The Impact of School Bullying on Students’ Academic Achievement?

Literature Review and Hypothesis

Topic:            The Impact of School Bullying on Students’ Academic Achievement?

The literature review serves as the introduction to your paper.  The literature review should include a thorough review of 8-10 peer review articles related to the chosen topic.  The hypothesis should flow from the literature review and add to the current research on the chosen topic. 

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Privacy Act in relation to the Federal Act

Privacy Act in relation to the Federal Act

The stated Privacy Act of 1974 protects the public from a possible privacy breach by the Federal agencies use of personal records. The law basically allows a person to know how the Federal government gets, uses and destroys his data. It also allows a person to get access to most personal information that the federal agencies keep; in addition, they can seek corrections on any incomplete, wrong, irrelevant or untimely information.

Privacy Act in relation to the Federal Act

The privacy act still applies to any personal information that the executive branch of the federal government agencies has on an individual. About the executive branch, those implicated include departments that deal with corporations, military, cabinet and government. Agencies, that include both government and interdependent. Government-controlled corporations and other executive branch institutions. In addition all agencies subject to the Freedom of Information Act fall under the Freedom Act. However, records kept by private organizations or companies or the local and state governments often do not apply to the privacy act

In a broader perspective the Privacy Act only applies to records stored within a recording system. The system of record idea is new to the privacy act and thus needs further clarification. The record is defined within the act to incorporate mostly personal data kept by an agency on a person. From that description a personal record has data that is familiar but not bound to information history on: educational background, employment, transactions, medical or criminal information. Not all the personal information is kept within the system records. The privacy act is not subject to such information; however permission may be requested under the FOIA.

Many of the personal information files in government often fall under the jurisdiction of the Privacy Act. Meaning Federal agencies records requirements are created within the policies of the Privacy Act. In accordance to personal information, there are procedural and substantive rights that relate to individuals. First, it dictates that the government agencies show a person any personal record kept on him/her. Secondly it calls for the adherence to the fair information practices within the agencies, while handling or collecting any personal information. Thirdly, it places boundaries on how an individual’s data can be shared within the agencies. Lastly the act allows individuals to take legal action in case their rights are violated by the government.

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Please describe what, how, and when Apple did the right thing and what, how, and when Apple did the thing right.

Please describe what, how and when Apple did the right thing and what, how, and when Apple did the thing right. (i.e. provide a discussion of apple’s strategic strategies and operational/ competitive strategies)

It is also very clear that the company also made most of their sales to other businesses and consumers via online retails stores. This is considered as a strategic strategy to ensure that they make higher sales. I consider this is what apple did right with regards to small and mid-sized business sector. In addition, I also note that the other issue that the company took part in and is considered outstanding is the use of technology on education to help students and teachers to learn. This is a competitive advantage to Apple, as it gains prestige to other companies selling the same products. One of the right things the company did was to ensure that it undertaking educational training programs.

            Over the years the company has been using technology to upkeep its training programs. For example, the company has been equipping its clients on how to use their products online.

The other concern that the company has been on the forefront is to ensure that it is able to meet the needs of the clients via marketing or promotional programs.  It true that apple has improved its marketing capacity in order to meet the needs and demands of the customers.  The other right thing that the company has done was to ensure that its staff were not laid offer in 2008-2009 global financial crisis, but to undertake as cross-pay cut amid all the employees. 

            The other case that Apple did right was to have on board various support services such as printed, software and online support and electronic manuals that offer secondary support service. This is considered as a marketing strategy. In addition, the company has varied employees with outstanding talents to ensure quality.  I consider this step as a right or positive step.

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Be careful to familiarize yourself with the staff!

Get to know the people of your crew — they are from all over the globe, and they’ve traveled all over the world, so they have some incredible tales to share. They will be able to provide you with information on the greatest local shops, restaurants, vistas, and other attractions that are not well-known about each location.

“Be sure to watch for the ever-evolving activities and culinary options available aboard, particularly when we are at sea. They will be included in the daily issue of Insider that is brought to your stateroom on an Azamara cruise. There’s no telling when you’ll find me greeting visitors in one of our restaurants or introducing an amazing local talent out on the pool deck.

“If you want to get the most out of dordle  your stay on board, follow this piece of advice: schedule at least one day at sea. Since cruises are so focused on their destinations, passengers often ignore the “at sea” days that are included in the schedule. On the other hand, as the old proverb goes, “getting there is half the fun!”

You have two choices: one is to prepaid the tips before the cruise so that you don’t have to worry about them throughout the trip. Yet, some individuals prefer to tip depending on the quality of the service they have gotten rather than on the amount of the service itself. As a result, we typically suggest that you tip the crew $20 per person per day, which is then distributed equally among all of the crew members, and between $10 and $15 per person per day for the guides. Here are some general standards for tipping. While gratuities are supposed to be a reflection of the level of service received, we always make it a point to suggest to visitors that they leave some when they are in the establishment.

Are you on a restrictive diet, or do you suffer from food allergies or sensitivities that might make traveling challenging? If you haven’t been able to fully address your demands online during the booking or pre-cruise process, once you’re on board, ask to talk to the chef about your dietary restrictions or special preferences to accommodate them. There are instances when just having the chat in person is enough to set any fears at rest, and it will offer the culinary staff every opportunity possible to make your eating experience the best it can be.

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Position of Israel of the settlements

Israel’s Position of the Settlements

Israel’s position of the settlements greatly depended on the position of the public. It stood that the existing settlements should not be brought down or destroyed in any agreement. It was permitted to evacuate or move some of the settlements if necessary only if it was a way of safeguarding. It is not known of the final negotiations of the Israel on their position of the settlements that the Israel government will be willing and able to make. Israel became reluctant in making the settlements status different (Abrams, P179). The Palestinians put pressure on Israel that they should dismantle the settlements. The Palestinians were very anxious creating situations and trying to push for dismantling the Israel settlements. Reaching an agreement between the Israel and the Palestinians on how the settlement should be handled came out to be extremely difficult.

In the end, it forced the Israel government to permit the implementation of the security to all the settlements by the Israeli military. Among those protected were the settlers and the Israeli citizens visiting the areas and territories that were under the authority of the Palestine. It was agreed that the Israel’s responsibility of offering external security should be relaxed with arrangements to negotiate with the Palestinians being cancelled (Abram, P 79). Analysis by some analysts argues that the issue on the settlements was left so wide hence deteriorating the status and conditions of the settlements. The Palestinians position of the Israel’s settlement went extremely opposite to that of the Israel. The Palestinians wanted and supported the dismantling of the Israeli settlements. Palestinians held that even after the dismantling, those that remained would fall under the authority of the Palestinians. The Palestinians have strongly opposed for any expansion being made on the settlements or creation of any new settlements in Israel.

The issue of the settlements in Israel affects both the leadership of the Israel politically and the growth and development of the Israel economy (House of Commons, P99). Despite the resistance of the settlement expansion by the Palestinians, the expansion has not slowed down. Expansion of settlements has continued at a very high rate in the West Bank including in the East Jerusalem. There has been a relationship between the expansion of the settlements, the facilitation of the movement of settlers and the negative impacts that it has to the economy of the Palestinians and their development (House of Commons, P99). The ongoing expansion in the settlements has greatly supported the existence of the settlements leading to International peace being undermined.

The Israeli Foreign Ministry worked under policies that tended to freeze the expansion of the existing settlements. The first policy was that there should be no more expansion of the current settlements beyond where it has not been allowed (House of Commons, P99). Another policy was restricting any addition of new settlements. The land for construction of settlements was not to be appropriated. Finally, there was the cancellation of the incentives that were to be given to the residents of the existing settlements in the towns of Judea and Samaria. The ministry spokesman said that these policies would help the government fulfill the commitments of the Israel about the road map.

The policy that restricted expansion of the existing settlements beyond the allowed boundaries was followed with its reactions. This criteria, allowed for expansion of the settlements that existed geographically. It also increased the size of the settlements by several times. The existing settlements were made to handle more than a million settlers. The criteria also, play a part in Israel’s expansion of the master plan and facilitated the continuation of the construction. The policy that there was supposed to be no more new settlements appeared meaningless in terms of ending the constructions (House of Commons, P99). The term is used by the Israel government in its administrative reasons. It allowed Israel to continue construction in areas where there was the space and expansion could take place. This would expand the settlements by several times settlements that existed.

The no appropriation of land for settlements permitted the government to exert pressure on the land which has been available by the military order but nit seized by the military. The policy also exerted pressure on the land that was initially for settlements, agricultural activities, and putting electric fence around the settlements that existed (House of Commons, P 100). The confiscated land had also been put aside for the construction of the wall that would result from the expansion of the settlements. The cancellation of the incentives to the residents of the settlements did not include the incentives that help in the growth and development of the Israel’s economy. The reason behind this is to attract new residents which the existing residents did not support. Other designed incentives were also not excluded so as to maintain the residency and invest within the existing settlements (House of Commons, P 100).

There is a position of the Israeli government that the government does not support the current construction of settlements in any way .This does not hinder the government from opposing such constructions on the settlements for several reasons. The first reason is that the government would mislead the settlers by saying that the construction is private. A private construction company can take part in the final stages. Though, the government is usually in control of each and every stage of the settlement process. The other reason is to approve the master plan and all aspects that are related to the construction. The government also gives financial incentives to enable the people to settle or invest within the settlement.

Research has shown there is an increase in the number of settlements in the West Bank. The government has justified the growth as a result of the population of the settlers massively increasing. Israel has never been an obstacle to the peace missions in the Middle East thus it has embarked on narrowing the options available in competing for the occupied territories(Jamal, P 23).Israel colonized Palestinians on their lands using a policy that enabled them establish settlements on the land and change the character of the Palestinians’ land. Israel became ignorant of the definition of borders and decided to extend their settlements past their border (Jamal, P24).The current prime minister of Israel who was in the very best position to influence the situation of the settlement had his claim. He claimed that the settlements strengthen the state of the security and justify the demand for the Israel to protect its boundaries.

In facilitating the Jewish settlement, the system used to plan operates vigorously and dwarfs the development of the Palestinian organizations (Jamal, P 25).This was done by rejecting the requests by the Palestinians to give them building permits. The requests are rejected in the name of the state does not allow construction in the area of the land that is relevant. The plan did not represent the needs of the Palestinians in the development of their populations. The system used in planning restricted them in preparing other plans. The planning system ordered for elimination of the West Bank as an area that is separate. In the same planning system, civil administration for the territories that had been occupied was establishment (Jamal, P 25).

The West Bank settlements were proposed to be frozen and those at Rafiah be retained as an agreement between Egypt and Israel (Bar-Siman-Tov, P120). The Israel prime minister recommended that he never let the settlements at Sinai be dismantled. This was happened in the process of finding peace and legitimacy. The government claimed ownership of the entire land of Israel and declared that they could not allow any dismantling of the settlements in the Judea and Samaria. The government decided that they could not allow the Sinai settlements be touched in the pursuit of peace. It was clear that there would be no peace talks with Egypt involving the Sinai settlements (Bar-Siman-Tov, P120).The prime minister stood by his position and claimed that the people of Israel opposed the dismantling of the Sinai settlements, and the freezing of Judea and Samaria settlements. He said that the settlements gave him the power to bargain in the negotiations.

 The prime minister also rejected any attempt to freeze the West Bank settlements and any dismantling of the Sinai settlements. It had been suggested that residents be evacuated from the settlements as part of the peace initiative. Later the Israel government rejected the proposal in its response. There was to be no withdrawal from the West Bank settlements and nobody was to be evacuated from neither the Sinai settlements nor the airfields (Bar-Siman-Tov, P 122).They rejected any formula that could lead to the Palestinians proposal of determining their rights and running their state.

The United States of America supported the position of Egypt on the settlements in Israel. However, Begin as the prime minister of Israel stood firm and was not ready to give up on the settlements. He knew that the country would suffer great loss if the settlements were to be dismantled and people evacuated from the settlements. The settlements held large numbers of residents of Israel and it would not be easy to evacuate them all (Bar-Siman-tov, p 124).He made it clear that he would never sign any agreement that included the settlements in the peace talks by force.

Despite being optimistic of the Middle East crisis resolution, the process of finding peace failed. The Israelis had withdrawn from Gaza and there was expected to be some withdrawal from some parts of the West Bank. This was the main reason as to why people withdrew from the Gaza so as to accommodate those from the West Bank (Sherbok, P233).The Palestinians wanted to start claiming the land owned by the Israelites to be the land of a future Palestine. That, any land that was given to the Israelites would be compensated for an equal exchange of the land. The settlement posed a great problem for all the sides in the peace negotiation process. Israel decided to hold on keeping the main Israeli settlements in the East Jerusalem and the West Bank. If Israel became weak and withdrew from their position, then there would be a break up in the government coalition. The Palestinians have always liked that Israel left all the settlements just like they left those in Gaza. Though, the Palestinians have come to accept that not all the settlements would be evacuated. They believed that there were some which would be left but they would push for the minimum number of the settlements that would be left (Sherbok, P233).

Israel rejected the plea that the refugees from Palestine are allowed to go back to their homes. If the refugees returned back to their homes, then the state of Israel would be destroyed in terms of adjustment in demography. The Palestinians complained that they had the right to go back to their former homeland. It was so unfortunate that the right they claimed to have been only recognized through compensation. The Palestinians wanted Israel to withdraw from their land after Oslo 1 but they started finding it hard. They suspected the intentions of Israel and wondered why Israel continued expanding the settlements. There were no new settlements that were brought up but the expansion of the existing settlements almost doubled (Dowty, P1153).

The Israeli troops were withdrawn from the cities of Palestine but they remained controlling more than sixty percent of West Bank. Israel established several check points that the freedom of the Palestinians became limited (Dowty, P153).Travel became more difficult in Palestine more than before Oslo period when the West Bank was united. Israel refused to fulfill its promises of letting be free passage within Palestine, construction of airport and the release of Palestinian prisoners (Dowty, P 154).

Works Cited

Abrams, Nathan: Norman Porthoretz and Commentary Magazine. A&C Black, 2010.Print

Bar-Siman-Tov: Israel and the Peace Process 1977-1982. SUNNY Press, 2012.Print

Dowty, Alan: Israel/ Palestine. Polity, 2008.Print

Jamal, Amal: The Palestinian National Movement: Indiana University Press, 2005.Print

Parliament House of Commons, Britain: The Humanitarian and Development Situation in the        Occupied Palestinian Territories. The Stationery Office, 2008.Print

Sherbok, Dan: Introduction to Zionism and Israel. A&C Black, 2012.Print

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The Main Factors that Influence Population Size in Different Parts of the World.

The Main Factors that Influences Population Size in Different Parts of the World. Outline

  1. Introduction

Population size is always changing in the world due to influence from several factors.  This paper focuses on the main factors that influence population size in different parts of the world.

  1. Main Body
  2. Fertility
  3. Positive

a) There are currently more births than deaths worldwide, particularly in developing countries that account 97% (Fact Sheet: World Population Trends 2012 by Carl Haub. This result from dual effect of the high birth rate and young population

  • Negative
  • Women’s fertility rates have dropped around the world and particularly developing countries due do family planning and more access to contraception.
  • Mortality
  • Positive

a) Living longer can cause a region’s population to increase even if birth rates remain constant. In Developed Countries, annual number of births barely exceeds deaths because of low birth rates and much older populations

  • Negative
  • High mortality rate than the birth rate influences population negatively. Trend studies point that in developing countries, by 2025, it is likely that deaths will exceed births in developed countries, the first time this will have happened in history.
  • Migration
  • Positive
  • a) Population has increased due to people migrating into these countries. U.N. Demographers believe that the numbers of people moving to other countries to work and live is rising. The United States adds to global demographic diversity by having by far the largest population in the industrial world (about 303 million)
  • Negative
  • High migration instances result in high population in most urban areas and countries. For example, the United States adds to global demographic diversity by having by far the largest population in the industrial world (about 303 million). Higher world population in the decades ahead is cause for concern
  1. Conclusion

To sum up, Population can either increase or decrease as a result of fertility rate, mortality rate, and migration among others. These factors influence populations either positively or negatively. Positively influence result in an increase whereas a negative influence result in a decrease respectively


Haub, C. (2012). Fact Sheet: World Population Trends 2012. [online] Available at: [Accessed 8 Feb. 2015].

Dimick, D. (2014). As World’s Population Booms, Will Its Resources Be Enough for Us?. [online] National Geographic. Available at: [Accessed 8 Feb. 2015].

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Studies of power echelons on leadership within the United States reveal that top positions encompass positions with authority to be in charge of activities and programs of major economic, political, civic, scientific, cultural, legal, and educational institutions (Kendall, 2002). The individuals who occupy the offices mentioned above have absolute control over half of the country’s communications, industrial, banking, and transportation assets, as well as two thirds of the insurance assets. Moreover, they direct approximately forty percent of the resources of private institutions and fifty percent of university endowments. Besides, less than two hundred and fifty citizens hold the most influential positions in the legislative, judicial, and executive branches of the federal government, whereas about two hundred women and men are in charge of the three major television networks and majority of the national newspaper chains.

Based on these facts, it is very evident that the single power elite mainly holds power in the United States. There are scores of versions of this idea, maybe one for every individual who holds it, though they all hold a similar interpretation of politics and government that differs from the pluralists. The elite model perceives a special pyramid of power, instead of seeing several competing groups that hammer out policies. Positioned at the top, a tiny elite has the privilege of making all the crucial decisions for everyone below. A rather small middle level is composed of the kind of individuals whom one usually thinks of whenever discussions of American government such as party leaders, lobbyists, governors, mayors, representatives, and senators are come into picture (Alberoni, 2003). The masses often occupy the bottom. They composed of the average women and men in the country who do not have any political influence or power to hold the top offices to accountability.

According to the power elite theory, which is practiced in the United States, one elite, who is not a multiplicity of rival groups, makes decisions regarding death-and-life issues for the whole nation, leaving almost nothing for the common citizens rather minor issues for the middle class. This is what ultimately paints a dark picture in the society. While the pluralist feel satisfied with the views that they deem satisfied with, if undeniably imperfect, systems, the power elite school decries the unjust distribution and grossly unequal power it finds everywhere.

Citizens living in a nation that prides itself on egalitarianism and fairness, surrounded by free government, and which consistently witnesses the goings and comings of elected individuals are likely to find the idea of elites rather farfetched. Nonetheless, several intelligent social scientists accept the concept and present bolstering and compelling reasons that can be used to believe that is indeed true.

The governing elite in the United States derives its members from major corporate directors and owners, high-ranking military personnel, and high-ranking politicians including key cabinet members, the president and his close advisers. Despite these individuals constituting a close-knit group, they do not belong to any conspiracy that secretly manipulates events in order to meet their own selfish interests. In several instances, theses elites usually follow established constitutional precepts, respect civil liberties, and operate peacefully and openly. It is not a form of dictatorship; nor does it rely on terror, midnight arrests, or secret police in order to get its way. In addition, the membership of the elite class is not closed, even though a majority of its members are privileged to have enjoyed a head start in life as a result of being born in well-established families. Nonetheless, individuals who work hard, demonstrate the willingness to adopt characteristics and values of the elite, and enjoy good luck often find possibilities to joining the higher circles of the elite class from below.

The elite occupy top command posts of the society that offers offer enormous authority over financial, governmental, educational, cultural and civic institutions. Decisions that are made in the boardrooms of large companies and banks dictate the inflation and unemployment rate. The close association of industrial, military, and political organizations further enhances the power owned by the elite. Currently, politicians and business people have grown so close to an extent that they prosper together more than they do separately. As a group, this ruling triumvirate of corporate executives, politicians, and military personnel, based on the positions they hold, have the unprecedented authority to make decisions of international and national consequences.

The elite class together with the closely related corporate group do not usually stand alone at the helm of the power structure, but are supplemented by several nonprofit institutions that play a pivotal role in shaping public opinions and framing debates over public policies. These organizations are usually referred to as bipartisan or nonpartisan since they are neither identified with any political affiliations nor with either of the two political parties within the United States. However, they are the real political party of the upper class because they ensure the compliance of the government and the stability of the society.

According to the power elite theory, the elite class usually makes critical decisions in government. Sometimes they greatly influence the decision outcome. The congress, the courts and the states, which represents the middle levels of government mainly worry is how to execute the decisions. This appears to be the in during the period that followed the Second World War when containment emerged for the first time. Several crucial decision were arrived at behind closed doors in the State Department, the pentagon, and the White House. Only few senators were involved during the process (majorly to enlist their support instead of involving them in the actual process of making the decisions), but containment didn’t serve more than a fleeting section of the electoral and national party politics (Davis, 2003). Rather, upon completion of the policy formulation at the top, it was just sold to the public who had no option but to accept it.

A more pertinent issue then arises- where are workaday politicians classified by this, the individuals who inhabit middle level of politics? Despondently, the influence of the inhabitants of middle level of politics has greatly dissipated over the years, rendering them with nothing substantial to manage. As a matter of fact, government in the middle is noisy and colorful, and attracts the popular press’s attention. However, its activities often eclipse a critical point for the most part. Apart from competing with the power elite, today’s professional politicians have lost grip of the capability to control the destiny of the nation. Most of the participants in the middle class basically get galvanized by their parochial and selfish interests. Elected individuals have changed to become political entrepreneurs who make use of advertising and television gimmicks to sell themselves to a public that is increasingly becoming cynical and gullible. In their hands, policy is more of a means to an end, getting elected and reelected, instead of an end in itself.

Of importance is the fact that the workaday politicians have lost the capacity and will to grapple with international and national issues. They appear to be rather eager to surrender these questions to the president and his inner circles. Undeniably, a few representatives and senators take part in these deliberations, although most do not. Even the local officials and the state do not. More critical and fundamental issues do not come to the point of decision before the United States Congress, or even before some of its most powerful committees, and much less before the electorates during campaigns. Whenever critical issues are brought before the Congress for debate, they are usually structured in a way that limits their consideration, and even to be stalemated instead of being resolved. Compared to pluralism, elite theory asserts that the check and balances game countervailing influence is often played for somehow minute stakes. Since ordinary politicians are not included in the higher circles, where essential choices are usually decided, the agenda is predetermined for them. Actually, they are only free to deal with issues which the power elite finds to be rather non-threatening, while the elite saves the big question for itself.

What the power elite theorists find rather mind-boggling, however, is the increasing demise of the general public as an independent force in civic matters. As a substitute of initiating policies, or just having control over the individuals who govern them, the citizens of The United States of America have chosen to be passive spectators, whose sole responsibility is to cheer the heroes and boo the villains, yet taking almost no part in the action. In addition, American citizens have become more estranged and alienated from political matters of the state and this has been demonstrated by the sharp decline in participation in electoral process in the past several years. As a result, their destinies are now solely being controlled by the power elite (Dogan, 2003).


Alberoni, F. (2007). The powerless ‘elite’: theory and sociological research on the phenomenon of the stars. Stardom and celebrity: A reader, 65-77.

Davis, A. (2003). Whither mass media and power? Evidence for a critical elite theory alternative. Media, Culture & Society, 25(5), 669-690.

Dogan, M. (2003). Introduction: diversity of elite configurations and clusters of power. Comparative Sociology, 2(1), 1-15.

Kendall, D. (2002). The power of good deeds: Privileged women and the social reproduction of class. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield.

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Politics in the 21st Century

Title of Paper

Schools in the United States are using student-directed projects (Chowa, Plaskon & Ansong, 2010, p. 2). Student directed projects can help improve students’ leadership, innovation, and practice skills. Chowa et al. (2010) suggested that “the title of the paper is centered on the first line of the third page and is in uppercase and lowercase letters” (para. 2).  Do not italicize the title or put it in quotes (Chowa, Plaskon & Ansong, 2010). The introduction begins on the line following the title of the paper.  The entire paper should be double-spaced, including the title page, abstract, body, and references. This is where your thesis statement goes.

In order to give proper credit to the ideas and words of others, any outside sources used in the body of the paper must be documented by citing the sources’ author(s) and date(s).  This is called an in-text citation.  Each in-text citation must have a corresponding full source citation on the references page that follows the body of the paper.  As noted by Stevens, Smith and Jones (2008), a signal phrase “signals to the reader that either a direct quote or a paraphrase is about to follow” (p. 5).  As in this example, when the author’s name is part of the sentence, the year of the publication appears in parentheses directly following the author’s name, e.g., Stevens (2008).   When the author of a source is not mentioned in the sentence, both the author and year of publication appear in parentheses (Stevens et al., 2008).  

If a work has two authors, both authors are cited in each in-text citation to that source.  For an in-text citation of a source with two authors, use both authors’ last names separated by an ampersand (&).  When a source has between three and five authors, use all authors the first time the source is cited.  For second and subsequent references to the source, use the first author’s last name and et al. without the quotes: (Cuddy, 2002).  The words et al. will not be in italics and will have a period after the word al.  If you cite the source again in the same paragraph the year is left out.  For example, it would be (Jones et al., 2009) for the first citation of the source and then (Jones et al.) each additional time the source is cited in that same paragraph.

 If there are six or more authors, use just the first author’s last name and et al. every time the source is cited.  When no author is listed, use the first few words of the title in quotation marks for the titles of articles, book chapters or articles.  When no publication date is listed, use the abbreviation n.d., which stands for no date.  When a direct quote is taken from a source with page numbers, such as a book, magazine, or newspaper, include the page number as part of the citation.  If the quote is fewer than 40 words, it should be enclosed in double quotation marks and should be incorporated into the formal structure of the sentence.

If the quotation that you are using is more than 40 words long, you must use a block quotation.  This is a block quotation.  In a block quotation, you should not use any quotations at all unless they are needed to indicate a quotation within the original text. (“APA Block Quotation,” n.d.)

If you have a direct quote but your source does not have page numbers but does give paragraph numbers then you would give the paragraph number to show where you found your quote.  It would look like this: (para 9).   If there are no page numbers or paragraph numbers but headings are given, then give the heading and the number of the paragraph that follows it.  You will need to count the paragraphs yourself since the numbers are not given.  The in-text citation would look like this: (Franklin, 2009, Past Research section, para. 9).   If the headings are too long to use in your in-text citation use a shortened version in quotation marks like this: (Lorraine, 2009, “Stock market trends,” para. 56).

The references section begins on a new page.  The heading is centered on the first line of the new page.  The references, which are double spaced, have a hanging indent and begin on the line following the references heading.  Entries are organized alphabetically by whatever comes first in the reference (author last name or first word of title).


APA block quotation. (n.d.). Retrieved from /wc_web/school/apa_block_quotation.htm

Chowa, G.A. & Ansong, D. (2010). Student directed projects: An international case study for social work education. Journal of Social Work Education, 46(2), 285-291.

Cuddy, C.M. (2002). Demystifying APA style. Orthopedic Nursing 21(5), 35-42. Retrieved from Academic Search Premier database.

Stevens, J.R. (2008). The signal phrase. Retrieved from

In-text citation: Author last name (year) or (Author last name, year).


Author. (Year, Month Day). Title of post or chat [Format]. Retrieved from URL

Discussion Board Reference (NOTE: This would include a hanging indent in a Word document)

Myers, A. (2012, May 22). Types of business environments [Discussion board post]. Retrieved from

Live Chat: Plaskon, D. (2012, October 24). Unit 3 Live Chat [Live Chat]. Retrieved from insert URL

Course Material/M.U.S.E. Presentations

In-text citation: Author last name (year)

Reference Format:

Author. (Year). Title of presentation/material [Format of material]. Retrieved from URL

Reference Example (NOTE: This would include a hanging indent in a Word document):

Career Education Corporation. (2010). The narrative essay [Multimedia]. Retrieved from

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Man versus Machine in the Workplace

Investigating the role of Artificial Intelligence in the Increasing Levels of Unemployment

Man versus Machine in the Workplace:

Investigating the role of Artificial Intelligence in the Increasing Levels of Unemployment

Proposed Research Topic:

New Technology and the End of Jobs

 Human beings are slowly being replaced with machines in almost every sector as well as industry by technology revolution. Many people are permanently getting eliminated from their jobs as the work category and job assignments continue to sink even further. Jobs are also being restructured and others are disappearing because of the continuous adoption of technology. There is continued unemployment and according to findings, global unemployment is at its record high since the great depression back in 1930s. An estimated 800 million people are un employed and this figure could even rise further. Millions of graduates who are hopeful for employment opportunities, who are continually entering the work force are continually finding themselves jobless. It is now clear that the rising figures of unemployment indicates a short term adjustment to a market so powerful and powerfully driven by forces that drive the global economy towards a new direction. The global market is looking forward towards an exciting world of high tech automated production, abundant materials that are unprecedented, and booming world commerce. In the US alone it is estimated that 2 million people are being eliminated annually from their jobs by corporations. In return the jobs that are created are low paying low sector jobs. The worrying factor is that this transition is all over the world. Even the developing nations are increasingly eliminating employees with built state of art which tech facilities used for production (Bailey, 2013).

Technology has changed to the disadvantage of human labor. There is what is referred to as “Big Data” by scientists. This is the use of computers to thrive on information from the international website, barcodes are placed on nearly every product. More information is passed across the internet every second twice the total amount of information that was stored on the entire internet some 20 years back. Giving an example with Wall-Mart, the store is capable of collecting approximately 50 million cabinets of information from the customer’s transactions every 1 hour. This is far much the capability of a human if they were to be left to handle the transactions, according to Andrew McAfee and Erick Brynjolfsson, (2012). Computers can make sense of so much data than human beings.

It is true that the world is changing technologically and this the major force towards unemployment, because machines are replacing human labor but corporations are taking this as an advantage to gain Return on Investment. ROI refers to the capital invested in a company and the return realized from the capital based on then net profit of the business. It is important to understand that profit and ROI are two different things. Profit is used to measure the performance of the business. ROI is not necessarily the same as profit.  However ROI can be used to gauge the profitability of the business. It is used to identify the past and potential financial returns of a business looked by the managers as a project. This is because it can portray how successful a business is expressed in ratios or percentages. It is also used to describe financial returns and increased efficiencies in the organization. It is also used to calculate the much of a value an investment is.

ROI has been used in line with Artificial Intelligence (AI). It worth knowing that it is customer demand that drives today’s business and the demand patterns varies from period to period.  Because of these variables it has become very difficult for organizations to develop accurate forecasts, which refers to the process of estimating future events. Forecasting reduces uncertainty and used to provide benchmarks used to monitor performance. Combinations of AI and emerging technologies have been used to improve the accuracy of forecasts to contribute to organization enhancement. It is perceived that the use of machines to replace human labor is more effective and contributes to profitability and improved ROI. This has also fueled investors to replace human labor with machinery and computer software.

There is a saying that goes that whatever is measured gets done. Human nature can also be measured. It is true that many workers constantly re-prioritize their work activities. It is also worth understanding that not everyone in an organization will work towards a common goal, that is, the success of the organization. It is therefore important to measure performance against input. Metrics have the attention of both manufacturing and business leaders. It is important to measure sectors in business activities and provide improvement where necessary. The following are some of the manufacturing metrics utilized mostly by process, discrete, and hybrid manufacturers:

Improving customer expectations and responsiveness such as on time delivery and manufacturing cycle time, Metrics to improve quality such as yield, consumer rejects, material returns, supplier quality incoming, Metrics for improving efficiency such as capacity utilization, throughput, overall equipment effectiveness, schedule of production effectiveness, Metrics for reducing inventory like WIP Inventory/ Turns, Metrics on increased flexibility and innovation like rate of new product introduction, and Engineering change order cycle time. Metrics for Ensuring Compliance, Metrics for reducing maintenance like percentage planned, Metrics for cost reduction and increasing profitability like net operating profit, productivity in revenue per employee, energy cost per unit, productivity in revenue per employee, and manufacturing cost as per percentage of revenue.

ROIReturn On Investment-this is a business term used to identify the past and potential financial returns. It helps to indicate how successful a business is.Metrics on Improving Costumer Experience and Responsiveness-Manufacturing cycle time, On-time delivery to Commit  Bailey, R. (2013, February 8). Were the Luddites right? Smart machines and the prospect of technological unemployment. Reason45(1), 48.  
AIArtificial Intelligence-this is a computer science emphasizing on intelligent machines working and relating like humans.Metrics on improving quality-Customer rejects, Yield  Brynjolfsson, E., & McAfee, A. (2012). Technology’s influence on employment and the economy. In Race against the machine: How the digital revolution is accelerating innovation, driving productivity, and irreversibly transforming employment and the economy (p. 10). Lexington, MA: Digital Frontier Press.  
MetricThese are quantifiable measures used to assess the position and status of a venture.Metrics on Improving Efficiency-effectiveness, Through put, Capacity utilization,  Grint, K., & Woolgar, S. (2013). The machine at work: Technology, work and organization. John Wiley & Sons.  
InventoryThese are stock held by a business in form of materials or goods for the purpose of repair, resale, or raw materials waiting processing.Metrics on Reducing inventory- Work in progress inventory turnSachs, J. D., & Kotlikoff, L. J. (2012). Smart machines and long-term misery (No. w18629). National Bureau of Economic Research.  
WIPWork In Progress- these are materials that are partly finished. They are materials that are already in the production process but have not yet turned to a fully finished product.Metrics on Increased flexibility and innovation-Engineering change, Rate of new product introduction  Hart, M. (2013). Educating cheap labour’r. The learning society: Challenges and trends, 96.  
Big DataThis is the use of computers to thrive on information from the international website, barcodes are placed on nearly every productMetrics on Cost reduction and profitability-Productivity in revenue per employee, Net operating profit   

The agricultural industry has seen numerous changes in the previous 100 years. Since the conception of the modern horticulture in 1900, we have pushed ahead to the period of computerized improved farming where everything that is carried out before seeding and up to after harvesting produces data that can be broke down or analyzed. Big Data officially changed the horticulture industry a ton and in the impending decade this will get to be unmistakable or visible in every aspect of farming in the Western world and progressively likewise in the Developed world. There are three ranges that will be influenced the most by the chances of big data: reduced costs of operation and improved efficiency, crop and animal efficiency and improved productivity, optimization of crop prices and mitigation of weather conditions (Grint, 2013).

In the agricultural industry, the internet of things and industrial internet are adversely affecting agricultural equipment such as sprayers, tractors, harvesters, milking machines and soil cultivators. Farmers are now capable of getting information thanks to the sensors that have been deployed in machines such as tractors, cow milking and several others. These machines offer information in real time 24/7 even in the absence of the farmer. These machines act as smart machine that are capable of talking and can coordinate with each other to give the farmer the overall condition of the farm. They can predict problems and even take action before adamage can be realized. The farmer can take action immediately he sees a problem dismayed by the sensors and if the problem is very serious, a service employee will visit the farm.

These sensors have led to increased productivity in many processes of agriculture. They also predict failure and maintenance and also safe the farmer fuel and energy for harvesting and transportation by optimizing the best driving conditions especially in large farm because they can predict shorter routes to drive and help save a lot of fuel. These computers are integrated and they pass information to each other making the entire process manageable by only 1 person. These machines are managed by diagnostics to make sure that optimal settings are in place. These data are passed to the farmer who will then analyze them to ensure continuity of effective operation now and in future. Big Data technologies are continually making precision agriculture interesting. This includes recognition, understanding, exploitation of information capable of quantifying variations in crops and soil. This has helped the farmers a lot especially in optimization of the crop productivity (Sachs, 2012).

Not just yields and crops can be enhanced with huge information, additionally the farm animals will gain from enormous information innovation. Having sensors in the sheds will allow input on the states of the animals. Sensors can consequently measure the animal’s weight and conform bolstering if needed. Contingent upon the conditions in the shed or the states of the creatures, sustaining can be balanced too. The creatures will get the right nourishment and the perfect sum at the right minute. There are also chips inserted on the animals that can monitor their health conditions. Sick animals can receive medication through the food there are given and conditions of the sheds adjusted in any case they are affecting the animals. The heard can also be traced via the smart phone with the help of the chips placed on them. These sensors also display the mental health of the animals. Big Data flips around the customary horticulture industry. Despite the fact that the ventures can be significant for ranchers, the potential advantages of applying huge information advancements on the field are gigantic (Hart, 2013).

I used both primary and secondary data collection methods to collect data. Under primary data collection, I collected the data myself by through qualitative and quantitative methods. I used observations, interviews, focus group interviews and questionnaires.

The following were the sourced of data I used:

Primary Data: interviews-I will use forms that the respondents will complete. Interviews are better for complex questions that I will be asking even though being expensive than questionnaires. Questionnaires: these are forms that are completed and returned by respondents. I will use this method of data collection because it is cheaper and they allow the respondents humble time to give feedback to the questions asked. Focus group interviews: I will identify a group of particular group of people especially the farmers and people employed in the agriculture industry and conduct an interview on them. Observations: I will use direct observation to collect data. I will try and find observer programs to help me with the exercise.

Secondary data sources: Previous researches: I would use previous researches on how smart machines are affecting employment in Agriculture industry; official statistics: statistics published by government agencies or other public agencies on economic and social development and environment; Mass media products: data from media houses on development in the Agricultural and horticultural industry and how machinery is affecting employment in the industry; Government reports: the government publications and reports on Agricultural Industry and how smart machinery and Big Data is affecting employment; Web Information: searching the international network for data on Big Data and smart machinery and how they are affecting employment in Agricultural industry; Historical data and information: the history of smart machinery and Big data.


Bailey, R. (2013, February 8). Were the Luddites right? Smart machines and the prospect of technological unemployment. Reason45(1), 48.

Brynjolfsson, E., & McAfee, A. (2012). Technology’s influence on employment and the economy. In Race against the machine: How the digital revolution is accelerating innovation, driving productivity, and irreversibly transforming employment and the economy (p. 10). Lexington, MA: Digital Frontier Press.

Grint, K., & Woolgar, S. (2013). The machine at work: Technology, work and organization. John

Wiley & Sons.

Sachs, J. D., & Kotlikoff, L. J. (2012). Smart machines and long-term misery (No. w18629).

National Bureau of Economic Research.

Hart, M. (2013). Educating cheap labour’r. The learning society: Challenges and trends, 96.

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Life in the Universe


Having a clearer understanding of life in the universe has been one of the most fundamental journeys of many scientists. Life, in all its definitions, has been fascinating to many fields, including religion, astronomy, philosophy, biology and even physicians among others. Of particular interest is its different forms, the different areas (and planets) in which it can be found, as well as the things on which it exists. Discoveries have been made about the existence of life, with each subsequent one discrediting previous thought about life or even supporting them. Questions, however, arise as to whether scientists are closer today than they were in the past to discovering life. While there may be quite a number of fundamental discoveries and developments in science and astronomy, it is evident that scientists are nowhere close to discovering life, which would be difficult for this feat to be accomplished in my lifetime.

In the recent times, there has been interest in the role of bacteria, carbon and water in life as it is currently understood to be. This is especially as to whether there is a possibility that life could exist without water and carbon. As Mark Power (classmate) there is a possibility as to the existence of a planet that is devoid of water but with larger life forms. He, however, thinks this is unlikely especially drawing from the current knowledge about the physical composition of all large animals in this planet. These animals have water making up a fundamental percentage of their bodies. He opines that the absence of water would necessitate these animals to incorporate an entirely different physiology from the one currently known. Mark quotes an article in the science daily where more than 20 species of microbes exist in extreme conditions that are devoid of the things that scientists currently hold as fundamental for their existence. The soil in the slopes of Atacama region are seen as extremely uninhabitable as not only does it have no water but it is also extremely depleted of nutrients to the extent that the scientists could not detect the nitrogen levels (Lynch et al, 2012). In addition, the high-altitude environment experiences ultraviolet radiation that is twice as intense as that of a low-elevation altitude (Lynch et al, 2012). While it may be unclear how these microbes survive in this harsh condition, it undoubtedly raises questions about the commonly held notion as to the importance or necessity of water in the survival of all organisms. Michael Snow, in answering Mark Power’s question on whether earth-like conditions are necessary for the survival of large multicellular organisms, states that organisms may evolve so as to withstand the elements especially in instances where they have been exposed to such circumstances for long. This is especially considering that human species have undergone varied stages of evolution to adapt to their environments, in which case they can do it again, at least, in theory.

This notion seems to be supported by Tanner MacDonald, who quotes an article in Washington Post, which outlined a study done in 2010 on bacteria that lives in a Californian lake. Even though the arsenic (a highly poisonous substance) heavily pollutes the lake, scientists have discovered some species of bacteria that lives there (Kaufman, 2010). Interestingly, the bacteria swapped the toxic arsenic for phosphorus, as the examination of the bacteria’s DNA revealed. This pokes holes on the notion of phosphorus being one of the six fundamental blocks of life, as the discovery showed that arsenic can be used in its place and make a fundamental building block (Kaufman, 2010). As the scientists note, the findings serve as a reminder that life may be much more flexible than it is imagined or assumed to be. It is also worth noting that the bacteria did not only replace a single useful element (phosphorus) with another toxic one (arsenic), but also have arsenic as a fundamental building block in their makeup. As much as they are yet to determine whether arsenic existed in the bacteria right from the beginning or had replaced phosphorus as a form of adaptation, it is evident that quite a lot is yet to be known about life (Kaufman, 2010). In fact, the current knowledge seems to be flawed, with new discoveries discrediting it. It also changes the notion as to the things that could be examined in determining whether other parts of the universe have life as the six fundamental elements may be substituted with others making organisms live in areas where they were previously thought to be incapable of living. Ashley Saxton also explores the debate on what may be essential for survival of living things. While acknowledging that water supports the survival of “living’ organisms, she acknowledges that some forms of life survive without it. In essence, some other habitable areas may support some forms of life without water.

There is no consensus as to what life depends on or the things that may be termed as essential for the survival of life. Of course, the recent breakthroughs in science as the ones depicted above show that there is increased understanding as to the essentials of life. As much as they conflict previously held knowledge about the fundamentals of life, they add to the knowledge about the multiplicity of living organisms and their requirements. They expand the current knowledge on the fundamentals for life’s existence in the universe. In essence, they cannot be seen as a reversion of the previously held notions or as rendering them inaccurate, rather they allow scientists to eliminate varied things that were thought as essential and circle around fewer things. However, they create the impression that even the commonly held knowledge about life may be built on sinking sand, in which case they can be disputed any time in the future as new discoveries are made. In any case, the recent discoveries do not only create doubts as to water and carbon as essentials of life but to all other elements as well (Karttunen, 2007). This means that rather than narrowing the field on the elements to examine through the elimination of these elements, the discoveries have actually expanded it and sent scientists to the drawing board as to the things that they should have been examining.

In addition, one must take into account the recent developments in discovering life especially in the outer space. A group of astronomers under the auspices of Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI) has been looking for indicators of intelligent life in the outer space (Seeds & Backman, 2011). In this endeavor, they use varied techniques with the most promising one being listening for any messages sent across the sky based on the assumptions that the extraterrestrials are trying to contact the people in planet earth (Karttunen, 2007). Currently, SETI is yet to get any radio signal to that effect, but scientists note that they have just started the search. In any case, numerous radio wave frequencies exist to examine, as well as numerous galaxies (Seeds & Backman, 2011). However, it is encouraging to note that technology is becoming better and more enhanced than before, in which case it allows for the conduction of more sensitive searches. Scientists point out that the answer as to whether these extraterrestrial beings are sending signals should be known within about 25 years at least going by the progress made (Seeds & Backman, 2011). As much as the engineers are doing an incredible job of advancing signal processing and radio technology, there exists no way of telling whether there exists aliens out there, or even whether they are making any effort to contact us in  planet earth (Wills & Wills, 2001). In essence, despite the technological advances, scientists are unsure as to exactly what they should be looking for and are left to make wild guesses and channeling efforts to them while hoping that they pay off in the long term (Karttunen, 2007). There, in fact, exists no guarantee that even after the 25 years there will be positive results, rather the scientists are simply hoping to get such waves, which would then allow for the exploration of the outer space and the conditions that favor life there (Wills & Wills, 2001). This creates doubts as to the hope that there will be discovery of life in the universe in the near future.

On the same note, there have been fundamental developments in the world of planets that have cast doubts as to any discovery about life in the universe. Until recently, scientists had only identified nine planets including Pluto, which was later downgraded from this status. However, there were discoveries of other planets that orbit other sun-like stars. Of course, this bred the knowledge about other planets’ existence (Anderson, 2013). It is worth noting that nearly 800 other planets have been found since 1995 with the numbers growing every week. Scientists opine that about half of all stars have planets, with the planets outnumbering the Milky Way’s 200 billion stars (Seeds & Backman, 2011). There is no knowledge about how these worlds look like planet earth as the numbers run into millions and possibly billions (Anderson, 2013).  This not only adds to the volumes of planets that must be examined to discover life but also makes it more complicated to know the fundamentals of life. Needless to say, if the fundamentals are different in varied places of planet earth, it is only logical to assume that they would be different between planet earth and other planets (Anderson, 2013). Unfortunately, the same paradigms used in looking for life in these areas cannot be entirely accurate as they have been found flawed even in planet earth.

In conclusion, scientists have been fascinated and extremely interested in discovery of life, its nature and every aspect of it. As much as there are fundamental strides made in this respect, there is no indication that such a thing will be accomplished in my lifetime. This is especially considering that scientists have yet to determine what they should look for in planet earth and other planets. Their knowledge as to what the essentials of life are has been discredited by new discoveries. In addition, there have been new planets discovered in the recent times, which increases their volume of work. Despite technological advances, scientists are basing their experiments on hopes and aspersions especially with regard to determining whether extraterrestrial organisms are trying to create contact or send messages to planet earth.


Kaufman, M (2010). Bacteria stir debate about ‘shadow biosphere’. Washington Post. Retrieved 31st March 2013 from

Lynch, R.C., King, A.J., Farías, M.E.,  Sowell, P., Vitry, C & Schmidt, S.K (2012).  The potential for microbial life in the highest elevation (>6000 m.a.s.l.) mineral soils of the Atacama region. Journal of Geophysical Research. Excerpt in Article “Unique Microbes Found in Extreme Environment”. Science Daily. Retrieved 31st March 2013 from

Karttunen, H. (2007). Fundamental astronomy. Berlin: Springer.

Seeds, M. A., & Backman, D. E. (2011). Foundations of astronomy. Boston, MA: Brooks/Cole, Cengage Learning.

Wills, S., & Wills, S. R. (2001). Astronomy: Looking at the stars. Minneapolis, MN: Oliver Press.

Anderson, M. (2013). Pioneers in astronomy and space exploration. Chicago: Britannica Educational Pub.

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