

The program Diabetes Education and Self-Management for Ongoing and Newly Diagnosed (DESMOND), was developed through evidence-based research and has been widely implemented across the UK during the past decade. Based on physical activity and healthy lifestyle changes, in 2018, a team from HMC adapted the program from English to Arabic, a world-first curriculum.

Ms. Manal Othman, Director of Diabetes Education at HMC, says the program has been delivered to more than 300 patients with type 2 diabetes during more than 50 sessions held at Hamad General and Al Wakra Hospitals. She says being diagnosed with type 2 diabetes can be overwhelming, underscoring the importance of helping ensure patients are well-informed and skilled to manage the disease.

“Being diagnosed can be a very stressful experience, for both the patient and his or her family. It means adopting a whole new lifestyle. DESMOND is a structured self-management education program that helps empower individuals to learn about their own long-term condition and it helps them make decisions that will support the management of their care. There is no ‘one size fits all’ approach to diabetes management and DESMOND provides a welcoming and non-judgmental space where participants can learn to manage their condition,” said Ms. Othman.

“DESMOND has been scientifically proven to improve well-being, adherence to prescribed medication, and weight loss. Traditionally, treatment for type 2 diabetes has centered on drug interventions and when not managed properly, the disease can lead to devastating complications such as loss of limbs, increased risk of a stroke or heart attack, and blindness, so introducing DESMOND has been a major positive change to how diabetes care is delivered here in Qatar,” added Ms. Othman.

The main measures:

  1. Survey: pre and post: post session after a month and after 3 months. ( Total of 3)
  2. Clinical measures: BMI, HbA1C, Bp, Lipid panel. ( pre and post: after 3 and 6 months ,1 year)


2 sessions : 4 particpants in total

 male session: Show 3. No show 3

Female session: Show;1. No show 6

Survey : only 2 answered the post survey


2 session: 8 participants

Male session: 6 participant

Female : 2 participants

4 only answered the survey from 8

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The Argument for Three Work-Life Policy Programs

The Argument for Three Work-Life Policy Programs

Work-life policy programs are designed to increase the devotion of employees and make them enjoy their roles in the specific organization. Most organizations come up with strategic well-planned policies that are employees based to ensure it retains most of their competent and talented employees. Work life policy programs aim in maximizing the quality of work of employees by fulfilling some of their personal desire. Policy programs offer services like; on job training and education, maternal leaves and annual leaves, flexible work schedule, guidance and counseling, health benefits and conflict management. Work life policy programs complete the demands of the workplace and personal life. Work policies programs arise in late 20th and 21st century due to the social changes experienced globally due to globalization. Most of the traditional notions of authoritative workplaces and organizations rarely exist in the United States. The most common changes seen in in late 20th and 21st centuries are; the advancement of technology which enabled online working, affordable and adequate child care, increasing health-related needs, advancing career professional and participation in community base programs (Beauregard & Henry, 2009). Due to increased work-life conflict, there is a need for an organization to come up with work-life policy program that ensures every worker can live harmoniously integrating work, personal life, and family obligations. All Organizations should implement work-life policy programs that are beneficial to their workers so that they can increase the output and reduce job-related stress and conflict.

Alternative work schedules is a work-life policy that ensures workers can alternate between work, personal life, and family in their daily schedule. There are two types of work schedules for workers and organization to choose or decide from which are fixed schedule and flexible work schedule. Fixed schedule is whereby the employees work at a static timetable (Beauregard & Henry, 2009). The employees report and leave workstation at the specific time. Since the schedule faces many critics, some of the organizations have modified these schedules to meet employee demand. The organizations with fixed working schedule they implement working on shifts or the off working days. Compulsory leave days that are payable are given to employees to break the monotony of fixed work schedule. When coming up with a fixed schedule employers may gather information from their employees to find out the time when the majorities are available for the work. The flexible working schedule is a more modernized working schedule that allows workers to work at their convenient time. In most cases, the flexible work schedule it has targets of the hours that the employees need to meet at the end of the day or the week. The flexible working schedule allows the worker to handle any emergency that arises in their personal life and then work later. The advantage of flexible working is that worker can be able to work when they are available. Most of the organization the offer alternative work schedules in forms of sick leaves, maternity leaves, training leaves and emergency leaves to their employees. The organization allows the employees to make the local arrangement to cater for hours they will or were not available for the work. The alternative working schedule allows the worker to enjoy working at the same time meeting their personal duties and family obligations. 

Employee assistance programs assist the employees in solving personal problems. Employee assistance programs (EAP) help the employees to solve problems such as marital problems, family conflicts, alcohol and substances abuse, trauma among others. EAP assist the employees in various ways such as nursing the problem, counseling, treatment, basic legal assistance, telephone access, referrals, and adoption assistance among others (Kirk & Brown, 2003). The assistance is not only given to employees but also to their close acquaintances such as the children, marital spouses, siblings, parents and other family members. EAP aims in reducing obstacles in the employees’ life so as to give employees opportunity to perform well at their workstations. Employers cater for total expense spent on Employee assistance programs. EAP is important as it boasts the employees’ morale and solves their psychological problems that hinder them from functioning well. EAP may reduce chances of occurrence of long-term psychological problems like alcohol and substance dependence, depression, low esteem and suicide.  

Employees’ health and wellness program are intervention done by employers to ensure they have healthy workforce and community. It involves matching the goals of the organization and the health need of each employee. The program ensures provision of fundamental, primary, occupational, and environmental health care to every employee (Beauregard & Henry, 2009). The wellness program integrates population health services to ensure the health status of their employees they are always in a stable condition. The population health services offered to employees are; risk assessment, occupational health services, worksite clinics, biometric screening, vaccination, nutrition education programs, and disease intervention. An effective health and wellness program aim at preventing illness and injury, promoting the general health of employees and productivity, and reducing the cost of the health care. Employees’ health and wellness program are the benefits to both the employee and the employer. Employers can benefit from the productivity of maintaining the healthier employees all the year round. It is better for the employers to embrace employees’ health and wellness program since it lowers the cost and time used in hospitalization of employees.

Work-life policy program aim in improving the personal and work life of employees. The programs incorporate work, Personal and family life. The working environment changes 21st-century result from the integration of various work-life programs. Work life policy programs are employees centered since they have various benefit to the employees with the sole aim increasing and maintaining the productivity of employees. The major work-life policy programs are; alternative work schedule, employees’ assistance program, and employees’ health wellness program. There are two types of alternative work schedule, which are flexible work schedule and fixed work schedule. EAP benefit workers by enabling them to solve the psychological problem that comes from the external environment. Work life policy programs are beneficial to employers and the employees. It is better to embrace major work-life policies to maintain the quality of work.


Beauregard, T. A., & Henry, L. C. (2009). Making the link between work-life balance practices and organizational performance. Human resource management review, 19(1), 9-22.

Kirk, A. K., & Brown, D. F. (2003). Employee assistance programs: A review of the management of stress and wellbeing through workplace counselling and consulting. Australian psychologist, 38(2), 138-143.

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How do federal agencies communicate homeland security information to local and state government

How do federal agencies communicate homeland security information to local and state government, the private sector, and the citizenry of the United States? What problems exist? How can communication and information sharing be improved? Consider all sources and methods of information sharing and any changes since the publishing of the textbook. Specifically, answer these questions:

  1. What is the biggest potential for failure when people (and the government) rely on social media (Facebook, Twitter, etc.) for information in an emergency? Are there (have there been) instances where social media has created a bigger problem than would have existed otherwise? (cite examples)
  2. What are the contributions and capabilities of Ham (amateur) radio in emergency communications? Why is Ham radio often effective in emergencies when government communications systems fail? Can you identify a principle that seems to be proven by the effectiveness of this citizen-performed vital service?

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Describe the possible interactions and involvement of each organization

Similar to Module 5: Week 5, using the 4 classical phases of disaster management, discuss how collaboration between public and private organizations can support phases 3 and 4 of the model. Choose a threat/hazard/disaster different from the Module 5: Week 5 Discussion prompt. Describe the possible interactions and involvement of each organization. Include in your discussion specific plans, systems, and frameworks discussed in Chapter 9. 

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• Describe the technology/informatics you propose to implement as part of a practice change to drive improvements in a chosen health care environment.


In preparation for this assessment, think about the technology/informatics you propose to implement as part of the practice change to address the safety, process, or quality issues identified in the previous assessments. Review the nine SAFER Guides ( with your proposed technology/informatics in mind. You will use the discoveries you uncover by using the SAFER Guides to identity risks, which you will address via the risk mitigation plan you will create in the next assessment, Risk Mitigation.

If you are not familiar with the SAFER Guides, the How to Use the SAFER Guides [Video] may help you get started on this assessment.


Write a 5-page APA-formatted paper, discussing your experience using the SAFER Guides and identifying and describing any potential risks uncovered through the completion of such. Make sure to use the literature to support your findings.

Overall, your assessment will be assessed based on the following criteria:

  • Describe the technology/informatics you propose to implement as part of a practice change to drive improvements in a chosen health care environment.
  • You may wish to refer to your work in the previous assessments to help you compose this section.
  • Explain SAFER Guides findings related to areas where the chosen health care environment is performing well with regard to the proposed technology/informatics.
  • These will likely be areas in which you would have rated your chosen health care environment as “Fully in all areas” on the SAFER Guides.
  • Explain SAFER Guides findings related to risks with regard to the proposed technology/informatics in the context of the chosen health care environment.
  • These will likely be areas in which you would have rated your chosen health care environment as “Not implemented” on the SAFER Guides, but could also include areas you rated “Partially in some areas,” depending on how severe the risks might be.
  • Reflect on the experience of using the SAFER Guides to discover areas of risks and to focus improvement efforts.
  • Think about the process of using the SAFER Guides and how it helped you adopt a different point of view in your evaluation.


Additional Requirements

Your assessment should also meet the following requirements:

  • Length: A 5 double-spaced page paper, not including the title page or reference list.
  • References: 2–4 scholarly or professional resources, no more than five years old.
  • APA format: Submission should follow current APA style and formatting. Review the Evidence and APA section of the Writing Center for guidance.


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