Starch, Glycogen and Cellulose Essay

Starch, Glycogen and Cellulose Essay.

A polysaccharide is a long chain of monosaccharide molecules, held by glycosidic bonds. They are usually not sweet in taste, insoluble in water and often do not produce crystals when water is taken out. Starch

Starch is a complex solid carbohydrate, consisting glucose molecules held together by glycosidic bonds. It is a storage polysaccharide. They can be found in fruits, seeds, roots and other parts of the plant. The monomer of starch is glucose. Therefore, starch molecules can be made by polymerisation reaction, where glucose molecules are joined together to form a long chain.

These starch molecules are held by glycosidic bonds. Uses of starch

* Forms parts of a cell wall * Energy storage * Can be digested by humans with amylase to make glucose for respiration * Plants use starch as stored energy for later use, breaking it down to glucose for respiration

Starch is a polysaccharide, so it has very large molecules. This means they are insoluble, so they are suitable for storage because they do not do osmosis, do not easily diffuse out of cells; is compact as a result of its glycosidic bonds’ angles giving it a coiled structure, making it possible for them to be stored in small places.

It is also made up of small sub-units of alpha-glucose, making it easier for enzymes (amylase) to break down the molecule for an efficient release of glucose for respiration.

Glycogen Glycogen is a highly branched polysaccharide which is the main form of storage in animals. It has a similar structure to starch, but glycogen has shorter chains. It is mostly stored in small granules in animals Glycogen structure is similar to the structure of starch. Therefore, it is a large molecule, making it insoluble so it is suitable for storage in animals. It is also compact because of its glycosidic bonds giving it its coiled structure, so they can be stored in small places. However, they are made up of smaller chains so they can be easily hydrolysed into alpha-glucose for more efficient respiration.

A molecule of glycogen is made up of hundreds of units of glucose, branching off every ten glucose molecules or more. These molecules are joined together by a condensation reaction, held by glycosidic bonds.

Cellulose Cellulose is a polysaccharide which is the main part of every plant tissue, consisting of long unbranched chains of glucose units which are linked. Cellulose differs from starch and glycogen as it has a straight, unbranched chain instead of a coiled chain. Apart from this, the major difference between cellulose and starch and glycogen is that instead of alpha-glucose monomers, there are beta-glucose monomers. This however causes major differences in the structure and function of the cellulose. This is mainly because of the reverse positions of the –H and –OH groups.

The –OH groups, instead of being below are above the ring. Therefore, every beta-glucose molecule must be rotated 180 degrees to molecule next to it, in order to form glycosidic bonds. This means that there is an alternation with –CH2OH group on every beta-glucose molecule, from being either above or below the chain. The cellulose molecules are grouped together, forming microfibrils, making them parallel to each other, so there are hydrogen bonds in between adjacent chains. The large numbers of hydrogen bonds still strengthen the cellulose, hence why it is good for structural purposes. Cellulose is important as they give the rigidity and strength of plant cells.

The bonds between the molecules are strong, making them hard to break down/digest. Also, cellulose cell walls prevent water entering by osmosis so they do not burst as they apply inward pressure to prevent any more water entering. Therefore, the plant cells become turgid. This helps maintain stems and leaves to be turgid so there is a lot of surface area for photosynthesis.

Starch, Glycogen and Cellulose Essay

Introduction to Organic Chemistry Essay

Introduction to Organic Chemistry Essay.

Amines are compounds composed of nitrogen atoms bearing alkyl or aromatic compounds. Amines undergo interesting reactions, one of which is with the reaction with nitrous acid producing an azo dye. In this study, the experiment focused on synthesizing an observing the physical properties of Sudan-1. Sudan-1 is of the most common dyes found in waxes, oils and in some food ingredients specifically curry and chilli powder.

Furthermore, this study aimed to understand the mechanism behind the synthesis of 1-phenylazo-2-naphtol. To be able to synthesize Sudan-1, preparation of phenyldiazonium chloride solution and β- naphthol solution were done.

Ingrain dyeing was also done in this experiment. The synthesis of Sudan-1 has a two-step reaction – diazotization and coupling reactions. Diazotization is the formation of diazonium salt, meanwhile, the coupling reaction took place when an activated aromatic compound, β-naphtol was reacted with the diazonium salt, benzene diazonium chloride, to form the azo compound known as the 1-phenylazo-2-naphthol. As a result, an orange-red precipitate was formed after series of reaction.

Hence, all the said objectives in this experiment were achieved.

Amines are compounds that are composed of a nitrogen atom bearing alkyl or aromatic groups. They are basic and nucleophilic because of their lone pair. They occur both in plants and animals. Amines produces some of the most interesting effects and of the common reaction of aminewith nitrous acid producing a dye[4]. Alizarin, for example is a red dye extracted from madder root used by Egyptians and Persians. However, in this experiment, it aimed to produce a dye commonly known as Sudan-1. Sudan-1 is a lysochrome with the chemical formula 1-phenylazo-2-naphthol. It is a powdered substance with an orange-red color.

This azo dye is most commonly found in waxes, oils, and also in some food coloring ingredients – curry powder and chili powder. However, the presence of Sudan-1 in most foods now is currently being banned because it has been classified to be carcinogenic. This experiment focused on synthesizing of 1-phenylazo-2-naphthol which is a two-step reaction. The first reaction is the reaction of aniline with nitrous acid, which is called diazotization and second, the reaction of diazonium salt and beta-naphtol to form azo dye which is the coupling reaction.

Figure 1 Diazotization Reaction of Aniline to Produce a Diazonium Salt Figure 1 Diazotization Reaction of Aniline to Produce a Diazonium Salt In diazotization reaction, there is a formation of diazonium salts. This reaction is made possible when a primary aromatic amine is treated with nitrous acid. Then in coupling reaction, the electrophilic substitution reaction of a diazonium salt with an activated aromatic ring formed a azo compound specifically an azo dye.[3] The main objective of this study was to be able to synthesize Sudan-1. Also, it aimed to characterize the azo dye with its most distinguishing physical properties. Furthermore, this experiment also aimed to understand the mechanism behind the synthesis of Sudan-1.

Figure 2 Coupling Reaction of Benzene Diazonium Chloride with β -Naphthol Figure 2 Coupling Reaction of Benzene Diazonium Chloride with β -Naphthol Aniline was reacted NaNO2 crystals under acidic condition using HCl in a cold temperature. The solution was done in a very cold temperature because the phenyldiazonium intermediate easily decomposes back to its aniline counterpart at a slightly high temperature; hence the temperature of the solution was maintained in an ice bath below 5°C.

Rock salt may also be added to the ice bath to maintain the temperature. However, in this experiment, no rock salts were added instead constant monitoring of the temperature was done. β-naphthol solution was used as a coupling reagent in synthesizing Sudan-1. In preparing β-naphthol solution, β-naphthol was dissolved in 5% of aqueous NaOH and was also cooled in an ice bath below 5°C, this was to avoid the decomposition of the compounds. The main reaction that occurred in the preparation of phenyldiazonium chloride solution was diazotization reaction. Diazotization is the reaction between a primary aromatic amine and nitrous acid at cold temperatures to diazonium salt compound.[2] Figure 1 below is the reaction exhibited by the phenyldiazonium chloride solution.

As this experiment aimed to synthesize Sudan-1, two steps are done. The first step would be the reaction of a primary aromatic amine to produce a diazonium salt as seen in Figure 1. The second step, then, is the reaction of the diazonium salt with a strongly activated aromatic syste,l known as coupling reactions. Azo coupling is the reaction between a diazonium compound and aniline, phenol or other aromatic compound which produces an azo compound.[5] In this experiment β-naphthol couples with the diazonium salt. Figure 2 below shows the coupling reaction of the benzene diazonium chloride with β-naphthol and having the product of Sudan-1. Furthermore, figure 3 below is the summary of reactions of the synthesis of Sudan-1 in this experiment. Figure 3 Summary of Reactions in Synthesizing Sudan-1

Figure 3 Summary of Reactions in Synthesizing Sudan-1

In this experiment, a filter paper was used to undergo ingrain dyeing. Ingrain dyeing is an irreversible chemical reaction of the diazonium salt solution and the activating aromatic solution. An orange-red filter paper was produced after such procedure. The presence of orange-red color in filter indicates the presence of the azo dye (see appendix for the orange-red filter paper produced). The Sudan dye is synthesized right in the spaces between the filter paper such that they are permanently trapped inside the fiber spaces of the filter paper.[2]

After mixing the phenyldiazonium chloride solution with the β-naphthol solution, an orange-red paste-like solution was formed. Furthermore, the mixed solution was also reacted at a temperature not exceeding 4˚C for 1-5 minutes. Afterwards, the mixture was also filtered was washed with several portions of water to filter the product, Sudan-1.

Recrystallization was also done when the filtrate was steamed bath after dissolving it with 95% hot ethanol. AS a result, orange-red crystals were formed which is the Sudan-1 product. The crystal appeared to be orange-red in color due to the N=N bond present in Sudan-1. The N=N is responsible for the absorption of

light thus reflecting a color which is orange-red. The structure of Sudan-1 is shown in Figure 4 below showing the N=N bond of the compound. The N=N is known as the chromophores which are responsible for the color. The –OH group attached in the structure is also responsible for enhancing the orange-red color. The –OH functional group is known as the auxochrome, which modifies the ability of the chromophore to absorb the light.[1]

Figure 4 Structure of Sudan-1

Azo-compounds, compounds with general formula Ar-N+=N-Ar-, are coupling products from the reaction of diazonium salts with amines. The general reaction pattern for Sudan synthesis first undergoes diazotization reaction and then coupling reaction with highly activated aromatic compounds. In this experiment, the diazotization reaction of aniline with NaNO2 and HCl yielded a diazonium salt, benzene diazonium chloride. Furthermore, the diazonium salt then underwent coupling reactions with an activated aromatic ring which is β-naphthol.

The coupling reaction yielded an azo compound which is most commonly known as the Sudan-1 with an IUPAC name of 1-phenylazo-2-naphthol. As a result of the reactions in this experiment, an orange-red color of solution was produced. This experiment aimed to understand the reactions that underwent to synthesize Sudan-1; as a result, figure 3 was the summary of reactions. As a physical result, orange-red colored crystals were produced representing the azo compound, Sudan-1. However, some minor errors will not be ignored in this experiment.

Some errors like human errors might have affected the results in yielding a pure azo compound. One human error, would be the measuring of the reagents used to yield the said product. Also, the misreading of some measurements may have also affected the results of this experiment. Also, some impurities in the chemicals used will also not be ignore, since this impurities may have led to a not so visible side reactions in the said experiment. After being said and done, all the said objectives in this experiment were met.

Introduction to Organic Chemistry Essay

Effects of Soil Ph on Radish Plants Growth Essay

Effects of Soil Ph on Radish Plants Growth Essay.

Background information:

the soil ph can have 2 different impacts on the growth of plant roots. First and most important is how it affects the concentration of nutrients present in the soil itself. This variable varies depending on the ph tendency, in particular, nutrients like phosphorous, potassium ,sulphur, calcium and magnesium tend to drastically decrease in more acidic ph conditions (<6.0), on the other hand iron, manganese, boron, copper and zinc tend to lack in alkaline enviroments (>7.5) [figure 1].

The importance of these types of nutrients varies depending on the species of plant, in this case radish tends to show higher concentrations of Potassium, Calcium, Magnesium, Copper, Manganese, Phosphorous and Sodium.

These all tend to grow in more alkali or neutral soil conditions rather than acidic as showed in figure

1. Another variable affected by a change in ph is the growth of microorganisms in the soil specifically affecting their respiration rate and the PLFA (phospholipid fatty acids) concentration [figure 3], which consist in the main component of the cell membrane of most microbes, including the soil ones.

In this case too the graph [figure 2] seems to show a straight directly proportional relationship between respiration rate and PLFA concentration and PH growth, meaning that microorganisms optimum ph conditions tend to be either neutral or slightly alkali, particuralrly for respiration the best fit line on the graph displays a steeper line with a bigger gradient.

Conclusion

As a hypothesis i would say that the best results in terms of mass gaining and length should be matched by the radish seeds growing in an alkali or neutral enviroment, rather than in an acidic one To revisit my hypothesis and understand why the base solution should provide better nutrients for the radish rather than the other ones it is very important to understand the concept of CEC (Cation Exchange Capacity), this property of the soil is defined as: “The total number of cations a soil can hold–or its total negative charge–is the soil’s cation exchange capacity”[1] the capacity of the soil to contain these ions is measured in millequivalents per 100 grams of soil (meq/100g) the increase of this soil property is usually associated with an increase of fertility, the reason being that the higher the CEC the higher the maximum amount of nutrients (ions) [figure 4]the soil is capable of holding and more likely it is to improve its productivity.

The increase in CEC is usually associated to a decrease in pH (showed in the graph [figure 5]). This has been prooved by Dr Lloyd A. Peterson who carried out an experiment of soil acidification through the use of N fertilizers [2] (the main chemical in these compounds is Ammonia, NH3, which as it’s released in the soil is converted into ammonium nitrate by the bacteria, during this biological process, 3 positive hydrogen ions are released in the soil per ammonia molecule converted. The increase in the H+ ions concentration makes the soil acidic.) which eventually lead to a much higher CEC rate, which should theoretically improve the soil fertility itself, but, as a side effect of the acidification is a drastic decline registered for the exchangeable base cations particularly in the ions Ca2+, which suffered of – 31% exchangeability and a – 36% for Mg2+[3] actually worsened the fertility of the soil since the ECEC (effective cation exchange capacity, calculated by adding the exchangeable base cations and the exchangeable acidity) actually turned out to be negative, meaning that the relation between pH and the ECEC itself is actually directly proportional.

To conclude, in the case of radish especially, the ions suffering from base cation exchangeability decrease, which are magnesium and calcium make up a big part of the nutrients absorbed by the seeds (see the background paragraph) this causes the radish growth to be damaged by an acidification of the soil. This explains why roots growing in acidic conditions should display the worst results, while the ones living in alkali and neutral soils should grow longer and heavier, because the ECEC along with the nutrients concentration in the soil varies depending on the change in pH, in this case with a linear directly proportional rate, meaning that as pH increases (towards alkali) so does the base cations nutrients concentration in the soil and the plant growth benefits from it.

Effects of Soil Ph on Radish Plants Growth Essay

Thermodynamics Of Borax Essay

Thermodynamics Of Borax Essay.

Introduction

The purpose of the lab was to determine how the solubility of Borax (Na2B4(OH)4) and other thermodynamic quantities such as enthalpy, entropy, and Gibbs free energy depend on temperature. When Sodium borate octahydrate (Borax) dissociates in water it forms two sodium ions, one borate ion and eight water molecules. The chemical reaction is shown as:

(reaction 1)

A simple acid-base titration can be used to determine the concentration of the borate ion base. By dissolving Borax into distilled (DI) water at two different temperatures, the amount of borate that went into the solution at each temperature can be measured.

The balanced equation:

(reaction 2)

represents the titration of the borax where the endpoint of the reaction is signaled by the change of bromocresol purple indicator, from purple to yellow.  To understand how temperature affects thermodynamic quantities equation 1 – equation 4 shown in Appendix A were used to calculate the solubility product constant, enthalpy, entropy, and Gibbs free energy respectively. Using these equations, the aforementioned thermodynamic quantity’s dependence on temperature is more understood by the lab’s completion.

Experimental Methods

To start the experiment two separate titrations were set up, one at room temperature and the other in an ice bath. For the room temperature Borax titration, a saturated solution was created by adding 1.5 grams of solid Borax to 50mL of DI water and a stir bar to a beaker that was stirred for at least ten minutes. To assure that equilibrium was sustained throughout the stirring, it was stopped periodically to assure that there was solid Borax present in the beaker keeping a saturated solution. Next, a burette was filled with approximately 50mL of the .103M Hydrochloric Acid solution (HCl).

For the room temperature Borax titrations the temperature of the saturated solution was measured first. Then, DI water and bromocresol purple indicator were added to two separate flasks of the saturated solution. Each HCl solution was then titrated to its yellow endpoint and the HCl volume was recorded. For the ice bath temperature Borax, the titration was completed with the same procedure as the room temperature Borax.

Results and Discussion

For both room temperature titrations at the start of the lab, the initial temperature was found to be 18˚C, while the two titrations set in an ice bath were found to be 8˚C. After each titration was complete, the volumes of the .103M HCl solution needed to titrate the saturated solution were recorded in Table 1.

After the Borax dissociated in the water it was important to calculate the concentrations of both the Na+ and the , because these are needed to calculate the solubility product constant (Ksp) of the solution. By using the titration endpoint, the equivalence point was approximated and the latter was calculated.

The equation:

was used to find the appropriate values of and are shown in Appendix B. To find the concentration of Na+, the concentration of the borate ion was multiplied by two because the ratio presented in reaction 1 shows that for every mole of borate produced there are two moles of Na+ produced. The values were then averaged for both room temperature titrations as well as the two ice bath titrations. The values found were shown in Table 2.

Table 2. Concentration of Ions

After these values were calculated, the average concentrations of both the borate ion and N+ ion were used in equation 1 to find the solubility product constant at room temperature and ice bath temperature. The Ksp values were found to be 1.794*10-3 for room temperature and 1.271*10-3 for the ice bath. The steps used to find this value are shown in Appendix C.

The solubility of a salt is dependent on the temperature of the solution. When equilibrium is established in a saturated solution such as the one created in the lab, the rate of the formation of ions in solution is equal to the rate of precipitation of solid. The values found for the solubility product constant show that as temperature decreases in a saturated solution in equilibrium, the formation of ions slows down significantly.

The next thermodynamic quantity that was calculated was enthalpy using equation 2. The enthalpy change for both room temperature and the ice bath were found to be equal to each other at a value of 23.25 kJ/mol. The solution process for ΔH˚ is shown in Appendix D.

Enthalpy describes the amount of energy that is gained or lost in a system such as the titration solutions that were used in this particular experiment. Equation 2 shows that as the difference in temperatures of the two titration solutions decreases the energy gained by the system increases. The equation presents the importance of temperature in regard to the energy gained or lossed by a system by showing the relationship between temperature and the solubility constant.

After the enthalpy change was found, equation 3 was used to find the change in entropy (ΔS˚). Similar to that of enthalpy, the values for entropy were equal to each other at a value of 27 J/mol*K. The solution for the change in entropy is shown in Appendix E.

Entropy measures the amount of disorder the solution possesses. Equation 3 displays that as the temperature of the solution increases the less disorder or entropy the solution has. This is significant in analyzing the importance temperature has in calculating the entropy of a solution.

Finally, the Gibbs free energy (ΔG˚) could be calculated using equation 4. The room temperature value of Gibbs free energy was equal to 15.58 kJ/mol while the ice bath value was equal to 15.30 kJ/mol. The solution set that was used to calculate these values is shown in Appendix F.

After the values of solubility product constant, enthalpy, entropy and Gibbs free energy were calculated; the results were placed in Table 3.

Table 3. Thermodynamic Quantity Values

Next, the percent error values for enthalpy and entropy were calculated using the accepted literature values of ΔH˚ = 110 kJ/mol and ΔS˚ = 380 J/mol*K. To calculate the percent error the equation:

was used where the errors were equal to 78.8% for enthalpy and 92.9% for entropy.
For this lab, the percent error was extremely high when calculating entropy and enthalpy of the titrated solutions. Some possible sources of error when the experiment was conducted was reading the thermometer and recording the corresponding temperature. Also, when recording the volume of HCl. Finally, the percent error could be extremely high because of the fact that the given values are given at standard temperature and pressure while the values that were calculated in this specific experiment were not at standard temperature. Therefore, the final values for the solubility product constant, enthalpy, entropy, and Gibbs free energy do not correlate to the accepted literature values given in the lab.

Conclusions

The purpose of conducting this experiment was to understand how the solubility of Borax and other thermodynamic quantities such as solubility product constant, enthalpy, entropy and Gibbs free energy depend on temperature. By dissociating Borax in DI water into Borate and Sodium ions, an acid-base titration allowed the group to calculate the aforementioned quantities. The major findings of the lab was that the Enthalpy of the titrated solutions was equal to 23.25 kJ/mol, while the entropy of the solutions was 27 J/mol*K. Using these values the importance of temperature in regards to thermodynamic quantities was evident and allowed the group to realize the relationships between the aforesaid quantities and temperature.

References
1. Applications of Chemistry II, Spring 2013: Experiment 5, Thermodynamics of Borax, Department of Chemistry, United States Air Force Academy, February 2013.

Documentation: C3C James Stofel and C3C Charlie Meyen proofread my paper and corrected small grammar errors and assisted me with transitions and general flow of the lab report.

Thermodynamics Of Borax Essay

ABC Chemicals Essay

ABC Chemicals Essay.

After reading the scenario about ABC Chemicals it was obvious that there were several apparent hazards and risks that I identified which needed to be assessed and either eliminated or controlled. These can be achieved using different Legislative measures and Codes Of Practice(COP) which is relevant to their Industry. By Looking further into the chemicals that ABC handle we can assess the presentable hazards Solvent: most solvents are either flammable or highly flammable, this is dependent on their volatility. When a mixture of vapour and air combine there is a possibility of an explosion.

The vapours from solvent is denser that air, it sinks to the bottom of the container. Vapours can still be found in empty containers and pose threat of possible fire, hence empty containers should be stored open and upside down.

There are many potential health risks caused by solvent including toxicity to the nervous system, liver and kidney damage, respiratory issues to name a few. It burns with an invisible flame making it harder to extinguish.

Corrosives – corrosives have the ability to destroy other substances when in contact. It causes chemical burn when in contact. PPE should be worn including Gloves, Safety Goggles, Protective Apron, Safety Shoes, and a Face Guard. Workers should always consult a SDS relating to the corrosive substance prior to use.

Corrosive substances and mixtures [class 8 dangerous goods] can be either alkaline or acidic and these two categories are incompatible. Risks associated with storage and handling of corrosive substances and mixtures can be eliminated or minimised by observing the guidance on Worksafe Australia “National Code of Practice for the Storage and Handling of Workplace Dangerous Goods” Eyewash and safety showers should be readily accessible where corrosives are handled or transferred.

Acid – acid comes in as a water treatment chemical. It should not be stored with detergents or solutions. Acids should never be stored with alkaline chemicals due to the potential for harmful reactions. Some reactions of acids and alkaline chemicals can be highly exothermic and rapidly generate large amounts of gas, causing an explosion risk. Chemicals such as acids can cause respiratory illnesses, cancers or dermatitis. WHS Regulation 2011

(357 containing and managing spills)
(359 Fire control)
(360-362 Emergency Equipment, Emergency Plans, Safety Equipment) (363-control of risks from storage or handling systems & regulation) (331 – SDS’s)
(60- managing risks to health and safety) manual handling

The WHS Act provides a framework to protect the Health, safety and welfare of all workers at work and that of people who may be affected by the work carried out. The WHS Act aims to *Protect the health and safety of workers and other people by eliminating or minimising risks arising from work or workplaces *Ensure fair and effective representation, consultation and cooperation to address and resolve any health and safety issues in the workplace *Encourage employer organisations and workers Unions to take a constructive role in improving work health and safety practices *Assisting businesses and workers to achieve a healthier and safer working environment *Promote information, education and training on work health and safety *Provide effective compliance and enforcement measures, and *Deliver continuous improvement and progressively higher standards of work health

Worksafe Australia has devised the National Model Work Health and Safety (WHS) Regulations. A new system of Chemical Classification and Hazard communication on Labels and Safety Data Sheets (SDS’s) based on globally Harmonised system of Classification and labelling of chemicals (GHS) will come into affect. There will be a five (5) year transitional period for moving to the new GHS based system, this will allow the two different systems to be used together .

After 31 December 2016, (the end of the 5 year period) all workplace chemicals must be classified using the GHS system, Labels and safety data sheets (SDS) must also be updated.. The WHS Regulations include duties for a Person conducting or Undertaking a business to manage any risk to Health and safety that can be caused from the Handling, Storing and Generating of Hazardous chemicals in the workplace. These Duties include tasks such as, but not limited to: *The correct labelling of Containers

*Displaying Safety Signs
*Maintaining a Register And Manifest (if relevant) Of the hazardous Chemicals and providing Notifications to the Regulator of the Manifest Quantities *Ensuring that exposure standards are not exceeded.

*the provision of Training, information, instruction and supervision to all employees *identifying risk of physical/chemical reaction of hazardous chemicals and to ensure the stability of these chemicals *provision of spill containment system for hazardous chemicals if needed *obtaining up to date Safety Data Sheets (SDS) from the manufacturer, importer, supplier of that chemical. *Controlling ignition sources and accumulation of flammable and combustible substances. *Provision and availability of fire protection, fire fighting equipment and emergency/safety equipment. *preparing an emergency plan if the amount of a hazardous class chemical exceeds the manifest quantity for the chemical *Ensure the stability & support containers for bulk hazardous chemicals including Pipe-work and any attachments. *De-commisioning of underground storage and handling system

*Notifying the regulator as soon as possible of any abandoned tanks More information regarding Hazards and risks associated with the use, generating, storing and handling of a hazardous chemical can be obtained from the following resources -incident reports

-Australian Code for “Transport of Dangerous Good by Road & Rail”
-National Industrial Chemical Substances Information System (NICNAS)
– The Regulatory Authorities
-WHS Consultant
-Trade unions
-Employer Associations
-By Searching the internet, such as Safework Australia, the Australian Government webpages as well as many other sites relevant to your industry.

Hazards

*When spillage occurred, it states that it was cleaned up with a rag then dumped into a general waste dumpster which was emptied on a weekly basis. The disposal of these rags in the general dumpster poses a major risk of cross contamination with other rags that have had been used with other chemical/substances, which could lead to a toxic/hazardous situation, the production of toxic gases and the potential of a fire hazard. There is also no mention of any PPE being used during the handling of the chemicals either * Chemical storage: there are several different types of chemicals stored at the facility, there is a risk if stored together that they can cause either a chemical or physical risk, *Another hazard I noted was that ABC chemical’s building only had a limited amount of emergency equipment, with the amount of employees working for ABC this definitely causes a hazard, there obviously is not enough equipment available to accommodate more than a handful of workers.

The company could end up in legal strife for not supplying the correct amount of Emergency Equipment as set out in the WHS Regulation 2011 *Manual Handling Hazard – the drums are 205 Ltrs, they are then decanted into containers approximately 30 ltrs/Kilo ,there is no mention of appropriate equipment to move these containers. *The Storing the empty drums in the rear of the yard against a cyclone fence, these drums are sitting for a whole month before being removed.

Even though these drums are presumably empty, drums that have had solvent in them, unless stored open and upside down pose a major risk of explosion causing fire, with an un-kept paddock directly behind the fence where these drums are stored there is the potential for the fire to spread causing damage and risk to the public also. *The lack of employee training in relation to Safe Handling Of Chemicals (hazardous substances) or how to deal with Emergencies. . No employee’s have be appointed as safety officers (section 19 of the Act), if there was an incident there would be no clear direction to follow..

*Location: There is risk to not only to employees of ABC there is also risk to all at the childcare centre, the nursing home, as well as the general public with the building being located on a busy street which is prone to accidents. *Lack of Emergency plan displayed. No emergency plan displayed to direct people when there is an incident These risks can be assessed by several means such as SDS (Safety Data Sheets), independent Audit, Employee participation, hazard studies.

Level of risk and Control

Small chemical spills:- (dependent on the severity)- first aid injury is likely due to chemical burn(dependent on skin sensitivity, injury could range from minor-major) High Risk- Have a separate area for decanting each separate chemical. Provide spill containment system, Provide appropriate training in the control of spills, Develop procedure for the control of spills Provide appropriate PPE for each specific chemical

Disposal of Chemical Rags: minor – fatal injuries is very likely from this dangerous practice which is exposing the risk to the disposal company staff and driver Extreme risk- Notify Supervisor/ HSR- Provide spill containment system, Provide controlled waste system, – have a separate waste area for specific chemicals. Set up a controlled collection of waste

Staff Lacking Training in handling chemicals – minor – fatality possible Extreme risk-Immediate action required, notify supervisor/HSR. | Adopt a training plan to up skill the workforce in line with legislative requirements. Ensure the training covers areas such as

* How to understand SDS Data Sheets
* Personal Safety
* Emergency procedures
* Induction training & Ongoing training

Limited Emergency Equipment – major injury is very likely through to fatality Extreme risk- immediate action required, notify supervisor/HSR. Undertake risk assessment with workers and emergency services to determine all main risks. Review SDS to identify risks Implement additional emergency equipment as required, an example of such equipment could be : * Spill containment systems * Emergency showers and eye wash stations * Monitors and alarms *Fire fighting equipment

Storage of chemical drums – Major- fatality
Extreme risk- separation of the different chemicals in storage areas to minimise the risk of interaction. Ensure the clear displaying of SDS information for each of chemicals

Storage of empty chemical drums- Major – Fatality
Extreme Risk- Organise that the collection of empty drums are done more frequently (eg: Weekly) Ensure Solvent drums are turned upside down with lid open to reduce risk of gas build up. Ensure each chemicals drums are stored separate to each other to minimise interaction

Lack of emergency Plan displayed- Minor- Fatality

Extreme risk- consultation within the workplace, and surrounding Businesses. Develop a emergency plan including things such as – evacuation procedures – Notification Procedures ( advising emergency services – medical treatment – Communication procedures between co-ordinater of the emergency response and everyone at the workplace. The plan is to be explained to all existing staff, and included in inductions for future staff. The plan needs to be displayed in a location that is accessible to all staff of the workplace. The plan will be reviewed at acceptable intervals no more than 5yrs to ensure its effectiveness or when there is a change warranting an update.

Manual Handling- Minor- Major There is no mention of Lifting devices meaning injury is then Extreme Risk. Ensure adequate training of workers in regard to proper Manual handling. Ensure there is appropriate lifting devices for employees to use to minimise the risk of injury

Location- Minor – Fatality. Due to proximity to day-care and nursing home and the fact it is on a busy rd which is prone to accidents there is a Extreme risk- the installation of safety barriers around ABC Chemicals to minimise the risk of damage caused by motor vehicle accident, set up exclusion zone for storage of any chemicals. Consultation with the aged care facility and the surrounding Businesses regarding ABC’s emergency Plan in case of incident

Risk Controls

1.Eliminate a hazard, removing the hazard totally, Eg repairing damaged equipment immediately. If this is not reasonably practicable the next step is to minimise the risks so far as is reasonably practicable by doing one or more of the following:

2.Substituting (wholly or partly) the hazard creating the risk with something that has lesser risk, Eg instead of using a lead based product, use a non lead based one

3.Engineering controls/. Isolation- the hazard from any person exposed to it, with use of Barriers etc, lifting devices for manual handling

4. Administrative controls. Training, provide manuals regarding H&S in the workplace,redesigning the job task. If the risk is still present, the remaining risk must be minimised, so far as is reasonably practicable,

5.PPE. such as Gloves, Safety Goggles etc A combination of controls should be used if a single control is not sufficient for the purpose. PPE is a last resort because it protects the person against the hazard but it does not remove the hazard

ABC Chemicals Essay

Handling Laboratory And Chemical Apparatus Essay

Handling Laboratory And Chemical Apparatus Essay.

Introduction

Laboratory equipment can be hazardous if they are not used and maintained properly. Laboratory personnel must be trained on the proper use of laboratory equipment prior to using the equipment. Glassware is designed for a specific purpose. It should only be used for that purpose. “Makeshift” apparatus may be unstable and could lead to accidents and injuries. When selecting glassware, determine the compatibility of the glassware with the chemicals or process. Some chemicals react with glass or cause damage (etch) glass.

If your process involves temperature or pressure changes, ensure the glassware can withstand the changes. Many dangers lurk in the laboratory. The most obvious risks are chemical hazards, but unsafe usage of laboratory apparatus can lead to disastrous consequences as well. There are certain procedures which must be observed when handling laboratory apparatus to reduce accidents and prevent injury.

Working safely with hazardous chemicals requires proper use of laboratory equipment. Maintenance and regular inspection of laboratory equipment are essential parts of this activity.

Many of the accidents that occur in the laboratory can be attributed to improper use or maintenance of laboratory equipment. This chapter discusses prudent practices for handling equipment used frequently in laboratories.

The most common equipment-related hazards in laboratories come from devices powered by electricity devices for work with compressed gases, and devices for high or low pressures and temperatures. Other physical hazards include electromagnetic radiation from lasers and radio-frequency generating devices. Seemingly ordinary hazards such as floods from water-cooled equipment, accidents with rotating equipment and machines or tools for cutting and drilling, noise extremes, slips, trips, falls, lifting, and poor ergonomics account for the greatest frequency of laboratory accidents and injuries.

References:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK55884/
http://www.uvm.edu/safety/lab/safe-handling-of-glassware
https://www.sigmaaldrich.com/content/dam/sigma-aldrich/docs/Sigma-Aldrich/Usage/1/glass_care_safe_handling.pdf http://mdk12.org/instruction/curriculum/science/safety/handling.html

SAFETY IN THE USE OF LABORATORY EQUIPMENT
Glassware

The primary hazards associated with laboratory glassware are cuts from broken glassware, puncture wounds from attempting to force thermometers or glass tubing into stoppers, and burns from inadvertently touching heated glassware. Laboratory glassware should never be used for food or beverages. When using glass tubing, all cut ends should be fire polished. Use a dustpan and brush, not your hands, to pick up broken glass. Broken glass should be discarded in a separate designated container. Use the right size and type of glassware for any given operation. Wear proper cut‐resistant gloves when inserting or removing glass tubing from flexible tubing or a stopper. Ensure that stopper holes are appropriately sized and carefully insert tubing by gently twisting back and forth.

When cutting a piece of glass tubing, score a line using a file or equivalent. Wrap a cloth or paper towel around the tubing and break at the score over a piece of cloth/paper to catch any pieces.

Centrifuges

Most hazards associated with centrifuges are due to the processing of hazardous materials and poor mechanical conditions.  Ensure centrifuges have an interlocking device that will prevent both the lid from being opened when the rotor is in motion and the centrifuge from starting when the lid is open.  Inspect the centrifuge tubes prior to use for stress lines, hairline cracks and chipped rims. Ensure the centrifuge is properly balanced. Load the rotor with samples arranged symmetrically. Opposing tubes must be of equal weight. If necessary, use “water blank” tubes to balance sample tubes of unequal weight. Avoid over‐filling the tubes.

Use caps or stoppers on centrifuge tubes. Avoid using lightweight materials such as aluminum foil as caps. Do not open the lid during or immediately after operation, attempt to stop a spinning rotor by hand or with an object, or interfere with the interlock safety device. Decant supernatants carefully and avoid vigorous shaking when re‐suspending. Never exceed the specified speed limitations of the rotor. Inspect the O‐ring on the rotor lid regularly and replace if cracked or dry. Never operate a centrifuge if the rotor lid is missing its O‐ring. Do not leave the centrifuge until it has reached its programmed speed.

Decontaminate the outside of the cups/buckets and rotors before and after centrifugation. Unless fitted with a suitable exhaust system, do not centrifuge materials capable of creating flammable or explosive vapors. Immediately abort the run if you hear abnormal vibration, whining or grinding noises. At the end of the run, ensure the rotor and centrifuge are cleaned according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Do not use abrasive cleaners. Rotors are easily damaged. Do not use metal tools to remove tubes or clean. Do not attempt to move the centrifuge while it is in operation.

Gas Burners

All laboratory workers using gas burners shall follow these guidelines:

Place the burner away from any overhead shelving or equipment. Remove all papers, notebooks, combustible materials and containers of flammable chemicals from the area surrounding the burner. Tie‐back long hair, remove dangling jewelry and secure any loose clothing. Inspect the rubber tubing for cracks, holes, or other defects and ensure that the hose is securely connected on the gas valve and the burner. Report any damage to the laboratory supervisor and replace any defective parts.

Inform others in the laboratory that the burner will be in use. Use a burner sparker to ignite the gas burner. Never use a match or cigarette lighter to ignite a burner. Hold the sparker above the burner before turning on the gas and ignite immediately after opening the gas valve. Adjust the flame by turning the collar to regulate airflow and produce an appropriate flame. Do not leave open flames unattended. Never leave the laboratory while the burner is on. Turn off the gas when the burner is no longer needed. Ensure the main laboratory gas valve is off before leaving the laboratory. Regularly inspect all gas valves in the laboratory to ensure they are completely shut off.

Heating and Cooling Glassware

Check with the glassware manufacturer to determine safe temperature usage. Most glassware can only be exposed to certain high and low temperatures. Usage outside of those ranges may cause damage or breakage to the glassware. Always watch evaporation closely. A vessel, heated after evaporation has already occurred, may crack. Do not put hot glassware on cold or wet surfaces as it may break with temperature change. Never heat glassware that is etched, cracked, chipped, nicked or scratched. Glassware with thick walls (e.g. bottles and jars) should never be heated over a direct flame. Additionally, do not heat glassware directly on electrical heating elements. Do not look down into a vessel being heated.

Cool all glassware slowly to prevent breakage, unless using specifically designed glassware. Use care when removing glassware from ultra-low temperature freezers (-70 to -150 C) to prevent thermal shock and cracking. For best results, immediately rinse the entire bottle under cold running water until thawing begins. Never place bottles directly from the freezer into warm water baths.

When using a Bunsen burner, the flam should touch the glass below the liquid level. A ceramic-centered wire gauze will diffuse the burner flame to provide more even heat. Always use hotplates that are larger than the bottom of the vessel being heated. Thick-walled glassware (e.g. jars, bottles, cylinders, and filter flasks) should never be heated on hot plates. When using a hot/stir plate, ensure that only the settings necessary are activated (i.e. if you do not intend to heat, ensure the hot plate is NOT turned on.

Cleaning and Drying Glassware

Good lab technique necessitates the use of clean glassware. Glass must be physically clean, chemically clean, an in many cases, sterile. Many glassware accidents occur during cleaning. Some reminders when washing and drying glassware. Eye protection and heavy-duty slip-resistant and chemically resistant gloves should be worn when washing glassware. Wash glassware as quickly as possible after use. The longer it is left unwashed, the harder it will be to clean. If necessary, allow harder to clean apparatus to soak in soapy water. Do not overload sinks, dishwashers, or soaking bins.

Keep glassware clear of the sides of the sink. Rubber sink and counter mats can also help reduce the risk of breakage and injury. Never use worn out cleaning brushes; they can scratch or abrade the glass. Specialized training in the safe usage of caustic cleaning agents must be completed before using aqua-regia, chromic acid or other reactive solutions to clean glassware. When drying glassware, place articles on towels, lined basket, or slip-resistant pads. Be sure to place away from the edge of the bench. Large containers may be hung on pegs to dry. When cleaning pipettes, place pipettes, tips down, into a cylinder or tall jar of water or appropriate disinfectant (e.g. for biologically contaminated tips). A pad of cotton or glass wool at the bottom will help prevent breakage of the tips. Ensure the water or disinfectant level is high enough to immerse the pipettes. New glassware should be washed before use to remove any residue or loose particles.

Disposal and Spill Clean-up
Spills and Broken Glass

Glass is fragile and breaks easily. When glass breaks, care should be taken to reduce the risk of cuts. If something is falling, let it drop! Catching it may cause the glassware to break in your hand. Wear cut-resistant gloves when handling broken glass. Disposal nitrile or latex gloves should NEVER be worn. Glass will cut through those gloves. When cleaning broken glass, use mechanical means to pick up the pieces. Tongs, tweezers, or forceps should be used to pick up large pieces of broken glass. Small shards can be picked up using a wet paper towel or absorbent pad or by using rolled-up tape.

Disposal
Proper disposal ensure that others aren’t injured by improperly disposed of broken glass.
Contaminated broken glass
Place in rigid, puncture-resistant container (e.g. sharps container). For biologically contaminated broken glass, closed and sealed container should be placed in bio hazardous waste box for disposal. For chemically contaminated broken glass, closed and sealed containers should be tagged as chemical waste. Uncontaminated broken glass

Uncontaminated broken glass may be disposed of in a broken glass box or uncontaminated waste box.

Activity

Objectives: Let’s see if you can recall the things that you learned and how sharp your eyes is! Find the following words that is related on what have you learned from the topic.

Handling Laboratory And Chemical Apparatus Essay

Potato Osmolarity Lab Essay

Potato Osmolarity Lab Essay.

Purpose:

The purpose of the lab is to discover the osmolarity of the potato tissue.

Background Information:

Osmolarity is a concept similar to concentration, except it is the total number of solute particles per liter. In this lab we can show osmolarity by using sucrose solutions and potato ores. This experiment displays hypertonic, hypotonic and isotonic solutions. A hypertonic solution is a solution with a relatively higher concentration, hypotonic cis relatively lower, and isotonic is the same.

Variables:

Constant = size of potato core
Independent = sucrose molarity
Dependent = mass percentage change
Safety:
Follow lab safety protocol and be careful with cork borer.

Procedure:

1. With a cork borer, cut six cores from a potato. The cores should all be as close to the same length as possible: 30-50 mm cores are recommended. 2. Before continuing, produce a table that will show the volume and mass of the potato cores before and after being placed in solutions of 6 different sucrose molarities. 3. Determine mass of potato cores using a laboratory balance.

Record in table. 4. Place each core in a different test tube labelled with the core’s identification letter and the molarity of the sucrose solution to be placed in the tube 5. Add a labelled molar solution to each test tube until core is covered. Place foil over each tube and store for 24 hours 6. On the next day, repeat step 3

Conclusion/Analysis:

The osmolarity of the potato core is 0.4 M, I determined this by finding where on my graph the percentage change in mass was equivalent to 0. This meant that there was no change in mass, the tissue and solution were isotonic, and the molarity of the solution is the same as the osmolarity of the tissue. In this lab, and all experiments, an accurate measurement of mass was crucial to finding the correct results, trend, and osmolarity. The conclusion of this lab was based off of a negative trend on the graph which could have been skewed from inaccurate data.

In order to attain more reliable data I could have done multiple trials in the procedure which would clarify my results and conclusions. Also to generate better data a more precise device for measuring the mass of the potato cores could have been used. Also the size of the potato cores could have been more constant to create more accurate data. Outside of this experiment osmolarity is used in urine tests to calculate the concentration of certain particles in urine. An osmolality test can also be used for the blood to see the number of solutes present. These tests are then helpful in diagnosing and treating patients.

You may also be interested in the following: what is the osmolarity of a potato, osmolarity of a potato, osmolarity of potato

Potato Osmolarity Lab Essay

Dow’s Bid for Rohm and Haas Essay

Dow’s Bid for Rohm and Haas Essay.

Dow started as a manufacturer of commercial bleach in 1897, and was founded by Herbert Dow. He merged his company in 1900 with Midland Chemical, which lead to diversification of his portfolio to agricultural and food products. In 1912, Dow started to pay dividends every quarter without any reductions or interruptions. By doing so, they were the only Fortune 200 firm that established these figures. Dow became a major player in the M&a field, since they acquired between 1983 and 2007 95 business, took stakes in 58 firms and divested 166 businesses.

In 2006, Dow’s CEO Andrew Liveris announced the ‘Dow of Tomorrow’ strategy, which consisted of two pillars.

One was pursuing an asset light approach to its commodity business. In order to do so, he signed a JV agreement with a subsidiary of the Kuwait Petroleum Company, named Petroleum Industries Company. Dow and PIC signed a Memorandum of Understanding, which generated Dow a $7.2 billion after tax revenues. Second, Mr. Liveris wanted to build a high-growth and high-value added performance business.

In order to achieve this objective, Dow agreed to purchase Rohm and Haas. This acquisition had the purpose for Dow to become a producer of high-value chemicals and advanced materials.

Why does Dow want to buy Rohm and Haas?

As mentioned in the introduction, CEO Andrew Liveris announced the ‘Dow of Tomorrow’ strategy. This included becoming a high growth and high-value added producer of specialty chemicals, with less cyclicality. Rohm and Haas fitted the picture perfectly, since they were an advanced material and specialty chemicals company, operating in 27 countries. Besides the interesting company profile description, there were several other reasons why Dow was interested in the Rohm and Haas company. Most important reason was that the acquisition would make Dow reduce its cyclicality and increase its growth prospects. Expanded product portfolios, increased geographic market, improved market channels and innovative technologies will obtain the expected growth and cost synergies.

Forecasts predict additional growth synergies values between $2.0 and $2.6 billion and $0.8 billion costs synergies, including shared services and governance, manufacturing, supply chain and work process improvements. Besides the above-mentioned advantages, Dow and Rohm could be a global leader in specialty chemicals and advanced materials if they combined forces. Also by combining their R&D, the development of new products and innovations could be stimulated. So overall, Rohm and Haas fitted the picture projected by Andrew Liveris perfectly. Rohm and Haas supported Dow’s commitment to maintain their highest standards in pursuing and selecting growth opportunities to satisfy their long-term shareholder values.

Was $78 per share a reasonable bid?

In order to draw a conclusion of the reasonability of the bid, we need to valuate Rohm and Haas as a firm with and without the synergies created by the acquisition. If this total value exceeds the $78 share price, Dow will pay the price, since it will be beneficial for them. The benefits of the synergies can be calculated by dividing it between the two firms on a multiple or 50/50 basis.

The excel file attached to the assignment contained a WACC of 8,5% based on a tax rate of 35%. In our analysis, we also calculated a WACC with a tax rate of 26%, since this was the average tax rate. This leads to a WACC of 8,7%. As a basis, we took 2% growth.

Rohm and Haas had at time of the acquisition 195,200,000 shares outstanding. From the balance sheet of Rohm and Haas 2008H1, we took the values of cash and debt (long and short term debt). Both inputs were needed in order to calculate the share price. Below, you can find how we calculated the share price for the situations with and without synergies.

The synergies involved consist of two different types, namely growth and cost synergies. Growth synergies include expanded product portfolios, increased geographic reach, improved market channels and innovative technologies. These synergies are expected to create between 2 and 2.6 billion dollars, which gives an average of 2.3 billion. Second, potential cost synergies consist of purchasing synergies, shared services and governance, manufacturing & supply chain improvements and work process optimization. These synergies are expected to generate 0.8 billion dollar. The values of these synergies combined totals a 3.1 billion dollar gross benefit, which is a netted by deducting the 1.3 billion cost of implementation, leaving a value of 1.8 billion dollars.

In order to make the most suitable valuation and draw the best conclusion for the reasonability of the share price of $78, we take the original and revised forecast into account. Both cases are also used for the sensitivity analysis to be as specific as possible. Below are the sensitivity analyses of Rohm and Haas for the original forecasts.

Based on our assumptions, share price of Rohm and Haas is $55.79 without synergies and $65.01 with synergies. These values differ a little from the share price we found in our valuation analysis, however this is due to rounding and number of decimals difference in WACC and growth percentages. Lowest value without synergies is $47.10 with a growth of 1% and a WACC of 9% and a highest share price of $95.58 with a growth of 3% and a WACC of 7%. If we now look at the original forecast with synergies, we see an increased share price, which is logical, since value is created by the synergy. The share price of Rohm and Haas is $65.01 based on the growth rate of 2% and a WACC of 8.7%. The share price differ between lowest value of $56.32 and highest value of $104.80, based on the same input as with the analysis with no synergies.

In both cases, the share price is below $78 so if Dow offers this price in both situations, the will not profit from this acquisition. However, we will still perform the 50/50 and multiples valuation in order to see which is the best in the situation if Dow is obliged to acquire Rohm and Haas. Looking at case were synergies are created and using the 50/50 method, we get a share price of $55.79 + ($65.01 – $55.79)/2 = $60.4. As we already mentioned, this price does not match the $78. Now using the gross profit of Rohm and Haas as a percentage of the gross profit of both companies combined, we get a multiple of 26.11%. Using this 0,2611 multiple, the appropriate share price is $55.79 + (0,2611 * (65.01 – $55.79)) = $58.20 Again, this is below the share price of $78, which makes the outcomes of both methods unfavorable for Dow.

Now let us look at the revised forecast. Since this is a post-crisis forecast, predictions were lowered, which lead to a lower overall value. Hence, this will be reflected in our sensitivity analysis by lower share prices. Below are our findings.

As already predicted, share prices are lower in the revised forecast due to the crisis adjustments. For the sake of the case, we will also perform a 50/50 and multiples calculation. If we look at the 50/50 share price, we get a share price of $41.38 + ($50.60 – $41.38)/2 = $45.99. The multiples basis will give us a share price of $41.38 + (0,2661 * ($50.60 – $41.38)) = $43.79.

Reviewing both forecasts and within these forecasts both with and without synergy, we can conclude that a share price of $78 is not reasonable. This conclusion holds in the case of 50/50 and multiples calculations.

Major deals risks and allocation

We will pay special attention to Exhibit 4 when examining the major risks and their respective allocations. The first risk comes from the item 1.01 describing the financing of the deal. Dow will issue a fixed amount of $4 billion in convertible preferred stocks to Berkshire, Hathaway and Kuwait Investment Authority. This amount is independent of the current stock price of Dow, meaning that a drop in Dow’s share price would need more shares to pay for the deal, decreasing the relative voting rights of current shareholders. To be even more precise, in paragraph 2.1a it states that no matter what happens Dow has to pay $78 dollar per share at the time of the merger, transferring all the financial risk to Dow.

Furthermore, a large part of the deal is financed with a $13 billion loan, issued by a consortium of 19 banks lead by Citigroup, Merrill Lynch and Morgan Stanley, increasing their leverage ratio and overall risk of the company. These high debt values come with high interest payments, leaving fewer cash to meet its dividend obligations. In a possible economic downturn this problem becomes larger, increasing the probability of not meeting their dividend payments which have not been changed for over 97 years.

A further interesting statement is the ticking fee to ensure the deal would close. When the deal is not closed before January 10, 2009, the payment per share will increase with 8% annually, translating to a higher deal price of approximately $3 million more per day until the deal is closed. In addition if the deal is not closed before October 10, 2009, Dow has to pay $750 million termination fee. This will, again, transfer all the risk to Dow if the deal cannot be closed before October 10, 2009.

In paragraph 3.1 the Material Adverse Effect clause states that Dow is allowed to withdraw from the transaction if the business, operations or financial conditions of Rohm is hit by a material adverse effect. This seems fair but there is a large set of exceptions made in the clause for which Dow cannot withdraw from the transaction, including the following events: any event which affects the chemical industry, macro economy as a whole, the financial, debt, credit or security market, any decline in Rohm’s stock price or any failure to meet internal or published projections. So, in case of an economic downturn mainly Dow is affected and not Rohm. Roam and Haas are even protected from a decline in their share price. Thus, these statements will, again, transfer almost all the risk to Dow

Furthermore, Dow takes on another risk by relying on the joint venture with Kuwait’s PIC to finance $7 billion of the deal. They do not take into account the possibility that this joint venture could fail due to i.e. a downturn in the overall economy. If it fails it leaves a gap of $7 billion in their financing plan, exposing Dow to even more risk.

Finally, the overall high price and ticking clauses make it a risky deal when compared to the expected synergies. The probability of achieving all expected synergies is a magnitude smaller than the probability of high costs, which is certain. It leaves Dow exposed to a possibly large loss when the expected synergies are not met in the future.

The only risk that Rohm and Haas face is the possible termination of the deal from their side if the deal is i.e. taking too long. They have to pay a $600 million termination fee if the decide to do so. Other than that, considering the mentioned risk allocations from above, the total risk of this deal is mainly resting on the shoulders of Dow Chemical.

CEO recommendations

To give a complete view of the options that both CEOs had at the time we will first describe the situation they were in.  Shortly after the deal announcement the financial crisis started, causing an overall recession including in the chemical industry. Dow was hit on many fronts: overall share prices dropped with over 50%, a fourth quarter loss of $1.6 billion, quarterly sales decline of 23% and a drop in operating rate to 44% in 2008. Forcing Dow to close off 20 facilities and firing over 5000 employees. Furthermore, after the joint venture deal was closed with KPC’s PIC, the failing oil prices and overall recession caused KPC to terminate the contract by paying a termination fee of $2.5 billion to Dow. This caused a gap in the financial plan for the merger for Dow, decreasing their stock price even further and degrading their rating to BBB.

As mentioned before, Dow was not the only one affected by the economic recession. Rohm was facing a poor performance as well, forcing it to fire over 900 employees, freeze spending and a 20% decline in sales.

Considering the above, Dow refused to close the deal with Rohm and Haas after approval from the European Commission and U.S. Federal Trade Commission. Arguing that the recent macro-economic developments are material adverse effects, enabling them to terminate the deal.

Options and recommendation for Dow’s CEO, Andrew Liveris

Considering the situation as described above, Liveris had three different options: continue with the termination of the deal, close the deal for $78 per share or renegotiate with Rohm and Haas to agree on different terms. If Dow continues to terminate the deal it will go to court for the approval by the judge. It needs to win in court otherwise Dow is forced to commit to the deal. Given the statements enclosed in the material adverse effect clause, the chances for Dow to win are pretty slim. If Liveris opts to close the deal for $78 per share he will need a lot of additional cash. Considering the economic situation, and the fact that the joint venture failed, acquiring this amount of additional cash will be very hard.

The possibility to acquire more debt through the already existing bridge bank loan from 19 different banks is pretty small considering the low credit rating of BBB. If he does succeed in acquiring more debt he will probably not be able to meet the net-debt-to-total-capitalization restriction in the covenant. This is, according to the first loan of $13 billion, required to be lower than 65% which they will not be able to meet, thus not creating incentives for the banks to lend more money.

Considering the above, terminating the deal will not be possible and closing the deal for $78 per share lacks financing. The best option Andrew Liveris thus has is to renegotiate the merger deal and buy some time. He will then be able to look for other sources of financing or renegotiate the already existing bank loan. One possible option could be to sue KPC for terminating the joint venture and claiming the $2.5 billion, which in turn could finance the termination fee. Considering that this will destroy the relationship between these two companies this would not be recommended.

Options and recommendation for the CEO of Rohm and Haas, Raj Gupta The situation for Raj Gupta is a bit simpler: either sue Dow for not completing the deal or renegotiate with Dow to postpone the deal. Both having different advantages and disadvantages.

The first option is to go to court and continue the case that Dow has to complete the deal or otherwise pay the termination fee. Considering the exceptions stated in the material adverse effect clause that macro-economic effects and effect on the chemical industry in general are excluded from this clause, Gupta will have a strong case and is likely to prevail in court. Committing Dow to the deal or otherwise paying the termination fee of $750 million.

The second option is to renegotiate the deal with Dow. The most important disadvantage considering this option is that it would almost certainly come to a deal which is less favorable for Rohm and Haas when compared to the original deal. Which term should be reconsidered? For example, a lower price per share would decrease the expected value for the shareholders. Shareholders will not vote for such a deal, especially the Haas family who owns 30% of the company and is waiting to exit for $78 a share. The only option, although shareholders will not be amused in the least, is to delay the due date of the deal, preserving the harmony between the companies.

Even if Gupta will win in court, the possibility that the deal will go through considering the financing problems of Dow is still small. Rohm and Haas will in this case only receive the termination fee of $750 million. Gupta obviously wants the deal to go through and so do the shareholders of Rohm and Haas, enabling them to exit the company and receiving a high premium while doing so. Terminating the deal will negatively affect both companies and their shareholders. Therefore it would be better for Gupta to facilitate any possibility that the deal will go through, even implying a possible decrease in price per share. Our recommendation thus is to renegotiate the deal, making sure that it succeeds. The premium for the shareholders might be lower but both companies can benefit from the acquired synergies and shareholders can still opt to exit.

Resolving the legal dispute

Considering the above, it would have been in the best interest of both companies to renegotiate the deal. However, Rohm and Haas decided to continue their trail against Dow Chemicals. The judge will therefore make a decision based upon the facts presented to him.

Based on the facts alone, the most likely option for me, William B. Chandler the Third, Chancellor in the Delaware Court of Chancery, is to enforce the merger contract between the two parties. In particular, the specifics of the Material Adverse Effect clause in paragraph 3.1 state that the MAE clause does not include the following events: “any event which affects the chemical industry, macro economy as a whole, the financial, debt, credit or security market, any decline in Rohm’s stock price or any failure to meet internal or published projections.” To be more specific; the argument according to Dow that the recent material developments have created unacceptable uncertainties on the funding and economics of the combined enterprise, justifying the termination of the deal, is overruled by the ‘specific performance’ clause in paragraph 3.1.

Therefore, the ‘specific performance’ clause, as requested by Rohm and agreed upon by Dow, is binding and hereby enforced. The merger will be executed as planned. Dow will have several different options to solve the financing issue, cutting dividends, renegotiating debt and other means to generate cash could be used. If the deal is not closed before January 10, 2009, as stated in the contract, Dow will pay a ticking fee of 8% per annum.

Dow should have been more careful drawing up the contract as it is signed and before me today. Since the possibility of an economic downfall is especially stated in the deal clause, I will make no exception and hereby conclude that the Dow will meet all deal requirements as stated in the contract. Every penny has to sides, if you risk it, you could lose it. Thank you. *slams the hammer*

Dow’s Bid for Rohm and Haas Essay

Synthesis of Acetaminophen Essay

Synthesis of Acetaminophen Essay.

Introduction

The synthesis of Acetaminophen is based on the amine group of p-aminophenol being acetylated by acetic anhydride to form an amide functional group. Acetaminophen is isolated as a crude solid which is then recrystallized to purify the product. Using melting point determination the recovered products purity is identified and can be compared to the theoretical value.

In this experiment 3.0g of p-aminophenol along with approximately 10ml of deionized water will be heated in a water bath regulated at 65-75. After heating for 5 minutes 4.

0mL of pure acetic anhydride will be added to dissolve the p-aminophenol. Following this there will be continuous heating in the regulated water bath to ensure all p-aminophenol dissolves. Gradual cooling will lower the mixtures temperature to room temperature followed by further cooling in an ice-water bath. The mixture will begin to precipitate out a solution.

Using vacuum filtration the crude product is collected and with a sample from the crude solid we can determine a melting point.

With the remaining solid we undergo recrystallization by adding deionized water into an Erlenmeyer flask and repeat the heating process. Once the crude solid dissolves the mixture is cooled again to room temperature and then in an ice-water bath. Again with vacuum filtration the solid can be extracted and another melting point can be determined of the purified sample. Measuring the mass of the collected sample will provide an approximation of the product yield.

In this experiment we will be synthesizing Acetaminophen and comparing the melting point of the crude solid and purified solid against a theoretical value obtained from the CRC Handbook. This will enable us to determine the purity of the crude solid.

Experimental Procedure

The experimental procedure used for this experiment was outlined in the CHEM123L lab manual, Experiment #1. All steps were followed without deviation. (Stathopulos, 2015)

Experimental Observations

The initial observation is of the solid p-aminophenol, white fine-grained powder, and with the addition of water forms a cloudy white solution. When dissolution occurs following the addition of acetic acid a clearer mixture can be observed. Stirring and heating forms a gelatinous precipitate and you can feel the solution thicken whilst stirring. The precipitated solution undergoes vacuum filtration where a white solid like substance remains. During the recrystallization process, the white powder is again dissolved in water according to the mass obtained and until a clear solution is attained, the solution is heated. The crystallization process is slow however crystal solids can be seen during precipitation. The filtered end product is a fine grained powder again and a melting temperature of 165 can be observed.

*CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics

Results and Calculations

Discussions

The theoretical value for the melting point of Acetaminophen in accordance to the CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics provides a value of 170 whereas the value we observed was 165. The pure value is relatively close to the theoretical value and this helps identify the product as acetaminophen.

However, the yield for this experiment was significantly less than the theoretical value with percent yield of 27.39%. Although all experimental procedures were followed without deviation, the time constrained on the experiment could be a possible source of error. The hot-plate warmed the water bath to 65 over a significantly long time resulting in less time to observe the reaction. In order to complete the lab within the time allowed, the heating and cooling stages were compromised resulting in less time for precipitation and recrystallization. This may have resulted in an incomplete reaction forcing the yield to significantly decrease.

Another source of error could have occurred in the transfer of samples from one vessel to another. A more thorough practice of quantitative transfer of samples could be conducted to increase the yield and prevent the loss of sample during transfer. The crude solid having a significantly lower melting point also indicates a high amount of impurities in the sample that could also have resulted in the low yield observed at the end of the experiment.

In terms of our purpose of identifying the product as acetaminophen, the melting point determination encourages our confidence in supporting the theory. The crude product obtained a value of 94 in the MelTemp apparatus indicating a high amount of impurities however; the final pure product is similar to the theoretical melting point.

Questions

What could happen if 5 mL of water was added for every 1g of crude product?

What could happen if 15 mL of water was added for every 1g of crude product?

Cold solvent was used to aid in the transfer of recrystallized product. What could happen if room temperature solvent was used?

The recrystallized product has been undisturbed and remained in an ice-water bath to encourage the precipitation process. Adding room temperature water will reverse the process and initiate dissolution of the product. This will reduce the yield obtained.

What is the purpose of scratching the inner wall of the round bottom flask? The precipitation process is encouraged when the inner walls of the round bottom are scratched.

Conclusions

The purpose of the experiment was to identify the melting temperature of pure acetaminophen after undergoing synthesis. The experimental melting point of 165 is very close to the theoretical value of 170, which supports the identification of the acetaminophen. The crude solid had a significantly lower melting temperature with an experimental value of 94.

As the percent yield was 27.39% the low crude solid temperature could support the high impurity level in the sample. During the recrystallization the impure sample could have been extracted resulting in a low yield. Also the time limitation could have reduced the amount of precipitation during the experiment.

The experiment allowed us to compare theoretical and experimental values of acetaminophen and determine the product was acetaminophen. In terms of identifying the product, the MelTemp assisted in determining the melting point which helped verify the product. However, improving the technique and surpassing time limitation would have provided a more accurate and higher percent yield experiment.

References

Stathopulos, Sue. CHEM123L Laboratory Manual. Winter 2015 ed. Waterloo: University of Waterloo, Department of Chemistry, 2014. Print.

David R. Lide, ed., CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, Internet Version 2005, , CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 2005.

Synthesis of Acetaminophen Essay

Science Investigatory Project (Chemistry) Essay

Science Investigatory Project (Chemistry) Essay.

ABSTRACT

This study aims to find out which among the juices of Mangifera indica, Annona muricata, and Citrofortunella microcarpa fruits ferment fastest. Three treatments were made: 200 mL. of Mangifera indica fruit juice fermented with 20 yeast cells; 200 mL. of Annona muricata fruit juice fermented with 20 yeast cells; and 200 mL. of Citrofortunella microcarpa fruit juice fermented with 20 yeast cells.

The start date of fermentation was recorded as well as the original specific gravity of each treatments. The end of fermentation of each treatment were watched for by the researchers.

To verify a treatment ended fermentation, apparent attenuation was computed, computing prior to that the final gravity of each treatment.

The result showed that the treated Citrofortunella microcarpa fruit juice fermented fastest. Next was the treated Annona muricata fruit juice. The last to complete fermentation was the treated Mangifera indica.

This study is economically beneficial to the province, since it is abundant with the fruits used. It would also encourage small and medium enterprises to venture into liquor-making, even via home-based production.

The researchers recommend a similar research on other fruits such as cashew, jackfruit and bananas. Also recommended is the use of variables such as temperature, pressure and amount of fermentors added.

I. Introduction

A. Fermentation

Fermentation, also called anaerobic glycolysis, is “an enzymatically controlled anaerobic breakdown of an energy-rich compound (as a carbohydrate to Carbon dioxide and alcohol or to an organic acid),” according to the 11TH edition of the Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary.

Recorded first in 1601, the word “fermentation” came from the root word “ferment”, a Middle English word derived from the Latin word for yeast, fermentum. To most people, yeast comes to mind whenever fermentation is brought about as a topic for discussion, since the presence of yeast is widely known to cause the fermentation responsible for the production of beer (ibid; Chojnacka, 2008).

In the process of producing beer, yeast enables the fermentation of sugars glucose and sucrose and their conversion into ethyl alcohol, otherwise and more popularly known as ethanol, grain alcohol or drinking alcohol. This is one of two most popular types of microbial fermentation, ethanolic fermentation, which is chiefly used in making alcoholic beverages, industrial biochemicals, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals. Lactic acid fermentation of milk, vegetables, cereals, meats and fish is another kind of microbial fermentation (ibid.).

Fermented products have many advantages over raw materials from which they came from. Fermented products are more digestible; has improved flavor, texture, appearance and aroma; are enriched with synthesized vitamins; have lesser carbohydrates; cooks quickly, stays longer; and stocks up normal intestinal microflora (Shurtleff, et al., 2007).

B. Ciders

Among the thousands of fermentation products are ciders, which are “…expressed juice of fruit[-s] (as apples) used as a beverage or for making other products (as applejack)” (Merriam-Webster). Ciders come from a wide variety of fruits (Cider, Wikipedia)–from apples to grapes, cherries to cranberries, and even bananas.

The island province of Guimaras abounds with vegetation, i.e., fruits and vegetables, with mangoes, coconuts and bananas topping the list (2007 National Statistical Coordinating Board figures). Ciders can be made from most, if not all, of Guimaras fruits. It is the researchers’ task to determine the rate of fermentation of these ciders.

II. Objectives of the Study

1. To find out the rate of fermentation of juices from bountiful Guimaras produce such as mango, calamansi, guyabano, coconut, banana, and cashew; and 2. To help find potential industry for Guimaras folks, from the production of these fermented ciders and their by-products.

III. Significance of the Study

This study on the rate of fermentation of ciders from various Guimaras produce is primarily aimed to benefit local folks by finding new frontiers for the booming food and beverage industry.

IV. Limitation of the Study

This study is limited to the fermentation of mango, calamansi, guyabano, coconut, banana, and cashew juices, and restricted to qualitative observations of their rate of fermentation and color.

V. Review of Related Literature

The history of fermentation predates the history of man, since the process is natural to fruits and, practically, to all vegetation.

Modern manipulation of the process is but a display of man’s superior intellectual ability. In antiquity, though, man’s use of fermentation is more of a product of accident rather than aimed curiosity. It is believed that man’s serendipitous foray into fermentation was made after meat observing that certain elements in salting food made the food more palatable than plain, salted food (Wang et al., 1979).

For those who use crude processes of fermentation, it is more of a mystic art than a science. In fact, not until the 19th Century, was the mechanism of fermentation intelligently applied (Chojnacka, 2008; Shurtleff, et al., 2007).

Records show that man had been utilizing this process to his benefit in as early as the Caucasian era, about 6,000-8,000 years ago in Shulaveri, present-day Georgia. Artifacts such as 7,000-year old jars containing wine residue in Hajji Firuz Tepe in the Zagros Mountains, the largest mountain range spanning present-day Iran and Iraq (Wine History, Beer100.com) are now on display at the University of Pennsylvania.

Accounts of the existence of fermented beverages in Babylon circa 5000 BC, in ancient Egypt circa 3150 BC, pre-Hispanic Mexico circa 2000 BC, and Sudan circa 1500 BC are numerous (Chojnacka, 2008).

Learned use of fermentation can be attributed to the German physiologist Theodor Schwann who in 1840 developed the cell theory and found that fermentation is the result of living things. This was influential to French chemist and microbiologist Louis Pasteur who determined in 1854 that fermentation is caused by yeast. Pasteur assumed that a special element or force called “ferments” gives yeasts the ability to ferment (Dubos, 1951). Though Pasteur believed that ferments is dormant outside a living cell, he endeavored to extract ferments but to no avail.

In 1897, German chemist Eduard Buchner proved that the enzymes in yeast cells, which he called “zymase” causes fermentation, not the yeast itself. He received the 1907 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for cell-free fermentation (NobelPrize.org). In 1929, Arthur Harden and Hans Euler-Chelpin won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for detailing the exact mechanism of fermentation caused by enzymes (NobelPrize.org)

Since Pasteur’s discovery of the fermenting ability of yeast, mankind has all the more benefited from fermentation products. The essence of fermentation has shifted, though, from for preservation, since we now utilize much better preservation methods, into food and beverage production (Chojnacka, 2008).

VI. Methodology

A. Materials

250 mL. fresh mango juice hydrometer 250 mL. fresh calamansi juice cork stopper/lid cover 250 mL. fresh guyabano juice three pcs. wide-lid glass fermentor 100 small-sized yeast cells (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)

B. Fermentation Process

1. Do this in the early morning to allow ample time for the experiment.

2. Pour each of the prepared fruit juice (250 mL. each of fresh mango, calamansi, and guyabano) in a separate glass fermentor.

3. Measure with the hydrometer the specific gravity of each juice. Mark this as original gravity (O.G.).

Specific gravity is measured by floating the hydrometer in a sample of liquid. The hydrometer must float freely. Read and take note of the point where the surface of the juice being observed lines up with the graduation on the hydrometer.

4. Pitch 20 yeast cells on each fermentor.

5. Close the fermentor with a cork stopper/lid cover to utilize closed fermentation.

6. Note the exact time each fermenting setup was closed.

7. Let off. Have team members take turns every hour in observing the fermenting setups.

8. Fermentation is complete once no more bubbles are produced in the air-locked fermentor, since carbon dioxide (CO2) production is ended at the end of fermentation.

It should be noted that this is not foolproof. If there is still some fizzing and foaming, it is not done yet.

Also, when a fermenting setup is shaken, it may produce some bubbles, some fizz or foam. This doesn’t mean fermentation has just halted and is re-starting. It’s only that there’s CO2 in the setup itself (as in most brewed setups such as beer) and it was only disturbed by shaking it.

9. To guarantee that fermentation has ended, measure with the hydrometer the specific gravity of the fermenting setup. Mark this as the final or finishing gravity (F.G.). Compute for apparent attenuation. Mark this as A.A. Apparent attenuation is the difference between the specific gravities before and after fermentation divided by the specific gravity before fermentation, and multiplied by 100.

To illustrate:

((O.G. – F.G.) / O.G.) x 100 = A.A.

Usual apparent attenuation of a complete fermentation is 70-75 percent.

10. If apparent attenuation of 70-75 percent is not capped, repeats steps 1 to 9.

11. Tabulate data.

VI. Results and Discussions

A. Chart on Rate of Fermentation of Mangifera indica, Annona muricata, and Citrofortunella microcarpa juices

Fruit Juice
Date Fermentation Started
Original Gravity
(at 31°C)
Final Gravity
(at 31°C)
Apparent Attenuation
(in Percent)
Date Fermentation
Ended
Number of Days of Fermentation
Mangifera indica
Jan. 14, 2013
1.040
0.333
73.50
Jan. 27, 2013
13 days
Annona muricata
Jan. 14, 2013
1.033
0.338
71.77
Jan. 24, 2013
10 days
Citrofortunella microcarpa
Jan. 14, 2013
1.092
0.395
74.26
Jan. 18, 2013
3days

B. Discussions

Juices of Mangifera indica, Annona muricata, and Citrofortunella microcarpa completed fermentation at different dates. Mangifera indica completed fermentation last at 13 days, while Annona muricata at 10 days, and Citrofortunella microcarpa, the fastest, at only 3 days. The researchers deemed this difference in fermentation rate a result of the apparent amount of fructose, which are broken down by the yeast cells, in the fruits where the juices came from as can easily be induced from the sweetness of the fruits.

It was, thus, determined that more fermented product can be made from the juice of Citrofortunella microcarpa in less amount of time, than from the juices of Mangifera indica and Annona muricata.

VII. Implications

The researchers have found fruits viable for fermentation and, hence, for making liquor such as wine.

With the development of the fermentation of fruit juices for the latter purpose, so will the growth of income opportunities for the people of this island province. The manufacture of fruit juice-fermented beverage can easily be operated even in small homes.

Using these fruits might also provide for a substitute for beer, gin and other alcoholic beverages, which come from less healthful raw materials.

Backyard fruit growing would be also encouraged, which not only would provide necessary raw materials but would also somehow help lessen the effect of air pollution and global warming.

VIII. Recommendations

Verifying studies are highly recommended. Different fruits are recommended for experimentation. Different and varying factors such as temperature, pressure, more yeast cells, can also be tried on.

IX. Selected References:

Katarzyna Chojnacka. Chemical Engineering and Chemical Process Technology,
Volume V.,
Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems, UNESCO, 2008.

Shurtleff, W. and Aoyagi, A. A Brief History of Fermentation, East and West, Soyinfo Center,
2007.
Daniel I.C. Wang. Fermentation and Enzyme Technology, Wiley, 1979. Rene J. Dubos. “Louis Pasteur: Free Lance of Science, Gollancz.” Trends in Biotechnology,
Volume 1, Cell Press, 1951.
Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 11th Ed, Merriam-Webster, Inc, 2010. Guimaras Quickstat, National Statistics Coordinating Board, 2007. http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/chemistry/laureates/1907/buchner-bio.html, November

2, 2012.
http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/chemistry/laureates/1929/press.html, November 2, 2012. http://www.beer100.com/history/winehistory.htm, November 26, 2012. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cider, October 12, 2012.

Science Investigatory Project (Chemistry) Essay