Philippine Noon Time Shows Essay

Philippine Noon Time Shows Essay.

For over a decade now, noontime TV shows have captivated the Filipino public, colloquially known as“the masa”. These shows run for 2 hours a day, 6 days a week, usually from around 2 to 4 o clock pm. Their immense popularity is shown by the long lines of people that wait outside the studio hours before the program starts. All of them, hoping to get a chance to participate in the festivities which include playing games, singing, and dancing. Millions more watch through their television.

All this translates into high TV ratings, eventually generating billions in revenue for the producers and executives. The host himself earns around 1 to 2 million pesos everyday.

The audience mostly consists of people from the D and E demographics. Butch Stuart in his article “Mr Willie” describes them as “those who come from near or far away, many with borrowed transportation money, coming from all walks of masa life. Some of the groups that he mentioned were featured in these shows include: farmers, fishermen, GROs, bus drivers, people with missing teeth, people with special talents, single mothers, gay, graduates who failed their licensing exams, girls who can dance, boys who can sing, bibingka vendors, and, even, young girls with great looking legs.

” Overseas Filipino Workers are also given special mention in the show. Those present in the audience see it as a welcome home celebration, or a way to re-immerse themselves in the Filipino culture.

A euphoric upbeat atmosphere underpins the event. Mr Stuart describes it as “120 minutes of mindless choreographed entertainment – games, dancing, singing and laughter with ample opportunities for ogling”. These events don’t require any complex thinking from the participants. They were designed to be visceral and to conjure a response of raw emotion. Girls in scantily clad outfits are the ones who facilitate the celebration. They serve two purposes in the event. Firstly to captivate and attract through their revealing outfits. But they also carry out logistical tasks like accompanying audience members to the stage and dancing the tunes for everyone to mimic.

The host ensures that all elements of the show are put together. To keep everything lively, his dialogue must always be fast paced. At times he gives off the impression of a cheerleader – always rousing the audience into states of excitement. He will always crack jokes left and right, and will never miss any opportunity even it means making fun of himself. For the show to be successful, the host must understand the sensibilities of the majority lower class audience. The interactive environment can only exist if he can connect with the “masa’s” humor. In Philippine society, no one has been more successful in doing this than Willie Revillame. A household name in television, he has amassed a massive amount of wealth from his noon time shows Wowowee in ABS CBN and later on, Willing willie on TV 5.

Noon time shows rely on the D and E classes as their target audience. When criticism is mounted against these shows, producers are quick to respond that these journalists do not understand the plight of the poor. Some argue that these shows give the poor false hope. They line up for months waiting to be called on stage. Waiting to tell their life story. Waiting to play for a million pesos with house and lot. But the reality is that most of those who line up for the show never even make it to the studio.

RESEARCH QUESTION:

We would like to find out why Filipinos from the class D end E brackets are captivated with these noon time shows. It is the poor’s endorsement that sustains them. Companies who want to reach out to this consumer market donate lump sums of money for their products to be advertised on air. They know that the millions of impoverished families watching these shows will see their products. But the poor do more than just endorse. Often they peg their aspirations and dreams to the show itself. Watch any full show and you are sure to come across someone sobbing on air, talking about how his dream was to meet Willie in person.

To answer the question of why the poor are so captivated, we will need to address more specific inquiries. Media for instance, is never a neutral medium. It has the capacity to shape public perception through its different portrayals of reality. After acknowledging that the poor are interested in these shows, we will look into what techniques and strategies these shows use to sustain that interest. It is easy to understand that someone who stumbles across ABSCBN may be mesmerized by the glitz and glamour of the wowowee show girls. But how do the producers maintain that interest for long periods of time when the programs in these shows tend to be repetitive?

Further inquiries may also be raised concerning how we perceive and understand poverty as a social ill. Subconsciously or not, these shows frame this issue in a biased way. Critics are quick to pounce on Willie Revillame for taking advantage of the poor. In return, he retaliates by calling them apathetic and claiming that he truly empathizes with them. Both assertions are possibly right. These shows may be both half empty and full. But perhaps a better way to resolve this conflict is to look into the assumptions about poverty that these shows espouse.

Even more questions can be raised regarding the link between poverty and gender in Philippine society. We question how structures of patriarchy are reinforced and reflected in the arrangments of these shows. Willie Revillame is notorious for using blatantly sexist language. In one account by Butch Stuart, Willie comments on the obesity of a middle aged woman who came up to hug him by saying, “Mas masarap yapusin ang mga dalaga”. But the epitome of this sexism is seen in the dancing girls that liven the show. Mr Butch Stuart describes them as if they were tools to tingle one’s sensations: “Tall, Pretty, Scantily Clad,Jiggling their cleavage breasts, bending, grinding and humping their loins, the tassels and trimmings of their skimpy covers swaying with their dancing, as they blow kisses, seamlessly sequing from program segments to ads, teasing men to the edge of one particular cardinal sin”.

THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK:

The group will use Marxist analysis to understand the dynamics that exist between the audience and the TV producers in these noon time shows. The paper on Marxism and method talks about the central scientific goals of Marxist analysis. The first of these is to provide a well founded and logically derived description of the central institutional feature of a market based economic system. The second goal is to historicize and to determine how these features came to exist. The last is to determine the social implications of these arrangments.

We like this kind of theoretical framework for its rigid empiricism. Many frameworks start from the universal towards the particular. That is to say they start with an established principle and then go on trying to rationalize the real world to try to fit that picture. In contrast, Marxist analysis begins from the ground up. It first takes a look at what is observable like the relationships of people across the social strata, the relationships of people to capital, or the relationships of people to instiutions which did not exist apriori, but instead have a historical basis to them. After making repeated observations, Marxist analysis will then see if recurring patterns, outcomes, and courses of action exist. Only then will a theory be produced to account for these similarities. The Marxist approach is a scientific one. As Daniel little writes that Marxist analysis explain real world phenomena in terms of underlying causal conditions rather than crude associations among observable variables.

This process of analysis is significant in our research in that it requires us to look at the tangible motivations of those watching these noon time TV shows. It is no mere coincidence or stroke of luck that these shows continue to remain prominent. There are financial incentives that make thousands of people skip their work just to watch them live. There are also practical ways to explain why the poor would rather sing and dance away their problems to the tune of “boom tarat tarat”. Finally, it is an undeniable fact that the elites- namely the business tycoons, the tv executives, the celebrity personalities and everyone else on the upper echelons of the media industry, continue to benefit from a capitalist system that produces massive amounts of inequality. The mode of production, in this instance the noon time tv shows that generate the income, will cease to exist if there were no poor people to delude.

We will also use the Gramscian concept of hegemony to describe the process in which the poor are made to passively accept their positions of status. Hegemony, is the process with which the dominant class projects and reinforces its ideologies through the use of cultural institutions. Chandler states that this represents not only political and economic control, but also the ability of the dominant class to project its own way of seeing the world so that those who are subordinated by it accept it as ‘common sense’ and ‘natural’.

Gramsci would find the institution of the family to be repressive. By belonging into the family unit, we are socialized into aspiring for specific life goals. One of this is to be productive citizens ing specialized skill sets that can be used to earn profit. We see this as obvious. However, the fulfillment of this goal ensures the preservation of our inequitable social structure. The family and educational system ensures that when one profit minded factory owner dies, another one takes its place.

DEFINITION OF TERMS:

Marxism

Marxism is defined as the political, economic, and social principles and policies advocated by Marx; especially : a theory and practice of socialism including the labor theory of value, dialectical materialism, the class struggle, and dictatorship of the proletariat until the establishment of a classless society.

A body of doctrine developed by Karl Marx and, to a lesser extent, by Friedrich Engels in the mid-19th century. It originally consisted of three related ideas: a philosophical anthropology, a theory of history, and an economic and political program.

Rational Choice Theory

Rational choice theory is defined as An economic principle that assumes that individuals always make prudent and logical decisions that provide them with the greatest benefit or satisfaction and that are in their highest self-interest.

Noon Time Variety Show

Variety shows are defined as Theatrical entertainment consisting of successive unrelated acts, such as songs, dances, and comedy skits. In the context of this paper they are performed using the medium of the television.

SCOPE AND LIMITATION:

Our study will focus solely on Noon time TV programs in the Philippines. Other countries have their own formats for variety shows. These will not be covered by this paper. Our goal is to understand poverty particularly in the Filipino context. Therefore our analysis will focus more on the cultural nuances of Filipino society reflected in local variety shows. We will also not consider other reality TV shows that do not fall under the category of a variety show. That is, an event consisting of successive acts of singing, dancing and, games.

The reason for this is that differences in show arrangements will make it difficult to conduct a consistent analytical approach for all reality tv across the board. For instance, Marxists themes of class inequality to an extent are less evident in weight lost shows such as the biggest loser than they are in wowowee. The selection of participants for both these shows are also markedly different making it difficult to conduct a unified analysis of the demographics.

SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY:

METHOD AND METHO

http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/marxism

http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/367344/Marxism

http://www.investopedia.com/terms/r/rational-choice-theory.asp#axzz2JCDDzjcx

Philippine Noon Time Shows Essay

Television as a Curse or Blessings Essay

Television as a Curse or Blessings Essay.

Television is the most popular media of human kind. It has become the indispensable part of life. By watching television we can see much things happening around us. everyone must agree that the advantages of of wathching television are considerable but besides that there are many disadvantages of watching television. begning from the first i must say that it is the one of the most important factor that have transformed the indian history.

Earlier people hardly had any knowledge on different important aspects of our life.

television especially owadays is very popular and every family have access to it. by watching television we may watch many competetions live going around the world. it saves time as well as money which would have been spent on buying tickets. We can also enjoy travelling on television by watching discovery or national geography and many more.

It also decrease pressure as variety of comedies and dramas are source of it. as it is said that every thing have good as well as bad side also.

as all the programs on t. v. are not suitable for all ages. therefore parents must upervise their chidlren while watching television.

In the aspect of health watching television for long may effect the eyesight adversely. however the veiwer may find the television so interesting that he she may forget their responsibilities and get induldged in watching television. children may neglect their studies. both adult and children may lack sleep for staying up late to watch the show. it is important that people do not become too occupied with watching television. while they may benefit for some programmed but watching too much television is not advisable.

Television as a Curse or Blessings Essay

Television and Radio Essay

Television and Radio Essay.

Isn’t it amazing that people who lived two hundred years ago didn’t have radios or televisions? Today it is difficult to imagine life without these two forms of communication. These technological wonders have many similar characteristics. As you will see, they are also quite different. To start with, both radios and televisions need a source of power in order to run. If you have no electric socket or batteries on hand, you won’t get to watch TV or listen to the radio! Both of these medias make use of airwaves to send their messages, and they offer a range of channels.

Concerning appearance, radios and TVs come in all shapes and sizes. There are tiny and big radios and televisions. You can buy both in plain or fancy designs and at low, moderate, or high prices. Both TV and radio are amazing sources of information. You can find out about the latest news, get traffic and weather reports, and tune in to special programs about health, history, and many other subjects on both TV and the radio.

Both broadcast wonderful cultural events. Concerts, readings by famous writers, and political debates are part of the programming of TV and radio.

Therefore, both can contribute to your knowledge. However, both also broadcast talk shows with weird guests discussing strange subjects. So, it is fair to say that both TV and radio have some shows that are not all that worthwhile. In addition to the similarities that they share, radio and TV have many differences. Televisions have screens that present visual images, but radios don’t. Therefore, some kinds of programs are possible on TV that could not be broadcast by radio, such as dance programs and silent movies.

Also, TV has some options that aren’t available for radio. A cable hookup allows TV viewers to get access to more channels; a phone line hookup can give a TV access to the Internet. Plug in a VCR, and you can watch any movie you like on your TV set. These options simply don’t exist for radio. Also, radio is different from TV because it has a longer history than TV does. Radio was invented earlier. People enjoyed radio dramas and music shows before they ever had a TV. Radio makes listeners use their imaginations more.

For example, when listening to a radio drama, you have to imagine what the characters and settings look like. With TV, the imagination gets less of a workout. All the images are already there. Clearly, radio and TV have features that make them resemble each other in some ways. It is also plain to see that they vary quite a bit. Personally, I’m glad to have both available to me. Radio is great to listen to while riding in the car. TV is great when I want to watch a video or view a documentary. They both give me many ways to relax and to learn.

Television and Radio Essay

Effects OF Watching Too Much Television Essay

Effects OF Watching Too Much Television Essay.

Watching television is an experience shared by most adults and children. But the problem is that watching television for long periods of time has many bad effects. The purpose of this essay is to persuade the reader that people shouldn’t watch too much television. The first reason why people shouldn’t watch television for long periods of time is that it makes people waste time that could be used in more beneficial activities. This wasted time could be used to make useful activities like exercising, interacting with friends and family, and reading.

The second reason is that the content of many television programs is not educational. Movies and series nowadays have lots of violence, sex, and drugs scenes.

This tendency has very dangerous impact on children because they grow up with the idea of a world where problems can only be solved with money and violence and where wars are inevitable. The third reason is that watching television increases the audience desire in eating which causes obesity.

Because they always sit in front of the screen and they forget to do physical exercises. After the invention of television on 1923, it is found that the rate of obesity, heart attacks, and eyesight problems is increasing. According to a new study, watching television too much increases the risk of dying at an earlier age, especially from heart disease. This research says that every hour you spend in front of the television increases the risk of dying from heart disease by 18 percent and increases the overall risk of death by 11 percent. However this doesn’t mean that we should ban television, but if we are going to watch it, we should do it with moderation.

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Closed-circuit television (CCTV) Case Study Essay

Closed-circuit television (CCTV) Case Study Essay.

1. INTRODUCTION

Remember! smile ,when you are walking along a major street because you are recorded by a Closed-circuit camera. While walking along the street ,glanced up and you will probably see cameras glaring back at you. Perhaps that you cannot see them, but they are there. Have you ever bump your head and immediately after looked around to see if anyone was watching at you? That has happened to almost everybody, but as majority does not see such action or we might say as incident.

However, CCTV or Closed-circuit television have got them clearly recorded.

According to Wikipedia , Closed-circuit television (CCTV) is the use of video cameras to transmit a signal to a specific place ,on a limited set of monitor . Marie Van Brittan Brown was the inventor of the CCTV camera. Nowadays, we are not only depending only on security personnel but also electronic devices. State-of-the-art and effective CCTV cameras are one of the benefits of the advances of technology in the enhancement of security .

Closed-circuit televisions are often seen in universities, businesses, stations , shops and even government institution in order to provide video surveillance and deter crime.

A British Home Office promotional booklet , CCTV: Looking Out For You (Home Office, 1994), actually states that the technology can be a solution to many problems, such as vandalism, drug use, drunkenness, racial harassment, sexual harassment, loitering and disorderly behaviour (Davis 1999).However , the usage of CCTV monitoring is not without a debate . Even so, I strongly believe that Closed-circuit television (CCTV) should be installed in every single place to combat the increasing theft rate and to protect the masses.

2.THE ADVANTAGES OF CLOSED-CIRCUIT CAMERA

2.1. PREVENT CRIME

First of all, CCTV system helps in preventing all kinds of crime. If a crime is committed, the culprit will be eventually caught . By having a closed circuit television at workplace, crimes of stealing and theft robbed from a jewelry store can be trimmed down. This is because if the criminals know that there are cameras then they would be more likely to just move on to an easy target. The clips taken by these cameras serve as a source of evidence to help trace the thieves. For further illustration, the cops in Malaysia and many other developed countries used the videos captured by the Closed-circuit television (CCTV) to trace and successfully catch a group of robbers who broke into a Seven Eleven shop during the midnight.

The mere presence of CCTV is enough to reduce the rate of crime in most cases. That is why some businesses will put up a dummy CCTV camera to fool criminally minded individuals into thinking their actions are being monitored, and perhaps, persuade them not to commit the crime. In this manner, the business owner is not only protecting the customers and employees, but is also safeguarding the business. In the event of a crime, a recording of the events can be turned over to the authorities to aid their investigations.

2.2 KEEP RECORD

Furthermore, the clips captured by a CCTV camera system are often recorded and stored into a database. These are helpful in maintaining records so that they can be easily retrieved later when needed. As an example, sometimes the employees are required to handle some annoyed customers. When having a face-to-face interaction with frustrated customer, the situation can put the employee in physical danger. Hence, the installation of CCTV cameras may help the employees escape from this situation as the customers know very well that their conversations are recorded by the CCTV . In the event of an argument, the video which had been recorded can be used to determine what actually took place so that further actions can then be taken. In short, these cameras can help to provide some form of protection to the workers against the customers.

2.3 MONITORING TRAFFIC

Looking from another perspective, CCTV is also used for monitoring traffic by local or state roadways authorities to manage the traffic flows and providing an advice concerning traffic congestion .Road traffic control involves directing vehicle and pedestrian traffic around a construction zone or other road disruption , thus the government installed a Closed-circuit television by the roadside to ensure the safety of emergency response teams, construction workers and also the general public.

Speeding is a big problem that can cause some serious injuries. The government is now putting up cameras at stoplights to protect people from traffic violators. More than sixty cities in the U.S are using traffic cameras at busy intersections. Now, when a person runs a red light, or drives unreasonably fast through an intersection, they can expect a traffic citation. By installing these cameras, people are more likely to drive safe; this will inevitably lead to fewer accidents at some of the busiest intersections-it could even save lives. When one knows there are cameras around they are less likely to do something that might get them into trouble.

2.4 AVOID VIOLENCE IN SCHOOL

On the other hand , CCTV might also avoid violence and bullying in schools. The headmister or the headmistress would be able to see what actually happens in the classroom and he or she would be able to interfere in critical situations. In the past we had some very sad stories of students who used guns against their teachers and classmates. We all will never forget the tragedies of Columbus and Erfurt, where many people died. Only last year a 17-year-old German killed 16 students, teachers and inhabitants of a small town near Stuttgard. If cameras had been installed in the classrooms of the school , I very sure that this sad cases would not happen and many people would have survived .

2.5 LAW ENFORCEMENT

CCTV is used by law enforcement in public places, such as at traffic lights, to serve as a deterrent to those who might be tempted to break traffic laws. Those who violate traffic laws are identified and soon receive a ticket in the mail due to the presence of the CCTV cameras which record their car registration numbers. CCTV records car accidents and monitors traffic jams. CCTV is also beneficial to law enforcement in increasing personnel efficiency by decreasing the number of officers on the beat due to the fact that CCTV cameras are “patrolling” some areas, especially in places like the subway, airport and train station.

CCTV can help in the prevention of lawsuits by recording the actual sequence of events involving a customer and an establishment. Some customers might claim that an employee attacked them physically while they might have initiated the attack and the employee was only being defensive. In another scenario, a customer might deliberately spill some liquid on the ground, pretend to fall, and claim that it was there due to the company’s negligence. A CCTV recording will sort things out.

3. THE DISADVANTAGES OF CLOSED-CIRCUIT CAMERA

3.1. NO GUARANTEE WILL CATCH ANY CRIME UNWANTED

As the after way of discuss the advantages , there are also the disadvantages of the Closed-circuit television.CCTV is usually not able to display every square inch of a business or facility. Even if the cameras are positioned correctly, there is no guarantee that the cameras will catch any crime or unwanted behavior done on the property. These cameras can sometimes be thwarted by covering them up or by sticking a piece of chewing gum on the lenses. Someone who is familiar with the property may still be able to get around the surveillance and avoid getting caught. If the cameras are positioned incorrectly, the high traffic areas of the facility will not be shown on camera. In this case, much of the behavior that the CCTV cameras are designed to detect will not be captured on tape.

3.2. NO MANAGE TO RECORD THE TIME

Along with the increased amount of cameras in public areas,CCTV security cameras are now being used in the office to monitor the staff. This is enable management to record how long the staff are taking their breaks and if they are going anything that could be considered inappropriate. This offen seen as an infringement of civil liberties, especially as there is possibility that, depending where management place the cameras, they could abuse their power.

4.CONCLUSION

As a conclusion , CCTV cameras are essential and therefore should be installed in every premise . This is chiefly to shield oneself from being harmed by any intruders or robbers . Admittedly , privacies are lost with the use of these cameras . In the Slate magazine of America state that:”We Need More Cameras , And We Need Them Now!’ After the Boston Marathon Bombing Cases that happen on 15 april 2013 . However , one must realize that safety is of paramount importance compared to privacy and prevention is always better than suffering from the consequences . Nonetheless , safety should be put first in order to be safe .

Surveillance cameras can be very useful. They aren’t here to spy on our private lives; they are here to protect our private lives. They catch the bad guys; they catch the drunk drivers and get them off the streets; they save businesses from bad employees and shoplifters, and most of all, they protect the right to a safe, better environment for all of us.

RESOURCE

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/closed-circuit_television . ,retrieved 13july2013

www.essayforum.com/writing-feedback-3/use-cctv-cameras-essay-29373 . ,retrieved 12july2013

www.wikipedia.org/wiki/road_traffic_control . , retrieved 15july2013

www.slate.com/articles/technology/2013/04/boston_bomber_photos_themarthon_bombing_shows_that_we_need_more_security.html . , retrieved 20july2013

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Closed-circuit television (CCTV) Case Study Essay

Television Sitcoms: 1950’s – Today Essay

Television Sitcoms: 1950’s – Today Essay.

Fifty Years in the Making A genre of entertainment programming was developed and became known as the situation comedy or ‘sitcom’. Sitcoms have evolved in response to lifestyle trends and have changed drastically over the past fifty years.

The sitcom format is based upon two main types: the element of family drama mixed with sibling rivalry and the element of sexual exploration. Family sitcoms specialized in family drama and focused on internal family roles of the parents, children and siblings.

Sticking to the same basic formula, sitcoms show a problem solved and a lesson learned in a half -hour, usually with a strong foundation of laughable humor.

Traditional family roles in 1950’s sitcoms held the father as the head of the household and major breadwinner, and the wife as the classic domestic housekeeper. Sitcoms of the 1950’s emphasized and exemplified good values and conveyed them throughout the half -hour, in which they aired. From the stay at home housewife, to the single or divorced parent, sitcoms have developed and established a part in every American family’s living room over the past fifty years.

With their birth in the 1950’s, situation comedies mean just what their name suggests. In the beginning, the basic recipe for the perfect sitcom was this: Take a domestic family, stir in the funny antics of the children or neighbors, and add in a minor problem, which usually could be solved within the half hour. Simmer between commercials, and voila! Comedy and a new lesson learned every week (Seplow). Wait another week and the characters are back to where they were the week before, only faced with a different, traditionally comical situation. The predictability of the sitcom was the basis for its humor. The audience knows the characters will always react and respond to situations the way they are expected to. To the audience, sitcoms were “the glue that stuck them to the television” (Johnson).

However, there are many different types of sitcoms that were made throughout the years. There are: Domcoms (domestic comedies), which featured family life “All in the Family,” Kidcoms (kid comedies) such as “Happy Days,” couplecoms “I Love Lucy,” SciFiComs, “Bewitched,” ethnicoms, or shows regarding a certain ethnic group, “The Jefferson,” and careercoms or shows that revolve around a character’s workplace and life “The Mary Tyler Moore Show” (Christian). One of the first ethnicoms on television, “Amos ‘n’ Andy” was seen as either “the funniest or offensive show” on television (Christian).

The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) pulled their show from the air during the Civil Rights Movement, because it portrayed African Americans in a negative way. Of the first successful couplecoms, “I Love Lucy” is one of the few aired in 1951 that lasted more than two years. This program was the first sitcom that was done on film, and filmed before a live audience in sequence, using a three-camera technique (Cayse).”I Love Lucy,” starred Lucille Ball, as a screwball wife, married to a Cuban immigrant, Desi Arnaz. Lucy Ricardo was the first character on television to be pregnant. Lucille Balls’ real life pregnancy was written into the script and CBS decided to call her ‘expectant’, due to censorship laws during those years (Kaledin). “I Love Lucy,” remains a tradition among sitcom watchers and has been a re-run on television since the end of the show’s production in 1957.

In the beginning of the 1960’s, sitcoms broke the mold of the traditional family setting and created shows that went against the 1950’s “television grain” (Brook). The first sitcom, to break this mold was the “The Beverly Hillbillies,” which aired in 1962. “The Beverly Hillbillies,” wasn’t just the basic ‘rags to riches’ story line. This sitcom took a lower-class family from the mountains, put them in a rare situation of “striking oil” and quickly sent them into the materialistic setting of Beverly Hills, California. This sitcom, which portrayed the upper class life, instead of middle class, also sparked a new trend in rurally based sitcoms and “broke the middle class pattern in plot and characterization” (Seplow).

With the dawn of the 1970s, sitcom audiences were in for groundbreaking story lines. Gone were the days of the perfect family, which ignored important issues, such as racial equality and sexuality. “The Mary Tyler Moore Show,” was the first carreercom to appeal to an audience, using a happy, single woman, with a dominating and influential role in the work force (Cayse). “All in the Family” was the first situation comedy to use current social issues as the basis of their plots. The show was also the first sitcom to display a toilet and characters using it (Aamidor).

“All in the Family” also explored into such controversial issues, like racism, sex, religious bigotry, and homosexuality (Aamidor). The 1970s meant higher costs in sitcom production, being televised on-air became costly. The end of the 1970s also meant a decline for situation comedies and a strong interest in action/adventure shows. With several sitcoms being pulled from the air or not produced, and an increase in the production of adventure programs, sitcoms faced another low point (Brook).

During the materialistic 1980s, sitcom television had quite the jump in the ratings. “The Cosby Show” aired in 1987, ensuring family values, with the light-hearted humor of Bill Cosby, himself (Christian). Then arrived, a new type of sitcom, the Slobcom, was introduced in “Married With Children.” This show was exactly the opposite of the domcoms of the early days. “Married With Children” showed a dysfunctional family, consisting of a deadbeat dad, a frustrated and lazy housewife and “sexually charged delinquent children” (Aamidor).

Sitcoms basically followed the mold of previous programs, in earlier decades. Up until 1989, when “The Simpsons” came into the living rooms of Americans. “The Simpsons” was an animated sitcom that targeted both adolescents and adults, and gave “The Cosby Show” a run for its Thursday night ratings. Using the slobcom antics, similar to “Married With Children,” “The Simpsons” took situation comedies to a new level, using the classic “Doh!” humor of everyone’s favorite animated family (Bellisario).

The 1990’s ushered in the thought of “pushing the envelope” on sitcom boundaries. ABC’s “Roseanne,” presented a very popular parody of family life that included unconventional sitcom topics such as teenage sex, abuse, and lesbian romance. With the controversial shows of the 1990’s, there were also sitcoms that followed the ‘norm’ of previous years, but still keeping up with the current trends of that decade.

The trends in situation comedies since the 1950s show a move toward a more liberal attitude about subjects of humor. The early 1950s and 1960s used the common norms such as a-woman’s-place-is-in-the-home, or the-man-is-the-master. However, the norms used in many situation comedies today are attitudes about sex, violence, racism, and other subjects that didn’t even exist in early television comedy.

Works Cited

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Television Sitcoms: 1950’s – Today Essay

Mass Media in Great Britain Essay

Mass Media in Great Britain Essay.

The media play a central role in Britain’s daily life, informing and educating, questioning and challenging – and of course – entertaining. In recent years the availability of more radio frequencies, together with satellite, cable and microwave transmissions, has already made a greater number of local, national and international services possible. The transition from analogue to digital transmission technology is now expanding this capacity enormously. The Internet is providing, increasingly, an additional medium for information, entertainment and communication.

Television and Radio

Broadcasting in Britain has traditionally been based on the principle that it is a public service accountable to people.

While retaining the essential public service element, it now also embraces the principles of competition and choice:

• the BBC (British Broadcasting Corporation), which broadcasts television and radio programmes;

• the ITC (Independent Television Commission), which licenses and regulates commercial television services, including cable and satellite services.

• the Radio Authority, which licenses and regulates commercial radio services, including cable and satellite.

The three bodies work to broad requirements and objectives defined and endorsed by Parliament, but are otherwise independent in their daily conduct of business.

Television viewing is by far Britain’s most popular leisure pastime: over 97 per cent of households have at least one TV set. British television productions are sold world – wide.

BBC

The BBC provides two complementary national terrestrial television networks: BBC 1 and BBC 2, which transmit 24 hours a day. It also provides a range of digital channels, including BBC News 24 and BBC Choice. BBC Network Radio serves an audience of 29 each week, transmitting 24 hours a day on its five national networks. BBC has 39 local radio stations serving England and the Channel Islands, and regional and community radio services in Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. BBC World Service broadcasts by radio in English and 42 other languages world – wide. It has a global weekly audience of at least 140 million listeners. BBC Worldwide Television is responsible for the BBC’s commercial television activity. It is one of Europe’s largest exporters of television programmes. It also runs an advertiser – funded, 24 – hour international news and information channel; and an entertainment and drama channel broadcast to subscribers in continental Europe and Africa.

The BBC’s domestic services are financed predominantly from the sale of annual television licences; there are no paid advertisements. BBC World Service radio is funded by a government grant, while BBC Worldwide Television is self – financing.

Independent Television

The ITC licenses and regulates three commercial television services – Channel 3 and Channel 4 (in Wales the corresponding service is S4C), which complement each other, and Channel 5 – all financed by advertising and sponsorship. Channel 3 programmes are supplied by 15 regionally based licensees and an additional licensee providing a national breakfast – time service. Licences for Channel 3 and 5 are awarded for a ten – year period by competitive tender to the highest bidder who has passed a quality threshold.

Independent Radio

Independent radio programme companies operate under licence to the Radio Authority and are financed mainly by advertising revenue. There are three independent national services: Classic FM, broadcasting mainly classical music; Virgin 1215, playing broad – based rock music; and Talk Radio UK, speech – based service. About 200 independent local radio services are also in operation. Stations supply local news and information, sport, music and other entertainment, education and consumer advice.

Teletext, Cable and Satellite Services

The BBC and independent television both operate a Teletext service, under which information is displayed as “pages” of text and graphics on receivers equipped with the necessary decoders.

Cable services are delivered through underground cables and are paid for subscription. Cable franchises have been granted covering areas comprising 83 per cent of all homes and nearly all urban areas in Britain. In mid – 1999 there were about 12.1 million homes able to receive such services, and 3 million subscribing homes. Digital technology is being introduced which will support up to 500 television channels. Cable also has the capacity for computer – based interactive services, such as home shopping and email.

Many British – based satellite television channels have been set up to supply programmes to cable operators and viewers with satellite dishes. Some offer general entertainment, while others concentrate on specific areas of interest, such as sport, music, children’s programmes and feature films. The largest satellite programmer is BSkyB (British Sky Broadcasting) which, with around 7 million subscribers, dominates paid – for television in Britain. It launched its digital satellite service in 1998, carrying more than 140 channels.

Satellite television and cable services are funded mainly by subscription income.

The Press

National newspapers have an average total circulation of over 13 million on weekdays and about 14 million on Sundays, although the total readership is considerably greater. There are 10 national morning daily papers and 10 national Sundays – five “qualities”, two “mid – market” and three “populars”. There are about 1,350 regional and local newspapers, and over 7,000 periodical publications.

There is no state control or censorship of the newspaper and periodical press, which caters for a range of political views, interests and level of education. Where they express pronounced views and show obvious political leanings in their editorial comments, these may derive from proprietorial and other non – party influences.

A non – statutory Press Complaints Commission deals with complaints by members of the public about the content and conduct of newspapers and magazines, and advises editors and journalists. In 1995, the Government rejected proposals for statutory regulation of the press and for legislation to give protection to privacy. Instead, it endorsed self – regulation under the Commission and recommended tougher measures to make self – regulation more effective.

Working practices throughout the newspaper industry have become more efficient with the widespread used of advanced computer – based technology. Publishers have been able to reduce production costs by using computer systems for editing and production processes.

Mass Media in Great Britain Essay

Pros and Cons of Television Essay

Pros and Cons of Television Essay.

Television is one invention that serves as a type of role model for Americans everywhere. This mechanism is in almost every room in our home and people can’t help but turn on the switch to see what is showing. Some only rely on a television as their only source of entertainment and some view it as a way to get the family together. But one thing for certain is that television has some characteristic that draws humans to the screen and most people reflect what they watch.

The television is an unavoidable technology that shapes people’s lives, on that can both benefit and harm its viewers.

Although television is unavoidable, it does have its benefits. Almost every American has one TV in one room of their home. The news channel is one of the most widely watched program in the world. People watch news as a source of what is happening during the day. Before work, a woman would turn on the news, to check how the weather is so she can pick out the right outfit.

Or some may check the news just to take a glance at traffic to see which roads to avoid in order to make it to work on time. The news also benefits children. It helps them understand what is going on in the world. “News, current events and historical programming can help make young people more aware of other cultures and people.” ( Media Education Resources, 18 Oct 2006. http://www.media-awareness.ca) Some news casts help by showing the latest threats in places or even in food reports, which are good things to be aware of. Some people also find the joy in knowing about the latest product on the market or a brand new diet test. However, the news might not show decent programming for all audiences all the time.

The potential harm in television is the violence that is shown on almost every channel, but particularly in the news. The news is the place where most of the violence is shown and worse, the violence is real. The news reaches all audiences which means children are exposed to this violence. But the violence show is harmful to all its viewers. “Some local news shows go out of their way in search of violence.” (Online News Hour, 18 Oct 2006. http://www.pbs.org/newshour/media_violence.html) When kids witness violence on the news, it gives them ideas and it shapes their view on the world.

The same goes for young adults. Most of the violence on the news are by young adults who are in gangs or a student at school. Worse is that the violence is shown in detail and shows every act from explosions to gun shots, to fist fights. These kinds of scenes are not ones that should be exposed to young children and adults. “As more violence is reported in the news and as young children spend more time involved with media, they are more likely to hear disturbing news.” (National Association for the Education of Young Children, 18 Oct 2006. http://www.naeyc.org/ece/2003/01.asp) The news is a helpful program to have, but not when disturbing images are shown.

Most Americans who own a TV watch it for an excessive amount of hours, mainly children, so they are bound to see some amount of violence while watching. Some may stumble upon it on accident so they have those frightening images in their mind. Parents are concerned that their kids watch the violence because they are entertained by it. Some kids might have to watch news casts for homework assignments and find helpful information about the country they live in, but they also might see some of the dangers that are here as well. The fact is that the news has the habit of showing clips of “disturbance” during their supposed innocent broadcasts. Overall the news does have its advantages and its disadvantages just like television. The television is an unavoidable technology that shapes people’s lives, one that can both benefit and harm its viewers.

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Pros and Cons of Television Essay