Homework submission Essay

Homework submission Essay.

1. Read “Case 9: National Collegiate Athletic Association Ethics and Compliance Program, pp 444-454. Answer the questions at the end of the case.

How does the NCAA encourage collegiate football programs to develop a culture of ethics and compliance?

Collegiate football is not only a very lucrative and rapidly growing “business” but it also has a “tremendous impact on our culture, influencing the values of millions of participants and spectators”. Because of this, it is vey important to ensure that the NCAA ensure that all teams not only follow the rules and interpretations of the game, but also hold themselves to a higher standard with an established code of ethics.

These days, there are concerns about moral and ethical conduct for those individuals in leadership roles. Not only are the players to be held accountable for their actions to include proper academic certification, playing in an eligible status, not in receipt of extra benefits, but also the leaders to ensure the following does not occur:

“1) whether student-athletes are being exploited by not being paid for their athletic endeavors; 2) the courting of amateur student-athletes by professional player-agents; 3) gender equity; 4) diversity issues; and 5) improprieties by intercollegiate coaches and administrators (Hums et al.

, 1999). Today, unethical behavior displayed in the area of coaching is diminishing the public image of coaching and sports” (Tuncel, 2002-2010).

The NCAA has measures in place to help curb misconduct and unethical behavior from occurring. They have a violation structure that has four tiers: Level I: Severe beach of conduct, Level II: Significant breach of conduct, Level III Breach of conduct and Level IV: Incidental Issue. In addition, they have expanded their committee which brings a more diverse committee, which strengthens it by “bringing valuable insights from multiple perspectives” (NCAA, 2012). Also, the penalties have been enhanced, ensuring they are stronger and are consistently applied to the offenders. They also have accountability for those in charge, i.e. the coach. It is required for the coaches to “create a culture of integrity and direct his/her staff to uphold NCAA bylaws” (NCAA, 2012). If not, the head coach will be held accountable and there are possible penalties as well to include suspension.

Is it a valid criticism that the NCAA is based more on compliance than ethical values?

The criticism will have to be based on a school by school basis. I specifically know of a situation where my favorite football team, Notre Dame, had suspended their quarter back for violation of the honor code by cheating on a test, when it was most critical to keep him playing when Notre Dame was ranked #1 and going to the National Championships in 2012 who eventually were beaten for the title by Alabama. Notre Dame has a very strong honor code and strictly adheres to the code of ethics. Is it because the university is a Catholic school??

The university itself contacted the NCAA about the academic dishonesty of four of their players which resulted in the suspension of Everett Golson (QB). “The University is committed to thorough resolution of this matter, consistent with its commitment to academic integrity and adherence to NCAA rules,” Father Jenkins said. In this case, it looks as though Notre Dame is based more on ethical values than that of the NCAA. Although they NCAA does have rules, regulations and punishments in place, they do not seem to attack ethical values head on than being more in compliance.

How can student athletes, coaches, and university administrators demonstrate a proactive response to ethics and compliance?

Notre Dame, in my previous post, is an example of a school that holds themselves accountable for the actions for their coach and their players. Regardless of the important nature of their standing in the BCS championship standings, Notre Dame quickly addresses any issues of impropriety quickly and administers the requisite punishment. I believe if schools can model after Notre Dame, it would be easier to administer a proactive response to ethics and compliance.

2. Watch the Patrick Murphy Interview 3—Johnson & Johnson found at http://danielsethics.mgt.unm.edu/videos/interviews.asp. Discuss the issues posed in the video.

Johnson & Johnson was seen as a gold standard for the recall of Tylenol and used for many years as a perfect example. Johnson & Johnson was responsible to everyone for the use of their products. It is important for a company to communicate the problem clearly with the public, comply with government officials, conduct an investigation and recall the products.

Unfortunately, Johnson & Johnson has had issues with paying kickbacks to intermediaries to use their products, which has been happening for many years. At that point, Johnson & Johnson were made to recall their products (in 2010 & 2011). Johnson & Johnson can no longer be used as a golden standard for ethical behavior based on their actions recently and in the past.

They have significantly tarnished their image and their trust with the shareholders and most importantly their consumers. They tried to have a third party to have their products recalled, but instead of doing it on the “sly”, it is very important for Johnson & Johnson to be up front and honest with the utmost integrity with them. By doing so not only is the most ethical thing to do, but it is the right thing for them to do as they have a responsibility to the public.

Browne, P.J. (Aug 15 2014) Notre Dame reports academic misconduct investigation. Retrieved from: http://news.nd.edu/news/49851-notre-dame-reports-academic-misconduct-investigation/

NCAA (Aug 3, 2012) Enforcement model changes endorsed. Retrieved from: http://www.ncaa.com/news/ncaa/article/2012-08-02/enforcement-model-changes-endorsed

Homework submission Essay

Ethical Boundaries and Practices Essay

Ethical Boundaries and Practices Essay.

Follow the directions below to write a paper of 1,500-1,750 words on counselor ethical boundaries and practices. For this paper, write from the perspective that you are a professional counselor in the field. Provide a thoughtful response to each of the following three sections, including specific, concrete examples to illustrate your ideas. Use the section headings provided below to separate each section of your paper. Your final deliverable should be one cohesive paper addressing all three sections along with an introduction and conclusion.

Section 1: Boundary Issues and Dual Relationships

Part A – Decision-Making Model and Counseling Examples

How would you determine if a boundary-crossing or dual relationship is ethical and appropriate? What criteria would you consider when making your decision? Present examples of how you would apply this criteria to at least four counseling situations in which you believe the dual relationship issues are complex and ambiguous. One of your examples should address the issues of physical attraction between clients and counselors.

Part B-Ethical Issues and Dimensions

In addition, examine these issues in terms of former clients. Address the following: Do the ethical issues (and your opinion about appropriateness) change, depending on how long after the termination of therapy a dual relationship is initiated? What are the key ethical dimensions that might change, after the termination of therapy? Present an example of a situation that you believe would constitute a boundary violation with a current client but might be acceptable with a former client.

Section 2: Professional Collaboration in Counseling
Part A – Working with a Multidisciplinary Team

Explain why counselors frequently collaborate with other stakeholders regarding a client’s care in order to maintain professional and ethical boundaries and practices. For example, professional counselors frequently work with clients with addiction issues. Addiction counselors may work with clients who also have a co-occurring disorder. The specific roles of each of these counselors are well defined; straying into an area outside your scope of practice is unethical. How would you work independently as a counselor within your scope of practice as well as collaboratively with other mental health professionals to ensure quality client care? What is the role of a counselor in a multidisciplinary team?

Part B –Relationships with Supervisors and Colleagues

Describe the ethical issues involved in the supervisor-counselor relationship. How is this relationship similar to the counselor-client relationship? How is it different? Outline a series of criteria and describe how you would integrate the criteria into an ethical decision-making model to respond to issues of incompetence and/or unethical conduct by fellow counselors.

Section 3: Development of Your Thinking about Ethics

Clearly describe what you consider to be the most important developments in your thinking about ethical practice that have occurred during this course. This may include areas in which you have clarified your views and beliefs, modified your thinking on a given issue, gained new insights, or acquired a new perspective. It may include issues whose complexity you now appreciate more fully or difficult issues that you now understand you must grapple with, as a counselor. What have you most learned about yourself and/or about what constitutes becoming an ethical practitioner and how has your thinking about ethics and legal issues changed? Be sure that you include specific examples to illustrate general statements.

Ethical Boundaries and Practices Essay

Ethics Case Study Henry’s Daughters Essay

Ethics Case Study Henry’s Daughters Essay.

First question:

The movie “Henry’s daughters” reflects a big amount of ethical issues at individual and societal level. Sorted by importance and the impacting level, the following list shows the highlighted ethical issues based on my perception. 1. The selfish perception of benefits that Henry had. Such selfish that even his family would be affected. If his daughters cannot trust him, how his employees will? 2. The Invasion of privacy. There are issues existing with gathering private data about individuals using the technology.

For instance: cameras in the offices. 3. The fact that some work done by Julie for OUTOCAR was used without giving her credit. 4. The negative daring from Julie’s co-worker. This intentional and disrespectful interaction with sexual intentions or the sexist jokes throughout the movie should not be tolerated.

5. The influence of political and social factors when taking a decision that should be based on technical and engineering aspects. 6. Commented issues between family and friends that might be confidential. For example: Laura and Julie are housemates, where they do not avoid talking about the project.

The problem appears when both discussed proprietary information of the company. 7. The unhealthy competition of three family members at their professional areas. Bad business, at the end the movie shows that there is more to lose when we involved family in such unethical way.

Second question:

Engineers are responsible for creating the everyday tools that everyone uses. Because engineers create the tools that people use, of course there needs to be an ethical code which every engineer must respect and follow. The film (Henry’s Daughters) takes a peek into many of the ethical issues raised by engineers. However, all of them might be solved by the proper moral propositions. Some ideas are in establishing: the proper environment, ethics as a priority when adding new employees, and fair incentives. The culture of the company should adopt an open work environment, happy and fair to all employees. Therefore, the actions of the company must be oriented towards the welfare and morale. The culture should take into account the goals and objectives of the company, but the monetary targets should be the only ones highlighted. Nevertheless, the key is always keeping happiness and productivity together. New people, ideas, and strategies can lead to behavioral and performance changes in order to mold new ways of thinking and culture changes.

To be more specific, the company’s culture can improve by rotating managers with different views of competitive conditions or operations. It is a way to supply different, needed skills or capabilities from the outside. It is also important to add, for old and new employees, evocative company’s purpose. This is to provide an address to stimulate employees’ learning, and so, they have something they believe in beyond just a “job.” Also it is vital to provide encouragement and praise to those employees that show progress in any project. Incentives affect behavior and performance and attract new resources and capabilities, which can lead to culture change. On the other hand, the movie shows how disproportional incentives can blind people. Henry’s actions were illegal. Taking the prize for a competition that was not fairly won is highly unethical. Obviously, he got blind because of his selfish point of view of incentives.

All these propositions should be analyzed and applied by both, employees and managers. They should actively interact to discuss suggestions and ideas to improve company’s culture. Finally, once the ideas were picked, communication is the key. Company policy should be seen through all marketing material, including TV, magazine, newspapers, and websites. Career fair visibility is important as well to get news about the company out to the public and potential employees. Once those portals (to communicate ethical factors and others) are established, the focus can be the employees’ productivity. Monthly newsletters from company executives highlighting company policy should be sent to employees, so they are aware of changes or improvements being made.

All these ideas are based on my perception about the topic. It is a way to show how my perception disagrees with Henry’s. Instead of following a code of ethics, Henry has an “ends justify the means” philosophy and does not consider ethical and moral implications in his work. He bribes DOT executives and tangles himself in conflicts of interest. In the end, Henry pays the consequences for his actions when the senate ethics committee finds him guilty of unethical practices. His reputation is ruined and his relationship with his daughters is damaged. All of this could have been avoided. He sadly lost much more than he was able to win.

Ethics Case Study Henry’s Daughters Essay

Freemark Abbey Winery Case Study Essay

Freemark Abbey Winery Case Study Essay.

William Jaeger, partner and owner of Freemark Abbey Winery, has a crop of Riesling grapes that are close to ripening with a possible rainstorm approaching. Freemark produces 1,000 cases per year of Riesling wine, which equates to 12,000 bottles. Mr. Jaeger has to decide on whether to harvest the grapes right now or let the grapes get caught in the rainstorm. Each decision comes with a certain level of risk. If he harvests the grapes now, he will avoid the rainstorm altogether, and have a respectable type of grape that would get him a good return on his decision.

However, if he allows the grapes to remain in the storm, he has the opportunity to more than triple his return if the rainstorm produces a certain type of mold that allows the grapes to retain more sugar, thereby producing a much higher quality wine. On the other hand, if the mold is not present in the storm, then he runs the risk of oversaturating the grapes which would result in a thin, lower quality wine.

In addition, if he does not harvest the grapes and the storm does not come, Mr. Jaeger has 3 more possibilities open to him, all based on luck. There is the chance that the grapes will retain 25% of their sugar content and produce a high quality wine. There is also a chance of those grapes retaining 20% of their sugar content and produce a lighter wine than the first, but still above what he would have if he harvested the grapes early. Third, there is a small chance that the grapes will retain less than 19% of their sugar content, which would result in a thinner wine that would produce less of a return than if he had harvested the grapes early. With so many options, how does Mr. Jaeger come to a decision? It will be helpful to utilize the flowchart diagram attached to the end of the analysis.

Harvest Immediately

Begin with the option with the least amount of risk, and that is the option to harvest. This is the least risky of the options because he knows what he can get if he harvested the grapes right now. If he harvested the grapes immediately in their current state, he would be able to sell the wine at $2.85 per bottle. $2.85/bottle * 12,000 bottles = $34,200

The result is that Mr. Jaeger would make $34,200 profit by picking the grapes immediately. There are no other alternatives, so the EMV of harvesting immediately is the same as the profit ($34,200).

Do Not Harvest, No Storm

Now to observe the options available to Mr. Jaeger if he decides to not harvest the grapes. There is a 50-50 chance that the storm will actually appear. So for now, let us see what the decisions are available if the storm does not actually happen. With the storm not coming, this still allows Mr. Jaeger to leave the grapes on the vine to mature longer, thereby giving them a better quality to make better wine. The percentage chance that the grapes retain 25% of their sugar content is 40%, and the same percentage holds for the grapes retaining 20%. The chance that they retain 19% or less, therefore, is 20%. The prices at which the wine would sell at each sugar content level is as follows: 25% : $3.50/bottle

20% : $3.00/bottle

Look now at the options available to Mr. Jaeger if he decides not to harvest and the storm does come down on his vineyard. The chances that the rainstorm contains the mold that he needs is 40%, whereas the likelihood that it does not contain the mold is 60%. Addressing the possibilities available to Mr. Jaeger if the storm does not contain the mold, the juice from the grapes would increase by 7.5% but would thin out the wine. So, he can either sell the thinned wine for $2.00/bottle or sell the grapes in bulk and make about half of what he would make if he sold the wine. Each selection is no more likely than the other (50-50), so the two possibilities are as follows: Sell Wine : $2.00 * 12,000 * 1.075 = $25,800

Sell Grapes in Bulk = $25,800 * .5 = $12,900

Neither option is very enticing compared to the other options so far, but that is part of the risk. Let us look at the EMV of this particular group of decisions: EMV (Not Harvesting, Storm with No Mold) : ($25,800 * .5) + ($12,900 * .5) = $19350

Do Not Harvest, Storm Comes, Mold Present

Now, look at the scenario if the storm does come and it does carry the mold with it. This is the most optimistic scenario, as it leads to the greatest profit. The wholesale price for the wine that contains this mold would be $8.00 per bottle, but with the caveat that production would actually be 30% less because of a reduction in overall juice in the grapes. So the profit margin for the grapes containing the mold is as follows: Grapes with Mold : $8.00 * .7 * 12,000 = $67,200

As you can see, this holds the greatest opportunity for profit. Now that all the potential profits have been found for the storm actually happening, it is important to find the overall EMV of this scenario. Remember that the chances of the storm containing the mold was 40%, while the chances of it not having the mold was 60%. The result is as follows: EMV (Do Not Harvest, Storm Comes) : ($67,200 * .4) + ($19,350 * .6) = $38,490

EMV of Not Harvesting

Lastly, now that we have accounted for all potential scenarios of the decision to not harvest, the overall EMV of this decision needs to be made to see which option is ultimately the wiser decision. Recall that the chances that the storm would hit were 50-50, so that is what should be used to figure the total EMV of the decision to not harvest. The two figures that are used come from the EMV’s of the storm happening ($38,490), and the storm not happening ($37,200). The result is as follows: EMV (Do not Harvest) : ($38,490 * .5) + (38,720 * .5) = $38,745

Conclusion

In conclusion, one can see that it is a better decision to take the risk of waiting to harvest to see if the storm comes and brings the mold, as the EMV of that is $3,645 higher than the EMV of harvesting immediately. The decision does come with higher risk, but the odds are in Mr. Jaeger’s favor that if he waits to harvest, then he will make a higher profit, or break even on what he would have made by harvesting immediately. It is therefore, my recommendation that he wait to harvest his grapes to see if the storm comes, and what comes of the grapes at that time.

References
Bodily, S. F., Carraway, R. L., Frey Jr., S. C., and Pfeifer, P.E. (1998). Quantitative Business Analysis: Text and Cases. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Publishing.

Freemark Abbey Winery Case Study Essay

Ethical Theory Frameworks in the Workplace Essay

Ethical Theory Frameworks in the Workplace Essay.

Introduction

This action plan will explore the effectiveness of numerous ethical theory frameworks and their application to ethical dilemmas in the workplace. A deeper analysis will be performed on ethical dilemma resolution and the specific ethical implications that may arise. Previous ethical dilemma Background The ethical dilemma that will be used for this action plan is the termination of employment for inappropriate behaviour via the use of social media. An apprentice made some inappropriate remarks on Facebook aimed at a work colleague (in a superior position) that were intended to be an attempt at humour however; they were taken by the colleague as offensive.

The issue was quite concerning as there was no previous documented occurrence of this type of issue within the organisation and as such, the method of resolution was unclear by both management and staff members. The resolution was the termination of employment of the apprentice and the development of a much needed ‘staff social media policy’ that outlined what was deemed to be appropriate behaviour and how there was a link between social media and the organisation’s bullying and harassment policy.

The victim who initially made the complaint felt mixed emotions regarding the outcome as he did not intend on such an extreme penalty to be handed down as the two were actually friends. The victim being a superior felt that if he had dealt with the issue himself it may damage the friendship and result in tension in the workplace so therefore assumed if the matter was dealt with by an independent party the issue could be dealt with avoiding any damage to the friendship. The approach actually resulted in the matter being escalated and becoming quite an issue for the organisation. Ethical implications from the employee perspective Relationships form a fundamental key in effectiveness at work. The relationships formed with superiors, subordinates and colleagues alike can all impact productivity and general well-being in the workplace. An example of this may be one’s ability to discuss an issue with a colleague in an open and honest way without causing hostility. Another example may be approaching a superior about a delicate situation without feeling intimidated; or alternatively to reverse the situation, when a subordinate approaches a superior.

McFarlin (2013, p.1) states ‘Many full-time employees spend more of their waking hours with co-workers than they do with their spouses and families. As such, it is important to allow employees the opportunity to build quality relationships with their co-workers’ and believes that quality relationships at work can lead to: improved teamwork, improved morale, higher employee retention rates and increased productivity. When employees are encouraged to build quality relationships, it can assist the collaborative process and can help overcome feelings of isolation, particularly for new members of a team. These quality relationships can ultimately provide a positive workplace where staff may work harder and feel connected to an organisation. There will always be times where relationships are tested, particularly when faced with ethical dilemmas, or when professional relationships potentially cross into personal relationships.

While it is good to have a positive office space or working arrangement, it can possibly restrict the authority of a manager/supervisor if they are seen to be more of a friend than as a ‘boss’. Miksen (2013, p.1) believes that ‘whether you work part-time or are pushing 60 hours a week at your job, you should look at your co-workers as something more than strangers. Building personal relationships in the workplace allows you to work together more effectively with your co-workers and surrounds you with friends while clocked in’. This is a view that some managers and possibly most staff members would agree with. Patrick (2013, p.1) on the other hand, believes that relationships in the workplace should be strictly professional rather than personal. It is fine to be personable to an extent however; workplace relationships should be guided by specific boundaries. Patrick (2013, p.1) states ‘abandoning parameters can create conflict, loss of respect and even embarrassment’ and offers the opinion that boundaries can often ‘firm’ up grey areas, clarify job descriptions, increase efficiency and make a workplace more productive.

This is can be observed in most workplaces when staff members approach upper management or those in senior roles, as when put in comparison to the general discussions with colleagues and co-workers. It can be said that workplace relationships can be effective if there is an element of personal feeling involved however; specific guidelines should be set in order to maintain professional conduct. Zeiger (2014) believes that social media allows increased communication in the workplace and allows employees to build relationships which can be beneficial if managed effectively however; goes on to conclude: ‘Social networking has the ability to hurt employee relations within a company. Employees may send negative messages or harass one another through social networking sites and hinder their ability to work together’.

This behaviour is a particularly difficult issue to manage as the consequences of one’s actions may not be fully understood via the use of social media due to the absence of immediate repercussions from one’s actions. Jung (2014) agrees: ‘the anonymity afforded online can bring out dark impulses that might otherwise be suppressed’. Regardless of any unknown consequences or understanding of one’s actions, the behaviour demonstrated in person or online has a close relationship to virtue ethical theory and the internal character of a person. Virtue ethics basically encompass moral judgement and provide a basis for which to develop one’s ethical decisions based on the individual’s internal character.

Gowdy (2013) believes that virtue ethics is a classification within Normative Ethics that attempts to distinguish moral character, and to apply the moral character as a basis for one’s choices and actions’. Ultimately there has to be some accountability for one’s individual actions whether the consequences are fully understood or not. Herboso (2014) agrees and goes on to state: ‘Virtue ethics focuses on the idea that what we call good is not dependent on the actions we take (deontologicalism) nor the results of those actions (consequentialism), but instead focuses on the person that we are’.

Ethical implications from the employer perspective

Many employees believe that what happens outside of work is impartial to the conditions of employment however; the code of conduct for most organisations is in place to protect its employees and provide a safe environment for work. The effects of bullying in the workplace are known to be serious issues and legislation does exists to protect employees however; it is unclear as to what extents bullying may go to and the forms it may come in. The increasing demand for technology and use of social media means that employers’ responsibilities in regards to this issue will have to cater for a variety of issues. Caponecchia (2012) believes that online bullying is a particularly contentious workplace issue that is not fully understood and goes on to state: ‘There is sometimes reluctance in organisations to think about psychological hazards from within the risk management framework that they employ for all other hazards. Sometimes it is just a lack of awareness’.

The fact that an employee lost his employment as a result of inappropriate social media use demonstrates how serious the organisation is taking this issue. What was unclear at the time (prior to any social media policy) was what the expectations were in terms of appropriate behaviour specifically relating to social media however; regardless of any policy the expectation of respect for colleagues is still there. The termination of employment appeared to be a harsh penalty given the context of the breach and the relationship between the colleagues however; it is in the best interest of an employer to set clear expectations on behaviour and what is deemed to be unacceptable.

Employers are bound by legislation to protect employees from any type of bullying or harassment therefore the choice is limited and employers are forced to hand out harsh penalties for such acts. Brush (2014) agrees and goes on to state: ‘The duty placed on employers by work health and safety legislation to provide a healthy and safe working environment and safe systems of work imposes the responsibility on employers to ensure not only the physical health of their workers, but also their mental health. This includes ensuring that employees are not exposed to workplace bullying, harassment or discrimination’ Brush (2014) agrees that the anonymous nature of information and communication technology has created a difficult issue to manage that provides a very unfamiliar platform for bullying and harassment in the workplace but nevertheless the aim of today’s information and communication technology is to improve the quality of modern life not impede it. Ethical dilemma resolution and ethical theory

Resolution method

The resolution method for the primary incident was to terminate the employment in order to set clear expectations for the consequences of future bullying and harassment breaches and expectations in terms of social media behaviour. While this was considered by many as quite an extreme measure the fact that expectations are now clearly set and the punishment is so severe, means there is no more confusion as to what is deemed appropriate or inappropriate online social media behaviour. Billikopf (2006) goes on to state ‘effective discipline can protect the organization, the supervisor who enforces the rules, and the subordinates subject to the same. Everyone suffers when there are mixed messages concerning misconduct and discipline’. The secondary action was to develop a clear social media policy that outlined what was deemed to be appropriate behaviour in terms of social media use and its correlation to the organisations bullying and harassment policy already in place.

Weekes (2013) believes: ‘As social media becomes more and more a part of our daily lives, its effect on businesses is increasing. This is why it’s important to have a social media policy in place in your workplace. Even if your business doesn’t use social media – your employees might’. Edmond (2013) believes that social media policies are a crucial step in upholding the ethical conduct of a business though agrees that social media is a difficult platform to manage by stating: ‘Ultimately, sovereignty over social media identities rests on the individual. It is impossible to take control of an employee’s standing online, and employers should simply not attempt this. However, designing and implementing a strong social media policy can alleviate employers of legal ramifications, as well as ensure employees become aware of how their actions affect the company’. Ethical decision making Ingram (2014) offers a five step approach to ethical decision making in the workplace detailed below: Step one: Create a code of ethics and consult it before making business decisions. Ingram (2014) states: ‘A formal code of ethics can help you and your employees make decisions more quickly by conforming to a set of rules to which everyone agrees’.

This is consistent with the organisational code of ethics, specifically regarding respect however; the expectations of social media behaviour were not explicitly detailed at the time of the resolution. Step two: Consider the effects of your decisions on all stakeholders. Ingram (2014) believes it is critical to understand the wider implications of decisions on all stakeholders affected. This is consistent with consequentialist theory and has particular value in this ethical dilemma where there are various layers involved in the issue such as: personal relationships, unclear expectations in terms of behaviour and unfavourable outcomes for all parties involved. Step three: Use industry regulations as a starting point when making decisions. Industry regulations such as legislation regarding workplace bullying and harassment may be important to consider in this example however; the context of the relationship pollutes the clarification of the issue in terms of the original action and the outcome of the resolution. Step four: Consult others when making decisions with widespread consequences. Ingram (2014) goes on to state: ‘Gaining a fresh perspective on your dilemma can help to shed light on possibilities and impacts of which you are unaware.

You can ask for help in generating options and in choosing which option to pursue, or you can seek advice concerning an option that you have already chosen before implementing it’. This again reinforces the consequentialist theory relevance in this example and differs from the deontological approach. Step five: Review the results of your past business decisions, and learn from your mistakes. This final step is crucial for the ongoing success of ethical conduct in the workplace however; in this specific example there is some unfamiliarity regarding the social media platform. The future conduct of the business will definitely see some benefit from the clarification of the organisation’s stance of what is considered as social media bullying and harassment though this issue poses the argument that this resolution has created a ‘scape goat’ in order to set an organisational standard.

May (2014) offers more comprehensive nine step guide to ethical decision making detailed below:

Step one: Gather the facts May (2014) specifies not to make any assumptions as facts may be difficult to find because of the uncertainty often found around ethical issues.

Step two: Define the ethical issues May (2014) states: ‘Don’t jump to solutions without first identifying the ethical issue(s) in the situation, define the ethical basis for the issue you want to focus on and consider there may be multiple ethical issues – focus on one major one at a time’.

Step three: Identify the affected parties (stakeholders) Consider multiple perspectives and consider not only the primary stakeholders but any indirect stakeholders. In this case the indirect stakeholder is actually the victim as the resolution handed down resulted in damaged friendship and increased tension in the workplace.

Step four: Identify the consequences

May (2014) states: ‘think about potential positive and negative consequences for affected parties by the decision’. This is consistent with consequentialist theory and reinforces the importance of consequentialist theory in contrast to deontological framework.

Step five: Identify the obligations (principles, rights, justice) May (2014) believes: ‘Obligations should be thought of in terms of principles and rights involved. What obligations are created because of particular ethical principles you might use in the situation and what obligations are created because of the specific rights of the stakeholders’.

Step six: Consider your character and integrity May (2014) states: ‘What decision would you come to based solely on character considerations?’ This aligns with virtue ethical theory and begins to form the concept that ethical resolutions or decision making should consider multiple ethical theory frameworks.

Step seven: Think creatively about potential actions

Ensure that you have not been unnecessarily ‘forced into a corner’ and consider that there may be other alternative solutions available. May (2014) offers the opinion: ‘If you have come up with solutions “a” and “b,” try to brainstorm and come up with a “c” solution that might satisfy the interests of the primary parties involved in the situation’.

Step eight: Check your gut May (2014) goes on to state: ‘Even though the prior steps have argued for a highly rational process, it is always good to “check your gut.” Intuition is gaining credibility as a source for good decision making – knowing something is not right’.

Step nine: Decide on the proper ethical action and be prepared to deal with opposing arguments. May (2014) believes that the consideration of potential actions based on the consequences, obligations, and character approaches are crucial elements in any ethical dilemma resolution which ultimately aligns with consequentialist theory and the seemingly favourable ethical framework. Was the resolution ethical? The colleague that made a poor decision without fully understanding the consequences of his actions is left in an extremely unfortunate situation. The organisation did continue to assist the colleague continue his apprenticeship studies as a non-paid employee which demonstrates an understanding of the ethical implications as a result of the resolution however; there is still an amount of resentment from the apprentice regarding the outcome. Ingram (2014) offers the opinion in defence of organisations being forced to make harsh decisions: ‘If you have made and implemented a decision with questionable ethical implications, act quickly to resolve the matter by making restitution to everyone affected and work to counteract the decision’s effects’.

The primary resolution to terminate is closely correlated with deontological ethics as the action is impartial to the consequences of the decision. Deontological moral systems are such that their moral principles are completely separated from any consequences, in this case the result of an employee becoming unemployed for the results of an action that was not fully understood. Cline (2014) offers a criticism in regards to deontological theory that ‘deontological moral systems do not readily allow for grey areas where the morality of an action is questionable. They are, rather, systems which are based upon absolutes — absolute principles and absolute conclusions. In real life, however, moral questions more often involve grey areas than absolute black & white choices. We typically have conflicting duties, interests, and issues that make things difficult’.

Deontology teaches that an action is moral if it adheres to established rules however; these established rules are independent of any circumstantial influences. The fact that social media is a relatively new platform for bullying and harassment to present itself, so is the ‘grey’ in the matter in terms of applying deontological ethical theory for a resolution. This issue presents conflict between two categorical imperatives: duty to uphold justice against organisational policy and the duty and responsibilities as a friend. Deontology can be rationally justified in terms of morality however; in practice is problematic due to the rigidity of the theory and its inability to incorporate any variations relevant to the action.

Consequentialism on the other hand, allows for decisions to be made in appropriation with the consequences of the action. If a consequentialist ethical theory was applied to the issue, the best possible solution for all parties involved could be established. For instance, the victim of the issue may not have such mixed emotions regarding the harsh penalty and the implications of his friendship whilst the colleague could still maintain his employment whilst learning from his mistake. Virtue ethical theory teaches that internal moral character should guide behaviour regardless of the platform however; the fact that there is a disconnection between online behaviour and actual personal encounters presents an issue in the clarity of the issue.

The colleague believed that the online behaviour was in the context of humour however the interpretation was taken quite seriously. It can be argued that if this were a face to face encounter the behaviour would be significantly different and the fact that social media is a relatively new platform without an organisational policy that details the expectations of employee behaviour, there were no grounds to determine the severity of the ethical issue. From the victim’s point of view there is major conflict with the resolution as the original escalation was intended to avoid any damage to the friendship and actually separate the personal relationship from the work colleague relationship however; the impact of the escalation resulted in an extremely unfavourable outcome for both parties involved. In deontological context the resolution was straight forward though in consequentialist context the consequences were not ideal for any party involved.

Hartsell (2006) believes that the relationship between the parties involved in an ethical conflict is required to be taken into consideration for an effective resolution to be determined and goes on to state: ‘The nature of the relationship determines what is ethical, and the nature of the relationship may be properly determined only by open, voluntary negotiation. Openness involves honest disclosure of information, thoughts, and feelings about the issue at hand. Voluntariness involves the capacity to give or withhold consent for participation in the relationship and in the negotiation’. In contrast to the support of consequentialist theory Kokoski (2009) believes that: ‘Consequentiality – utilitarian ideology, which purports to bring about the greatest good for the greatest number of people, is insufficient for it operates from within a narrow landscape of particular instances and doesn’t consider – nor can it – how different situations are ultimately connected to each other in time or how they are understood in relation to the persons that help bring them about’. From this statement it can be argued that there is some benefit in the consideration for the greatest good for the greatest number of people however; it is insufficient in isolation as an ethical framework to base decision making on.

Kokoski (2009) concludes: ‘Consequentialism acknowledges moral values but maintains that it is never possible to formulate an absolute prohibition of particular kinds of behaviour which would be in conflict, in every circumstance and in every culture, with those values’. Murdarasi (2009) believes consequentialism and deontology are the two most important ethical theories, but their ways of deciding what is right are very different and goes on to state: ‘The main criticism of deontology is that it is selfish, a way of avoiding getting your hands dirty (in a moral sense) while still allowing terrible things to happen. The main criticism of consequentialism is that it would allow any action in pursuit of a good cause, even actions that most people would say were clearly morally wrong, such as torture, killing children, genocide, etc.’. This statement argues the relevance for the consideration of multiple ethical theories in any resolution process and that one ethical theory in isolation will be insufficient as a framework for which to base any ideology.

Conclusion In summary, ethical dilemmas can be as complicated as the resolution process itself. A multitude of factors need to be considered before any effective resolution process can be handed down along with the consideration of secondary effects that a resolution process may have. Form the deontological point of view – what is right is right and what is wrong is wrong however; there are many factors that cloud this judgement. In this issue alone there is the consideration of the relationship between the two parties that needs to be considered in order to understand the context of the action so therefore; what is considered right and wrong could be a very fine line. In contrasting consequentialist theory – the action on social media was wrong however; the outcome of terminating one’s employment over what was actually considered to be a minor issue and the damage the resolution had on the friendship does not equate to the greatest good for the greatest number of people.

If either of the previously described resolution processes that align with consequentialist theory were followed then the outcome would have been far greater than what was actually delivered. The fact that social media is a relatively new platform definitely makes the issue a very complicated one and this particular issue demonstrates that the implications of social media on ethical conduct today are yet to be fully understood. Ultimately when there is significant uncertainty regarding an issue, then the consequences of any resolution need to be fully considered rather than adopting a virtuous deontological framework to work within.

References

Bartol, K., Tein, M., Matthews, G., Sharma, B., Scott-Ladd, B. (2011). Management: A Pacific Rim focus. (6th Ed).NSW: McGraw Hill. Behnke, S. (2005). On being an ethical psychologist. American Psychological Association. Retrieved from http://www.apa.org/monitor/julaug05/ethics.aspx Billikopf, G. (2006). Employee Discipline & Termination. University of California. Retrieved from http://nature.berkeley.edu/ucce50/ag-labor/7labor/14.htm Brush, D. (2014). Cyberbullying – laws struggling to keep up with technology. CBP Lawyers. Retrieved from http://www.cbp.com.au/Publications/Cyberbullying-laws-struggling-to-keep-up-with-te Caponecchia, C. (2012). Shining a new light on bullying risk. The Conversation. Retrieved from http://theconversation.com/shining-a-new-light-on-bullying-risk-6653 Cline, A. (2014). Deontology and Ethics: What is Deontology, Deontological Ethics? About.com. Retrieved from http://atheism.about.com/od/ethicalsystems/a/Deontological.htm Cole, K. (2005). Management: Theory and practice. NSW: Pearson Education Australia. Edmond, C. (2013). Social media policies “critical” to workplaces. HC Online. Retrieved from http://www.hcamag.com/hr-news/social-media-policies-critical-to-workplaces-177646.aspx Gowdy, L.N. (2013). Virtue Ethics. Larry Neal Gowdy. Retrieved from http://www.ethicsmorals.com/ethicsvirtue.html Greeson, W. (2011). When Good Men Do Nothing. David Padfield. Retrieved from http://www.padfield.com/1997/goodmen.html Hartsell, B.D. (2006). A Model for Ethical Decision-Making: The Context of Ethics. Journal of Social Work Values & Ethics. Retrieved from http://www.jswvearchives.com/content/view/26/44/ Herboso, E. (2014). Plato’s Beliefs on Ethics. Demand Media. Retrieved from http://people.opposingviews.com/platos-beliefs-ethics-4672.html Ingram, D.

Ethical Theory Frameworks in the Workplace Essay

The Ideal Person Essay

The Ideal Person Essay.

The Ideal person is one of several teachings that Confucius taught. Confucius believed that the ideal person would become an excellent leader and nurture and harmonious society. Confucius believed that both an ideal person and a harmonious society complemented each other. He believed that the ideal person could keep society in tune and a in tune society could produce ideal people. In Confucius eyes everyone has the capability of achieving this level. This was different than the Daoism belief that one can only achieve this level only through isolation.

Confucius believed that in order for harmony to exist in society everyone had a role to play (MOLLOY). He placed these roles into the five great relationships. The first was Father-son relationship, which Confucius considers to be the core of the foundation of Society. Second, was Elder brother-Younger brother relationship, the elder brother had a responsibility on raising his/her younger siblings. The third responsibility was husband and wife, which meant that they must care for one another.

The fourth responsibility was Elder-younger, which meant the Elder person had a responsibility on lending a hand to the younger generation. Finally the fifth responsibility was ruler-subject, which meant the rulers were presented as a father figure to all.

Just as social harmony comes from the living out of the Five Great Relationships, so personal excellence comes from the manifestation of five virtues. The first of these virtues is ren. The Chinese definition of ren is to think of others. Western translation would use the words of sympathy, empathy, kindness and benevolence are just a few. The Second virtue is Li, which is defined as doing what is appropriate. Confucius believed that the ideal person should act a certain why in social situation. This includes all mannerism speech, dress and the way you carry yourself. The third virtue is Shu which translate to “reciprocity.

According to the Merrian-Webster dictionary reciprocity is define as a situation or relationship in which two people or groups agree to do something similar for each other, to allow each other to have the same rights (Merrian-webster dictionary online, 2014). Confucius believed that one should view his/her action on how the other person would encounter the outcome. The fourth virtue is Xiao (hsiao), which is translated “filial piety (devotion of offspring to parents). This is where the kids not only honor their parents, but also the remembrance of their ancestors is just as important. The fifth virtue is Wen, which translate to “culture”. It was Confucius belief that all men should not only be educated but have knowledge of the arts.

Confucius ideal person would differ from the western man of today. Confucius felt the ideal person should have sincerity in everything that he or she does. Confucius did not mean for his ideal person to do things from the heart. Confucius meaning of sincerity is to do things that best benefited society. This is where the western man has struggle since the birth of this nation. Things are not done to benefit society but to benefit ones wealth. In all Confucius ideal person would bring harmony and nurture a good society. .

Reference
(Merrian-webster dictionary online, 2014) Retrieved from http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/ reciprocity (MOLLOY) Retrieved form Experiencing The World Religions

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The Ideal Person Essay