Your Attitude Towards Money

1. One of the first steps to becoming financially responsible is understanding your current behavior. The attached file named “Attitudes towards money” and the money attitudes survey ( link to which is provide descriptions of various profiles.  Review each profile, identify which one best describes you, and discuss why you think it does. What are the weaknesses or strengths of this type of attitude? Which of the attitudes would you aspire to model and why?  

Your Attitude Towards Money

2. After reading Chapter 1 and watching the videos- “How to Avoid Unnecessary Expenses” and “You’re Spending Too Much” and evaluating your current style of managing your finances: 

  • Review your expenses and identify three flexible expenses that you could reduce or eliminate altogether. Discuss how you can reduce or eliminate these expenses.
  • How much do you normally spend on eating outside during the workweek? Using your daily expenditure on eating out, calculate how much you normally spend during a year and over the course of 10 years. What do you think of your findings?

3. List one financial goal you want to accomplish in ten years. How do you plan on accomplishing it? 

4. Do you use coupons? How do you assess the use of coupons in reaching your financial goals? Do they really make a difference? 

Please post your initial answer by Thursday night (11:59 pm) and 2 more by Sunday afternoon. This is necessary so that your instructor and classmates have time to read and respond to your posts. Your posts must be substantial.

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 Discuss in view of historical perspective and current laws. What does it mean to be “disabled”? What are employers’ obligations towards new hires?

 Make each paragraph 6 to 10 sentences.

  1.  Discuss in view of historical perspective and current laws. What does it mean to be “disabled”? What are employers’ obligations towards new hires?
  2.  In “normal times”, what is the process for a nurse (RN/LPN/LVN) to leave Texas and be obtain permanent work in Florida?
  3.  A nursing unit in Wise-Town nursing home has many staff and patients infected with Covid-19. The company hired “outside nurses” to provide adequate staffing for the unit. Analyze the situation where the managing team of Wise-Town may be held liable for mistake made by those “agency” nurses.
  4. A nurse is asked to float to a new unit to cover for loss of staff due to recent infections of Covid-19. Patients and staff are turning positive for the new infection. What are the nurse’s options, how about the law, how about the ethics?

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What is lawrences attitude towards the characters in the story white stocking

What is Lawrence’s attitude towards the characters in the story white stocking? Throughout the story you can tell that Lawrence has a strong attitude towards the characters. For example he depicts Ted to be this angry, jealous man. “He filled with unreasonable rage” this illustrates how Lawrence depicts ted and the angry man. He used the word “unreasonable” to try and say that there was no initial reason for him to get angry and that he’s getting angry for no reason.

“She was rousing all his uncontrollable anger” this shows that Lawrence has depicted ted as someone once they get angry there is no stopping him, he’s used the word “uncontrollable” to show how powerful and dangerous ted could be after he gets angry (no one can control him). As you can see from this Lawrence’s attitude towards ted is that he thinks of him as being an ill-tempered, raging person.

More evidence of this is when he makes ted use language such as “you stray-running little bitch” this showing more how Lawrence’s attitude towards ted is that he is a very unpleasant, not nice to be around character. At the start of the book I got the feeling that ted was quite a sweet, nice guy but has some level of temper on him, I think Lawrence wants us to have a unsure feeling about whether we like ted or not.

Although he hits his wife at the end of the story his wife wasn’t exactly the innocent party by winding him up with the stocking. Lawrence’s attitude towards Elsie is that she is quite big headed and is in love with herself. Throughout the story he depicts her as being someone who thinks she is beautiful and that her position in her and teds relationship is where she is the one that the other person is lucky to have. Evidence of this is “She looked down at her pretty legs” Lawrence has done this to show that she thinks she is beautiful and that she likes the way she looks.

Also Lawrence’s attitude towards Elsie is that he depicts her as this character that isn’t scared and is quite cheeky at times, evidence of this is “pf! She sneered. Do you think I’m frightened of you?” this shows that even though Elsie is probably frightened of ted, she isn’t going to show that in front of him so she is cheeky and pretends that she isn’t frightened of him. In my opinion I think that Lawrence’s attitude towards Elsie is that she’s not that innocent in the violence of the relationship because throughout the story you can see that she is constantly winding ted up about how she has got a valentines gift from another man.

“She was rousing all his uncontrollable anger” although this shows that ted’s anger is uncontrollable; Elsie is rousing it and making it worse. Lawrence has done this to show that at the time men didn’t just go round and hit their partners, they did it for a reason and teds reason was because she winded him up and eventually he broke. Finally Lawrence’s attitude towards Sam Adams is that he’s not the best looking guy around but he knows how to treat a woman. One of the reasons of why Elsie seems to like Sam Adams is because he has the romantic side as to where Ted doesn’t.

For example Sam Adams got Elsie a white stocking, in those days to get someone a stocking it is seemed to be quite an intimate gift, Lawrence has done this to show that it’s not just some stupid fling that’s been going on a couple of months, it’s quite a deep affair that’s been going on for 2 years. Overall Lawrence’s attitude towards Sam Adams is that he is quite a romantic character and that he knows how to woo and woman, for example getting Elsie the white stocking and writing that romantic poem.

“E for Elsie, nice nettle gelsie” Overall Lawrence’s attitude towards each of his characters is that he depicts ted as an angry man who could have a romantic side, depicts Elsie as this beautiful woman that is big headed and very cheeky, finally depicts Sam Adams as this mysterious, romantic man who is slowly destroying Ted and Elsie’s relationship.

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The importance of environmental disclosure towards society accounting essay

This chapter begins with subdivision 2.

2 that provides information about the environmental revelation and the importance of environmental revelation towards society. Section 2. 3 reappraisal the anterior surveies on association of assorted corporate features with environmental revelation. These corporate features include environmental sensitive companies, fiscal public presentation, ISO 14000 companies every bit good as purchase.

Section 2. 4 discuss some background information on the development of environmental revelation in Malaysia and eventually Section 2. 5 buttockss theoretical model on the CSR revelation patterns As clip goes by, the company ‘s battle in CSR issues has developed and so as the extent to which they unwrap the information. Previous researches indicated a gradual addition for CSR revelation in companies ‘ one-year studies.

However Ten ( 2009 ) claimed that Malayan corporate societal coverage pattern is still at its babyhood, peculiarly in the environmental country. Environmental coverage was ab initio studied as portion of societal coverage ( Pahuja, 2009 ) .Assorted survey have been done about corporate societal coverage and environment coverage. ( Pahuja.

2009 ) . Previous survey has been predict the voluntary environmental revelation over a longitudinal period. ( Razeed, 2009 ; Yusoff et Al, 2005 ; Campbell, 2004 ) Some of research worker have done a longitudinal surveies to looked the tendency of environmental information. ( Yusoff, Yatim & A ; Nasir, 2005 ; Cambell, 2004 ; Ten, 2004 ) .

Harmonizing to Othman and Ameer ( 2009 ) corporate environmental coverage is refers to a corporation ‘s release of environmental public presentation information to the general populace.Pahuja ( 2009 ) has been made an effort to statistically prove the combined impact of selected variables on environmental coverage patterns of big fabricating companies in India. Environmental coverage by the public sector companies was found to be significantly higher than those operating in the private sector. Jaafar ( 2006 ) found that environmental information was reported in the Review of operation ( 30 per centum ) and Chairman ‘s Statement ( 17 per centum ) .

All of this environmental information was reported on a voluntary footing since no information was found in the statutory subdivision of one-year reported. The bulk of the companies reported environmental information in the general statements or quantitative- non-monetary informations signifier. The degree of quality measured based on subjects and location of environmental information in one-year reported, the mean mark obtain merely nine which considered really low. This indicates that the environmental affairs was non reported in elaborate and found in the less of import subdivisions in one-year study.

In add-on Dragomir ( 2009 ) and Clarkson et Al ( 2008 ) used an environmental revelation index, inspired by the Global Reporting Initiative Guideline which are forms the footing for the content analysis of sustainability study published before the twelvemonth terminal of 2008. Disclosure index surveies are assume that the sum of revelation on specified subject is a placeholder for the quality of revelation. Besides, this index better gaining controls steadfast revelations related to its committedness to protect the environment than the indices employed by anterior surveies.In contrast, Cho ( 2009 ) had been investigate whether a higher degree of governmental support for standalone coverage is associated with differences in the extent of revelation.

These researcher utilizing two separate environmental revelation hiting prosodies and analyze the extent of environmental revelation made by a matched sample of 25 South Korean and 25 U. S companies in standalone sustainability-type studies. Their consequences show, utilizing either revelation graduated table, that South Korean companies ‘ environmental revelation are significantly more extended than the revelations for U. S.

opposite numbers.Environmental revelation patterns are affected by some other factors like fouling nature of industry, foreign association of the company, its association of the company, its associations with big concern houses or place of the company in the planetary market. ( Pahuja, 2009 ) As for that Pahuja ( 2009 ) have been explore the environmental revelation patterns by selected big fabricating companies in India and take into consideration these issue. There was an addition in the figure of surveies analyzing the motives behind Malayan environmental revelations utilizing different theoretical positions and Methodologies.

Environmental information is a strategic mechanism used towards heightening good corporate repute of the company. Yusoff et Al ( 2005 ) it is really of import for the company to unwrap their environmental information that shows the corporate environmental public presentation. The growing of environmental describing enterprises to guarantee its effectivity to carry through the demand and demands of stakeholders. Battle in environmental coverage amongst listed companies varies between sectors.

( ERRM, 2002 ) .Sector with greater environmental impact which are industrial merchandise, plantation, consumer merchandise, trading, building and substructure appeared to be more active in describing environmental information. The environmental sensitive industry has been identified as industry where the operation of companies in the industry can hold a significant negative impact to the environment. ( Jaafar, 2006 ) .

The industry which is consider as an environmental sensitive company are agribusiness, plantation, excavation, chemical, building, transit, fabrication, trading and services, wood and lumber every bit good as oil and gas companies.Jaafar ( 2006 ) has been investigated the environmental coverage patterns by environmentally debatable companies which are define as a companies that are non in conformity of the environmental ordinance. The survey found that merely 44 per centum of environmental debatable companies ( 14/ 32 ) has provided environmental information in their one-year studies. Twelve of these 14 companies ( or 86 per centum ) have reported positive environmental information while two others companies reported both negative and positive information.

In add-on, 93. 75 per centum of environmentally debatable companies ( 30 out of 32 ) did non advert this job in their one-year studies. Furthermore, Dragomir ( 2010 ) besides examine the relationship between environmentally sensitive companies and environmental revelation of 60 of the largest Europian Union industrial concern group for the twelvemonth 2008. However Yusoff et Al ( 2006 ) examine the motive factor from both environmental sensitive companies and non environmental sensitive companies towards environmental revelation and found that the industry factor has no function in advancing environmental revelation among Malayan companiesAmongs most of the research workers found that industry type has no relationship towards environmental revelation, Goa, Heravi and Xiao ( 2005 ) have been examine the environmental revelation by analysing 33 listed companies and found that there is a positive relationship between industry differences towards environmental revelation.

Fiscal public presentation shows how good the company is able to run into its fiscal duties, whereas low liquidness ratios predict bankruptcies.Different profitableness and growing steps used hold given beliing marks for its association with revelation quality. Pahuja ( 2009 ) has been define profitableness as the ratio of net net incomes to net gross revenues. The ratio indicates net net income border on gross revenues.

Its steps the capableness of the company in order to run concern successfully every bit good as to cover disbursals occur efficaciously. The higher the ratio will be the profitableness of the organisation.Accordings to Jaafar ( 2006 ) the mean per centum of return on assets of these companies is 5. 2 per centum and besides indicated that there are non much differences in fiscal public presentation between companies that produced positive or negative environmental information.

The rate of return on assets is 11. 16 per centum for companies that provide environmental revelation compared with 11. 5 per centum of companies that provided negative environmental revelation. Pahuja ( 2009 ) besides provide an grounds in support of the hypotheses related to influence of the profitableness on environmental revelation patterns.

The consequence indicate that large and more profitable companies provide more information on environment than little and less profitable companies severally. In contrast, Dragomir ( 2009 ) and Leary ( 2003 ) found that there is no association between fiscal public presentation and environmental revelation. However, some of the survey done by the old research workers show that there is a important relationship between company public presentation and environmental revelation ( Stanwick and Stanwick, 1998 ; Cormier, Ledoux and Mangan ( 2009 ) .Sumiani et Al.

2007 had been examined the revelations made by top 50 Malayan public companies to research the describing behavior of ISO-certified companies. They found that out of 36 unwraping companies, 13 were ISO14001 certified and all the ISO-certified houses provided some signifier of environmental revelation in their one-year studies. Lapp goes to Saizarbitoria, Landin and Azorin ( 2010 ) stated that the internal drivers to implement and attest the ISO 14000 criterions have a grade of influence on the environmental revelation. However, Ten ( 2009 ) noted that non all ISO 14000 companies showed an environmental revelation.

Harmonizing to bureau theory higher monitoring costs would be incurred by houses that are extremely leveraged. To cut down these costs, houses are expected to unwrap more information. Leverage is the ratio of debt that is refer to the non current liabilities and plus that is refer to average entire plus. ( Razeed, 2009 ; Ten, 2004 ) .

The more the companies rely on debt funding, the more company will supply an environmental revelation to be seen as a company is being seen as a company with lower hazard ( Campbell, Sefcik and Soderstrom, 2003 ) .Pahuja ( 2009 ) stated that the companies with higher debt-equity ratio are expected to unwrap more environmental information than the companies with lower debt -equity ratio. In his survey, ratio of entire debt to equity was used as it has a important impact on the ability of an organisation to obtain extra financess. It gives some thought about the protection given to loaners if the organisation become insolvent.

Lapp goes to Cormier, Ledoux and Mangan ( 2009 ) that found that purchase have a important impact towards environmental revelation.However, Leary ( 2003 ) revealed that there is no association between purchase and environmental revelation. In a underdeveloped state like Malaysia, the betterment of stuff public assistance tends to have top prirority ( Cho, 2009 ) . The growing of Malayan economic system, on the other manus, has accelerated the enlargement and globalisation of concern endeavors, which in bend, has induced increased social demands for a cleansing agent environment.

As clip goes by, there are no statutory demand in Malaysia necessitating public listed companies to unwrap environmental information to the populace.Current ordinance sing environmental revelation including Environmental quality Act 1974, Occupational Safety and Health Act 1994, Listing Requirements of Kuala Lumpur stock exchange 2001, Malayan Accounting Standards Boards and Malaysian Code on Corporate Governance 2001. The chief power for the bar and control of environmental pollution in Malaysia is the Department of Environment ( DOE ) , a section under the umbrella of the Ministry of Science, Technology and Environment ( MOSTE ) .MOSTE is responsible for developing environmental Torahs and ordinances, while DOE is responsible for developing criterions and guidelines for guaranting conformity.

There is no specific demand on the revelation of environmental information under the Environmental Quality Act 1974. However, there are requirement under sub-regulation 17 of Occupational Safety and Health Act ( OSHA ) 1994 for the revelation of information with regard to personal safety, which could be interpreted to cover cases that affect both people and environment.Besides, sub-regulation 22 of occupational safety and wellness ( control of industrial Major accidents ) CIMAH ordinances, 1996 for makers to unwrap information to public relating to the nature of a major accident jeopardy including its possible effects on the population every bit good as the environment. Furthermore, demand for revelation of information under the companies Act, 1965 are financially oriented, with no mention to environmental information.

Under the Act, every company meaning to carry on a concern in Malaysia must register with the Registry of Companies ( ROC ) before beginning of any concern activity.In add-on, the merely other beginning of environmental coverage guidelines is the Malayan Accounting Standards Board ( MASB ) . Financial Reporting Standard ( FRS ) 101 ( once known as MASB 1 ) makes expressed mention to environmental studies promoting companies to show extra information if direction believes they will help users in doing economic determinations. FRS 137 ( once MASB 20 ) sets out the revelation demands for the acknowledgment of contingent liabilities and assets.

Although FRS 137 does non supply specific inside informations of the types of liability, it is foreseeable that environmental liabilities could potentially be included within a company ‘s fiscal statement. It is clear from the above treatment that one-year study environmental revelation in Malaysia is mostly optional. Despite the absence of compulsory demand, the literature reveals that Malayan corporate environmental coverage pattern is on the addition ( Ten, 2009 ) . Traveling towards the vision of 2020, Malaysia have been gone through Ninth program period, 2006-2010.

For the Ninth Plan, environmental stewardship will go on to be promoted to guarantee that the balance between development demands and the environment is maintained. Environmental be aftering tool such as environmental appraisal, cost benefit analysis, market-based instrument and environmental auditing will be progressively applied in measuring and extenuating environmental impact of development activities. The theoretical context, associating to a few theories that can assist in explicating what really motivated voluntary revelation among companies.The related theoretical model adopted comprises of the institutional theory, legitimacy theory and stakeholder theory.

This theory implies the relationship between an organisation and its broader institutional context. The constructs of establishment can be indicted every bit equivocal as it has been defined in assorted ways. Institutional theory asserts as a distinguishing procedure whereby one accepts a shared definition of societal duty. In other words, companies are motivated to unwrap environmental activity because it was perceived to be well-accepted patterns by other companies as good.

Despite of that, DiMaggio and Powell ( 1983 ) has suggested the ‘new institutionalism ‘ , which the key statement is that organisational patterns has changed and become institutionalised because they are considered as legitimate. They identify three mechanisms of institutional isomorphous alteration that are the coercive, mimetic and normative procedures. DiMaggio and Powell ( 1983 ) further explain the coercive isomorphy as the external codified regulations, ordinances, norms and Torahs that assigned the legitimacy to new direction patterns. The legitimacy theory underpins the kernel of the relationship between company and its stakeholders.

Disclosure schemes, which in this survey, focal point on the environmental revelation go the manner companies manage this relationship. Harmonizing to Jantadej and Kent ( 1999 ) , legitimacy theory is based on the underlying construct of the societal contract that exists between houses and societies within which houses operate and consumes resources. Legitimacy can be considered as a generalised perceptual experience or premise that the actions of an entity are desirable, proper, or allow within some socially constructed system of norms, values, beliefs and definitions ( Suchman, 1995 ) .Firms seeking to derive or keep legitimacy have an inducement to utilize communicating schemes, including fiscal study revelations, to potentially act upon social perceptual experiences ( Lindblom, 1994 ) .

In this respects, old research into environmental coverage suggests that companies can try to protect their legitimacy by utilizing the corporate one-year study to unwrap voluntary information about their societal and environmental activities ( Mastrodanas & A ; Strife, 1993 ; De Villiers & A ; Van Staden, 2006 ) .It has been argued that the inclusion of voluntary information in the one-year study can be, and is used by directors to direct specific signals and messages to the populace ( Salancik & A ; Meindl, 1984 ) . Amernic ( 1992 ) besides asserts that the inclusion of information in the corporate one-year study is used to carry readers to accept directions ‘ position of society and that one-year studies are both brooding and constitutive of a wider set of social values ( Dyball, 1998 ) .Deegan ( 2002 ) and Campbell et al.

( 2003 ) have opined that legitimacy theory has become the most widely used theory to explicate environmental revelation as there is mounting grounds that directors adopt legalizing schemes. Harmonizing to Magness ( 2006 ) , advocates of legitimacy theory have suggested several ways that companies use treatment of non-financial issues to pull off stakeholder feeling. Legitimacy theory has its roots in the thought of a societal contract between the corporation and society.Yusoff and Lehman ( 2009 ) stated that from the legitimacy theory position, the qualitative and narrative environmental narratives are seen to hold been utilized by company as an feeling direction tool.

The stakeholder theory proposes that a house ‘s success is dependent upon the successful direction of its relationships with its stakeholders. Gray et Al. ( 1995b ) in carry oning longitudinal surveies of UK corporate societal and environmental revelation assert that societal revelation is seen as portion of the duologue between the company and its stakeholders.Company ‘s being requires support from stakeholders and activities are adjusted to derive blessing from the stakeholders, particularly if the stakeholders are more powerful.

The definition of stakeholder has expanded and altered well to accommodate with alterations in concern demands and tendencies. Some have defined stockholder as the exclusive stakeholder since this party serves most of that company needs. The others have visualized stakeholders in wider positions that include people outside the corporations ; for illustration society, conservationist, authorities and others.Clarkson ( 1995 ) which stated that stakeholders are individuals or groups that have ownership or involvement in a corporation and its activities in yesteryear, present and future offers a comprehensive definition of stakeholder.

Therefore, with assorted groups of stakeholders, it seems that corporations are now responsible and accountable to carry through wider corporate duties because these groups have the ability to impact and command the resources and operations of corporations.In add-on, the work of Neu et Al. 1998 explicitly links the usage of stakeholder theory with the construct of ‘organizational legitimacy ‘ , admiting the interrelation of the two positions in analysing CSD. Neu et Al.

( 1998 ) examined the environmental revelations in the one-year studies of Canadian public companies runing in environmentally ‘sensitive ‘ industries. They concluded that chiefly an organisation ‘s relevant populaces influence the degree and type of environmental revelation contained in the one-year studies, and that the communicating schemes adopted by the organisation are influenced by the multiplicity and power of these different populaces.With the increasing consciousness and planetary demand for better environmental revelation, companies should acknowledge and follow them into their direction patterns. Traveling frontward, it is of import to observe that while environmental activities can merely be taken on by the companies themselves, stakeholders, particularly authorities, employees, consumers and investors, can play an effectual and decisive function in motivating companies to follow such patterns.

The stakeholders can besides heighten their function by necessitating companies to be crystalline with regard to their societal duty public presentations.In similar, the power of authorities as a stakeholder is manifested in its enforcement mechanisms. For illustration, the corporation may utilize environmentally responsible activities to cut down the hazard of governmental invasions, which may impact the house ‘s value. Stakeholder theory is besides called organisation centered.

Its consider corporation to hold a figure of different stockholder affect the organisation mission. Organisation responsible to these stakeholder. Its concerntrated upon specifying factors act uponing the continued being of corporation.There are two ground for the consideration of stakeholder theory.

Firsly, as for stakeholder demand for environmental revelation is being a stakeholder issue. Second, to supply a model to bring out the determiner and motive behind the corporate revelation. There are three constituent of stakeholder theory which consist of stakeholder power, strategic position and economic public presentation. As a placeholders of these constituent, it seems that different research worker used different placeholders to mensurate it.

Razeed ( 2009 ) measured stakeholder power by purchase ( debt to assets ratio ) , while strategic position through the degree of environmental revelation on the cyberspace and difficult transcript and economic public presentation is measured through return on plus. In contrast, Ten ( 2004 ) measured stakeholder power by authorities power, strategic position by environmental concern which can be placeholders by ISO 14001 and presence of environmental commission. While economic public presentation are placeholders by mean return on assets and alteration in house value.This research worker besides categorise stakeholder into two group which are primary and secondary.

Primary stakeholder include stockholder which are capital supplier of the company, creditor, client, provider, regulator and employee. Secondary stakeholder include environmental anteroom group, media and consumer protagonism group. The basic proposition of stakeholder theory is that the house ‘s success is dependent upon the successful direction of all the relationships a house has with its stakeholders. Stakeholder theory offers a utile model given the increasing stakeholder engagement in the coverage procedure.

Hence, as stakeholder engagement becomes progressively of import in the coverage procedure globally, it is extremely insightful to cognize if a stakeholder model that has been extensively used in Western societies could be utile in our apprehension of the determiners and motives behind voluntary environmental revelations in a developing economic system such as Malaysia. The motive for utilizing the Malayan context is driven by its built-in background in footings of its strategic vision, economic development and regulatory/nontransparent scene.First, from a strategic point of view, Malaysia is the lone developing state with an expressed timeline to accomplish the developed state position by the twelvemonth 2020 ( Vision 2020 ) . The launch of Vision 2020 coincides the origin of the National Development Policy in 1991.

Since so, Malaysia has non been immune to environmental catastrophes such as the 1993 Highland Towers eroding, the 1997 haze crisis ( when the Air Pollution Index exceeded the 500 grade ) and more late, the 2004 tsunami that hit Penang along with 8 other Asiatic states killing more than 200,000 people.Although these catastrophes have been caused both by adult male and mother-nature, these experiences necessarily put environmental considerations as a top precedence making the demand to strategically continue and keep the environment if Vision 2020 is to be achieved. This may make inducements for houses to supply environmental studies. Second, on the economic forepart, Malaysia offers an interesting scene since it is one of the fastest turning economic systems in Southeast Asia since the 1960’s1.

Compared to its neighbouring states like Indonesia, Thailand and the Philippines, Malaysia has recovered much quicker from the 1997 Asiatic fiscal crisis. Along with rapid economic development, nevertheless, Malaysia has been sing intensified environmental impacts such as deforestation, eroding, loss of biodiversity, air and H2O pollution mostly brought about by corporate activities such as logging, big graduated table land development, unfastened combustion, excavation, power Stationss and dam buildings ( Teoh ; A ; Thong, 1984 ; Smith, Yahya ; A ; Amiruddin, 2007 ; Sumiani, Haslinda ; A ; Lehman, 2007 ) .Firms are motivated towards following stakeholder direction patterns due to stakeholder influence on the ultimate concern result which are net income. ( Yusoff, Lehman and Nasir, 2006 ; Yusoff and Lehman, 2009 ) .

Yusoff et. Al ( 2006 ) found that stakeholder concern are one of the motivation factors towards concern particularly environmental revelation. Among the three dimension of stakeholder theory, merely authorities power are important to the one-year study environmental revelations. ( Ten, 2009 ) .

The other two which are stakeholder power and creditor power are non important to the one-year study environmental revelation. This chapter has briefly discussed the construct behind the environmental revelation and its functions, environmental development in Malaysia every bit good as the relationship between house features with environmental revelation. From the literature, it can be concluded that environmental coverage demands are deriving greater and better attending among assorted legal powers.The same conditions besides apply in Malaysia through assorted enterprises and attempts.

The revelation of environmetal activities in different states are varied and inconsistent as different states required different revelation demands. However, even with different coverage demands, one thing for certain is that all these attempts have shed some visible radiation to better coverage and pass oning environmental activities to carry through assorted stakeholders demand.

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How did the Enlightenment change the attitudes of some English and North American elites towards religion and science

How did the Enlightenment change the attitudes of some English and North American elites towards religion and science.



If you cannot make it to the Thursday conference, please do the following alternative assignment. Write a 5-7 page paper, including a cover sheet with the same information responding to the following prompt:

Based on lecture notes and Chapter Four of The American Challenge, how did the Enlightenment change the attitudes of some English and North American elites towards religion and science? What major American figures were leaders of the Enlightenment? How did the spread of “print culture” allow the ideas of the Enlightenment to spread? How did the enlightenment fuel the spread of science, technology, and education in the 1700s? Who was excluded from the advances made through the Enlightenment?

Either the assignment or the alternate will be due in class March 13. You will be graded on the clarity and quality of written expression, your specificity, and your use of evidence.As with the other papers, five points will be taken off papers turned in without a cover sheet, with one point off for every missing required item on the cover sheet (name, etc.) Three points will be taken off if the paper is not stapled. Five points will be taken off for not following instructions regarding content

How did the Enlightenment change the attitudes of some English and North American elites towards religion and science

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Consumer Perception Towards Online Shopping in India Essay

Consumer Perception Towards Online Shopping in India Essay.


The numbers of internet users are increasing because of the accessibilities of technology, the availability of information, and the ability to interact through the Internet increase and evolve. The obvious capabilities of the Internet include road for gathering information, purchasing a product, or rendering a service. These advances in Internet technology allow for the expansion of shopping options beyond traditional methods that may be more time consuming. Issues with having to physically gather information with offline shopping methods are alleviated, and customers are better able to efficiently use their time.

For instance, instead of having to physically visit different stores to compare prices or rely on circular pamphlets in newspapers, a consumer is able to search and retrieve needed information through the Internet. The Internet explosion has opened the doors to a new electronic world. Consumers are now able to use the Internet for a variety of purposes such as research, communication, online banking, and even shopping. With such advantages, the Internet is rapidly becoming the main method of communication and of conducting business conveniently.

With a growing number of households turning towards the Internet and the world of e-commerce to shop, invest, make payments, and do online banking, new technological advancement will have to come about to make these transactions secure.

Electronic retailing or online shopping, is shopping on the internet without the consumer having to visit a physical store. With the increased use of the internet, the scope for the online shopping is growing. A In 2012, 9.6 million Australians aged over 15 years will make online shopping purchases, according to the latest research by PwC and Frost & Sullivan (2012). Over the next 12 months, 88% of online shoppers in Australia are expecting to maintain or increase their online expenditure, indicating that there is solid momentum in online shopping uptake. This continual rapid growth in Australia and offshore is driving structural changes in the traditional retail model. US online population will increase nearly 50%, from 1471.5 million in 2001 to 210.8 million by 2006 (Cumulative Annual Growth Rate of 8.2%) and online retail sales will grow from US$47.8 billion in 2002 to $130.3 billion in 2006. Similarly WIPO (2007) cited that about 10% of the world’s population in 2002 was online, representing more than 605 million users.

In India also the internet user base has grown to an impressive number from 87.1 million by December 2012 from 78.7 million users in October 2012, who accessed Internet through dongles and tablet PCs according to Internet and Mobile Association of India (IAMAI) and IMRB (Dec 2012). According to them India is expected to have close to 165 million mobile Internet users by March 2015, up from 87.1 million in December 2012 as more people are accessing the web through mobile devices and dongles.

Nearly 60% of online users in India visited a retail site in November 2011, with the number of online shoppers increasing 18% in the past year said com Score in a research report.

According to the report on visitation to the top retail and coupon sites in India, coupon sites are rapidly gaining in popularity, with 16.5% of the Indian online population visiting the category in November, led by and In November, 27.2 million online users in India, aged 15 and older, accessed the retail category from a home or work computer, an increase of 18% from the previous year, as consumers continue to turn to the web to shop for and purchase items and retailers continue to increase their online visibility through active marketing campaigns. (, Feb 28th, 2013).

There are many advantages of doing online shopping like there is no geographical boundary-a consumer in Delhi can shop for something which an e-store in Punjab is offering, there is no time restrictions- the shopping is 24×7, the payment is online-there is no need to even handle the cash. Despite the advantages of online shopping all the consumers are not participating in online transaction. Many business firms are more and more businesses continue to establish an online presence, they are finding that some consumers are still reluctant to shift in that same direction. For various consumers there are still concerns with security and passing personal data over the Internet. There is a disparity between the number of consumers who visit a site and the number of actual purchases being made.

Despite the millions of people who use the Internet everyday and visit various shopping sites, the number of consumers who do not abandon their shopping carts but actually complete a purchase averages to only about three percent. This leaves a large portion of the Internet population as non-participants in online transactions as compared to those who fully complete transactions online and make purchases. Instead, these non-participants may abandon the purchase completely or fulfill the transaction in an offline setting. As such, it is important for online businesses or offline businesses interested in venturing into the online market to understand their consumers’ perceptions, online and offline, and what factors influence their shopping decisions. With better understanding of what factors play into consumer decision making in making transactions online or offline, retailers and businesses can be better gear themselves to serving their customers in either of the shopping venues.


To know the demographic profile of the customers and its impact if any on the online buying.

To know the factors affecting the perception of Indian online buyers.



This part includes the Review of previous studies, articles and conceptual framework for the related studies. More analysis is not sufficient to present real framework of the study. So review of related materials should be deal with to give the research a clear vision, past study and knowledge provides foundation to the present day. Review of literature includes the following topics:

2.1 Conceptual Framework

2.2 Reviews from Previous Studies


As Internet usage is increasing, so is online shopping particularly in those countries whose Marketing infrastructures are well developed. Customers can shop at anytime and have access to products not available in their geographic region. Moreover, they are now able to access the Internet, not only from their personal computers, but also from advanced electronic devices such as Palm Pilots and mobile phones. The growth of Internet technology in India has enormous potential as it reduces the costs of product and service delivery and extends geographical boundaries in bringing buyers and sellers together.

Also, due to an increase in high-speed Internet access connections, lower connection costs, and increasing consumer competence, e-commerce activity will continue to grow as the availability and ease with which the Internet provides consumers the ability to handle needed tasks increasingly develops. However, not all consumers are turning to the Internet for shopping. While the number of Internet users who have made a purchase at one time is more than half in the United States, this does not explain the disparity between the number of visits websites recorded and the number of actual purchases made online.

This research mainly talks about the factors that affect the consumers’ online shopping behavior of consumer. It is not sure that all the people who visit websites do make online purchase. This will also focus on the point that what is the consumes perception towards online shopping and their intention to make purchase are not only affected by the ease of internet, usefulness and enjoyment but also affected by the also by exogenous factors like consumer traits, situational factors, product characteristics, previous online shopping experiences, and trust in online shopping.

The other thing that the research will focus is that do the demographic factors make any influence on the online shopping. This research will focus on the point that do these demographic factors like age, gender, income level etc really make any influence on the buying behavior of the consumers. Not only on the demographic factor that this research will focus on, will also try to find whether there is any relationship between the customers and the website quality. Do these online shopping websites quality make any influence on the buying intention of the buyers?


UPADHYAY.P AND KAUR J (2006),”Analysis of Online Shopping Behaviour of Customer in Kota City”. This study has focused on factors which online Indian buyers keep in mind while shopping online. The objective of the study was to create an awareness of e-commerce and make people interested in internet commerce. According to the study, they found that the most preferred product of online buying is travelling tickets and clothing remains the least preferred choice of online shoppers and most of the consumers who have experienced online shopping are very satisfied

ZIA UL HAQ (2009) in her research on “Perception towards online shopping: an empirical study of Indian consumers” said that the perception of online shoppers is independent of their age and gender but not independent of their qualification & gender and income & gender. According to the researcher consumers’ perceptions of the customer service, commitment and web security of online purchasing exhibit significant relationships with their online buying intention. Web security was the major concerning factor to influence the online shopping. They have a fear that their important documents passwords can be hacked due to online shopping, so the major concern of consumers is about the web security.

She also says that Marketers need to realize that the online marketing environment affects the way consumers view and develop relationships. During her study she found that Indian consumers considered that their online purchasing will be influenced by good quality website. Thus it is believed that overall website quality does help in enhancing the consumers to buy online. Also commitment is the important factor that affects online buying and most of the consumers are concerned about on-time delivery of their products. The results of this study show that there is a significant association between commitment and online shopping.

CORPUS CHRISTI(2009) in his research on “The perception of consumer on online shopping” has provided some of glimpse about the consumers mind as what factors are perceived differently by consumers who prefer online shopping and those who prefer offline shopping. According to him there are five factors which that the two group consumers perceived differently. These factors are (1) perceived risk with online shopping, (2) past experience with online shopping, (3)perceived benefits of online shopping, (4) perceived ease of online shopping, and (5) perceived uncertainty of online shopping. Through these factors the business firms should be aware of their online consumers’ perception and of what preference for online and offline shopping avenues. Focusing on these factors the researcher thinks that the firms can don necessary work to attract and retain more and more customers. In his research after all the finding he says that Being aware of what perceptions drive consumers to pick and prefer one avenue of shopping to another allows businesses to better cater to consumers, thus helping them attract and retain customers.

RASTOGI.A.K (2010), “A study of Indian Online Consumers and their Buying Behaviour” made an attempt to study the buying behaviour of Indian online consumers in his research. According to his study about 44% students use Internet in India and overall 72% of young people access Internet on regular basis. The findings of the study shows that ratio of male consumers is very high in online shopping and most of the respondents pay in cash on delivery. This research shows that online shopping has very bright future in India. . Perception towards online shopping is getting better in India. With the use of internet, consumers can shop anywhere, anything and anytime with easy and safe payment options. Consumers can do comparison shopping between products, as well as, online stores.

VAGGELIS SAPRIKIS, ADAMANTIA CHOULIARA AND MARO VLACHOPOULOU (2010) conducted the research on “Perceptions towards Online Shopping: Analyzing the Greek University Students’ Attitude” observed the significant differences between the two groups of respondents that is online shopping adaptors and online shopping non adaptors. From their research they concluded that adopters had higher expectations from online shopping on issues relating to privacy policy and risk. Also they identified between adopters and non-adopters regarding their particular perceptions on advantages and problems of online shopping.

MEHRDAD SALEHI(JAN 2012) in her study on “Consumer Buying Behavior towards Online Shopping Stores in Malaysia” has focused on nine independent variables namely appearance, quick loading, security, sitemap, validity, promotion, attractiveness, believability, and originality that influence the buying behavior on consumers while doing online shopping. During her research she found that first five factors influence consumers towards online shopping and security is the factor that contributes most towards online shopping. According to her the last four factors (promotion, attractiveness, believability, and originality) don’t significantly influence online shopping intention which indicate that advertisement doesn’t have an important effect on online shopping. Security and validity of website were the one that influences the online consumers. Also attractiveness had the minimum influence on online shopping intention.

KANWAL GURLEEN( MAY 2012) in his study on “Consumer Buying Behavior towards Online Shopping, the case of punjab” stated that Price consciousness, Convenience and Variety, Easy Payment options and Challenges of Online Shopping are the four major factors that have significant influence on the perception of the online consumer toward online shopping. As that of the other researchers on this topic, he also found the same problem that the consumers are not able to trust the websites as they have to give their credit card details. Some of the websites the customers don’t feel trustworthy. Also the online purchases take a longer time in shipments and deliveries. The researcher found that the psychology of an Indian consumer is still the same of checking the product physically before purchasing it, which creates a mental hurdle for online shopping.

DAHIYA RICHA (2012), from her research on “Impact of demographic factors of consumers on online shopping behavior: A study of consumers in India” found that gender impacts frequency of on-line shopping positively and Family Size impacts overall spend on on-line shopping. Her study somewhat suggested that Indian Consumers have perceived online shopping in a positive manner which suggest that online shopping in the country is growing. Despite this the frequency of online shopping is very less. She has also suggested the organizations that to formulate their plans and strategies in the country regarding the online shopping they must use relevant variables and factors which the research has identified. The organizations can prioritize the consumer implicit and explicit requirements in online shopping environment. The results can also be used by various organizations to identify their target customer segments.

MOHAMMAD HOSSEIN MOSHREF JAVADI1,HOSSEIN REZAEI DOLATABADI1, MOJTABA NOURBAKHSH1, AMIR POURSAEEDI1& AHMAD REZA ASADOLLAHI (SEPTEMBER 10, 2012) conducted the research on,” An Analysis of Factors Affecting on Online Shopping Behavior of Consumers” where the examined the factors affecting on online shopping behavior of consumers. They created many hypothesis and these hypothesis testing indicated that financial risk and non-delivery risk has negative effect on the attitude towards online shopping behavior. Which suggest that e-retailers should make their websites safer and assure customers for the delivery of their products.

According to them if there has been positive effect attitude toward online shopping on online shopping behavior of consumers it would indicate that considering attitude variables make a substantial contribution in online shopping. Also, subjective norms have positive effect on shopping behavior. This means the more people suggest e-buying to each other, the more this buying method will be popular among people. This makes necessary the use of word of mouth marketing for retailers. Domain specific innovativeness has positive effect on online shopping behavior. This means that marketing specialists should target this society in their marketing strategy formulation for better effectiveness of their marketing program. This means that marketing specialists should target this society in their marketing strategy formulation for better effectiveness of their marketing program.

CHAO CHAO CHUANG & DR. FU-LING HU (NOVEMBER, 2012) in their research on,” An empirical analysis of the relationship between website characteristics and consumer online buying behavior” concluded that the website security, website design, website reliability and website customer service are the four main factors which affect consumer perceptions of their online purchasing experiences. Online buyers have different viewpoints of these four factors. Website design has the highest rating score, followed by website customer service. Website reliability is ranked third, and the lowest is website security. Also they suggested that with online shopping, consumers can browse the entire product-assortment with competitive prices. In order to consolidate this advantage, E-retailers should choose more famous products or brands to market online. Branded products and services are usually thought by customers as having better qualities.

They said that the online shopping company should induce the regular online buyers as they shop most frequently and they should make the desired products available and the purchase transaction easy and also obtain the competitive prices in order to retain their regular customers and increase their loyalty towards the company. As trial customers are interested in browsing on the website maybe they see online shopping as enjoyment and look for the potential entertainment arising from the online shopping experience. The purchase of goods may be incidental to the experience of Internet shopping.

If trial online buyers initially have pleasing online shopping experience, they are more likely to continue subsequent shopping behavior: they will browse more, make more unplanned purchasing, and look for more stimulating products. In the face of severe competition and continually increasing customer expectations, e-commerce companies must understand how to identify, help and retain their profitable existing customers. E-retailer should emphasize the enjoyable aspect of online shopping in their promotions for trial online buyers and then create the competitive advantage.



The data for the study was gathered through a structured questionnaire. The questionnaire consists of two parts. The first part of the questionnaire included questions about their demographic profile like age, Education, income, living area and gender. The second part consisted of questions measuring all the variables which are used to measure the online shopping. All the questions were utilizing on a Likert scale ranging from 1= strongly disagree to 5 = strongly agree.

Research Design has been classified into the following subsections:

SAMPLE SIZE- Till the date of the submission of this interim report, about 100 questionnaires was distributed through e-mail and social networking sites

SAMPLING PROCEDURE- The respondents were selected by the random sampling.


This _primary_ (first hand, or collected by the researcher, i.e., myself, in the present study) and data was used for the analysis. A questionnaire has been designed to collect the required information. The questionnaires were filled by the respondents through the internet (through emails and social networking sites).

[A sample of the questionnaire is showcased in Annexure]


Descriptive statistical research technique has been used in the study and statistical packages like SPSS and Microsoft Excel have been used for the analysis.


CHI -SQUARE TEST: A chi-square test is used when you want to see if there is a relationship between two categorical variables. In SPSS, the chisq option is used on the statistics subcommand of the crosstabs command to obtain the test statistic and its associated p-value.

FACTOR ANALYSIS: FACTOR ANALYSIS: Factor analysis attempts to identify underlying variables, or factors, that explain the pattern of correlations within a set of observed variables. Factor analysis is often used in data reduction to identify a small number of factors that explain most of the variance observed in a much larger number of manifest variables. Factor analysis can also be used to generate hypotheses regarding causal mechanisms or to screen variables for subsequent analysis

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Consumer Perception Towards Online Shopping in India Essay

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