An Existentialism View Toward Batman and Naruto Essay

An Existentialism View Toward Batman and Naruto Essay.

I. Theory of Existentialism Existentialism is a philosophical movement that posits that individuals create the meaning and essence of their lives, as opposed to deities or authoritites creating it for them. It emerged as a movement in twentieth-century literature and philosophy, though it had forerunners in earlier centuries. Existentialism generally postulates that the absence of a transcendent force (such as God) means that the individual is entirely free, and therefore, ultimately responsible. It is up to humans to create an ethos of personal responsibility outside any branded belief system.

In existentialism views, personal articulation of being is the olny way to rise above humanity`s absurd condition of much suffering and inevitable death. Existentialism is a reaction against traditional philosophies, such as rationalism and empiricism, that seek to discover an ultimate order in metaphysical principles or in the structure of the observed world, and thereby seek to discover universal meaning. Existentialism originated with the nineteenth-century philosophers Soren Kierkegaard and Friedrich Nietzsche.

It became prevalent in Continental philosophy, and literary figures such as Fyodor Dostoevsky also contributed to the movement.

In the 1940s and 1950s, French existentialism such as Jean-Paul Satre, Albert Camus, and Simone de Beauvoir, wrote scholarly and fictional works that popularized existential themes such as “dread, boredom, alienation, the absurd, freedom, commitment, and nothingness. ” Walter Kaufmann describes existentialism as “The refusal to belong to any school of thought, the repudiation of the adequacy of any body of beliefs whatever, and especially of systems, and a marked dissatisfaction with traditional phylosophy as superficial, academic, and remote from life.

” Existentialism tends to focus on the question of human existence – the feeling that there is no purpose, indeed nothing, at the core of existence. Finding a way to counter this nothingness, by embracing existence, is the fundamental theme of existentialism, and the root of the phylosophy’s name. In existentialism view, they asserts that a human finds oneself already in a world and prior context that the human cannot think away. In other words, the ultimate and unquestionable reality is not consciousness but existence.

A central proposition of existentialism is that humans define their own meaning in life. Such a view might be phrased technically by philosophers as existence precedes essence, that is a human’s existence conceptually precedes the essence or meaning that may be ascribed to the life. Satre, in Essays in Extentialism, further highlights this consciousness of being thrown into existence in the following fashion: “If man, as the existentialist conceives him, is indefinable, it is because at first he is nothing. Only afterward will he be something, and he himself will have made what he will be.

” Emphasizing action, freedom, and decision as fundamental, existentialist oppose themselves to rationalism and positivism. That is, they argue against definitions of human beings as primarily rational. Rather, existentialists look at where people find meaning. Existentialism asserts that people actually make decisions based on what has meaning to them rather that what is rational. A further type of existentialism is agnostic existentialists, who make no claim to know whether or not there is a “greater picture”; rather, they simply assert that the greatest truth is that which the individual chooses to act upon.

II. What is Superhero A superhero – sometimes written as super hero – is a fictional character of extraordinary physical ability dedicated to acts in the sake of public interest. Since the debut of the prototypal superhero Superman in 1938, stories of superheroes – ranging from brief episodic adventures to continuing years-long sagas – have dominated American comic books and crossed over into other media. A female superhero is sometimes called a superheroine or super heroine.

By most definitions, characters need not have actual superhuman powers to be deemed superheroes, not, although sometimes terms such as costumed crimefighters are used to refer to those without such powers who have many other common traits of superheroes. The two-word version of the term is a trademark co-owned by DC Comics and Marvel Comics. There have been successful superheroes in other countries most of whom share the conventions of the American model. Examples include Cybersix from Argentina, Captain Canuck from Canada and the heroes of AK Comics from Egypt.

For this Western area, I will take Batman as the representative. Unlike many superheroes, Batman has no superpowers and instead relies on his own scientific knowledge, detective skills, an athletic abilities. Batman is physically at the peak of human ability in dozens of areas, notably martial arts, acrobatics, strenght, and escape artistry. Rather than simply outfighting his opponents, Batman often uses cunning and planning to outwit them. Batman’s costumes incorporates the imagery of a bat in order to frighten criminals.

Japan is the only country that nears the US in output of superheroes. The earlier of these wore scarves either in addition to or as a substitute for capes and many wear helmets instead of masks. Moonlight Mask, Ultraman, Kamen Rider, Super Sentai (the basis for Power Rangers), Metal Heroes and Kikaider have become popular in Japanese tokusatsu live-action shows, and Science Ninja Team Gatchaman, Casshan, The Guyver, and Sailor Moon are staples of Japanese anime and manga. However, most Japanese superheroes are shorter-lived.

While American entertainment companies update and reinvent superheroes, hoping to keep them popular for decades, Japanese companies retire and introduce superheroes more quickly, usually on an annual basis, in order to shorten merchandise lines. In addition, Japanese manga often targets female readers, unlike U. S. comics, and has created such varieties as “magical girl” (e. g. Cardcaptor Sakura) for this audience. For this Eastern area, I will take Naruto as the representative. Naruto whose full name is Uzumaki Naruto is a young boy who dreams of becoming the leader of his Hidden Village.

It will be difficult though for Naruto, because when he was a baby an evil demon was placed inside him to stop its rampage. As Naruto grew the townspeople saw Naruto himself as the demon, even though he was merely its container. Naruto lives in a world populated by ninja villages. The ninja serve as the armies for the countries that inhabit the world. Most of the countries have their own Hidden Village, which serves to train and manage the ninja of the country. Also the ninja in the series are able to utilize jutsu techniques, which are the secrecy, body and illusion arts of the ninja.

These allow the ninja to perform many amazing skills such as the manipulation of the surrounding elements. III. Batman and Naruto: Their Differences and Their Revelance In Existentialism The true feature of Batman as a common people is Bruce Wayne, a millionaire industrialist. He inherited a big corporation, Wayne Corporation, from his father. The ego ‘Batman’ was born because of two accident. The first was the murder of Bruce’s parents. Bruce witnessed his parent killed in a gun-accident. A street-criminal shot them to death. The second was Bruce falling down into a cave in Wayne’s manor.

He fell into a dark and humid cave where a hundred of bats lived. Those two accidents led Bruce to learn about martial arts and gadget-operating skill in order to fight the crime in Gotham city. His fear of bat made him wear a bat-costume in doing his operation. Thus, Batman as a superhero who fight a crime has born. This is the very purpose why Batman wants to fight crime: a personal vendetta against criminals. Since Batman does not have any superpowers, he relies on his own scientific knowledge, detective skills, an athletic abilities. Also his wealth enables him to get much modern and sophisticated gadget in order to beat his nemesis.

In other hand, Naruto, instead of his lack of intellectual ability in solving a problem, his friend still considers some of his actions brilliant. Naruto does all of his action by intuition, not by a precise step as a ninja should do. What makes Naruto a superhero is that he possesses massive abundant chakra energy inside his body. This chakra is originated from a Nine-Tailed Demon Fox that is sealed inside his body. Together with his friends and mentor, Naruto solve the problem and fight with the evil ninjas. They act in a group of 4 ,3 ninjas and a mentor.

They perform a close combat by using martial arts and ninjutsu, and a long-range combat by using flying dagger or shuriken. Once they accomplished a mission, they report to the hokage, which is the leader of the village. Yet, the very important thing that makes they both become a superhero is that there exist some nemesis, villains, that must be eliminated. They both make some struggles to get rid of those system distracted. What differentiate them is the way they make these struggles. Batman eliminates crime in Gotham by his own rule. He does not obey the rules prevailed in that city.

He intentionally takes action againts criminal without involving the authorities. It can be concluded that Batman makes his own system to fix the system. However, Batman – intentionally or not – does not kill his enemy. He just sents those criminals to the authorities, to be prisoned or not. Batman’s worst nemesis, The Joker, is still alive until now. Although they often have some ‘fight’, but neither Batman or The Joker is condemned to death. While Naruto’s job is to keep the system in his village to be kept save. He does not violate the system prevailed in his village, instead he is forced to obey that system.

His acts are being ruled by Hokage, the highest authority in the village. He is a kind of ‘paid’ superhero that acts upon a mission that is given by that Hokage. Once they accomplished that mission, they have report to that Hokage. Here, Naruto biggest enemy, Kabuto, is remain alive until now. What makes this difference? It is because the different culture that affect the people in West and East. Why Batman have a nerve to make his own system to fix the main system prevailed in his city is due to the Western way of thinking. Western culture tends to emphasize critical thinking.

They are learned to break the rules if they think that there are some errors in those rules. Their new ideas are being welcomed, even they are supported to make new inventions. While Eastern country tend to ‘close their eyes’. They have to accept what the older people says. They are not being couraged to make some critics toward the culture. They tend to give high respect (sometimes not in a proper measure) toward conventional ideas. Here it implies in the way Batman and Naruto makes their struggle to fight crimes. Then another point where existentialism takes place also emmerges. Why those superheroes do not kill their enemies?

It is because they ‘need’ their nemesis so that they can be a superheroes still. Let’s we go back to the question of what makes those superheroes superhero? What do they pursue? They want to eliminate crimes. Then we come to the question of what causes this crime? Criminals. So superheroes exist because there are some criminals. If there are no criminals, so there are no superheroes. Like what Satre has said, “If man, as the existentialist conceives him, is indefineable, it is because at first he is nothing. Only afterward will he be something, and he himself will have made what he will be.

” Thus, superhero is nothing if there is no criminal to make him defineable. This is the meaning of existence preceding essence. I would like to use the term that coined by Heidegger, “throwness”, that is human beings are “thrown” into existence without having chosen it. Whether superhero or the enemy do not have the power to choose what they want to be. First they just exist in the world, then they just do the thing that they believe as a greatest truth. This is that greatest truth that they choose to act upon to find the essences of their existencies. Noviana Indah Tri Wahyuni a paper for Comparative Studies Superhero Theme.

An Existentialism View Toward Batman and Naruto Essay

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Assess Albert Speer’s contribution to the Nazi war effort Essay

Assess Albert Speer’s contribution to the Nazi war effort Essay.

Albert Speer’s contribution to the Nazi war effort started well before the declaration of war. His work for the Nazi regime aided Adolf Hitler in lifting the morale of the German people and consolidating Nazi power which was determined to engage in armed conflict.

Speer was an accomplished architect and a highly efficient organiser. Hitler addressed Berlin’s university students at a Berlin rally in 1931, and Speer who was in the audience was so overwhelmed by what he heard that he joined the Nazi party and committed himself to his work.

By 1932 he was working independently as an architect and used his party contacts to gain him more work. In 1933, Goebbels asked Speer to renovate the Propaganda Ministry.

His next project proved to be even more successful planning and organising massive banners, swastikas and searchlights for the celebration of the Day of National Labour on the Tempelhof Field in Berlin on May 1st 1933. Goebbels was so impressed that he commissioned Speer to design the surround of the Nuremberg Rally later that year.

Soon he was renovating Nazi Party offices and through his hard work and enthusiasm he mad a name for himself amongst the Nazi leadership.

With the death of Hitler’s architect Troost, Hitler co-opted Speer as his personal architectural advisor. They became personal friends and Speer moved his family to be near Hitler’s mountain lodge. Speer was commissioned to rebuild the Nuremberg Party Rally grounds and due to his success in propaganda architecture Hitler appointed him in 1938 as General Building Inspector for the National Capital.

Speer placed his department at the disposal of the Wehrmacht. Among his innovations were quick-reaction squads who construct roads and cleared away debris. Before long, these units would be used to clear bomb sites. As the war progressed, he failed to convince Hitler of the need to suspend peacetime construction projects, so he continued to work on the Berlin and Nuremburg plans. Speer also oversaw the construction of buildings for the Wehrmacht and Luftwaffe, and developed a considerable organization to deal with this work.

Speer continued with his duties designing and constructing for the Reich up until 1942. In this period, his ideas and plans were used by Hitler to show the German population how great the nation could be. That year he was appointed Reich Minister for Armaments & Munitions as a reward for his faithful and unswerving loyalty to Nazi Party and Hitler. Hitler also believed that due to his close relationship to Speer and Speer’s loyalty, he could control arm’s production.

Speer’s effect was immediate. In the first six months, he increased production of guns by 27%, tanks by 25% and ammunition by 97%. By the end of 1944, production had increased by 300%. This included a rise in the construction of aircraft from 9500 in 1941, to 34300 by 1944. All this was done with only a 30% increase in the workforce.

Speer convinced Hitler that many workers should be diverted from producing consumer items for armaments production. He also used foreign workers and prisoners to work as forced labour. When German war production was at its peak in late September 1944, there were over seven million foreign labourers and 400,000 prisoners of war working as slave labourers. This was approximately 20% of the total workforce. Speer was so efficient with his duties, that many historians credit him with prolonging the war for a further twelve months.

Speer was a great believer in the V1 & V2 Rocket programs to swing the tide of the war in Germany’s favour. He claimed that the inability of senior Nazi figures to fully comprehend rocket technology led to a delay in overcoming initial problems with the V2. He believed that the V2 would have been operational far sooner if the project had received greater backing. General Eisenhower claimed after the war that if the V Weapon program had been in place in earl 1944, the D-Day landing may have been impossible.

In early 1944, Speer was admitted to a clinic as a result of health problems. During the period of his recovery, he had time to reflect and in doing so, realised his growing disenchantment with Hitler and the Nazi regime. In November 1944 in a private conversation with Joseph Goebbels he indicated his belief that a German victory was not possible. The war was going so poorly for Germany that even Speer’s talent and efficiency drives were unable to reverse the oncoming defeat. By the middle of the year, he had disobeyed Hitler’s orders to put a halt of producing aircraft and boost anti-aircraft production. He also refused to engage in Hitler’s ‘Scorched Earth’ policy which meant that all infrastructure, power supplies, records & documents and food be destroyed before it could fall into the hands of the advancing Allied forces. He did this because he had realised that such an action would devastate any possible chance of recovery for the German people after the war had been lost.

It is evident that Albert Speer had an overwhelming effect on the Nazi war effort. His ability to organise and plan projects from architecture, which would lift the peoples morale, to the production of arms which enabled the German armed forces to continue the fight against the allies for so long. Without a person of his ability, the German war machine and the Nazi government would have fallen far earlier.

Assess Albert Speer’s contribution to the Nazi war effort Essay

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The Disasters of War Essay

The Disasters of War Essay.

The Disasters of War (Spanish: Los Desastres de la Guerra) are a series of 82[a 1] prints created between 1810 and 1820 by the Spanish painter and printmaker Francisco Goya (1746–1828). Although Goya did not make known his intention when creating the plates, art historians view them as a visual protest against the violence of the 1808 Dos de Mayo Uprising, the subsequent Peninsular War of 1808–14 and the setbacks to the liberal cause following the restoration of the Bourbon monarchy in 1814.

During the conflicts between Napoleon’s French Empire and Spain, Goya retained his position as first court painter to the Spanish crown and continued to produce portraits of the Spanish and French rulers.

Although deeply affected by the war, he kept private his thoughts on the art he produced in response to the conflict and its aftermath. He was in poor health and almost deaf when, at 62, he began work on the prints. They were not published until 1863, 35 years after his death.

It is likely that only then was it considered politically safe to distribute a sequence of artworks criticising both the French and restored Bourbons.

In total over a thousand sets have been printed, though later ones are of lower quality, and most print room collections have at least some of the set. The name by which the series is known today is not Goya’s own. His handwritten title on an album of proofs given to a friend reads: Fatal consequences of Spain’s bloody war with Bonaparte, and other emphatic caprices (Spanish: Fatales consequencias de la sangrienta guerra en Espana con Buonaparte, Y otros caprichos enfaticos).

Aside from the titles or captions given to each print, these are Goya’s only known words on the series. With these works, he breaks from a number of painterly traditions. He rejects the bombastic heroics of most previous Spanish war art to show the effect of conflict on individuals. In addition he abandons colour in favour of a more direct truth he found in shadow and shade. The series was produced using a variety of intaglio printmaking techniques, mainly etching for the line work and aquatint for the tonal areas, but also engraving and drypoint.

As with many other Goya prints, they are sometimes referred to as aquatints, but more often as etchings. The series is usually considered in three groups which broadly mirror the order of their creation. The first 47 focus on incidents from the war and show the consequences of the conflict on individual soldiers and civilians. The middle series (plates 48 to 64) record the effects of the famine that hit Madrid in 1811–12, before the city was liberated from the French.

The final 17 reflect the bitter disappointment of liberals when the restored Bourbon monarchy, encouraged by the Catholic hierarchy, rejected the Spanish Constitution of 1812 and opposed both state and religious reform. Since their first publication, Goya’s scenes of atrocities, starvation, degradation and humiliation have been described as the “prodigious flowering of rage” as well as the “work of a memory that knew no forgiveness. “The serial nature in which the plates unfold has led some to see the images as similar in nature to photography.

The Disasters of War Essay

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Structural and Cultural Approach Toward Learning Organization Essay

Structural and Cultural Approach Toward Learning Organization Essay.

In the study of private sector firms organizational learning has been a long-running area of concern, and from here the defining concepts of the literature come. It is a much more recent in the study of public sector organizations, This research will mention the importance of learning in the 21th century, cultural influence and focuses on setting out a model of structural cultural approach of organizational learning that brings insights and some specific features of public sectors, specifically government sector.

1 (a) What’s Learning Organization

Learning organizations are not simply the most fashionable or current management trend, they can provide work environments that are open to creative thought, and embrace the concept that solutions to ongoing work-related problems are available inside each and every one of us.

All we must do is tap into the knowledge base, which gives us the “ability to think critically and creatively, the ability to communicate ideas and concepts, and the ability to cooperate with other human beings in the process of inquiry and action (Navran Associates Newsletter 1993).

A learning organization is one that seeks to create its own future; that assumes learning is an ongoing and creative process for its members; and one that develops, adapts, and transforms itself in response to the needs and aspirations of people, both inside and outside itself (Navran Associates Newsletter 1993).

1 (b) Importance of learning organization in the 21st century

As the world is changing day by day, each generation have to adapt and make changes in a very limited time. Hence, continuous learning is essential for survival and success in today’s world. Technological change is having a marvelous impact on all our lives. Today, society is far more sophisticated than the world in the earlier days. As technological changes are in a fast manner, it becomes more difficult to predict the future developments and plan for the future changes (Gilley, 2000). In order to cope up with the changing world we have to change our activities and ideas according to the changing world. Successful people have the ability to and are prepared to change and adapt. All successful people are learners; likewise successful organizations too are learning organizations.

Learning organizations alone can make improvements and they never become stagnant. Although organizations are learning and adapt to change they are so slow in making changes. Successful organizations consider change and development as the most important factor, which determine their success (Gilley, 2000). Learning organizations have the capability to control the external pressures rather than be a slave to it. If an organization is a learning organization it will reduce the staff turnover and it will become more attractive to potential employees.

Learning process will enable the organization to respond to the changes and new situations more quickly than its rivals. The ability of the organization to focus on organizational goals and secure staff commitment to their achievement will lead to far greater efficiency and a better quality of product or service. The popularity of learning organization is increasing day by day.

2) The Learning Organization from the aspect of Public Sector (Government)

A simple transposition of the private sector work on Organizational learning cannot be read across to government sector departments and agencies. As Warwick (1975, p. 204) commented at a more general level: ‘It is not enough to unpack a briefcase with concepts and measures developed in other settings, unload them in a public agency and expect them to encompass all of the worthwhile reality to which they are exposed’. Yet Bozeman (1987) points out that in many senses all organizations are public, and that arguments for the distinctiveness of public and private organizations are often overdrawn. Like government agencies, large companies are ‘public’ in many aspects of their business, respond strongly to external stakeholders (such as the media, market analysts, major investors, and their boards) and cope with strong loads of legal, economic and environmental regulation.

The 1999 government white paper on Modernizing Government famously proposed that: ‘The Public Service must become a learning organization’ (1999, p. 56). The clear intention of ministers was to signal that Organizational Learning would play an important part in a ‘continued drive for responsive, high-quality public services’ (Auluck, 2002, p. 109). But of course ‘the Public Service’ is not (and cannot be) a single organization, nor could it remotely learn in a standard way. McKnabb (2007, pp. 126-7) defines a learning organization as one that is inherently agile: ‘one that is quick to identify, digest and apply the lessons learned in its interactions with its environments. For public-sector organizations, this involves developing innovative solutions to the constantly changing legal, political, economic and social environment’.

On similar lines, Common (2004, p. 38) argues that: in the public sector [organizational learning] can be regarded as the ability of an organization to demonstrate that it can learn collectively by applying new knowledge to the policy process or innovation in policy implementation. Implementation also involves learning, through piloting innovative services and structures. It is also argued that organizational learning can improve the policy making capacity of government, whereas policy learning helps to explain what is learnt beyond the limits of government, and how it is learnt.’ Figure A: shows the path of learning in the public sector.

3) The Structural Approach of the Organization towards Learning Organization The structural approach is sharper in its criticism of the explicitly cultural perspective on learning and argues that authors such as Cook and Yanow exclude the role of individual perception. Structuralists agree with Simon, who claims that “all learning takes place inside individual human heads; an organization learns in only two ways: a) the learning of its members, or b) by ingesting new members who have knowledge the organization previously didn’t have” (1991, 125). Many of the features of organizational life including variables that affect learning simultaneously feature both cultural and structural components.

Scholarly efforts that attempt to divide all of the antecedents of learning into structural or cultural variables will misdiagnose the causal mechanisms of learning by underestimating the importance of culture to what are classified as structural variables, and the importance of structure to variables deemed to be cultural. The model is presented in figure 1. Some variables, such as information systems and resources, reflect largely structural influences on learning. However, other variables demonstrate the lack of a clear distinction between structure and culture. Formal rules can try to establish a clear understanding of purpose and empower managers, but mission orientation and patterns of decision authority also rely on complementary cultural norms. Learning forums can be created by formal rules, but only the appropriate cultural traits, such as a willingness to acknowledge error and entertain the views of others, can ensure the success of such forums.

Information Systems: “Established structural and procedural preparations that allow organizations to thoroughly collect, analyze, store, distribute, and use information that is relevant to the effectiveness of the organization”. Performance information systems often fail to generate valid, sincere, and functional performance information (Bouckaert1993), or fail to allocate this information in a timely fashion to the right audience. These are not modest problems. A formal requirement for a performance information system is a poor guarantee of learning.

Mission Orientation Relative to performance information systems, the employee’s mission orientation is their understanding of the mission, vision, goals of the organization, is a more as a cultural aspect of performance management. A mission orientation might be the product of structures of communication and strategic planning, but it also reflects the compatibility of an organizational culture with mission and goals. When a mission-based culture exists, employee behavior is guided by shared norms and expectations about the organizational purpose. Mission orientation overlaps with two aspects of Senge’s (1990) model of learning organizations. The first is building a shared vision, where employees become dedicated and align their actions to the organizational vision. The second is systems thinking.

Decision Flexibility: Decision flexibility allows operators to participate in decision making and a chance to link learning with decisions. One of the major barriers to learning is when teams “lack the power to act in the domains about which they are learning” (Senge 199, xvii). Popper and Lipshitz (1998) recommend providing employees with “elbow room” to consider alternatives and experiment. Schulz (2001) has found that work units with more autonomy report have higher levels of learning. Decision flexibility has both structural and cultural components. An excellent illustration comes from reform efforts at the federal level during the 1990s.

At a time when the federal government was trying to provide agencies with greater flexibility through formal grants of authority and eliminating rules, Ban (1995) found that organizational culture shaped agencies’ willingness to exert flexibility and work around formal constraints. Subsequent empirical work has provided additional evidence on the cultural aspects of flexibility, showing that organizational culture interacts with perception of rule constraints to affect the performance of agencies (Pandey, Coursey, and Moynihan 2007)

Learning Forums:

Learning forums represent a merge of the cultural and structural approaches. Such routines are likely to be formally established. Pisano, Bohmer, and Edmondson (2001) found that firms with formal procedures for learning are more effective learners. However, the nature and efficiency of the dialogue in such forums will depend greatly on the cultural attributes of the organization. Learning forums work best if they occur within a culture that is purpose driven, encourages the open sharing of information, supports the presentation of different perspectives, and examines errors to solve problems rather than to allocate blame (Moynihan 2005). The literature on organizational learning suggests that argumentative uses of data lead to defensive reactions rather than learning, and that learning forums that establish collegiality and an equal footing for members are likely to overcome defensiveness and substitute information sharing.

Structural and Cultural Approach Toward Learning Organization Essay

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Who Fired First at Lexington and Concord Essay

Who Fired First at Lexington and Concord Essay.

The date is April 19, 1775 and the Revolutionary War has begun. Nevertheless, there is already another controversy. Who fired first at Lexington and Concord? An illustration of the Battle at Lexington and affidavits from American and British men can help solve this question.

The British fired first at Lexington because American troops were told to disperse and not have any sort of contact or fight with the British when they were sighted, Commander Parker’s and Lieutenant Gould’s affidavits are credible as they match with each other, and Sam Winship identified an officer who fired the first shot engaging Americans and British in warfare whereas John Barker’s affidavit of what happened in Lexington claims that Americans shot first but he could not identify who they actually were.

According to John Parker, an American soldier, and his affidavit he ordered his troops to not be discovered by British troops and to not in any way converse with them if they approached.

If they in anyway insulted or harassed the soldiers, Parker stated that his troops should just run away and to not engage in battle. He concluded with saying that while at Lexington, there were British troops that rushed furiously, fired upon, and killed 8 of his men without Parker or his troops even provoking them.

Edward Gould, a British soldier, and his affidavit can help strengthen the fact that the British fired first at Lexington. Although Gould did say that he didn’t know who shot first, he did say that at Lexington, his troops sighted Americans and rushed toward them previous to the firing. These two affidavits imply that Gould’s troops had sighted Parker’s troops at Lexington. British fired first at Lexington while the American soldiers were told to disperse and the British ran after them to shoot them.

Who Fired First at Lexington and Concord Essay

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Blaine Kitchenware Inc. Essay

Blaine Kitchenware Inc. Essay.

To review Blaine Kitchenware Inc.’s (BKI) current debt, equity and leverage levels with respect to the highly advisable repurchase of 14 million shares of stock at $18.50 per share and the related, necessary financing.

BKI is currently highly over-liquid and under-levered. The firm can anticipate elevated tax rates due to the lack of debt held. BKI has also experienced falling earnings per share (EPS) due to the over issuing of stock. Similarly the large quantity of outstanding shares of stock has led to below average returns to shareholders and a return on equity (ROE) below the competitors’ ROEs.

BKI can offset these downward trends by increasing leverage—i.e. increasing debt—and reversing the dilutive acquisitions. BKI is highly recommended to obtain a 25 year loan of $50 million at 6.75% with which to repurchase 14 million of its outstanding shares of stock at the price of $18.50 per share, $2.25 above current stock price.

Balance Sheet Impact

As shown below, under the appendix, the pro forma balance sheet demonstrates forecasted values if BKI continues without action to increase leverage and decrease outstanding stock.

BKI can expect to have $ 510,624,920.99 in stockholders’ equity and $ 96,011,793.33 in cash and cash equivalents on which BKI will be liable at a 40% tax rate, significantly higher than previous fiscal years.

Based on trends from 2004-2006, BKI can predict increases in current asset accounts and marginal decreases in fixed asset accounts. Without the pursuit of repurchase and increased debt, BKI’s current liabilities accounts will also experience marginal increases while other liabilities and deferred
taxes decrease and long term debt remains at zero. Furthermore, before the repurchase of stock, BKI’s equity accounts may continue to increase.

Applying the repurchase strategy to calculated three year trends, BKI’s forecasted balance sheet accounts have significantly lower cash and cash equivalent account, increased market securities, accounts receivables, inventory, and other current assets accounts. Fixed assets are expected to decrease based on three year trends while current liabilities increase. The repurchase will require financing which will be attained through a 25 year fixed rate loan of 50 million. At the end of the first year term, BKI will have long term debt of 50 million minus first year principal component of $819,345.59 equaling $ 49,180,654.41. Other liabilities and deferred taxes however, may decrease marginally. In addition, with the repurchase of 14 million shares, stockholders’ equity is expected to decrease to $ 251,624,920.99 from $488,363,000.00 in 2006.

Income Statement Impact

Three year trends suggest BKI will have increased revenue, increased cost of goods sold, thus elevated gross profits, rising selling, general, and administrative costs, and decreased depreciation and amortization expenses. Overall, trends indicate earnings before interest and taxes may be higher than 2006 EBIT.

Without the stock repurchase strategy, BKI may experience tax expense of $ 34,922,882.71 as opposed to tax expense amounting to $ 29,355,346.62 (calculated using 2007 federal income tax brackets as shown under appendix below) if BKI undergoes the stock repurchase strategy. Without undergoing the stock repurchase plan, BKI will have no interest expense and net income of $ 52,384,324.06. BKI will have dividend expense of $29,230,740.00. By undergoing the stock repurchase, BKI will earn net income of $54,576,860.15 which takes into account the interest expense of $3,375,000.00 associated with the loan to finance the stock repurchase.

Impact on financial ratios

Operating performance impact

ROE: BKI’s return on equity ratio currently below average and below competitors’ will continue to drop based on the firm’s performance trends in the last three years to a 10% level. The anticipated ROE with the stock repurchase plan is 22%, third highest ROE, and while not quite above the industry average, sufficiently above the industry median.

EPS: Earnings per share is expected to increase to $1.21 with the stock repurchase plan while if the plan is forgone, BKI can anticipate earning a mere $0.89 per share outstanding. An EPS of $0.89 is lower than the firm’s historical EPS and unappealing to future investors. Leverage: Leverage will increase overall after the stock repurchase and withdrawal of the $50 million bank loan. As shown below, debt ratio increases with the addition of the long term debt which drives up total liabilities with respect to total assets. Long term debt to total capitalization increases as well as debt to equity since BKI will have a long term debt significantly higher than its stockholders’ equity suggesting long term debt is used for permanent financing.

Interest Coverage: After the stock repurchase, BKI can cover its interest expense over 20 times with the operating profit earned based on the times interest earned ratio.

Expected Cost of Financial Distress

BKI may have concerns with financial distress and guaranteeing that all operational costs are covered when leverage is increased. The cost of financial distress for BKI is determined by subtracting the BKI’s weighted cost of debt, 5.22% from the the rate of interest paid by firms that are not in financial distress in the same industry, based on Moody’s AAA rating is 5.88%. This results in a 0.66% cost of financial distress or $100,452,019.96 after the stock repurchase and $ 67,992,788.05 before the stock repurchase.

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Blaine Kitchenware Inc. Essay

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April Morning by Howard Fast Book Review Essay

April Morning by Howard Fast Book Review Essay.

The book April Morning by Howard Fast is a dramatic story of the bloody battle of Lexington set up with a one day structure from the view of a fifteen year old boy turning into a man. In the book we see the life of Adam Cooper changing from child to man in the matter of one day. Each chapter is a different time period of the day telling us what has happened and what the effects were on his life.

Adam Cooper is a fifteen-year-old boy living in colonial Lexington, Massachusetts with his family. He feels demoralized by his father, Moses Cooper, but finds consolation from Granny Cooper, his paternal grandmother. When a meeting of the township Committee is called on the evening of April 18th, Adam wishes to attend but his father questions whether or not his son is a man and has earned the right to attend the meeting. Instead of attending the meeting, Adam visits his neighbor Ruth Simmons, a distant relative whom he loves whom he loves and sees himself marrying in the distant future.

When his father returns home from the meeting, Adam eavesdrop as Moses tells his wife Sarah and Granny Cooper what happened, as the colonial communities prepare for a possible confrontation with the British army. During the late night early morning, a rider arrives in Lexington, waking up the community with news that the British army is on the march to Concord to take out supplies and ammunition that is being stored by colonists for a possible rebellion. Once the news of the night rider reaches the town the committeemen hold a muster for the militia, and Adam decides to sign the muster book and commit to fighting for the militia. His father is present when he is signing the muster and allows for it to happen. Moses Cooper no longer sees his son as a boy but as a determined man willing to fight for his family and community.

Both Adam and his father prepared themselves for the battle and a total of seventy militia men wait for the arrival of the British army. Moses Cooper argues persuasively with the committeemen that the small number of men can’t stand up to the thousands of Redcoat troops they will be greeting alone, and so it’s decided that they will state their case but do no more; they decide to talk it out rather than to fight. However when the British finally reach Lexington, the officers are sneeringly dismissive of the colonists and tell them to leave the common and a mysterious shot is fired causing the British troops to begin firing on the colonists. The British massacred the small militia that stood in front of them, and Adam watched as his father and other men he had known his entire life be shot down.

Adam hides in terror and cannot go home because of the British troops in town and it is unsafe. Adam is off to the woods to find the rest of the militia and he is almost discovered by British soldiers, but before they do so are called away to march towards Concord. Adam runs from the British and is shot at by redcoats, only to be caught in the grip of an older colonial man named Solomon Chandler, who helps Adam and provides him with some consolation and food. Adam joins Chandler on his journey to meet up with more members of colonial militias. Along the way, other colonists join the two, also ready to fight the British. Once at the pasture, Adam is greeted by Cousin Simmons and The Reverend, and is relieved that others from the Lexington militia had survived. Though the various town committees and militia have general instructions, there isn’t a single leader chosen to lead the battle.

It was a confused time for the colonists fighting and finally Chandler guides them and instructs the men waiting at the pasture to split up into groups according to the firing range of their weapons. Adam and the other men in his group lay under the brush and fire at the redcoats, Adams gun does not reach a far distance so he does not shoot but watches instead; he see the burning of Lexington and the bloodshed of the redcoats. Through the mist of all of the battle Adam seems to fall asleep leaving everyone to believe that he is wounded and dead. When Adam wakes up he finds that the battle has moved to a distant location; he hears Cousin Simmons and The Reverend talking, meets them, and they all agree to go home to Lexington, or what is left of it. Once home Adam is greeted with relief and happiness by the surviving members of his family and others from the town. Adam is now treated like a fully-grown man when he was only recently considered a simple child to everyone.

Adam makes peace with his father’s corpse, and then helps to carry the casket to the church. At the church Adam lights some extra candles so his father won’t have to rest in the dark of night. Cousin Simmons makes sure that Adam is aware this battle was only the start, and that he must consider his other responsibilities as the new head of household when deciding if he’ll continue to fight. When Adam returns home his mother is already asleep but Granny Cooper is awake and says she knows he will go back into battle eventually. He puts off the question for the time being, and is relieved to finally go to sleep and end this momentous day. The book is a great and quick read being that it is only 202 pages long. The text gets you involved and makes it feel as if you are there with Adam Cooper through the battles and his day.

You feel as if you are standing next to Adam while on the field holding your riffle awaiting the battles. The pressures and emotions that the boy is going through as he transitions into an adult are heartfelt and many people can relate to Adam in some ways. The pressure of becoming a man over night and resuming all these responsibilities he never had to deal with before is a struggle that many can relate too. I personally would definitely recommend this book to my peers as well as to younger and older audiences. This book in my opinion was very good in the fact that it drew me in and kept me wanting to read more as the story went on. I don’t usually like reading and the fact that this book makes me want to keep reading and not stop till it was finished in my opinion makes this a good book. Fast is a great author and knows how to draw in an audience. Overall this was a great book and I would definitely recommend it to all.

April Morning by Howard Fast Book Review Essay

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Philippine Quality Awards Essay

Philippine Quality Awards Essay.

“ We recognize Lyceum of the Philippines University Batangas- educational institution that has proven the old adage,” The more you know, the more you don’t know”- that success only opens our eyes to the many things that we can do better. And without doubt, it has continued to better itself”, Pres. Benigno S. Aquino III said in his speech, during the 15th Philippine Quality Awards, Malacaňan Palace, Dec 12.

LPU is awarded with recognition for commitment to quality management along with other three companies, Don Bosco Technical College, Optev, Inc.

, Thomson Reuters Corporation Pte. Ltd. Philippine Branch.

“ This is the time when we are reminded just how important it is to improve our capacities. Whether there’s an emergency or not, it is always vital to recognize those who have not wavered on the path to self improvement, and that is precisely why we are here today. Given the week we’ve just had, this event is a welcome step back- awarding companies in our country who have performed exceptionally well”, Aquino cited.

Patterned after Malcolm Baldridge National Quality Award, PQA (Philippine Quality Award) was institutionalized through Republic Act 9013, 2001. PQA grants recognition to public and private organizations and other stakeholders who strive to attain performance excellence.

“Companies like you have done a lot for our people. You have invested in them; you have given them the platform on which they can impress the whole world with their talents”, he further quoted.

President Aquino emphasized in his speech that “ Made in the Philippines” are not inferior and urged that more Filipino companies should join in the battle against that backwards attitude that used to say, “Pwede na”.

“I am certain that we will get to the point where our products and services, and most importantly, our people will truly shine in the world stage continuously.”, President Aquino concluded.

Mr. Peter p. Laurel, LPU-B President received the PQA trophy. Also present in the conferment ceremonies were Dr. Flora V. Javier ( Consultant for Special Projects and Planning/ Dean, Institute of Advanced Studies), Dr. Fe R. Medina ( VP for Institutional Affairs), Dr. Dexter R. Buted ( VP for LIMA Campus) and academic and non-academic heads.

Philippine Quality Awards Essay

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Ways to Reduce Global Warming Essay

Ways to Reduce Global Warming Essay.

Global Warming refers to the gradual increase in the Earth’s temperature as a result of the growing concentration of human induced green house gases which are carbon dioxide, chlorofluorocarbons and hydro fluorocarbon in our atmosphere. Global warming can be caused by the use of fossil fuels, and industrial or agricultural processes. Man-made emissions are adding to the amount of carbon dioxide already being naturally released. These harmful processes have been leading to a large increase in the buildup of “greenhouse gases,” which are carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, chlorofluorocarbons, and water vapors.

Global warming is an extremely severe problem facing the world today. Its effects and causes have been on the rise and people need to do something about it before the problem gets any worse. There are several ways to reduce the effects of global warming. The first way is you can choose vegetarian meals. Choosing vegetarian foods can be drastically reduces agricultural water consumption and land use, and favorably impacts biodiversity.

Vegetarian diets also have been shown to promote good health and in most developed countries, eliminating meat from one’s diet is as easy as making responsible choices at stores and restaurants.

If one eats meat it should always be from a local source. It is better, if you eat what you have planted. You can lessen your negative global warming impacts by eating food that is grown in your area, instead of choosing foods that have been shipped halfway around the world. It is because, food transportation is a major cause of air pollution and greenhouse gas emissions. So, using foods which require less transportation helps the environment and at the same time reduce global warming problem.

The second way is you can change your lamp with compact fluorescent bulb. According to a research in America, replace three frequently used light bulbs with compact fluorescent bulbs can save 300 lbs. of carbon dioxide and US$60 per year. A standard compact fluorescent bulb will save around one third of a tonne of greenhouse gas, along with the cost of six or more incandescent globes. You can use compact fluorescent bulb even more in your houses or offices and if you want, you can give them as ifts to family and friends. It is better if you can donate a set to a local charity to refit their office with compact fluorescent lights. In other hand, you must remember that compact fluorescent light bulbs do contain small amounts of toxic mercury. Therefore, proper disposal (recycling) is necessary to prevent any additional landfill contamination. In addition, you can also start looking into light emitting diode bulbs (LED light bulbs) which have started to crop up recently because they are even more efficient.

So, the choosing to make the decision to reduce the global warming effects is in your hand. Last but not least, you can also use public transportation. Taking the bus, the train, the subway or other forms of public transportation lessens the load on the roads and reduces one’s individual greenhouse gas emissions by an average of 1600 pounds per year. Taking public transport also removes the stress of long road commutes and gives you a great opportunity to read, think, and relax.

You also save on parking money and time wasted looking for parking spaces you can also have car-pooling with your officemates or neighbours. If you can’t live without a car, then use it in a way that minimizes global impact. You can also make a good choice by buying a hybrid car. ‘ The average driver could save 16,000 lbs. of carbon dioxide and a lot total of money by driving a hybrid. Moreover, plug-in hybrids can save even more and one day may be able to give cash back. You can also pretend to buy a fuel efficient car.

It can save up to 20,000 lbs. of carbon dioxide per year using a more fuel efficient car. Buying fuel efficient cars not only reduce the amount of carbon dioxide release but also encourage companies to continue making and improving them owing to increased demand. So, let’s take this simple way to reduce global warming effects. In conclusion, the several ways to reduce the effects of global warming are choose vegetarian meals, change your lamp with compact fluorescent bulb, and use public transportation or hybrid and fuel efficient car.

I think, all people in the world can take these simple ways in their daily lives. Although it is very difficult to reverse once the process is started, global warming has to be stopped if we want to live like we are now. If it is not controlled, problems such as the drastic rise of sea levels, increasing of temperature rapidly, melting of glacier and along with others, will definitely disrupt our living patterns. So, let us not put our finger to others, but we must start from ourselves and take the ways to reduce the effects of global warming.

Ways to Reduce Global Warming Essay

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Tomorrow when the war began Essay

Tomorrow when the war began Essay.

Tomorrow when the war began, written by John Marsden is an action genre book. The main themes are survival, change, relationships, friendships, courage, self-discovery and morality. The brief storyline is that Ellie and 6 friends go camping in a secret place for a week, and when they return a war/invasion has started in their hometown of Wirrawee.

Throughout the rest of the book Ellie and her friends, Homer, Fi, Corrie, Kevin, Lee and Robyn make plans and take action against the war/invasion as they are the only few people left uncaptured.

Some of the key points in the novel are Ellie and her friends going camping, Lee gets shot, Ellie, Homer, Lee and Fi blow up a tanker under a bridge to stop the enemy from sending more of their troops into the area, and Corrie and Kevin go to the hospital because Corrie gets shot.

I think the authors intensions were to make everyone think about what they would do in a similar situation.

Positive aspects of the book are that it might give the readers ideas about what to do in a situation such as this. Negative points are the author did not make the book very easy to understand as he kept jumping from place to place, like it went from Ellie and Fi sitting in the tanker waiting for the signal from Homer and Lee, and then it would jump to Homer and Lee with the cattle in the paddock. Also the story line could have been better.

The themes are very easy to identify though, which is good for writing essays, also all the themes identified related to storyline well. In conclusion my overall thoughts on the novel “Tomorrow when the war began” were mainly negative as the storyline is a vital piece in a novel. Also if you can’t understand a book it make s you want to stop reading it, which is why I wanted to stop because I was getting confused as to what was going on where.

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Tomorrow when the war began Essay

Posted in War