If I Were a Bird Essay

If I Were a Bird Essay.

If I were a bird, I would like to be one of the small species, cute and beautiful. I would love to be a tiny maina who is beautiful, tiny and above all, it is a bird that man can keep as a pet. I would love to stay with men, study their ways and enjoy their company. This I would be able to do with men as, God has given the maina a power of speech just like men. It talks like a human being, has a sweet voice and, above all also has a great capacity to learn whatever it is taught.

If I were to be a bird, I would like my life to be a beautiful blend of freedom of flying in the high skies and the love and care given by man. I see advantages in both and find it difficult to make a choice. My ambition as a bird would be able to fly high as high can be, like any other bird.

This would give me an insight into what all exists in the atmosphere. I would also be able to assess first hand, the life of birds as a community, the advantages and the disadvantages they live with.

I would share my experiences with my kin and understand the difficult ways of life. I would attain knowledge of lives of birds big and small as I would move with them and conversing with them while flying high in the air, or sitting on trees with my other colleagues. Though I would love all this, at the same time I would love to become a pet in a nice family. This family would keep me closed in a cage lest I fly off. Here, in the family I would learn to be controlled and restricted. It would be no doubt a punishment of sorts to be tied down in a cage but I feel so happy imagining the love and care I would get from each member of the family that would adopt me. Here, at home, I would be served food in a platter, water in a dish in a right royal style. Aha! what a life that could be for me.

Hunting for food and being frightened of bigger birds attacking me would not be a care for me. I would be a loved one of many – what a wonderful feeling it gives. While living with a family I would also be able to learn about the ways of men. How man lives, how he behaves, and what his attitude is towards birds I would be able to understand first hand, being so close to man. I would thus also get an insight into all this. Together with all these advantages, living with human beings, my art of talking like a human would get encouraged and I would get several chances to talk to the family. I understand man keeps mainas and parrots just for this art of these birds, of talking like men. My master, mistress and some small children of the family would teach me how to speak and what to speak.

Once I would get the training to speak, I would be able to chat with each of the family members and guests. This would earn for me heaps of praises by all who heard me. This I say because I hear a maina has a very clear and sweet voice, and a capacity to talk like a human. If I were a bird, I would like to get the blessing of this combination to be set into my life. It would give me a healthy and relaxed sojourn in a family, together with free visits to the sky, trying out my skills of taking high flights. The two together would give me as if, the best of both the worlds, of birds and humans. Oh! God, please grant me this life, that is, if I am not asking for too much.

Summer Vacation

Short essay for kids on My Summer Vacation. Our school closed for holidays on May 14. We had been planning how to spend the vacation this time. There were many proposals.

My parents wished to go to our home town, and be with my grandparents for about six weeks or so. My friends had a trekking expedition up their sleeves, while my classmates wanted to go to some hill station on an educational tour for which our class-teacher had also given consent. I wished to avail of all the three proposals.

First, I made my mother and elder sister agree to my going on the tour, with my class and the teacher, as the railway concession was already allowed for such journeys. They requested my father to postpone the programme to visit the grandparents by a week or so. My father readily agreed and decided that if I wished to go for the educational tour, I could join him later. He and my mother agreed to go in the advance party to be joined by my sister and me after my tour.

My friends agreed to go trekking, after my return from both journeys. The three journeys were planned in the following order: Educational tour in May, home town trip in June and trekking in July, when the monsoon reaches this part of the country.

My class-teacher had arranged for the railway concession for thirty-five students and three teachers. We started on May 20, reaching Allahabad late in the evening. Earlier, we had tea and snack at the Kanpur railway platform, since the train stopped there for ten minutes, that being a big railway junction.

We enjoyed our three-day stay in Allahabad very much. There we got our rooms booked in a lodge on Thomas Street. We did boating in the nearby river four times. We went to see different places. We also went to see Anand Bhawan, where Pt. Nehru was born. We returned on May 25, much refreshed and happy.

My father had booked our seats by Indian Airlines for June 2. I, along with my sister, took this flight as already decided, and reached our home town in… My First Day at New School

After I came to the United States, I began to attend North Penn High School on Dec. 6, 2000. It was a day that I will never forget. My first day in a foreign school was a especially hard for me. During my first day in a new school, I felt nervous, lonely, and sad.

First, I was very nervous because my school was huge. There were around three thousand students who were studying in the school; furthermore, there were around three hundred staff members in the school. My class schedule was hard for me to understand. Since I had never seen that kind of schedule before, I could not find my classes on time. Also, I was frightened of asking other students for directions because I did not know how to speak English. My first class was Biology, and I was already late for the class. Fortunately, I saw a security guard walking around in the hallway, who helped me to find my class. Many times I have asked teachers for directions too; I was late getting to all of my classes. Moreover, my teachers got mad at me and told me not to be late every time.

Second, I felt lonely because there was not anyone with whom I could talk. There were too many students walking around the school, but they never smiled at me or said “Hi” or “Hello” to me. In addition, in my world culture class, students had to work in a group, and no one wanted to work with me. There were all American students in my class; they were talking in English and making fun of me because I did not know English very well. Moreover, during the lunch period, I had to sit alone in the cafeteria, when other students were enjoying their lunch period with their friends.

Also, I felt sadness at that time, because I missed my friends and family very much. When I was in school back in India, my two best friends, Swati and Bijal, and I used to go to school together everyday; if one of us did not understand any concepts, we always helped each other out. Swati and Bijal always had told me that I was going to miss them and advised…

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If I Were a Bird Essay

Importance of Value Based Education Essay

Importance of Value Based Education Essay.

In the present era of education assisted by ultramodern technology, we are inclined more towards knowledge and ranks in the examination than application of learning in our day-to-day life. Theodore Roosevelt warns, “To educate a man in mind and not in morals is to educate a menace to society.” It is a lamentable fact that in the prevalent scenario of education, the majority of the teachers as well as the taught have turned into grades-oriented and marks-oriented individuals overlooking and undermining the superlative purpose of education i.

e. refinement of ethics, purification of soul ad enlightenment of human intellect. More sadly, in the pursuit of degree-oriented education, we have, wittingly or unwittingly, failed to incorporate the learning of moral and ethical values to our studies for the positive nourishment of our character. “The degeneration in the present day life, the demoralization of public and private life and the utter disregard for values, are all traceable to the fact that moral, religious and spiritual education has not been given due place in the educational system.

” (Rena, Ravinder 2006)

In a broader view, as the outcome of education, we are producing successful professionals obsessed with material pursuits, who fail as considerate, altruistic and humane people. Totally remiss of philanthropic and humanitarian element of their work, these professionals are content with the achievement of absolute luxury as well as authority as being the radical purpose of their studies. This kind of attitude is the result of the myopic and inadequate execution of the abilities of teachers and teacher-educators. Thereby, most of the existing students indulge themselves into anti-social and unethical dealings in their futures endeavours. “Unfortunately, education is becoming more or less materialistic and the value traditions are being slowly given up.” (Erwin, 1991) We, nonetheless, have time to redress our wrongs and set right our shortcomings. In this regard, the curriculum and teachers play a pivotal role. Curriculum must contain distinctive instructions for the values associated with each lesson.

The teachers, on the other hand, must explain those values to the students and encourage them to put the same into practice in their daily life. In this way, we can surely bring about a positive change in the overall attitude of our students towards learning as well as society. Moreover, the students in the academic phase of their school life need to learn to be kind, compassionate and considerate towards their fellow beings. This could be communicated to them while teaching Islamiyat, Ethics, Pakistan Studies, Science, English or any other subject of their interest. In addition to teaching students the periodical and chronological record of life and achievements of the successful and influential people in the world, the teachers must highlight the brighter aspects of their character which dominated their practice and performance.

The students should be inspired to identify the positive implications of their study in their everyday life. In this connection, value-based education can not only improve a person’s life but it can also advance society in the right direction. “So, value education is not simply the heart of education, but also the education of the heart. It is a necessary component of holistic citizenship education.” (Rena, Ravinder 2006) This practice can be carried out while teaching students the formation of water in Chemistry, the teacher must talk about the worth and use of water. The students can also be informed about the importance of growing plants and trees in our daily life in Botany. With reference to their lessons, the students could be enlightened to show reverence to their teachers and elders and love their younger ones.

Value-based education can also be a source of appreciation and promotion of one’s own culture and history. More importantly, the students can probe into and find the eternal solace in Nature. In addition to that, they must praise the creations of Allah and love both the creatures and the Creator. Besides integrating values in the provided curricula, the value-based education can also be featured in the co-curricular and extra-curricular activities. The special assemblies and functions could be arranged to instill the vital importance of fair and descent values. This could also be combined with the regular activities in the sports ground and academic contests. Sir Frances Bacon in his essay ‘Of Studies’ says, “Histories make men wise; poets, witty; the mathematics, subtle; natural philosophy, deep; morals, grave; logic and rhetoric, able to contend.”

Hence, if we want to achieve the purpose of education in life, fortify humane feelings, alleviate poverty, bring peace and prosperity to our country as an educated and civilized nation, we must develop the constructive thoughts and attributes in our children vis-à-vis their academic and professional uplift to positively mould their character as an example for others to follow. The teachers must also inculcate the idea of ‘peaceful coexistence with people from other cultures and countries.’ (P.L Joshi 2007) Therefore, we should integrate information, knowledge, skills with values in education and help students come together to bind this world in a peaceful harmony.

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Importance of Value Based Education Essay

Educational System in Nigeria Essay

Educational System in Nigeria Essay.

Education in Nigeria is the shared responsibility of the federal, state and local governments. The Federal Ministry of Education plays a dominant role in regulating the education sector, engaging in policy formation and ensuring quality control. However, the federal government is more directly involved with tertiary education than it is with school education, which is largely the responsibility of state (secondary) and local (primary) governments. The education sector is divided into three sub-sectors: basic (nine years), post-basic/senior secondary (three years), and tertiary (four to seven years, depending on the major or course of study).

Education in Nigeria is provided by public and private institutions.

According to Nigeria’s National Policy on Education (2004), basic education covers education given to children 3-15 years of age, which includes pre-primary programs (ages three to five), and nine years of formal (compulsory) schooling consisting of six years of primary and three years of junior secondary.

Post-basic education includes three years of senior secondary education in either an academic or technical stream.

Continuing education options are provided through vocational and technical schools.

The tertiary sector consists of a university sector and a non-university sector. The latter is composed of polytechnics, monotechnics and colleges of education. The tertiary sector as a whole offers opportunities for undergraduate, graduate, vocational and technical education. There are currently (2011) 117 federal, state and private universities accredited in Nigeria as degree-granting institutions. Information on all accredited universities is available on the National University Commission’s website. The academic year typically runs from September to July. Most universities use a semester system of 18 – 20 weeks. Others run from January to December, divided into 3 terms of 10 -12 weeks.

Annually, an average of 1.5 million students take the Unified Tertiary and Matriculation Examination (UTME) for entrance into Nigerian universities, polytechnics and colleges of education. Universities have the capacity to absorb less than 40 percent of these test takers. The other 60 percent tend to go to their second and third choice categories of institutions—polytechnics and colleges of education. Many Nigerian students also apply to institutions abroad. In 2011, 40 percent of the students who sat for the UTME made the minimum cut-off grade of 200 (out of 400) for entry into Nigerian universities.

There are currently various government reforms and initiatives aimed at improving the Nigerian educational system. These include the upgrade of some polytechnics and colleges of education to the status of degree-awarding institutions, the approval and accreditation of more private universities, and the dissemintaion of better education-related data, including the recently published Nigerian Educational Statistics (a publication assisted by USAID among others).

However, with the recent announcement by Nigeria’s National Population Commission that Nigeria’s population is expected to hit 166 million by October 31, 2011 and that approximately 60 percent of this population will be between the ages of 13 and 45, the recent government initiatives fall far short of addressing the educational needs of the country. As a result, an increasing number of families and students are looking at alternative educational opportunities within the region and further abroad.

Primary education (grades 1-6) is free and compulsory, and offered to children aged 6-12. The curriculum is geared toward providing permanent literacy, laying a sound basis for scientific, critical and reflective thinking, and also in equipping children with the core life skills to function effectively in society.

In 2009, the gross enrollment ratio at the primary level was 89 percent (95 percent male and 84 percent female) according to UNESCO statistics. The net enrollment rate (as a percentage of children in the 6-12 age group) was a much lower 61 percent (male children 64 percent, female children 58 percent) in 2007 (UIS) suggesting that many students outside of the primary age group are attending primary school. In 2008, the primary to secondary transition rate was 44 percent, according to the Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) EdData Profile.

Under the new Universal Basic Education (UBE) system of 9-3-4, which replaced the former universal primary education scheme of 6-3-3-4, students attend six years of primary school and three years of junior secondary, thus nine years of compulsory and uninterrupted schooling. This is followed by three years of senior secondary schooling. Until 2006 entry to junior secondary education was based on the Common Entrance Examination, but entry is now automatic.

The Junior Secondary School Certificate is awarded at the end of junior secondary school. Students who pass the Junior Secondary Certificate Examination (JSCE) at the credit level (see the grading system below) in not less than six subjects may proceed to senior secondary school (grade 10) at either the same institution, or they may transfer to another institution of their choice.

Core subjects at the junior secondary level include: English, French, science, technology, Nigerian language (Hausa, Ibo and Yoruba), mathematics, and social studies. Students may also choose to study a number of elective subjects. A prevocational stream is also available to students looking to pursue technical or vocational training at the senior secondary level.

A majority of senior secondary school students proceed in the academic stream from junior secondary school. However, there is also a technical stream, in addition to vocational training outside of the school system, or apprenticeship options offering a range of terminal trade and craft awards.

Private organizations, community groups, religious bodies, and the federal and state governments establish and manage secondary schools in Nigeria. All private and public schools offer the same curriculum but most private schools include the Cambridge International Examination curriculum, which allows students to take the IGSCE examinations during their final year in high school. It is also important to note that some private schools offer GCE A-levels, which usually serve as a gap year after graduation for students that are interested.

The common core curriculum at the senior secondary level consists of: English, one Nigerian language, mathematics, one science subject, one social science subject, and agricultural science or a vocational subject. In addition students must take three elective subjects, one of which may be dropped in the third year.

Students take the Senior Secondary Certificate Examination (SSCE) at the end of grade 12. The Senior Secondary Certificate (SSC) is awarded to successful candidates. The certificate lists all subjects in which the student is successful. The SSCE replaced the West African GCE O and A levels in 1989, although those examinations are still available to students who wish to take them (see above).

The SSC is issued by the West African Examination Council (WAEC) or the National Examination Council (NECO), depending on the examination board used. An average grade of ‘credit’ level (C6) or better is required for access to public universities; however some require higher grades for admission. The standards of the two examinations are essentially the same. Students register for a maximum of nine and a minimum of seven subjects, which must include mathematics and English.

A student must get at least a C in English and four other courses relevant to his or her major in order to sit for the University Tertiary Matriculation Examination. A student applying for admission to study medicine, computer science or accounting, for example, will be required to have a minimum of a C in mathematics as well as in English whereas a student applying for a program in history will not necessarily require a C in mathematics.

Educational System in Nigeria Essay

Issues in Multicultural Education Essay

Issues in Multicultural Education Essay.

Research has shown that teachers of diverse backgrounds can have a positive effect on the success of students of color. In Washington, the number of teachers of color is just seven percent compared to the twenty-four percent of students. In Seattle, over fifty percent of students are of color and only ten percent of Seattle teachers represent the diversity in their classroom. (Martinez-Foundation, 2011). Our children deserve to feel comfortable, motivated, respected, and understood in their schools and especially in their classrooms.

If a teacher does not have the tools, resources, or education on how to use differentiated instruction in her class, and how to best understand the different cultures, some kids may fall behind in their ability to achieve academically. Our future depends on the children of today and the educations that they receive. Cultural competence is:

• Knowing the community where the school is located. • Understanding all people have a unique world view. • Using curriculum that is respectful of and relevant to the cultures represented in its student body.

• Being alert to the ways that culture affects who we are. • Placing the locus of responsibility on the professional and the institution. • Examining systems, structures, policies and practices for their impact on all students and families. ”Cultural competence will allow teachers to successfully teach students who come from different cultural backgrounds.” (OSPI, 2011) There is now a way to enable the success of cultural competence among teachers in our city.

Over 100 different languages are spoken in Seattle Public Schools, and 24 percent of the district’s 46,000 students are bilingual speakers. To meet the increasing need for bilingual teachers in both general and special education classes, Seattle Public Schools has partnered with the state’s Professional Educator Standards Board, the Seattle Education Association and City University to provide a dual certification program for the district’s paraprofessionals. Cultural competence provides a set of skills that professionals need in order to improve practice to serve all students and communicate effectively with their families. (OSPI, 2011).

Cultural competence training would give teachers the opportunity to confront their stereotypes and biases that they hold that directly affect the way teachers see, and teach their students. Biases and stereotypes within a teacher’s classroom can negatively affect the achievements of his/her students. One of the ways this program will be funded is through the SEA membership. The SEA membership believes in closing the academic achievement gap and that having classroom teachers that reflect our student population will help in accomplishing that goal,” comments Wendy Kimball, President of SEA.

“Support for paraprofessionals and secretaries/office personnel is critical given the difficulty of going back to school to earn a teaching certificate and working full time.” Kimball continues, “SEA is committed to supporting staff with the resources of time and money so they can earn a certificate. The funding for this program came from reallocating money during the 2004-2009 contract bargaining from the sabbatical funds and a settlement agreement.” ( Kimball, 2011).

Issues in Multicultural Education Essay

Education Is the Main Agent of Secondary Socialisation Essay

Education Is the Main Agent of Secondary Socialisation Essay.

Secondary socialisation is an ongoing process which occurs when a child leaves a family environment and continues learning how to live as a member of society. There is always an influence to help carry out this process, this is known as an agent of socialisation. The perfect example of an agent of secondary socialisation is Education, more precisely, school. At school, the student continues learning that which they started learning at home. The aim of education is for the individual to learn how to behave in certain situations and places.

One of the main aims of education in schools is the preparation for the world of work, one of the most predominant aspects of social life. Functionalists view the positive aspects when it comes to education’s contribution to society as a whole. Functionalists view education as meritocratic, stating that it is a system which is fair on everyone. They attribute intelligence and effort as being the keys to success.

Parsons, a functionalist, says that schools are a major tool when it comes to role allocation.

He views education as being important when selecting the future roles of individuals in society. In his own words, he states that an educational system ‘’functions to allocate these human resources within the role-structure of adult society’. Parsons therefore concludes that schools test the student while also evaluates them, to give a suitable job based upon the talents and skills that the student has. Parsons view regarding the values transmitted may not have been that of society as a whole, but perhaps as a ruling minority. Something which Parsons has been criticised for. His view upon schools being a meritocratic system was also questioned. Meanwhile, another functionalist, Durkheim, says that schools are society in miniature which is modelled after the social system.

Same as in society, in school, an individual has to abide by a certain set of rules which in turn prepares the student for interaction with the members of society as a whole. Durkheim believes that the rules should be enforced and also punishments should be given to reflect the offence’s seriousness. This being done as a lesson for pupils to act in favour of the interests of society as a whole and also learning to exercise self-discipline in the process. Durkheim also claims that the students learn specific skills which are important for their future occupation, saying that this is important due to the increasing specialisation of labour. Durkheim is criticized for her descriptions of how schools act, with some researchers questioning this.

David Hargreaves says that education in modern Britain fails to promote self-discipline. Bowles and Gintis, Marxist economists, do not agree with the Functionalists in their view that education is meritocratic. They believe that achievement can be influenced by the class background, citing this influence as the most important one, claiming that there is no such thing as equality. Despite education being open to all, they claim that some have more opportunities than others. Children who are of wealthier and more powerful backgrounds tend to have higher qualifications and more respectable jobs, without any reference to their abilities.

Bowles and Gintis say that this is disguised by a myth of meritocracy done by the educational system. Those who do not have access to success do not blame the system which has forced them to fail, but blame themselves. Their views are criticised for claims regarding how the student’s personalities are shaped because of the school. No matter what kind of view or perspective is presented regarding the subject of education, it is quite obvious that education or school is one of the main agents of socialisation because we can say that school regulations are similar to those we find in the work place. Therefore the student learns norms and values that are expected in society.

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Education Is the Main Agent of Secondary Socialisation Essay

Finlands Education System Essay

Finlands Education System Essay.

“The Finland Phenomenon” a name given to Finland’s admired education system. It is listed as the most surprising school system in the world. Its success is intently watched by other countries. The assigned video “Finland’s Education Success” was documented by Tom Burridge of BBC World News America on April 6, 2010. Week four Reading Journal for English 101 was a writing assignment asking students if the system could be implemented in the United States. “Finland’s schools score consistently at the top of the world rankings yet the pupils have the fewest number of class hours in the developed world.

The proof is in the results and Finland has an education system other countries should learn from and envy.

The transformation of Finland’s education system began 40 years ago as a key component to an economic recovery plan. The educators had no idea it was so successful until the year 2000, when a standardized test was given to fifteen years old students. The results revealed the scores.

The Finnish youth came out on top as the best readers in the world. Three years later the youth led the scores in math as well. “By 2006 Finland was first out of 57 countries. The Finnish answer to standardized testing has been to only give exams to small groups of students and to trust in teachers. In 1991 the National Board of Education closed its inspectorate.

“Teachers in Finland design their own courses using a national curriculum as a guide and spend about eighty percent as much time leading classes as their U. S. counterparts do. ” Finnish teachers have sufficient opportunity to plan lessons and collaborate with colleagues. “Teachers in Finland spend fewer hours at school and less time in the classroom than American teachers. In 1979 reformers decided that every teacher in Finland earn a fifth-year master’s degree in theory and practice at one of the eight state universities. From that time forward teachers were granted equal status with doctors and lawyers. Teaching programs were flooded with applicants not because the salaries were that high, but because respect made the job so attractive. Pasi Sahlberg a former physics teacher points out “We prepare children to learn how to learn and not how to take a test”.

All children- clever or less so- were to be taught in the same classrooms, with lots of special teacher help available to make sure no child would be left behind. ” Compulsory school in Finland doesn’t begin until children reach the age of seven. “Children learn better when they are ready. Why stress them out? ” Finnish culture values childhood independence children get themselves to school by either walking or biking. Upon arrival at school, children remove their shoes to maintain a relaxed atmosphere. Finnish children spend far more time playing outside even in the depth of winter. The children can’t learn if they don’t play.

The children must play” The Finnish children are provided with seventy-five minutes of recess a day compared to the average of twenty-seven for U. S children. Finnish schools don’t assign homework because it is assumed the task is mastered in the classroom. Children are also mandated to take lots of arts and crafts and learning by doing. This is a far cry from the U. S concentration on testing in reading and math since the enactment of No Child Left Behind in 2002. The focus in Finland is on the individual child.

If a child is falling behind, the highly trained staff recognizes and addresses the issues to meet the child’s needs. Nearly thirty percent of the children in Finland receive some kind of special help during their first nine years in school. The true focus on education is “equal opportunity for all. ” Finnish educators have a hard time understanding the United States’ fascination with standardized tests. “Americans like all these bars and graphs and colored charts. ” ‘It’s nonsense. We know far more about the children than these tests can tell us. Finland has a culture of collaboration between schools, not competition.

All schools perform at the same level and there is no status in attending a particular facility. Finland has no private schools and all Finland’s schools are publicly funded. It is surprising to know that Finland spends about thirty percent less per student to achieve their far superior educational outcomes. The people in the government agencies running the schools from the national officials to the local officials are educators, not business people, military leaders or career politicians.

The United States has muddled along in the middle of the pack for the past decade. Government officials have attempted to introduce competition into public schools. President Obama’s Race to the Top initiative invites states to compete for federal dollars using tests and other methods to measure teachers, a philosophy that goes against everything the Finnish schools stand for. “If you only measure the statistics, you miss the human aspect. ” Fortunately United States Federal policies continue to move away from the rigid certainties of the No Child Left Behind legislation.

The law has set an unrealistic target for one hundred percent student proficiency in every school by 2014. I couldn’t agree more with the Finland approach to education. In order for the United States to come close to Finland’s success a major change would need to occur. A change I believe would take decades to complete. “The Finns have made it clear, that in any country, no matter its size or composition, there is much wisdom to minimizing testing and instead investing in broader curricula, smaller classes, and better training, pay and treatment of teachers. The United States should take heed. ”

Finlands Education System Essay

The Spirit of Faith, Zeal, and Communion in Mission Essay

The Spirit of Faith, Zeal, and Communion in Mission Essay.

After I finished the Lasallian Philosophy of Education, I have learned the life and time of St. John Baptist De La Salle, his major works and writings, what the responding of the 21 st century La Salle schools is, and the guiding principles of the Philippines Lasallian Family. De La Salle is a great person because he contributed his whole life to education, and he is the first one who opened the school to all. The most important thing for us is his experiences of faith because he believes that God provides everything for him.

Through the lasallian guiding principles and the writings of St. De La Salle, I want to share about three values which are fundamental to Lasallian: the spirit of faith, zeal for service, and communion in mission. The Spirit of Faith When we say the spirit of faith, the meaning is a relationship of communion with God who wills to save all people by bring them into a lifegiving communion with his and with one another in the Lasallian tradition (the website of De La Salle University).

According to the website of De La Salle University, the spirit of faith is a spirit that allows us to: (a) Discovering God’s active presence in his Word, in men and women, in the poor, in nature, in history, and in ourselves. Meaning to say, the presence of God is in everywhere. As educator, we need to find God by reading his words, serving the students and in different people, especially in the poor. Saint Lasalle is the one who used to discover the presence of God. Therefore, He loves to pray and serve the people around him because he believes that the almighty God present in everyone.

Through his life we can see De La Salle serves the people as serving the lord. As Jesus said, “whenever you did this to these little ones who are my brothers and sisters, you did it to me” (Mt 25:40). (b) Judging and evaluating things in the light of the gospel. Jesus is the best teacher. He gave us the guidance in the gospel. As educator, the follower of Jesus, we should assess all the things by bible because Jesus told us how to become a teacher in the bible. (c) Searching for God’s will in order to carry out his saving plan. We are created by God.

We have a purpose which is to do the will of God. Jesus is our modal. Whenever he did, he used to say he would follow the will of God. For example, when he faced the impending death, he still followed the will of God. Such as Jesus said, “Father, if it is possible, take this cup away from me. Yet not what I want, but what you want” (Mt 26: 39). Our teacher, Jesus, did for us, so we have to follow him to do. (d) Unite one’s actions to the ongoing saving action of God in the world. Because of God, we are one family and living on the one world, and we have one dream that is we are going to God.

Therefore, we should call and gather everyone to imitate his way of doing things and continue his salvation. (e) Trust in God. Without God we could not do anything. As Saint De La Salle said, “that God in his providence has established the Christian Schools”. Meaning to say, God will be here whatever you do because Jesus said, “…your Father knows that you need them all. Set your heart first on the kingdom and justice of God and all these things will also be given to you”(Mt 6: 32-33). For teachers, we teach our students how to trust in God and tell them the truth, the way, and life.

Because of God, we can live in this world; we can have our life in today’s society. As we know, when Lasalle faced many challenges and difficulties, he believed that God would provide all for him. We are the educators, there are many challenges that we have to face in the future, but do not be afraid because God be with us. So, trusting in God is the only way to overcome the difficulties. Zeal Zeal is the expression of faith in service to human need. It is expressed through enthusiastic, creativity, fortitude, compassion, generosity, and commitment for a grater service.

It is oriented towards the integral salvation of persons, particularly the poor and the excluded. Meaning to say, the Lasallian teacher is dedicated and committed whether it be in class preparation, correcting work, encouraging effort, supervising or coaching. For teachers, we should cultivate with our students through the zeal and try to see our students with the eyes of God. Such as Ms. Kalaw, the officer in charge in Language Center of University of Santo Thomas, said, teachers should love for teaching.

I think that if teachers love teaching, they will have zeal with their students and others. It is very important to have full of passion to your subject and the students. As we know, in the 21 st century teachers have to face many different issues in side of class. Therefore, we need to have zeal this virtue to teach in our teaching life. The zeal that ought to inspire you is meant to give you these dispositions, recognizing that it is God who has called you, who has destined you for teaching, and who has sent you to work in his vineyard, teaching profession.

We should believe that teaching is a great gift of God, this grace he has given us to be entrusted with the instruction of children, to announce the Gospel to them and to bring them up in the spirit of religion. Communion in Mission Communion is a relationship with God, a way of accomplishing mission, a way of relating to others, and a goal of mission. I think first, teachers should have a good relationship with God. This is the most important for being an effective teacher because God has called us to be a teacher. This is a great gift. Without God’s calling how can we teach in the particular school?

Because of God, we can have ability to be a teacher. Second, teachers should have a good relationship with others. There is a say, a good relationship is the basis of success. Especially, we must have good relationship with the students and the faculties around you so that we can have good teaching environment. Third, the good relationship with God and others can help us to accomplish mission and achieve the goal of mission that is communion. Conclusion Through the life and times of Saint De Lasalle, and his works and writings, we can see that the spirit of faith, zeal, and communion is continuously evolving of his life.

The 21 st century La Salle Schools follow his steps and thought to respond the call of times to continue his heritages in today’s society. God blesses those who are doing His will. Saint John Baptist De La Salle is a model for us, he contributed his whole life to God and education. And now we are on the way to accomplish the will of God. The spirit of faith, zeal, and communion that Saint Lasalle gave are important for teachers. Let us try our best to prepare ourselves to responds the calling of God and to do the will of God.

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The Spirit of Faith, Zeal, and Communion in Mission Essay

Students with Dyslaxia and Dycalculia in Nigerian Educational System Essay

Students with Dyslaxia and Dycalculia in Nigerian Educational System Essay.

Abstract:

Dyslexia is a learning disability that manifest itself as a difficulty with the visual notation of speech or written language, particularly with reading, while dyscalculia is a learning difficulty in which a person has unusual difficulty in solving mathematical problems and grasping mathematical concepts, memory of maths facts, concept of time, money e.t.c. In the Nigerian context, many teachers are ignorant of these learning problems. The aim of this paper is to help teachers at various levels of educational sectors to identify students with dyslexia and dyscalculia and design some strategies that could be used in the classroom to assist students to overcome such problems.

Introduction

Learning disability is a general term for a diverse of disorders characterized by significant difficulty in the acquisition of knowledge such as listening skills, speaking, reading and writing reasoning and mathematical computation. Other learning disabilities include: visual motor integration, motor planning, dysgraphia, attention deficit disorder, retrieval, short term memory, auditory perception, auditory memory, auditory discrimination, figure ground (visual or auditory), auditory sequencing, inter-sensory, dyslomia, depth perception etc.

Yusha’u, (2006).

However, with seemingly increasing problems associated with learning, it has become imperative that much attention be given to issues regarding learning difficulties with the objective of identifying and resolving them so that children can learn with relative ease. It is important to stress that difficulties may occur in children who are not yet of school age but they cannot be detected or diagnosed for possible remediation until the children are attending school. What effect does it have?

Specific learning difficulties can make lessons, challenging for a child. They may struggle to keeping up with classmates, and may come to see themselves as stupid, or not good. They may find it difficult to concentrate on lesson and because they may not be able to follow them properly, they may complain of lesson being “boring”. The child may search for other ways to pass the time and succeed.

They may try to avoid doing school work because they find it impossible to do it well. Doing badly in school can undermine their self confidence. This can make it hard to keep friends. Children with specific learning difficulties often become angry and frustrated, so behavioral problems are common. If they don’t get suitable help, the problem may get worst. Older children may become frustrated, fail exams or get into serious trouble, both at school and outside.

A specific learning difficulty is not a mental illness. However, children with specific learning difficulty are more likely than other children to develop mental health problem, for example anxiety, or have additional developmental disorder, such as Autism spectrum disorder and attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).

DIAGNOSIS:

Diagnosis is the process of identifying problems encountered by students in learning; it is also Identifying of difficulties encountered by students and use of the information to develop remedial procedures to overcome those difficulties. Likewise diagnosis is seen as the assessment of students in order to establish possible cognitive, emotional, health perceptual, social and other factors that might be impacting on their achievements and school adjustment, such diagnosis can also be sought where dyslexia and dyscalculia learning difficulties, learning disorder or reading disability etc. are suspected. Wikipedia, (2012). . Teachers have always focused on assessment of students learning carefully assessing what student have learned through class work, chapter test, weekly test, monthly test, end of term test, end of course test (WAEC and NECO etc), just among others. The reason for assessment is an important component of a mathematics program.

However, the authors of NCTM’s principle and standards for school mathematics where they recommend that assessment should be more than merely a test at the end of instruction that inform and guide teachers as they make instructional decision. Assessment should not merely be done to students, rather it should also be done for students, to guide and enhance their learning (NCTM, 2000. P.22). Assessment for student learning is only effective if it is diagnostic guiding and supporting teachers in customizing instruction for individual student needs. Yush’u, (2006). With the educational context, diagnosis is a judgment about what a particular problem is identified after conducting an examination or test

REMEDIATION:

Remediation is the intervention or assistance intended to help students who have difficulties in a particular topic or subject to overcome such diagnosed difficulties. A comprehensive system of intervention always prescribes and provides the instructional material teachers needed to address student’s needs. Once students enter a unit or chapter of instruction, periodic, quick and diagnostic assessments that immediately identify learning gaps and that are linked to systematic interventions are essential to keep students on grade level, to ensure mastery of concepts, reading skills and problem solving, to help student meet educational standards, and to help students perform well on periodic assessments.

DYSLEXIA:

Encarta Dictionaries (2009) define dyslexia as impaired ability to understand written language: a learner disorder marked by a severe difficulty in recognizing and understanding written language, leading to spelling and writing problems, it is not caused by low intelligence or brain damage. Dyslexia is a neurological disorder that affects language processing function. It manifests in the learning disability of written texts. The condition results in problems with letter sound associations leading to difficulties in reading, writing and spelling (Baddelay, Ellis, Miles & Lewis, 1982).The several signs and symptom of reading difficulty are identified by Strydom, (2009) to include:

Reading slowly and painfully
Experiencing decoding errors especially with the order of letters
Showing wide disparity between listening and reading Comprehension of some text.
Having trouble with spelling
Exhibiting difficulty recalling known words
Having difficulty with written language
Substituting one small sight word for another like a, i, he, the, there, was.

Studies according to learning difficulties centre (LDC) show that individual with dyslexia process information in a different area of brain than non-dyslexics do; people who are dyslexic are of average or above intelligence. Dyslexia affects males and females nearly equally, irrespective of their ethnic and social–economic backgrounds. Yusha’u (2009). The LCD further, listed the following famous people as those diagnosed with learning difficulties: Whoopi Goldberg, Steven Spielberg, Jack Nicholson, Robin Williams, Magic Johnson, Winston Churchill, Leonardo Davinci Mozart, Thomas Edison, Albert Einstein, Henry Ford, Galileo, Tom Cruise and George Washington. Although dyslexia is as a result of neurological difference, it is not an intellectual disability. It can be diagnosed in people of all levels of intelligence. People having dyslexia problem they may be slow to acquire and process language due to poor short – term memory capacities.

They may have difficulty in remembering isolated sound for words when attempting to write and to spell. Most teachers assume that students with dyslexia are lazy, immature, unintelligent or unmotivated. This is because they are not diagnosed until much later or not at all (as in most Nigerian). Unfortunately even the students are led to believe they are failures, and thus develop low self – esteem (Long & McBlain, 2007). Some theories have been postulated by researchers to the causes of dyslexia. These are the evolutionary hypothesis by Dalby (1986) which state that, reading is an unnatural act which is carried out by humans for as brief in our evolutionary history. That most western society promoted reading by the mass population and therefore the forces that shape our behavior became weak. The phonological deficit theory postulates that people with dyslexia have a specific impairment in the representation, Storage and retrieval of speech sounds.

It explains the reading impairment of dyslexia on the basis that learning to read on alphabetic system requires the learning of grapheme, phoneme, correspondences, the rapid auditory processing theory specifies that the primary deficit lies in the perception of short varying sounds. Suppose for this theory arises from evidence that people with dyslexia show poor performance on a number of auditory tasks, including frequency discrimination. The visual theory reflects a long tradition in the study of dyslexic. This theory considers dyslexia as a visual impairment giving rise to difficulties with the processing of letters and words on a page. Others are cerebella magnocellular theories and the perceptual visual noise exclusion hypothesis which states that subjects experience difficulty in performing visual tasks such as motion detection in the presented of perceptual distraction. Dyslexia symptoms arise because of an impaired ability to distinguish the important sensory data from the irrelevant ones (Habib, 2000). Dyslexia is usually identified during childhood, but it continues to affect individuals through their lives.

CHARACTERISTIC OF DYSLEXIA

Before 1970 most explanation of dyslexia held that the root of the problem lay in visual difficulties. For example many experts believed that dyslexic children saw letters backward or in reverse order since then, however, much research has shown that children with dyslexia are no more prone to reverse letters while reading and writing than are other children.

DIAGONOSIS OF CHILD WITH DYSLEXIA PROBLEM

Common method of diagnosing dyslexia very widely although most experts rule out other common sources of learning difficulty such as lack of intelligence, absence from school, hearing or vision problems and behaviour disorders – before making a diagnosis of dyslexia. Many researchers have called for a shift in method to identify dyslexia. Some argue that a diagnosis of dyslexia should be made only in children who continue to struggle with reading even after having received high quality, intensive tutorial instruction. This diagnostic method consists of two steps. First, expert assesses the intensity and appropriateness of the instruction the child’s has received. If they find no evidence of an appropriate, intensive educational intervention to correct reaching problems, then a diagnosis of dyslexia is primitive.

Experts diagnoses dyslexia only when reliable evidence shows that a child’s reading difficulties do not see correctable through intensive, appropriate instruction. A child may not respond well in group instructional setting and may fall behind classmates in both reading acquisition and phonological procession skills. But these deficits alone would not warrant a diagnosis of dyslexia such diagnosis appropriate only if the deficit remain after the child receives intensive tutorial instruction to correct them. There is need to have the formal training and the correct teaching method or bringing in the services of a professional that could assist with the assessment of students. In many instances teachers assume that the students are not trying hard enough, but in reality they work much harder than their counterparts that are not learn disabled and still fall behind (Henry, 1998).

The dyslexic students find it difficult to distinguish different sounds in words, the sound of letters or associating individual words with their correct meaning sometimes, time keeping or even the concept of time is a problem and there is confusion with word combination. Due to the fear of spelling they become shy, frustrated and even disruptive out their inability to understand social – cues in their environment. During reading and spelling, the difficulty in learning letter sound correspondences make individual with dyslexia to misspell word or leave vowels out of words. They may reverse the order f two letters especially when the final words look similar to the intended word e.g. (dose – does). Homophones are difficult to distinguish by dyslexia, and they spell words inconsistently. Literacy problem can involve slower writing speed than average, it can be characterized by irregular formed letters or in ability to write straight on a blank of paper with on guideline (Goeke, Kristen & Ritchey, 2006).

Empowering dyslexia students:

High quality teaching is vitally important if students with dyslexia are to make progress with their academic learning. Therefore teachers on training school are made aware of the special need of students with dyslexia, their presentation and management students with dyslexia should be indentified through routine psychological assessment at the beginning of secondary education. This is because majority of students especially those in the public schools do not read very well until they are in class six. Partnership should be set up between the students, parents and the school to set realistic target and rewards for students with dyslexia, teachers can enhance students self – confidence by conveying that they care for them in the teaching- learning transaction. It is important that students feel teacher’s concern, as they encourage them to learn. Dyslexia students should be involved in assessing planning and evaluation their learning needs and aspirations.

Teachers should convey empathy and concern; they should empower the students by setting achievable and realistic targets in the process. There is need for mastery learning of the material to be learned, mastery learning increases the altitude and interest of student. Fehlen (1976), ensure that students views and wishes are always given due consideration, this enhances students confidence by acknowledging their strength and rescores as well as publicity celebrating success. Praise student for their effort and show them their work is valued. Provide positive learning experience for dyslexia students to ensure that they fell less isolated and more included. Teacher should use more positive marking to keep motivation and expectation high but reasonable establish support group in schools for students with dyslexia to enable them share experiences in order to promote social inclusion.

DYSCALCULIA:

Dyscalculia is a specific learning disability affecting the normal acquisition of arithmetic skills, Genetic, neurobiological, and epidemiologic evidence indicates that dyscalculia, and like other learning disabilities is a brain-base disorder. However, poor teaching and environmental deprivation have also been implicated in its etiology. Because the network of both hemispheres comprises the subtractions of normal hemisphere, although, the left perieto temporal area is particular significance. The prevalence of developmental dyscalculia is 5 to 6% in the school- age population and is as common in girls as in boys. Dyscalculia can occur as a consequence of premature and low birth weight and is frequently encountered in a variety of neurologic disorder, such as attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), developmental language disorder, epilepsy and fragile X syndrome. Developmental dyscalculia has proven to be a persisting learning disability at least for the short term in about half of affected preteen pupils. Dyscalculia is a learning difficulty that is allied to dyslexia, where the learning problem lie in students understanding and using of mathematical symbols or functions needed for success in mathematics.

It has been discovered that a child frequently has average to above average intelligence but has difficulty with number or numbering mathematical facts over a long period of time. Some dyscalculia may have spatial problem such as aligning numbers into proper columns as well as exhibiting difficulty in performing other mathematical operations i.e. multiplication , division, subtraction and addition. Though, there is no universal acceptable definition of the term dyscalculia. These differences in definition reflect the different theoretical and research perspectives of different experts. Some experts define dyscalculia in terms of an underlying presumed genetic, constitutional or neuroanatomical immaturity in specific area of brain (Kosc, 1974).

Supporting Kosc observation Munro, explains that in mathematical learning disability individual display a mathematics disability when his performance on standardized calculation lasts or on numerical reasoning tasks is significantly depressed, given their age, education and intellectual reasoning ability. When this loss of ability to calculate is due to cerebral trauma, the condition is called aciculae or acquired dyscalculia. However, mathematical learning difficulties that share features with acquired dyscalculia but without evidence of cerebral trauma are referred to as developmental dyscalculia (Hughes, Kolstad & Briggs, 1994).

Reviewing developmental dyscalculia (DD) (Gordon, 1992) states that students who show DD have difficulty recalling numbers facts and completing numerical calculation. They also show chronic difficulties with numerical processing skills such as recognizing number symbols, writing numbers or naming written numerals and applying procedures correctly. Gross Turaverbacha, Manor & Shalev, (1996) agreed that students with developmental dyscalculia (DD) may have low self efficacy and selective intentional difficulties. Through of all students who display low mathematics achievement can be due to range of cause, for example, lack of motivation or interest in learning mathematics, low self efficacy, high anxiety and inappropriate earlier teaching or poor school attendance. It can be due to generalized poor learning capacity, immature general ability, severe language disorder or sensory processing.

Basic causes of Dyscalculia:

Visual – spatial difficulties – trouble procession what the eye
sees
Attention deficits
Motor disabilities.
Weakness in visual processing of numbers and mathematical
symbols
Information processing deficits
Problem with understanding concepts and symbols.
(www.idonline.org).
Symptoms or warning signs by young children (dyscalculia)
Difficulty with number sense
Difficulty learning to count
Trouble recognizing printed/ written numbers
Difficulty with connecting the idea of a number with what it represents in the real world.
Poor memory for numbers
Trouble organizing things in a logical way, sorting by shape, size, color, etc.
Trouble recognizing groups and patterns
Trouble learning mathematical facts.
None familiarity with mathematical vocabularies
Difficulty with measuring things
Avoiding games that require strategy.
Visual – spatial difficulties hinder comprehension of written mathematics
Difficulties in reading a clock

Strategies to help students with dyscalculia
First step is to identify a student’s strengths and  weaknesses, understand how a student learns best.

Use tutoring outside the classroom with a one – to – one
instructor.
Provide a distraction free place to work encourage repeated
reinforcement and specific practice
Use graph paper to organize work ideas.
Use problem solving with divergent question
Use different approaches to memorizing mathematics facts,
formulas, rules etc.
Practice estimating as a first step to solve problem
Encourage verbalizing while problem solving this uses auditory
skills which may be strength
Try to relate problems to real life
Provide uncluttered worksheets preferable lined/ruled
If possible, let the student take test one – on- one in the Instructor’s present
Allow extra time to complete work if need.
Beware of students become panicky, provide reassurance
Use brief, mini-lesson for specific skills
Provide opportunity to work alone and together
Monitor student progress on a frequent basis
Teach important concept to mastery.
If possible, play games
If need, allow calculator use for basis operation to allow focus on problems.

Implication of non – diagnosis of mathematics difficulties.

It is clear from this write up that less able students are likely to need special treatment. If this is not done, the students are likely to become progressively more confused and in the long run they may not survive in post-secondary mathematics programmes The write up makes suggestion as to what may be happening. For instance, Gagne (1970) postulate that, there are four phase of learning: The apprehending phase, the acquisition phase, the storage phase, and the retrieval phase. This might suggest that the more able can reach these four phases but, for the less able, the last phase may be of a problem. Perhaps the mind of the less able is like a flawed computer diskette. Sometime, it will respond well to some mathematics problems (usually the easier ones) and it will ‘blank out’ to more difficult one.

CONCLUSION:

The goals of identifying students with learning difficulties is not for the purpose of labeling which may have adverse effects on the students but to seek for possible coping strategies of helping them achieve optimal result in their academic pursuits. If Nelson Rockefeller who was diagnosed to have so much reading problem (Papalia & Feldman (1999) could rise to the position of the president of the United State of America, therefore there is no reason to lose hope on children with learning difficulties. With a positive attitude and attention from peers, teachers and parent, affected students will learn to cope with their condition without shame or stress. So it is important to understand that students with learning disability such as dyslexia and dyscalculia are willing to learn, given them appropriate accommodations, the impact of their disability can be lessened and a more valid measure of their knowledge and abilities can be obtained.

Recommendations:
I strongly recommend for the teacher at all levels of educational sectors to use Yusha’u & Galadima, (2005) (YDGAL) remediation model, which design as follows:

Steps:
Identify problems through diagnosis :
Individual student is considered to have learning difficulties if achievement is not commensurate with age and ability levels one or more of the following manifestation of an imperfect ability to listen; think, speak, read, write, and spelling or to do mathematical calculations. It also includes directional confusion, sequencing difficulties and short –term memory retention problem. Teachers are expected to identify student’s specific difficulties diagnostically.

Design strategies for remedial instructions. when problems were identified, the teacher is expected to design appropriate strategy to be used for intervention this include development of prerequisite skills, developing key concepts and selecting teaching methods that will match the learning personality of students and their prerequisite skills.

Plan remedial instruction:
After designing the strategy, the teacher is expected to well throughout orderly and sequentially arrange his/her lesson on paper taking into consideration the following essential element of a lesson plan.

Objectives: what students will be able to do as a result of the lesson
Standards: which state content and developmental standards of the lesson.
Procedures: What and what the teacher will do to achieve the objective
Assessment: what the teacher can do to see if the lesson was taught effectively. This include both formal and informal and both formative and summative evaluation
Modifications/ accommodation: for any special needs students in the class room such as dyslexia and dyscalculia students.

Select appropriate instructional materials:
A teacher is expected to select appropriate instructional material according to their importance and for effective usage. Example of such material includes textbooks. Models, audio-visual aids etc.

Effect presentations.
Lesson presentation plays a vital role in teaching and learning. A teacher is expected to plan and strategize his presentation i.e. inductively or deductively.

Test and evaluation strategies:
A teacher is expected to test and evaluate his/her strategies through assignment and class works using standardized question
Compare past and present result:
A teacher is expected to compare and contrast previous with present results in order to check the level of performance and find out whether or not there is significant difference as a result of remedial instructions received.

Reference
Baddeley, A. D; Ellis, N.C: Miles, T.R.& Lewis, V.J. (1982): Developmental and Acquired Dyslexia: A Comparison Cognition. 185-199.

Daiby, J. T. (1986): An Ultimate view of Reading Ability: International
Journal of Neuroscience 30(3). 227-230.
Encarta Dictionaries, (2007).
Fehlen, J. (1976): Mastery Learning Techniques in the Traditional Classroom Setting School Science and Mathematics, 68, 241 – 245.
Gagne, R.M. (1970). The Conditions of Learning, Holt Rinehart and Winton Inc, New York 2nd edition.
Gordon, N. (1992): Children with Developmental Dyscalculia. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 34,( 5), 459 – 463.

Geoke, Jo.; Kristen, D. & Ritchey, I. (2006): Orton- Gillingham and Arton-Gillingham. A- Based Reading Instruction Review of the Literature. journal of Special Education, 35 (1), 171 -174.

Habib, M. (2000): The Neurological basics of Developmental Dyslexia. An Overview and Working Hypothesis. Brain 123(12), 237 3-99.

Henry, M. K. (1998): Structured, Sequential Multi-sensory Teaching. The Perlow legacy. Annals of Dyslexia. 48(1), 1095-1099.

Hughes, S. Kolstad, R. K. & Briggs, L.D. (1994): Dyscalculia and Mathematics Achievement . Journal of Instructional Psychology, 21, 64 – 78.
Kosc, L. (1974): Developmental Dyscalculia. Journal of Learning Disability, 7, 64-59.
James, T. O. & Taiwo, G.O. (2011): Rebranding Nigeria by Improving the Teaching of Mathematics Through Diagnosis Mathematics Learning Difficulties: A case study of Secondary School Students in Sokoto. Proceeding of September 20011 Annual National Conference of (MAN), 138-159.

KOSC, L. (1974): Developmental Dyscalculia. Journal of Learning Disability,7. 46-59. National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, (2000): Curriculum and Evaluation Standards for School Mathematics. Reston, Va: The council.

Papalia, D. E; Olds, S.W & Feldman, R. D. (1999): A Childs Word. Infancy through Adolescence. Boston: McGraw-Hill.
Strydom, J. (2009): Learning Difficulties. Retrieved April 10, 2012. Wikipedia, (2012): Learning Disabilities. Retrieved may 14, 2012. Yusha’u, M. A. & Galadima, I. (2005): Teaching Mathematics to Slow Learners: An Alternative Method. A Seminar Paper Presented at the Faculty of Education and Extension Services, Usmanu Danfodiyo University Sokoto.

Yusha’u, M.A. (2006): Diagnosis and Remediation in Teaching and Learning of Mathematics in Schools of Sokoto States. A Paper Presented at a 3 – days Mathematics Workshop for Retraining of Mathematics Teachers of Nigeria (MAN), Sokoto State Branch, from 04th – 06th July 2006 held at (AB1QS) Sokoto

Yusha’u, M. A & Galadima, I. (2009). Accommodating the Special Need Students in the Mathematics Classroom proceedings of September 2009 Annual National Conference of (MAN), 297-305.

Students with Dyslaxia and Dycalculia in Nigerian Educational System Essay

Empowerment on Girl Child Essay

Empowerment on Girl Child Essay.

With sacrificing family resources to educate a girl child and a potential future leader still a big societal challenge, any effort to see the education of a girl is a huge boon. So when millions of dollars are poured into the effort, the impact cannot be overemphasised. The Campaign for Female Education (Camfed), introduced some few years back, has seen remarkable change of fortunes to many a rural folk. Now, a US$19 million bursary programme has been launched to benefit 24 000 girls from disadvantaged families in rural Guruve, Mashonaland Central.

The launch was conducted at colourful ceremony at Chifamba Secondary School in the area recently. With testimonies of previous beneficiaries of the programme giving the clear picture of changed lives, more girls are set to change for the better. Already, lives have changed and tales are being told. More are coming, definitely. Twenty-five-year-old Bridget Moyo was born in the dusty village of Wedza in a polygamous family. Her mother sired six children and the other children under the genealogy of her father are incalculable.

She needs to sit down and count them from her father’s first wife until the last.

Being a girl on a polygamous family, she was not spared from challenges women as a whole face. From birth she was automatically rendered a future beggar. Her education was considered optional and it was the first thing to be sacrificed in a crisis. Her brothers, uncles and male cousins’ needs had to come first for the family. The family’s future was seen to be in their hands and blood, so it was to them that the family’s resources should be spent primarily. As if that was not enough, the family was so much immersed in poverty.

School fees and levies were a luxury they could only dream of and there wasn’t enough for the family to eat. “I lost count of how many other people’s fields we worked in to make ends meet with my mother. It was not unusual for people to approach my mother and offer me a job as their housemaid,” Bridget said. She said it was very tragic in that some people had the audacity to exchange her labour services with a bucket of maize a month. “I am a proud member of the Johane Marange Apostolic Sect and my growing up in the church came with benefits and challenges.

“I feel at home hen at church where I am accepted with expectations like other girls who have to get married at a tender age. ” “In my teenage years, I was only supposed to dream about the kind of husband I was going to marry. Even if it meant dropping out of school, I did not drop out until I attained my university degree,” Bridget went on to narrate her ordeal. The turning point in Bridget’s life came after she got a bursary before attending secondary education. “In primary school I vividly remember being nominated a prefect before the school authorities reversed the decision because I did not have a school uniform.

I never had a worry about the strategy to use to sneak back into classroom after being sent home on numerous occasions to collect the fees . Currently I am a holder of Bachelor of Science Honours Degree in Business Management and Entrepreneurship,” she said. This is not the only sad tale about girls who rise from invisibility to visibility after attaining education. Another is Talent Tokoda, who grew up as an orphan and single child. Talent was born and bred in Chivhu, where her mother took care of all the family needs. “It was a nightmare getting shoes or having a proper uniform.

I struggled through primary school to completion but fortunately I passed with five units which are a sharp contrast to the struggles I went through. ” “Time to enrol for secondary education came and my hope was like a dim light at the far end of a tunnel which could turn off anytime. A week before I was supposed to go to secondary school, I neither had school fees nor secured a place at any school. ” “I could spend the whole day in the garden with my mother. I got the surprise of my life when I was told that my fees were going to be paid for until I complete Advanced Level,” Talent said in front of the dumbfounded crowd.

She passed Advanced Level and was enrolled at the University of Zimbabwe where she is doing her final year studying for a Bachelor in Medicine and Surgery. “I am proud that I proved to doomsayers that I can achieve any goal men can achieve. In August next year I will be a qualified medical doctor,” Talent said in front of the cheering crowd. This mirrors how the personality can be moulded to greatness. Guruve District’s pass rate is pegged at 25 percent with the national pass rate sitting at 21 percent. Assisting the girl child with resources will help improve the pass rate at rural schools.

For example, at Chifamba Secondary School the pass rate for girls is pegged at 10 percent. Research revealed that in Sub-Saharan Africa, 24 million girls cannot afford to go to school and as a result a girl may marry as young as 13. Camfed executive director for Zimbabwe and Malawi, Ms Angeline Murimirwa said it is vital to improve educational access, progression and completion for marginalised secondary school girls. “The coverage of bursaries will span for four years in 28 rural districts including resettlement areas.

The other money will provide a package of support to schools, training of school development committees and support for parents to enable children currently out of school to enrol,” she said. Ms Murimirwa said it is imperative to enhance participation of women in national activities from district level. “Most secondary school girls drop out of school opting to get married or as a result of lacking financial support. “Organisations need to cherish marginalised communities and the idea that women constitute a greater percentage to the national population,” she said.

Empowerment on Girl Child Essay

The Reggio Emilia Approach Essay

The Reggio Emilia Approach Essay.

Started by parents in 1945, Reggio Emilia was as an alternative to the strait-laced, church-monopolized institutions that dominated Italian early education at the time. Amidst the rubble of post-World War II Italy, the community raised from almost nothing, preschools that would far exceed the custodial services appropriated by the Mussolini’s government. News of the experiment spread and Reggio schools were popping up in disadvantaged wards of the city. A young teacher, Loris Malaguzzi, was to provide leadership to the movement, that would continue till his death in 1994.

“Our task, regarding creativity, is to help children climb their own mountains, as high as possible.” 
Loris Malaguzzi Malaguzzi studied psychology in Rome, where he took inspiration from such thinkers as Vygotsky, Dewey, Piaget, and Bruner. Bruner and Vygotsky’s recognition of the child’s natural problem-solving capacities, and of the role of culture in developing the mind, fit Malaguzzi’s own perceptions. John Dewey believed that true education should stimulate a child ‘to conceive of himself from the standpoint of the welfare of the group to which he belongs.

’ If any one concept embraces all other aspects of the Reggio curriculum and environment, it is this one.

The number of these parent-run centers rose steadily, and in 1967 the municipality took over their administration and financing. The Reggio preschools (and infant-toddler centres, publicly mandated since the 1970s) are available to children from birth to six regardless of economic circumstance or physical disability, and continue successfully to this day. In the early 90s Newsweek magazine recognized Reggio Emilia as one of the top approaches to preschool education in the world. This groundbreaking philosophy soon became more popular across the United States, including a growing number of public schools.

Reggio established a new educational framework based on the idea of relationships and co-constructivism. Reggio educators do not call their framework a model because it has connotations of something that’s finished or done. They see their work as an approach, something that is growing, changing, and dynamic. The focus is always on the process; the process of learning, the process of going farther and the process of going deeper. Fundamental Principles of the Reggio Emilia approach.

1. Child as protagonist, collaborator, and communicator. Reggio’s primary principle is that children are strong, powerful, and competent from birth. Children are seen as unique individuals with rights rather than simply needs. Children are protagonists with the right to collaborate and communicate with others. Their rights are manifested in curiosity, wonderment, exploration, discovery, social construction, and representations of their knowledge. Children are not passive learners to teacher-generated knowledge but are able to construct knowledge based on their experiences and interactions with others.

Children are also communicators, developing intellectually through the use of symbolic representations, including words, movement, drawing, painting, building, sculpting, shadow play, collage, dramatic play, and music, all of which lead children to surprising levels of communication. These multiple levels of communication have come to be known as the “hundred languages of children,” after a poem written by Malaguzzi, “the child has a hundred languages, and a hundred hundred hundred more.”

2. The teacher as partner, nurturer, guide, researcher. Teachers see themselves as partners in the co-construction of knowledge with the children. Teachers do not view themselves as leaders who are in front of the children but are with the children, exploring, discovering, and learning together. Each contribution is valued. This makes children more powerful contributors to their own education. Teachers are researchers who must continually readjust their image of children and learning. To be effective researchers, teachers hone their observational and listening skills. Educators decide what to teach by observing, listening, asking questions, reflecting on responses, and then introducing materials and ideas children can use to expand their understanding. As researchers into children’s skills and abilities, teachers create learning environments that encourage reflection, examination and their own personal beliefs about what children can and should be doing within educational settings.

3. Cooperation as the foundation of the educational system. Teachers are partners with their community. Collaboration exists at all levels and is a powerful tool in achieving educational goals. Each school contains an atellerista, a teacher specifically trained in the arts, who collaborates with the classroom teachers in planning documentation. The attellerista makes possible the deepening of instructions via the use of diverse media. All staff members are viewed as part of the educational experience and are often included in planning and implementing goals. All classes contain two teachers to plan experiences for the classroom and collaborate with teaching colleagues and staff members. This also allows for one teacher to observe, take notes and record conversations between children. Collaboration extends to every aspect of a Reggio Emilia school.

4. The environment as the “third teacher.” “environment indicates the way time is structured and the roles we are expected to play. It conditions how we feel, think and behave; and it dramatically affects the quality of our lives. Greenman Reggio Emilia schools place high value on physical environment and refer to it as the “third teacher”. The environment is seen as a living changing system. A vital part of every Reggio Emilia school is the atelier. The atelier is a studio that contains a wide range of media and materials fostering creativity and learning through projects. The atelier encourages children to use a variety of techniques and assists the adults in understanding processes of how children learn. It provides a workshop for documentation. Mini ateliers are present in each classroom.

5. The parent as partner. Children, teachers, and parents are seen as three equally important components in the philosophy’s educational process. Parents are encouraged to be active contributors to children’s activities in the classroom and in the school. Parent participation is manifested in daily interaction during school hours, in discussions regarding all aspects of educational and administrative issues. Parents often serve as advocates for the school in community politics.

6. Documentation as communication. “Teachers’ commentaries on the purposes of a project, along with transcriptions of children’s verbal language, photographs, and representations of their thinking are provided in accompanying panels or books designed to present the children’s learning processes. The documentation shows children that their work is valued, makes parents aware of class learning experiences, and allows teachers to assess both their teaching and the children’s learning. In addition, dialogue is fostered with other educators. Eventually, an historical archive is created that traces pleasure in the process of children’s and teachers’ learning experiences (Gandini, 1993).

The spiraling of experiences and symbolic representation characterizes not only children’s work but also the work of teachers in Reggio Emilia. Teachers utilize and depend upon sketches of children’s work as part of their field notes, photographs and videos of classroom experiences, audio transcriptions of conversations with children to represent and communicate their knowledge about the children’s meaning making. The teacher’s observations, videos and transcribed tapes are shared with colleagues for group reflection as teachers engage in collaborative reflection. Outcomes are often in the form of collective understanding (teachers construct new knowledge as they investigate, reflect, and represent children’s construction of knowledge).

The Reggio Emilia Approach Essay