## In what sense are the mean, median, mode, and midrange measures of “center”?

After studying Module 2: Lecture Materials & Resources, discuss the following:

In what sense are the mean, median, mode, and midrange measures of “center”? Post your own statistical study in which you can calculate the different approaches of each.

Submission Instructions:

• Your initial post should be at least 200 words/numbers or a combination of both. Your initial post is worth 60 points.
• Additional readings must be cited, and formatted in the current APA style.

Module 2: Lecture Materials & Resources

Read and watch the lecture resources & materials below early in the week to help you respond to the discussion questions and to complete your assignment(s).

(Note: The citations below are provided for your research convenience. You should always cross-reference the current APA guide for correct styling of citations and references in your academic work.)

• Triola, M. (2018).
• Frequency Distribution Tables and Histograms
• Other Types of Graphs
• Measures of Center
• Measures of Variation
• Measures of Position and Boxplots

## What do CARVER, CPTED, SVA, NIPP, and CIKR mean?

What do CARVER, CPTED, SVA, NIPP, and CIKR mean?

Based on the Read items thus far, you can see that acronyms abound.  What do CARVER, CPTED, SVA, NIPP, and CIKR mean?  Be sure to briefly discuss each.  Find at least 1 extra acronym you would like to share. Next, what is the purpose of a Security Vulnerability Analysis (SVA)? Explain how one (SVA) works.

## What do CARVER, CPTED, SVA, NIPP, and CIKR mean?

The thread must be a minimum of 500-750 words. MINIMUM OF TWO SOURCES BESIDES THE TEXTBOOK. Must cite at least 2 sources in addition to the Bible.

TEXTBOOK: Bennett, B. T. (2018). Understanding, assessing, and responding to terrorism: Protecting critical infrastructure and personnel (2nd ed.). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. ISBN: 9781119237785.

## Explain what you believe the Ethics of Care and Peacemaking Criminology presented in your textbook should mean for law enforcement professionals.

Before writing your position statement on Philosophical and Practical Approach for Balancing Issues, you should read Chapters 1 through11 in your textbook. Then, research at least three (3) peer-reviewed articles about individual rights, morality, ethics, individual rights, duty, or codes of conduct for criminal justice professionals.

Write a three to five (3-5) page paper in which you:

1. Create a philosophy and approach for balancing the issues of individual rights and the public’s protection. Provide one to two (1 to 2) examples illustrating how you will balance the two issues in your own career in law enforcement.
2. Determine a philosophy and approach for balancing the use of reward and punishment in criminal justice. Provide one to two (1-2) examples illustrating how you will use this philosophy in your own career.
3. Select a philosophy and approach that addresses the use of immoral means (e.g., torture or lying in interrogation) to accomplish desirable ends. Provide one to two (1-2) examples illustrating how you will use this philosophy in your own career.
4. Explain what you believe the Ethics of Care and Peacemaking Criminology presented in your textbook should mean for law enforcement professionals.
5. Support your position statement with three (3) relevant and credible references, documented according to latest edition of APA. (Note: Do not use open source sites such as Ask.com, eHow.com, Answers.com, and Wikipedia.)

• Be typed, double spaced, using Times New Roman font (size 12), with one-inch margins on all sides; citations and references must follow APA format (latest edition). Check with your professor for any additional instructions.
• Include a cover page developed in accordance with the latest edition of APA, including a running head, page number, the title of the assignment, the student’s name, the professor’s name, the course title, and the date. The cover page, revision of the previous assignment, and the reference page are not included in the required assignment page length.

The specific course learning outcomes associated with this assignment are:

• Analyze the issues pertinent to codes of conduct and / or the ethics of duty.
• Recommend ways to use ethics to improve decision making in the criminal justice system.
• Before writing your position statement on Philosophical and Practical Approach for Balancing Issues, you should read Chapters 1 through11 in your textbook. Then, research at least three (3) peer-reviewed articles about individual rights, morality, ethics, individual rights, duty, or codes of conduct for criminal justice professionals.

Write a three to five (3-5) page paper in which you:

1. Create a philosophy and approach for balancing the issues of individual rights and the public’s protection. Provide one to two (1 to 2) examples illustrating how you will balance the two issues in your own career in law enforcement.
2. Select a philosophy and approach that addresses the use of immoral means (e.g., torture or lying in interrogation) to accomplish desirable ends. Provide one to two (1-2) examples illustrating how you will use this philosophy in your own career.
3. Explain what you believe the Ethics of Care and Peacemaking Criminology presented in your textbook should mean for law enforcement professionals.
4. Support your position statement with three (3) relevant and credible references, documented according to latest edition of APA. (Note: Do not use open source sites such as Ask.com, eHow.com, Answers.com, and Wikipedia.)

• Be typed, double spaced, using Times New Roman font (size 12), with one-inch margins on all sides; citations and references must follow APA format (latest edition). Check with your professor for any additional instructions.
• Include a cover page developed in accordance with the latest edition of APA, including a running head, page number, the title of the assignment, the student’s name, the professor’s name, the course title, and the date. The cover page, revision of the previous assignment, and the reference page are not included in the required assignment page length.

The specific course learning outcomes associated with this assignment are:

• Analyze the issues pertinent to codes of conduct and / or the ethics of duty.
• Recommend ways to use ethics to improve decision making in the criminal justice system.
• Analyze various philosophical approaches for ethical decision making, and the effectiveness and limits of each approach for making ethical choices.
• Analyze the ethical issues involved with balancing means and ends in the criminal justice field.
• Examine the key elements of virtue and character.
• Examine reasons for and effective ways to apply critical ethical thinking to criminal justice issues.
• Use technology and information resources to research issues in ethics and leadership in criminal justice.
• Write clearly and concisely about ethics and leadership in criminal justice using proper writing mechanics.
• Analyze the ethical issues involved with balancing means and ends in the criminal justice field.
• Examine the key elements of virtue and character.
• Examine reasons for and effective ways to apply critical ethical thinking to criminal justice issues.
• Use technology and information resources to research issues in ethics and leadership in criminal justice.
• Write clearly and concisely about ethics and leadership in criminal justice using proper writing mechanics.

## Discuss in view of historical perspective and current laws. What does it mean to be “disabled”? What are employers’ obligations towards new hires?

Make each paragraph 6 to 10 sentences.

1.  Discuss in view of historical perspective and current laws. What does it mean to be “disabled”? What are employers’ obligations towards new hires?
2.  In “normal times”, what is the process for a nurse (RN/LPN/LVN) to leave Texas and be obtain permanent work in Florida?
3.  A nursing unit in Wise-Town nursing home has many staff and patients infected with Covid-19. The company hired “outside nurses” to provide adequate staffing for the unit. Analyze the situation where the managing team of Wise-Town may be held liable for mistake made by those “agency” nurses.
4. A nurse is asked to float to a new unit to cover for loss of staff due to recent infections of Covid-19. Patients and staff are turning positive for the new infection. What are the nurse’s options, how about the law, how about the ethics?

The post  Discuss in view of historical perspective and current laws. What does it mean to be “disabled”? What are employers’ obligations towards new hires? appeared first on Infinite Essays.

## “Looking for a Similar Assignment? Get Expert Help at an Amazing Discount!”

The post  Discuss in view of historical perspective and current laws. What does it mean to be “disabled”? What are employers’ obligations towards new hires? first appeared on nursing writers.

## Maternal age expectation mean scores for the seven competency domains in the two cultural groups.

RESEARCH REPORT BHS3000320153
https://learn.scu.edu.au/webapps/blackboard/content/listContent.jsp?course_id=_136072_1&content_id=_3754970_1 1/2
Assessments ASSESSMENT 2 LAB/
H RESEARCH REPORT
ASSESSMENT 2 LAB/
RESEARCH REPORT
LAB/RESEARCH REPORT WRITING
Writing a Lab Report by Andy Fields
An Example of a Student Lab Report
LAB/RESEARCH REPORT RESULTS
Lab/Research Report (Assessment 2) Results
The method and results are given in dot points below but you need to write this in
lab/research report is given in the Unit Overview 2015 in Blackboard under Unit Overview.
Method
Participants.
36 AngloAustralian
and 36 IndianAustralian
mothers (age range: 21 to 48 years).
All mothers currently had a child less than 10 years old.
All AngloAustralian
mothers born in Australia (data collected by Session 1 2015
students).
For the IndianAustralian
mothers: 29% had been living in Australia for 15
years,
24% for 6 to 10 years, 29% for 1115
years and 19% for 16 or more years (this
data comes from an honours student project).
The IndianAustralian
mothers were recruited through community groups and
organizations.
Questionnaires were translated and back translated into Punjabi by a PunjabiEnglish
bilingual.
myUniTtesch HelpUnit FeeLdeabrancinkg HelpmyServiceAsdam TanmnyeLr ib3r0ary
12/10/2015 ASSESSMENT 2 LAB/
RESEARCH REPORT BHS3000320153
https://learn.scu.edu.au/webapps/blackboard/content/listContent.jsp?course_id=_136072_1&content_id=_3754970_1 2/2
Results
The results for the 36 AngloAustralian
and 36 IndianAustralian
mothers on the 7
domain competencies (Education, Selfcare,
Compliance, Peer interaction,
Communication, Emotional Control and Environmental Independence) in the
developmental milestone questionnaire were compared using a series of analyses of
variance (ANOVAs). Results are presented in Table 1.
The AngloAustralian
mothers gave a significantly earlier age than
the IndianAustralian
mothers for four out of the seven
competency domains; selfcare,
compliance, peer interaction, and
emotional control.
For communication and environmental independence domains,
there was no significant difference between the two cultural
groups.
For education, the IndianAustralian
earlier age expectations than the AngloAustralians.
Table 1. Maternal age expectation mean scores for the seven competency domains in
the two cultural groups.
Domain competencies AngloAustralian
IndianAustralian
Education 4.81 3.80
Selfcare
4.65 5.75
Compliance 4.89 5.47
Peer interaction 4.92 5.73
Communication 4.84 4.98
Emotional Control 5.70 6.56
Environmental
Independence
8.28 8.58

ASSESSMENT 2: APA Lab/Research Report (45%) Guidelines 1750 words (excluding reference list and abstract)
The lab/research report is on Parental Milestone Expectations in Australian-Indian and Anglo-Australian caretakers. First, read the overview of the study on p.8. The results of this study are available on Blackboard (the Australian-Indian data was collected by an honours student and the Anglo-Australian data was collected by the students in Session 1 2015). You need to write up this study as an APA lab/research report (1750 words maximum) in your own words based on this data. Important you need to paraphrase (use your own words) with references or if it is a direct quote use quotation marks around the relevant text and a reference and page number. It is better to not use too many direct quotes though as it tends to interrupt the flow if you use too many, so preferable to paraphrase. Submit the lab report via Blackboard by Friday 18th December 2015.
Please refer to the lab/research report marking criteria (p.19) and the overview of the study (p.8), which includes useful references. The aim of the overview of the study is to help you understand the background literature and aims of the study. You need to use at least 6 academic references. Some useful references are available through e-readings for this unit and are listed on p.12. OneSearch on the library homepage is a very useful way of finding journal articles too. This is also an important research skill to acquire.
This link shows you how to use the library to find an already known reference: http://www.screencast.com/t/WEJQWe3Xe
This is the link to our online APA referencing guide:
http://libguides.scu.edu.au/content.php?pid=161580 7

Additional useful resources on how to write a Psychology lab report http://psychology.about.com/od/apastyle/p/labreport.htm
http://www.psywww.com/tipsheet/labrep.htm and
http://www.sussex.ac.uk/Users/grahamh/RM1web/AndyFieldLabReportGuide.pdf
For students who have not previously written a lab/research report we will also go over this in the tutorials. 8

BHS30003 2013 LAB/RESEARCH REPORT
OVERVIEW OF THE STUDY
DATA COLLECTION EXERCISE AND LAB/RESEARCH REPORT
Parental Milestone Expectations in Anglo-Australian and Indian-Australian Caretakers
This overview of the study is designed to help you understand the aims and background to this study.
Introduction
Parents or caretakers play a prominent role in the socialisation process as they scaffold childrens learning and through these interactions children gradually absorb the cultural values and practices of their culture. The research project aims to examine parental milestone expectations and cognitions across two cultural groups; Anglo Australian and Indian Australian. Cultures differ in the types of competence that adults encourage in children, the age at which they expect a given skill to be acquired, and the level of proficiency they want children to achieve” (Hess, Kashiwagi, Azuma, Price, & Dickson, 1980, p. 259).
First, I will review some relevant background literature to this research, which includes parental cognitions and expectations, individualism-collectivism, and multiculturalism in Australia prior to outlining the methodology that is used in the current study. (Note: You can use material from this overview for your research report but it has to be written in your own words and not just copied from here. You also need to refer to the academic references listed on p. 12).
Parental Cognitions and Expectations
Parenting cognitions concerns parents beliefs, attitudes, goals and knowledge about child rearing, socialisation practices and expectations about ages that children will achieve particular developmental milestones (Bornstein & Cote, 2006). These attitudes, values, goals and belief systems influence child rearing practices and behaviours (Bornstein & Lansford, 2010). As an example, European American mothers emphasise the development of individual autonomy in 12 to 15 month toddlers, whereas Puerto Rican mothers focus on maternal-child interdependence and connectedness (Harwood, Schoelmerich, Schulze, & Gonzalez, 1999). These values are reflected in the mothers actual behaviours with European American mothers using suggestions rather than 9

commands and other indirect means of structuring their childs behaviour. In contrast, Puerto Rican mothers use more direct means of control, i.e., commands and physical restraint. So it can be seen that parental childrearing goals are closely aligned with cultural context and socialisation practices (Bornstein & Lansford, 2010).
Of particular relevance to the current study, Sissons Joshi and Maclean (1997) compared the maternal expectations of Indian, Japanese and English mothers living in their respective countries in the competency domains of education/self-care, compliance, peer interaction, communication, emotional control and environmental independence. They found that the Indian mothers had, in general, later expectancies than either the Japanese or English mothers in all domains except environmental independence, where they were earlier than English but later than Japanese mothers.
Individualism Collectivism
One attempt to categorize different cultures has been to dichotomize groups in terms of individualism or collectivism (IC) (Kagitçibasi, 1997; Smith, Bond, & Kagitçibasi, 2006; Triandis, 1995). Both the degree of societal and personal individualism or collectivism is believed to influence child rearing practices. For example, individualists tend to value self reliance, exploration, and independence in children, whereas collectivists tend to foster interdependence, sensitivity to others, obedience, and duty. Individualist cultures typically promote an independently oriented self-construal that emphasizes the unique inner attributes of the individual (Markus & Kitayama, 1991). The individualist self is characterized as independent, self-contained, and autonomous. In contrast, the collectivist self is characterized as interdependent and interconnected with others. People from collectivist cultures, in general, learn that group goals, harmony, membership, and solidarity are important. We would typically think of Asian, Indigenous, African cultures, for example, as being more collectivist, whereas we could consider American, North European, Australian countries as being more individualist. Of course some countries are very multicultural which makes it all much more complex and interesting. It is important to note that no culture is uniformly individualist or collectivist, the degree of individualism and collectivism varies within cultures, and culture-specific characteristics are an essential consideration (Bornstein & Cote, 2001). In relation to the current study, Anglo-Australians would be considered to be relatively more individualistic than people from an Indian-Australian background. 10

Multiculturalism in Australia
Australia has the highest overseas born population proportionally than any other country, with second generation Australians accounting for more than half of its total population (Berry & Sam, 2006). Migrants face significant challenges in their transition to living in a new country and culture. These include the challenge of balancing and maintaining ethnic identity with successfully participating in the host society (Berry, 1997).
The parents acculturation style is an important mediating variable in terms of both how well families adapt to their new environment and how they raise their children in relation to the host society (Bornstein & Cote, 2009; Yaman et al., 2010). Parents who are highly acculturated generally exhibit parenting expectations and practices more closely resembling that of the host society (Savage & Gauvain, 1998). For example, Turkish mothers living in Australia who interacted more with the host culture, showed a corresponding shift in their discipline style towards those of the host culture (Yagmurlu & Sanson, 2009). Problems may arise through this process of socialization, often polarizing children and parents with a clash of cultural values.
Indian migrants have had a long history of immigration to Australia. The Indian-Australian diaspora represents Australias fourth largest migrant community with an estimated 340,604 members (Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2006). Indian labourers, in the 1860s came to work in northern New South Wales. In the 1930s the single largest flow of immigrants were Sikhs from the Japandhar district of Punjab (Naidoo, 2007). Even though Indian migrants come from different cultural backgrounds, they share certain attitudes and traditions. Families place a strong emphasis on parenting practices connected to family interdependence and delay of autonomy in their children (Bhattacharya & Schoppelrey, 2004). Child rearing is also characterized by close social relationships, indulgence and interconnectedness with other people (Keller et al., 2006; Keller et al., 2010). Traditionally, Indian families are patriarchal and have joint family residential patterns, which are considered to have a major influence on maternal expectations (Jambunathan & Counselman, 2002).
It is essential in multicultural societies, such as Australia, to build up a greater understanding of the shared as well as different perspectives on childrearing goals and practices that are held by different cultural groups. This is particularly important in relation to childcare and educational settings. So far there has been little research based on 11

the Indian-Australian immigrant diaspora and even less on how acculturation may influence parental expectations.
Aims of the Study
The research aims to investigate the cultural differences in parental expectations of childhood developmental milestones (i.e. the ages at which parents/caretakers expect specific developmental skills to be attained by children) in Anglo-Australian and Indian-Australian caretakers (Goodnow, Cashmore, Cotton, & Knight, 1984). Based on previous research on mainland Indian caretakers (Sissons Joshi & MacLean, 1997), it can be predicted that the milestone expectations of the Indian Australian mothers will be relatively delayed in comparison to the Anglo Australians in all domains, with the exception of environmental independence.
Method
Participants. The participants consisted of 36 mothers from each of the two cultural groups, Anglo- and Indian- Australian. All Anglo-Australian mothers were born in Australia (Session 1 2015 student data). For the Australian Indian mothers, 29% had been living in Australia for 1-5 years, 24% for 6 to 10 years, 29% for 11-15 years and 19% for 16 or more years (this data comes from an honours project). The Indian-Australian mothers were recruited through community groups and organizations. The questionnaire (p.16) was translated and back translated into Punjabi by a Punjabi-English bilingual.
Developmental milestone expectations questionnaire. The 43-item scale based on Hess et al. (1980) and Sissons Joshi and Maclean (1997) was used to assess parental beliefs about the age they expect children to reach particular developmental milestones of the Anglo- and Indian- Australians. The questions consisted of seven domains of competency Education, Self-care, Compliance, Peer interaction, Communication, Emotional control and Environmental independence (the questionnaire used to collect the data is on p.16). Respondents gave an age of expected achievement to each of the questions.
PLEASE look at the materials on Blackboard on how to write a research lab report and the previous example of a lab/research report. Your lab/research report is like a mini-journal article as it has the same format, so you can also use them as models. 12

References/Bibliography
(The most relevant or useful references are indicated with ** so read these first)
Berry, J.W. (1997). Immigration, acculturation, and adaptation. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 46, 5-68. [Available through scu library]
Berry, S., & Sam, D. L. (2006). The Cambridge handbook of acculturation psychology. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press. [Available through scu library]
Bornstein, M. H., & Cote, L.R. (2001). Mother-infant interaction and acculturation: I. Behavioural comparisons in Japanese American and South American families. International Journal of Behavioural Development, 25, 349-563. [Available through scu library]
Bornstein, M. H., & Lansford, J. E. (2010). Parenting. In M. H. Bornstein (Ed.), The handbook of cross-cultural developmental science (pp. 259-277). New York: Taylor and Francis. [Not available through scu library]
Bhattacharya, G., & Schoppelrey, S. L. (2004). Preimmigration beliefs of life success, post-immigration experiences, and acculturative stress: South Asian immigrants in the United States. Journal of Immigrant Health, 6, 8392. [Not available through scu library]
Gutierrez, J., & Sameroff, A. J. (1990). Determinants of complexity in Mexican-American and Anglo-American mothers conceptions of child development. Child Development, 61, 384-394. [Available through scu library]
**Goodnow, J. J., Cashmore, J., Cotton, S., & Knight, R. (1984). Mothers developmental timetables in two cultural groups. International Journal of Psychology, 19, 193-205. [In e-readings and available through scu library]
Greenfield, P. M., Keller, H., Fuligni, A., & Maynard, A. (2003). Cultural pathways through universal development. Annual Review of Psychology, 54, 461-490. [Available through scu library]
Harwood, R, L., Schoelmerich, A., Schulze, P,A., & Gonzalez, Z. (1999). Cultural differences in maternal beliefs and behaviors: A study of middle-class Anglo and Puerto Rican mother-infant pairs in four everyday situations. Child Development, 70(4), 1005-1016. [Available through scu library]
**Hess, R, D., Kashiwagi, K., Azuma, H., Price, G, G., & Dickson, P. (1980). Maternal expectations for mastery of developmental tasks in Japan and the United States. International Journal of Psychology, 15, 259-271. [In e-readings and available through scu library]
Hofstede, G, H. (2001). Cultures consequences: Comparing values, behaviours, institutions, and organizations across nations. (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. [Not available through scu library] 13

Jambunathan, S., & Counselman, K. P. (2002). Parenting attitudes of Asian Indian mothers living in the United States and in India. Early Child Development and Care, 172(6), 657662. [Available through e-readings]
Kagitçibasi, C. (1997). Individualism and collectivism. In J.W. Berry, M.H. Segall, & C. Kagitçibasi (Eds.), Handbook of cross-cultural psychology (2nd ed.), (Vol. 3, pp 1-49). Boston: Allyn & Bacon. [Not available through scu library]
Kagitçibasi, C. (1997). Whither multiculturalism? Applied Psychology, 46(1), 44-49. [Available through scu library]
Kagitçibasi, C. (2007). Family, self, and human development across cultures (2nd edition). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum. [Not available through scu library]
Keller et al. (2006). Cultural models, socialization goals and parenting ethnotheories. A multicultural analysis. Journal of Cross-cultural Psychology, http://dishlab.org/pubs/Keller et al 2006 JCCP.pdf
Keller, H., Borke, J., Chaudhary, N., Lamm, B., & Kleis, A. (2010). Continuity in Parenting Strategies: A Cross-Cultural Comparison. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 41, 391-409. [Available through scu library]
LeVine, R.A. (1988). Human and parental care: Universal goals, cultural strategies, and individual behavior. In R.A. LeVine, P.M. Miller and M.M. West (Eds.), Parental behavior in diverse societies. New directions for child development. San Francisco: Jossy-Boss. [Not available through scu library]
Markus, H.R., & Kitayama, S. (1991). Culture and the self: Implications for cognition, emotion, and motivation. Psychological Review, 98, 224253. [Available through scu library]
Matsumoto, D. (1999). Culture and Self: An empirical assessment of Markus and Kitayamas theory of independent and interdependent self construals. Asian Journal of Social Psychology, 2, 289-310. [Available through scu library]
Matsumoto, D., & Juang, L. (2008). Culture and Psychology. 4th edition. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth. [Available through scu library]
Naidoo, L. (2007). Re-negotiating identity and reconciling cultural ambiguity in the Indian immigrant community in Sydney, Australia. In A. Singh (Ed.), Indian Diaspora the 21st Century Migration, Change and Adaption, Delhi: Kamla-Raj Publishers. [Not available through scu library]
Oyserman, D., Coon, H. M., & Kemmelmeier, M. (2002). Rethinking individualism and collectivism: Evaluation of theoretical assumptions and meta-analyses. Psychological Bulletin, 128(1), 3-72. [Available through scu library]
Pearson, E., & Rao, N. (2003). Socialization goals, parenting practices, and peer competence in Chinese and English preschoolers. Early Childhood Development and Care, 173(1), 131-146. [Not available through scu library] 14

Rosenthal, D. A., & Gold, R. (1989). A comparison of Vietnamese-Australian and Anglo-Australian mothers beliefs about intellectual development. International Journal of Psychology, 24(2), 179-193. http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/00207594.1989.10600041
Rosenthal, D. A., & Bornholt, L. (1988). Expectations about development in Greek and Anglo-Australian families. Journal of Cross-cultural Psychology, 19(1), 19-34. [Available through scu library]
Savage, S. L., & Gauvain, M. (1998). Parental beliefs and childrens everyday planning in European-American and Latino families. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 19(3), 319-340. [Not available through scu library]
**Sissons Joshi, M, S., & MacLean, M. (1997). Maternal expectations of child development In India, Japan and England. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 28, 219-234. [In e-readings and available through scu library]
Smith, P.B., Bond, M.H., & Kagitcibasi, C. (2006). Understanding social psychology across cultures: Living and working in a changing world. London: Sage. [Not available through scu library]
Taylor, L., Clayton, J., & Rowley, S. (2004). Academic socialization: Understanding parental influences on childrens school-related development in the early years. Review of General Psychology, 8, 163-178. http://viriya.net/jabref/resilience/academic_socialization_-_understanding_parental_influences_on_childrens_school-related_development_in_the_early_years.pdf
Triandis, H.C. (1995). Individualism and collectivism. Boulder, CO: Westview. [Not available through scu library]
Willemsen , M.E., & Van de Vijver, F.J.R. (1997). Developmental expectations of Dutch, Turkish Dutch, and Zambian mothers: Towards an explanation of cross cultural differences. International Journal of Behavioural Development, 2(4), 837- 854. http://arno.uvt.nl/show.cgi?fid=29237
Williams, P.D., Jiningsih, S., & Williams, A.R. (2000). Balinese mothers developmental timetables for young children. Western Journal of Nursing Research, 22(6), 717-735. [Available through scu library]
**Wise, S., & da Silva, L. (2007). Differential parenting of children from diverse cultural backgrounds attending child care. Australian Institute of Family Studies, 39. Available at http://www.aifs.gov.au/institute/pubs/rp39/rp39.html
**Wise, S., & Sanson, A. (2000). Child care in cultural context: Issues for new research. Australian Institute of Family Studies, 22, 124. Available at www.aifs.gov.au/institute/pubs/RP22.pdf
Winskel, H., Salehuddin, K., & Stanbury, J. (2013). Developmental milestone expectations, parenting styles and self construal in Malaysian and Australian caregivers. Kajian Malaysia, 31(1), 19-35. This is another honours student project available at https://www.academia.edu/2546418/Winskel_Salehuddin_and_Stanbury_2013_._Dev15

elopmental_milestone_expectations_parenting_styles_and_self_construal_in_Malaysian_and_Australian_caregivers
**Yagmurlu, B., & Sanson, A. (2009). Acculturation and parenting among Turkish Mothers in Australia. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 40(3), 361380. [Available through scu library]
Yaman, A. E., Mesman, J., Van IJzendoorn, M. H., Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J., Linting, M. (2010). Parenting in an individualistic culture with a collectivistic cultural background: The case of Turkish immigrant families with toddlers in the Netherlands. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 19(5), 617628. [Available through scu library] 16

DEVELOPMENTAL MILESTONES EXPECTATIONS QUESTIONNAIRE ABOUT CHILDRENS ABILITIES (based on Sissons Joshi & MacLean, 1997)
Note: This was used by students in Session 1 2015 to collect the data you dont need to collect data.
Background Information of Respondent (person who completes the questionnaire)
Gender: Female Male
Age:
Birth place:
First language spoken:
INSTRUCTIONS: Please write what age you believe a child should be able to achieve the following: (e.g. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, >12 years)
Education
1. Count to ten
2. Write alphabet
Self-care
3. Eat without help
4. Wash hands before meals
5. Use toilet without help
6. Dress alone
7. Brush teeth properly
8. Bathe alone
Compliance
9. Come or answer when called
10. Stop misbehaving when told
11. Not do things forbidden by parents
12. Do something immediately when told
13. Give up TV when asked to do something for mother
14. Keep feet off furniture
15. Give full attention to adults when they are speaking 17

17. Be polite to visiting adults
18. Not interrupt adults when talking
19. Show interest in wellbeing of relatives
Peer interaction
20. Allow others to play with his/her toys
21. Wait for turn when playing
22. Be sympathetic to feelings of other children
23. Take leadership role when playing
24. Get own way by persuading others
25. Resolve quarrels without fighting
26. Resolve quarrels without adult help
Communication
28. Ask for explanation when in doubt
29. Explain why he or she feels angry
30. When asked give own opinions
31. Phone by him/herself
Emotional control
32. Not bite or throw something in frustration
33. Control anger by self
34. Not cry easily
35. Not go on and on about wanting expensive toys
36. Stand disappointment without crying
37. Not laugh at other childs misfortune 18

38. Not show disappointment with gift
39. Hide being upset at being teased by children
Environmental independence
40. Play in street without adult present
41. Go to school unaccompanied by adult
42. Stay home alone for 1-2 hours
43. Buy things on his/her own
Thank you very much! 19

Clearly and consisely gives an overview of the research, i.e. overall aim, method, results, conclusion 5 4 3 2 1
Literature review Relevant research reviewed
Prior research clearly and thoroughly reviewed
Funnelled literature review, i.e. progression from general to more relevant or specific 20 16 12 8 4
Expression at the sentence level Sentences grammatically and clearly expressed
Good paraphrasing 5 4 3 2 1
Clear linkage within paragraphs Sentences within paragraphs share a common theme or topic & logically link with other sentences within the paragraph 5 4 3 2 1
Clear linkage between paragraphs & to the overall topic Paragraphs link or follow logically 5 4 3 2 1
Research Questions/Hypotheses Logically follow on from the literature reviewed.
Clearly expressed 10 8 6 4 2
Method Clearly & concisely explained, links logically with research questions/hypotheses 5 4 3 2 1
Results Clearly and concisely written
Tables and graphs appropriately presented 10 8 6 4 2
Discussion Results systematically addressed and interpreted in relation to previous research discussed in the literature review. 20 16 12 8 4

## a) For a series of random samples of 60, are the mean values of these random samples normally distributed? Explain [3 marks] b) Calculate the standard error of the mean and explain the meaning of this value. [2 marks] c) Determine the 95% confidence interval and explain its meaning in the context of the overall problem. [4 marks]

a) For a series of random samples of 60, are the mean values of these random samples normally distributed? Explain [3 marks] b) Calculate the standard error of the mean and explain the meaning of this value. [2 marks] c) Determine the 95% confidence interval and explain its meaning in the context of the overall problem. [4 marks].

a) For a series of random samples of 60, are the mean values of these random samples normally distributed? Explain
[3 marks]
b) Calculate the standard error of the mean and explain the meaning of this value.
[2 marks]
c) Determine the 95% confidence interval and explain its meaning in the context of the overall problem.
[4 marks]

Assessment 3
Maximum marks: 50
Due date: 0900 Tuesday May 31, 2016 (week 13)
This assessment relates to problem solving task 2 – solving a set of given problems through the application of statistical and other decision making techniques.
Background
A health agency is taking a survey regarding the evaluation of all the hospitals in Melbourne to find out the statistical calculation and analyze the attributes of the data. The agency needs a report that can analyze the number of admissions, type of control and type of service and other factors. They focus on the service provided by each hospital whether it is for non-government, non-federal, for profit, federal government and so on.
For analytical purposes a random sample of 60 data is generated out of 300 population data and the statistical summary of the sample data is tabulated in Table 1.
Table 1 Statistical Summary
Variable Mean Median Standard deviation Minimum Maximum Range P value Count
Admissions 6959.00 4636.50 6995.56 441.00 37375.00 2668.50 0.168 60
Your overall task is to investigate the effect of various variables on the number of admissions in Melbourne hospitals using various descriptive analyses which is extremely helpful to formulate a conclusion.
To assist with your investigation, you are required to answer questions 1 and 2 below.
Question 1 [15 marks]
a) For a series of random samples of 60, are the mean values of these random samples normally distributed? Explain
[3 marks]
b) Calculate the standard error of the mean and explain the meaning of this value.
[2 marks]
c) Determine the 95% confidence interval and explain its meaning in the context of the overall problem.
[4 marks]
d) What is the probability that a sample of 60 hospitals selected at random in the Melbourne area will have a mean greater than 7000.00 admissions?
[4 marks]
e) If the admissions times were more variable, what effect would this have on the confidence interval?
[2 marks]
Question 2 [10 marks]
Assume that the average admission for all hospitals in Melbourne is 7500. Conduct a statistical hypothesis test to determine if the admission of hospitals in Melbourne is significantly different from the average admission 6959. Mention any assumptions and include relevant hypotheses and report the results and conclusion in the conventional manner.
a) Write down both the null and alternative hypotheses
[1 marks]
b) Carry out the t test and report the p-value, and the test statistic
[4 marks]
c) Write an appropriate conclusion in the context of the problem.
[2 marks]
Based on your answers to questions 1 and 2 please write a report of the effect of various variables on the number of admissions in Melbourne hospitals
[3 marks]
Question 3 [25 marks]
Most of the time houses prices depend on the local market conditions. In addition one of the factors is the number of bedrooms (as bedrooms increase prices increases). Recently Come Real Estate Agency has conducted a survey and selected a random sample of 211 for July 2015 sale in Melbourne and the data analyzed is summarized as follows.
SUMMARY OUTPUT
Regression Statistics
Multiple R 0.817326539
R Square 0.668022671
Standard Error 115.8071494
Observations 180
ANOVA
df SS MS F Significance F
Regression 1 4803674 4803674 358.1811918 1.74254E-44
Residual 178 2387211 13411.3
Total 179 7190885
Coefficients Standard Error t Stat P-value Lower 95% Upper 95% Lower 95.0% Upper
95.0%
Intercept -137.8814237 25.56878832 -5.39257 2.18686E-07 -188.3383819 -87.4244654 -188.3383819 –
87.424465
Bedrooms 178.6267021 9.438326385 18.92568 1.74254E-44 160.0012892 197.252115 160.0012892 197.25212
House Price
Mean 317.6166667
Standard Error 14.93923611
Median 271.8
Mode 230.5
Standard Deviation 200.4308849
Sample Variance 40172.53961
Kurtosis 9.869866365
Skewness 2.287541039
Range 1544.3
a) Write down the regression equation.
[2 mark]
b) State the R-squared value and the standard error and explain what they mean with respect to the data.
[4 marks]
c) Write down the value of the gradient of the regression line and explain what it means for this data.
[3 marks]
d) Are the values for the constant and the gradient (slope) significant (i.e. significantly different from zero) in this case? Justify your answer.
[3 marks]
e) Conduct a hypothesis test on the slope coefficient to test whether there is a linear relationship between number of bedrooms and prices of the houses. Include the null and alternative hypotheses; key test results and an appropriate conclusion.
[5 marks]
f) Does the linear regression provide a good model? Give statistical reasons based on the scatterplot, p-values, the standard error and coefficient of determination.
[5 marks]
g) If you were developing a model to predict the prices of the houses on the number of bedrooms, what other factors would you like to be able to include?
[3 marks]

a) For a series of random samples of 60, are the mean values of these random samples normally distributed? Explain [3 marks] b) Calculate the standard error of the mean and explain the meaning of this value. [2 marks] c) Determine the 95% confidence interval and explain its meaning in the context of the overall problem. [4 marks]

## Psychology Research in Context” video. Answer the following questions in a 700- to 1050-word paper What was the goal of the present study? How are the present results considered valid? Explain what these results mean to someone who has not taken this c

Psychology Research in Context” video. Answer the following questions in a 700- to 1050-word paper What was the goal of the present study? How are the present results considered valid? Explain what these results mean to someone who has not taken this c.

Psychology Research in Context” video.  Answer the following questions in a 700- to 1,050-word paper: What was the goal of the present study? How are the present results considered valid? Explain what these results mean to someone who has not taken this ccourse

Statistical Analysis (02:49)

From Title: Psychology Research in Context

Using memory tests, psychologists must choose an appropriate statistical test to determine if their data results have statistical significance.

Item Number: 40117

Online Classroom Ltd.

Filed Under:Introduction to Psychology

Related Resources ⇧

Title URL

Segment URL

Segments Transcript Related

Interactive Transcript Tutorial

– “Science” literally means “knowledge.” But it’s come to be associated with subjects like physics, chemistry, and biology. So what do we mean by science? How does science work? And is it true? Science is the systematic and logical pursuit of knowledge through specific methods. One of these is the hypothetical deductive method.

– The hypothetical deductive model is the way that we study science. So we start with observations about the world and develop theories about the way that the world might work. We test those theories, and we use the findings from our data to draw conclusions about our theories, modify those theories, and then start again.

– We’re going to illustrate how this approach works in psychology by looking at one of Piaget’s experiments. As a young man working with children, Piaget noticed that very young ones consistently gave wrong answers to certain questions.

– Piaget was looking at the way that children developed, and he believe that children, as they got older, changed the way that they thought. So their cognitive processes changed with age.

– One of the ways Piaget assessed children’s thinking was to present them with what he called conservation tasks. That is the ability to recognize that quantity doesn’t change even when display is altered. Children were shown counters arranged in the same way. The experimenter then spread one of the rows out. Most young children thought there were now more bricks in the longer row. For Piaget, this showed that young children didn’t yet have the ability to conserve number. And this was consistent with his theory that children’s cognitive abilities developed over time. So are Piaget’s findings true? Well, yes and no. Yes, because he showed objectively that children’s thought patterns develop in distinct stages. But no, because all scientific findings are temporary. They’re always open to question, evaluation, and criticism. And this is just what happened in Piaget’s conservation experiment. It was challenged by McGarrigle and Donaldson.

– McGarrigle and Donaldson felt that children actually learned these cognitive skills much earlier than Piaget thought from his experiments. They’d watched real children and felt that they could solve problems at a much younger age. McGarrigle and Donaldson took Piaget’s experiments, but instead of carrying them out in a very abstract way, they tried to set a context for the children that would help them to understand the experiment and to understand why they were having to estimate the numbers of counters. McGarrigle and Donaldson introduced a character called Naughty Teddy. Naughty Teddy came and knocked the counters across the table, and the experimenters then rearranged them and asked the children whether or not there were still the same number of counters. In this experiment with the context provided, children as young as three or four could conserve number. This tells us that Piaget probably underestimated children’s cognitive development when they’re given a real-life context. Piaget wasn’t technically wrong. There was just still more to learn about children’s cognitive development.

– So Naughty Teddy showed us something about child development. But since then, research has moved on, and McGarrigle and Donaldson’s research is now being questioned and criticized. And the process will go on.

– Naughty Teddy taught us something about child development, but since then, our understanding has moved on even further. Each time we find something out, it generates new questions.

– The children we’ve looked at today won’t always be like this.

– And what do you want to be when you’re a big girl?

– A hairdresser.

– A hairdresser?

– They’ll develop and change the way they think about themselves and the world.

– I can’t decide.

– You can’t decide? There’s such a lot of jobs you can choose, isn’t there?

– Yeah.

[sighs]

– When I do the dentist, I’m gonna– I’m gonna brush the people’s teeth. If–or–or if their teeth are– all of their teeth are falling out, I might put brace teeth in.

– And it’s the same with science. It’s the constant process of change and evolution.

– We find out things. We test our theories. And we get new data that tells us new information about the way that the world works.

– And so the hypothetical deductive model is based on observing events and developing or revising theories based on those observations, then devising hypotheses to test predictions from the theory, and finally carrying out research, relating observations to hypothesis. And so the cycle of a hypothetical deductive model will just keep on spinning. And the more we know, the more questions we’ll be asking. Statistics is the science of handling quantitative information. It’s concerned with how data should be collected, how they should be analyzed, and how we can draw conclusions from them. So what kind of statistics are useful in psychology, and what do they mean?

[mellow guitar music] Dan’s a partner in a small record company. He’s looking to sign a new band. One of the band’s he’s thinking about is Damn Fine Future.

– [singing] There goes my hero

– Have you seen these guys, like, around Blakeney and stuff?

– Oh, yeah, we went to see them at the–

– Yeah, they are quite popular out there.

– Cool, cool. – Really popular band. So it’s class to go watch.

– But he’s also been looking at Stained Glass Alice. Trouble is, he can only sign one of them.

– Well, we’ve seen them a couple of times. We all think they’re fabulous. Just something a bit new and different, aren’t they?

– Have you got a demo or two, anything like that?

– We’ve got two, actually. – Have you?

– So which one is likely to sell more records?

– Well, obviously, you can go by what you hear, but this can be very subjective. People like lots of different music. And it can be difficult to work out exactly what will sell.

– They’re the only band around here that have got, like, about eight–

– It makes it– it looks really class having them all singing and doing different things. And it’s the fact they all look really into it.

– It would be good to have some more objective evidence, for example, how many people go to see them and how regular are gigs?

– So can descriptive statistics help here, going back and looking at the band’s concert figures? One way to do this is look at measures of central tendency– the mean, the statistical average; the mode, the most frequent; and the median, the middle value– of all the people who have attended the band’s last five concerts. So let’s look at their concert attendances. Damn Fine Future have been seen by an average of 41.8 people. However, the mean average for Stained Glass Alice is much the same. But this doesn’t help Dan. So is there another way of using descriptive statistics that might help? We need to know whether the bands consistently draw audiences of the same size or whether there might be some sort of chance event that’s contributed to their average. A useful way of thinking about this is to look at measures of dispersion, or variations in the data. The usual way of doing this is to look at the standard deviation. A big standard deviation means there’s lots of variation in the data, whereas a small standard deviation means the data are quite consistent. This could be plotted in a bar chart to show the spread of scores around the mean. From the objective measures of the band’s concert figures, which one would you advice Dan to choose?

[upbeat rock music] But how do these techniques work in psychology? Educational psychologist Rhian Humphreys is using IQ tests to see if she can identify children who might need extra support with learning at school.

– Some children with dyslexia, for example, have problems with reading and writing, amongst other things, which can affect their ability to learn. But they are also still very intelligent. If reading and writing isn’t consistent with intelligence, then specialized support is needed to help these children to learn effectively.

– IQ tests were developed specifically to help psychologists and teachers understand why some children have difficulties learning and what sort of difficulties these are.

– Well, IQ tests have been designed so that an average person at a specific age will always score an IQ of 100. So, for example, the average IQ of a seven-year-old is 100, and the average IQ of a 20-year-old is also 100.

– So the mean IQ for the entire population is 100. The standard deviation is 15. This means that about 68% of people have an IQ that’s within 15 points of the mean, either above or below. So 2/3 of the population have an IQ between 85 and 115. Ninety-five percent of people have an IQ within two standard deviations of the mean, or within 30 IQ points. So nearly everyone’s IQ falls within the range of 70 to 130. We can categorize people’s intelligence using this knowledge. This kind of information can help Rhian in her work as an educational psychologist. For example, if a child has problems with their schoolwork, she can use the information about their IQ to work out whether the problem has to do with their intelligence or with a more specific learning difficulty like dyslexia.

– For example, a child with an IQ of, say, 95, this is within one standard deviation of the mean. This means that they have a pretty average intelligence and that their problems are probably due to a specific learning difficulty. However, a child with an IQ of, say, 70, this is two standard deviations below the mean. So this means that the help that they need will be different. This can be helpful in a way that a signpost is helpful when you’re looking for somewhere. It can help point you in the direction that you need to take.

– So we’ve seen here how using measures of central tendency such as dispersion and standard deviations can be useful in psychology and its applications. But they can also be useful in everyday life. Finding the right partner’s not easy. You’ve got to click, got to be right for each other. It’s a bit the same with psychological data. Once you’ve collected your data, you need to find the right graphical partner to display your results clearly. So in this program, we’ll be looking at ways of presenting research data in the right graphical form. It seems our patterns of dating, our ways of finding partners, may be changing. It’s been estimated that 50% of single adults in Britain have used Lonely Hearts ads or internet dating. Caitlin McLeod is researching this.

– Well, I’m looking at who’s putting these ads in, their ages, when they’re doing it, what they’re looking for, and what they’re offering.

– As Caitlin is collecting different types of data, she needs to select the best way of presenting it graphically.

– The first thing I looked at is who wants a date with whom. Well, for this type of data, I would use a pie chart, because it’s a really good way of displaying how a population can be divided into sections and then what proportion of the whole each section represents.

– In Caitlin’s sample, the biggest proportion was women looking for men at 47%, next men looking for women, 42%, then men looking for men, 7%, and women looking for women, 4%. Data needs to be in the form of frequencies, in other words, nominal. The bigger the proportion, the bigger the slice of the pie. A second question is when people put ads in. Is it pretty much consistent throughout the year, or are the peak times in seasonal variations?

– Well, I’m finding there are some seasonal variations. Numbers increase through Autumn and reach a peak around Christmastime and into January, you know, perhaps people writing New Year’s resolutions, “Must find partner.” And then the numbers decline and pick up again in the spring and early summer. For this data, I would use a line graph.

– Line graphs are used to show a trend over time or how a participant’s experiences change. The X-axis on the line graph must always use continuous units of measurement, for example, changes over time.

– A line graph is the best way to display this type of data about seasonal changes in the number of ads placed because the data’s continuous.

– Caitlin is also looking at the age of people who put in Lonely Heart ads.

– There’s a stereotype view that it’s only middle-aged and older people who put in these type of Lonely Hearts ads. But I’m finding that there’s a whole range of ages. My data actually shows that ages range from 19 to 87. what is interesting is looking at the ages of the person and the age of the partner they’re seeking.

– Here as Caitlin is looking at the relationship between variables, the age of the people placing the ads and the age of the partner they’re looking for, this can be presented with a scattergraph. The values are plotted on the graph and a line of best fit calculated so any relationship can be clearly seen. So you can see there’s a strong correlation with advertisers looking for potential partners around their own age.

– I’m also looking at the ads themselves to see what people want and what they’re offering, effectively what they’re buying and what they’re selling. And there are some interesting gender differences.

– I look for someone who’s faithful and who’s nice and who has a nice personality.

– She’s got to have long blonde hair.

– Good looks, brown hair, you know, nice personality.

– Somebody that can make me laugh and smile. I don’t really, like, look for features.

– Men tend to prioritize attractiveness and social skills and are generally looking for someone younger than themselves. Women place a lot more value on commitment and resources and are generally looking for someone older.

– And while males tended to stress economic resources as their main selling point, females stressed their attractiveness. This kind of information which shows frequencies and discrete data, such as males and females, can be presented in a bar chart. A bar chart is a diagram consisting of columns, the heights of which indicate frequencies. On the X-axis are discrete data. So what’s Caitlin been finding out from her research?

– Well, all of this shows us that although finding a mate through ads is relatively new, basic evolutionary processes are at work, the male offering protection, the female, desirability.

– Here we’ve been looking at presenting statistical data. Caitlin’s been collecting different types of data, which she’s presented in different ways. And in data presentation, like real life, the trick is getting the right match. When psychologists get data from lots of participants, it can be difficult to get a clear picture of exactly what’s happening. We need to be sure of what type of data we have and whether our results are statistically significant. And that’s what we’ll be looking at here.

– I remember some of the problems that I had with statistical analysis when I was a student, so I’m gonna try and make it a bit clearer here. I’m gonna ask these students to help me with some short tests on memory. I’m gonna use these to do two things. First, we’ll look at the types of statistical data that psychologists collect. And second, we’ll use an example to find out if we have statistical significance. Okay, who thinks they’ve got a good memory? Okay, if you’ll just go stand by that sign, please. And what about average memories? Who thinks their memories are just average? Okay, if you’ll just go stand over there, please. Thank you. And bad? You think your memories are just bad? Okay, if you’ll just go stand over there. Thank you.

– Putting people into categories like this is what psychologists call nominal data.

– Now what I’m gonna do is see what your memories are really like.

– Students are shown a tray with a number of items on it, and they’re given one minute to memorize as many as they can.

– Okay, minute’s up. Just gonna cover the tray.

– They’re given another minute to write down as many as they can remember.

– Right, here’s what was on the tray. If you’d like to work out your scores, we’ve got an umbrella, a stapler, a Kellogg’s Special K bar, a banana, a cassette… What we’re gonna do here is put the students into rank order. We’re not looking at individual scores here. We’re just looking at the order.

– In rank order, the person who got the highest score is ranked number one, next highest score number two, and so on until we get to the lowest score having a rank value of ten. Putting people or scores into order, lowest to highest or highest to lowest, is called ordinal data. But we don’t know how much higher or lower. For example, there might not be the same amount of difference between one and two as there is between four and five.

– Right, now what I’m going to do is get a different type of data by asking students for their actual results. Okay, let’s see your scores, please. How many did you get?

– This is what psychologists call interval data. We have real scores. And the size of each step on the scale is identical. The difference between one and two is the same as the difference between four and five, one remembered object. If possible, psychologists always try to collect this type of data because it’s the most meaningful. Now we know the difference between nominal, ordinal, and interval data, we can look at an example of how they’re used by psychologists to choose an appropriate statistical test.

– Okay, what we want to do now is see what your memory’s really like.

– We’re going to illustrate this looking at how we can use statistics to see whether boys or girls score differently on these memory tests. So this is an example involving interval data. But the same idea would be applied if we were using other types of data.

– Okay, time’s up. I’m just gonna cover the tray.

– The experimental hypothesis is that sex affects memory. So we expect to see that boys and girls have different scores. The null hypothesis is that sex does not affect memory, in which case, we’d see no difference between scores for boys and girls. So how do we decide which test to use?

– Well, let’s just recap and see what we have first. The experiment is a test of difference, a difference between boys and girls. The experiments were designed as independent measures because we’re comparing boys’ scores with girls’ scores. And the data are interval data, as each participant has a score representing the number of items that they correctly recalled. So for this experiment, we use a Mann-Whitney U Test.

– The result shows that U equals 22 and that P is less than 0.05, so we can reject the null hypothesis. We’re 95% sure that sex really does affect memory. Because the mean score for girls is higher, we know that girls tend to have better memories. It won’t be true for all boys or girls because the data vary within each group. But on average, we can expect this to be true. And our Mann-Whitney U Test has told us we can be 95% sure the difference between boys’ and girls’ memories is because of their sex, not because of chance.

– So here we’ve looked at different types of data and had to choose the right kind of test to see whether we have statistically significant results. Examiners will expect you to know about which test to choose and the meaning of P values, so good luck.

– Collecting and analyzing data is only part of the research process. Data also have to be interpreted and evaluated. And that’s what we’ll be looking at here with research student Tanya Wells. Psychologists are interested in studying aggression. But what is aggression?

– I think it’s more like anger, and there’s a lot of physical and verbal. Like, you can start raising your voice and get aggressive when you’re infuriated or frustrated by something.

– Like, if someone gets really angry, often you can over–get– like, lash out on someone. That’d be aggression. Or you can sort of bottle it up and just, like, walk away.

– People have different buttons and different, like, pressure points in where they can get angry and where they can’t get angry.

– But are there differences in the way that males and females express aggression?

– Mainly physical with boys. Girls just tend to, I think, be very two-faced and hiding their aggression.

– Boys tend to use physical. Girls tend to be more calm when it comes to being aggressive.

– And who’s more aggressive, boys or girls?

– Normally, people think boys, but I think girls get aggressive but in different ways. They show it in different ways.

– Research student Tanya is trying to find out.

– Well, I’m researching aggression. One of the things I’m looking at are gender differences in self-reported measures of aggression. And for this part of the research, I’m using questionnaire methods. Well, I have a number of statements to operationalize the concept of aggression. So respondents are asked whether they agree or disagree to a statement such as: “If anyone insults me or my family, they’re asking for a fight.”

– “If I’m arguing with someone, I tend to raise my voice.” Agree.

– “If someone hits me first, I usually hit them back.” Agree.

– “When people shout at me, I shout back.” Agree.

– So what’s Tanya been finding?

– Well, my findings show that on average, males did score higher on aggression in the questionnaire than females, as you can see from here.

– The standard deviation in Tanya’s data shows approximately the same degree of variation in each set of scores. However, for both sets of scores, the amount of dispersion was fairly large. What this means is, there was considerable individual variation in both male and female scores. So Tanya’s findings have shown higher levels of reported aggression in boys. But how can she be sure these differences are really due to sex and not just chance?

– Tanya needs to be 95% confident that the difference that she’s seeing is due to sex and not due to chance. She’s going to test this using a Mann-Whitney U Test. This is a test of difference between two groups, an independent measures test for data that’s at least ordinal, like our questionnaire scores.

– After calculation, U equals 5, and P is less than 0.05, so we can be 95% sure that males did scores higher on aggression than females. But there’s another question we have to ask in data interpretation: how confident can we be of the data themselves? And here psychologists have certain key data to help them. One of the most important is validity.

– Validity means that we want to check that something measures what we really think it measures. So in the context of Tanya’s questionnaire, does it really measure aggression, or does it measure something else that might be related to aggression but not quite the same thing?

– So can the validity of Tanya’s methods be questioned? Her supervisor’s interested in her measures of aggression.

– In some cultures, of course, bad language won’t be used very much at all. It might only be used in extreme circumstances. In other cultures, you might find it as a part of everyday language.

– People use, like, bad language in everyday situations.

– ‘Cause a lot of people just swear, and they don’t even realize half the time, whereas when you’re angry, you do it, and you know you’re doing it.

– But swearing shouldn’t be used as a sign of aggression.

– I’d swear, like, in front of my friends and stuff like– in general conversation, but then as soon as I go home, I wouldn’t swear in front of my parents.

– Are we really measuring aggression? If a students says that they don’t– they only use bad language when they’re very angry and another student says, “I use bad language all the time,” we’re not really necessarily measuring aggression. We’re measuring cultural norms and whether it’s okay in that culture to use that kind of language.

– Yeah, yeah.

– Reliability is another important criterion.

– Reliability means that the test should give the same results if it’s repeated with the same people or with the same population of people in different places or at different times.

– I think you’re right. Like, I think it would be good to take the questionnaire to, you know, obviously other schools in completely different areas so that, you know, you’re even working with kids who are, you know, of different backgrounds to see how aggression works with them.

– Absolutely, because you might find that children from different cultures display aggression in different ways. In Tanya’s study, we would expect her to find the same results, the pattern of boys being more aggressive than girls, whether she looked at private schools or state schools in different parts of the country or even in different parts of the world.

– And if the results are very different, then maybe the data aren’t reliable. Maybe they need reinterpreting. Or maybe the methods need refining.

– So I think to have maybe five points on your scale rather than just the two will give you a more sensitive measure of the level of aggression that each person…

– But generally, I think you can make a comparison between science and sport. You may be really good at sport, but someone may take your championship, beat your score. And it’s the same with science: someone’s going to find a better methodology or a better explanation, and that’s the way it progresses.

– We saw this in the first program with Piaget’s conservation experiment. It told us a lot, but McGarrigle and Donaldson raised questions about its validity with Naughty Teddy, and they came up with different results. And that’s the way science works: by building on what’s there and trying to push it that bit further.

132 West 31st Street

New York, NY 10001

Tech Support: 1-800-322-8755 – Press (6)

Report a Problem

Films Media Group, Films for the Humanities & Sciences, Cambridge Educational, Meridian Education,

Shopware and their respective logos are trademarks of Films Media Group.

FILMS ON DEMAND

Home

What’s New

Subject Index

Terms

Help Center

Translate

Select Language▼

Psychology Research in Context” video. Answer the following questions in a 700- to 1050-word paper What was the goal of the present study? How are the present results considered valid? Explain what these results mean to someone who has not taken this c

|

## Discuss the trade-offs between circuit switching virtual circuit switching and packet switching. Answer the following about communication protocols (a) IP (Internet Protocol) is described as a “best-effort delivery service.” What exactly does this mean

Discuss the trade-offs between circuit switching virtual circuit switching and packet switching. Answer the following about communication protocols (a) IP (Internet Protocol) is described as a “best-effort delivery service.” What exactly does this mean.

Discuss the trade-offs between circuit switching virtual circuit switching and packet switching. Answer the following about communication protocols (a) IP (Internet Protocol) is described as a “best-effort delivery service.” What exactly does this mean

## What does Pariotti mean by the myth of sovereignty? Is her argument reasonable and well-supported? How so? How does it relate to this week’s video?

What does Pariotti mean by the myth of sovereignty? Is her argument reasonable and well-supported? How so? How does it relate to this week’s video?.

What does Pariotti mean by the myth of sovereignty?  Is her argument reasonable and well-supported?  How so? How does it relate to this week’s video?

Instructions: Your initial post should be at least 350 words.

This week’s readings will lay the foundation for the entire course.  While the textbook reading is crucial, don’t ignore the Krasner article.  It is one of the classic articles in the area of international regimes.

Silverburg, Sanford(ed).  International law: contemporary issues and future developments. Part 1  and chapter six.

This reading will lay the foundation for the study of international law.