Study high school teachers to explore their sense of well-being during the transition to a virtual classroom in a global pandemic


Assessment Description

You have been asked to study high school teachers to explore their sense of well-being during the transition to a virtual classroom in a global pandemic. You believe a phenomenological inquiry to be a justifiable approach to this topic. What rationale would you give stakeholders for conducting a phenomenological inquiry? Explain. 

Student 1- Jemel

Conducting a study of high school teachers to explored their sense of well-being during the transition to a virtual classroom during the pandemic could be adequately studied using a phenomenological inquiry. In the phenomenological design, the researcher is interested in the perceptions and beliefs about a specific area for the participants (Merriam & Tisdell, 2016). In the proposed study, the goal is to understand the perceptions and beliefs of high school teachers. This design will examine the teachers’ experiences (Merriam & Tisdell, 2016). Because these experiences could be positive and negative emotional, they influence the perspective the teachers transition to virtual learning. The strength of the design is that it relies on the variety of data gathered to collectively tell the story of teachers and thus seeking to answer the phenomena (Merriam & Tisdell, 2016). Furthermore, all pieces of data collected, all individual experiences are of equal importance and value (Merriam & Tisdell, 2016). The phenomenological inquiry will give the researcher the ability to come away from the study feeling as if they understand what it was like to have the same experiences of the teachers who are studied (Merriam & Tisdell, 2016).


Merriam, S. B., & Tisdell, E. J. (2016). Qualitative research: A guide to design and implementation (4th ed.). Wiley. ISBN-13: 9781119003618

Student 2- Bind

The rationale for conducting a phenomenological inquiry is that it creates opportunities to understand the experiences of high school teachers and their sense of well-being during the transition to a virtual classroom in a global pandemic. The qualitative method of phenomenology provides a theoretical framework for psychological research. It allows researchers to engage in flexible activities that describe and help understand complex phenomena, such as various aspects of human social experience (Neubauer et al.,2019). Phenomenological research can broaden our understanding of complex learning, behavior, and communication phenomena. Amongst qualitative research design, phenomenology captures a subject’s lived experience about a phenomenon to understand how this phenomenon appears in the individual’s conscious experience. In phenomenology, experience is conceived as uniquely perspectival, embodied, and situated. Phenomenological approaches are particularly relevant for researching experiences, thoughts, imagination, intentions, desires, or volition. Perhaps most critically, scholars must construct research processes that align with the chosen methodology’s tenets and underlying philosophical roots. This alignment is the cornerstone for establishing research rigor and trustworthiness. (Sibeoni et al., 2020).

Student 3- Mel

A sudden switch to a novel mode of delivery of services creates challenges for rules, regulations, and ensuring quality are questions that are only possible with direct input from those experiencing those changes. Phenomenology as a design provides an opportunity to learn from the lived experience of others (Neubauer et al., 2019). A sudden change during a global pandemic causes shutdowns and changes in service delivery. For education, teachers were instructed to turn in-person courses into online events. Learning management systems (LMS) rapidly grow from a stable number of participants to increased numbers that strain the software platforms. Educators and students must navigate a new learning environment without planned training, all while facing challenges of uncertainty during a global pandemic. This scenario would benefit from a phenomenological inquiry to gain insight into the lived experiences of high school teachers.

Through a phenomenological study, the researcher can discover themes of high school teachers’ perspectives as they face challenges converting coursework to virtual learning. Obtaining this perspective and the challenges would be useful to improve and understand the educational development of this event (Faridah et al., 2021). The level of detail and ability to understand what was experienced and how teachers experienced the change to virtual learning can only be described through phenomenology  (Neubauer et al., 2019). Overall, phenomenology creates a unique understanding of the lived experience of participants, in this case, the well-being of high school teachers as they transitioned classes to a virtual environment during a global pandemic.

Faridah, L., Ekawardhani, S., Wiraswati, H. L., Fauziah, N., Aviani, J. K., & Ramadan, D. (2021). Experiences and challenges of distance learning during Covid-19 pandemic from educators’ point of view: A review. Education Quarterly Reviews, 4(3), 468-483.

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In what sense are the mean, median, mode, and midrange measures of “center”?

After studying Module 2: Lecture Materials & Resources, discuss the following:

In what sense are the mean, median, mode, and midrange measures of “center”? Post your own statistical study in which you can calculate the different approaches of each.

Submission Instructions:

  • Your initial post should be at least 200 words/numbers or a combination of both. Your initial post is worth 60 points.
  • Additional readings must be cited, and formatted in the current APA style.

Module 2: Lecture Materials & Resources


icon Descriptive Statistics

Read and watch the lecture resources & materials below early in the week to help you respond to the discussion questions and to complete your assignment(s).

(Note: The citations below are provided for your research convenience. You should always cross-reference the current APA guide for correct styling of citations and references in your academic work.)


  • Triola, M. (2018). 
    • Frequency Distribution Tables and Histograms
    • Other Types of Graphs
    • Measures of Center
    • Measures of Variation
    • Measures of Position and Boxplots

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Healthy relationships form the basis for a positive workplace. When staff are engaged in their jobs supported by one another and feel a sense of security in their work healthy relationships among staff members will flourish. Nurse managers can assess the workplace for healthy relationships by observing the interactions among staff members.

Are trust, respect, and collegiality evident, or might some staff members display toxic or dysfunctional behaviors toward one another? When toxic or dysfunctional behaviors are evident even among the smallest cohort of staff, nurse managers must take steps to foster positive interactions. In fact, all other efforts to establish a positive workplace will likely fall short if they are not built on the foundation of healthy interpersonal relationships.
In this Discussion, you examine the interactions between employees at your current organization or one with which you are familiar. You also explore positive psychology, a theory of well-being that has helped many workplaces to increase positivity and foster healthy relationships among staff members.

To prepare

Review Chapter 2, ?Cultivating the Leadership Relationship? in the course text, From Management to Leadership: Strategies for Transforming Health Care. Examine how leaders cultivate healthy relationships among all staff members.

Review the article, ?Using Positive Psychology to Engage Your Staff during Difficult Times.? How can positive psychology foster healthy workplace relationships and increase staff engagement?
Reflect on the interactions you see in your own organization or in one with which you are familiar. What relationships do you observe across different job categories, such as RNs, LPNs, techs, and nursing assistants? Do relationship disparities exist between shifts, departments, or members of different disciplines, such as nursing staff and physicians?

Identify environments where unhealthy relationships most commonly occur. What leadership strategies might you use to build healthy relationships among these specific staff members? Furthermore, how could you apply positive psychology to increase positivity in this environment?

Post an explanation of at least two leadership strategies you could implement to build healthy relationships among staff members in the workplace you selected. Cite specific examples in your explanation by identifying the staff members you would target and explaining how your strategies would foster healthy interactions among these staff members. In addition, suggest at least one positive psychology strategy you could employ to increase the ratio of positive to negative interactions in your workplace; explain your rationale.

Read a selection of your colleagues? responses and Respond to at least two of your colleagues on two different days using one or more of the following approaches:

Validate an idea with your own experience and additional research.
Share a strategy your health care setting used to build healthy workplace relationships.
Provide additional insights into how positive psychology could help to increase positivity in a colleague?s workplace.

Required Readings

Lussier, R. N., & Hendon, J. R. (201

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Effective patient education Evidence and common sense.


Build a slide presentation (PowerPoint preferred) of the health promotion plan you developed in the first assessment. Then, implement your health promotion plan by conducting a face-to-face educational session addressing the health concern and health goals of your selected community member or group. In addition, collaborate with any participants in setting goals for the session, evaluating session outcomes, and suggesting possible revisions to improve future sessions.

As you begin to prepare this assessment, you are encouraged to complete the Vila Health: Conducting an Effective Educational Session activity. The information gained from completing this activity will help you succeed with the assessment as you consider key issues in conducting an effective educational session for a selected audience. Completing activities is also a way to demonstrate engagement.

Professional Context

Health education is any combination of learning experiences designed to help community individuals, families, and aggregates improve their health by increasing knowledge or influencing attitudes (WHO, 2018). Education is key to health promotion, disease prevention, and disaster preparedness. The health indicator framework identified in Healthy People 2020 helps motivate action in such areas as health service access, clinical preventive services, environmental quality, injury or violence, maternal, infant and child health, mental health, nutrition, substance abuse, and tobacco use.

Nurses provide accurate evidence-based information and education in various formal and informal settings. They draw upon evidence-based practice to provide health promotion and disease prevention activities to create social and physical environments conducive to improving and maintaining community health. When provided with the tools to be successful, people demonstrate lifestyle changes (self-care) that promote health and help reduce readmissions. They are better able to tolerate stressors, including environmental changes, and enjoy a better quality of life. In times of crisis, a resilient community is a safer community (ODPHP, n.d.; Flanders, 2018).

This assessment provides an opportunity for you to apply teaching and learning concepts to the presentation of a health promotion plan.

Demonstration of Proficiency

By successfully completing this assessment, you will demonstrate your proficiency in the following course competencies and assessment criteria:

Competency 3: Evaluate health policies, based on their ability to achieve desired outcomes.

Evaluate educational session outcomes in terms of progress made toward Healthy People 2020 goals and leading health indicators.

Competency 4: Integrate principles of social justice in community health interventions.

Evaluate educational session outcomes and the attainment of agreed-upon health goals in collaboration with participants.

Competency 5: Apply professional, scholarly communication strategies to lead health promotion and improve population health.

Present a health promotion plan to an individual or group within a community.


U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (ODPHP). (n.d.). Healthy People 2020. Retrieved from

Flanders, S. A. (2018). Effective patient education: Evidence and common sense. Medsurg Nursing, 27(1), 55–58.

Note: Complete the assessments in this course in the order in which they are presented. This is the second part of a two-part assessment. You must complete Assessment 1 before completing this assessment.


Resume the role of a nurse tasked with addressing the specific community health concern identified in the first assessment. This time, you will present, via educational outreach, the health promotion plan you developed in the first assessment to your chosen community individual or group. You know that you must determine an effective teaching strategy, communicate the plan with professionalism and cultural sensitivity, solicit input on the value of the plan to its audience, and revise the plan as applicable to improve future educational sessions. To engage your audience, you decide to develop a slide presentation to communicate your plan. A copy of the slide presentation could also be given to audience members for future reference.

To prepare for the assessment, you are encouraged to complete the Vila Health: Conducting an Effective Educational Session simulation. You may also wish to review the health promotion plan presentation assessment and scoring guide to ensure that you understand all requirements.

Note: Remember that you can submit all, or a portion of, your draft plan to Smarthinking Tutoring for feedback before you submit the final version for this assessment. If you plan on using this free service, be mindful of the turnaround time of 24–48 hours for receiving feedback.


Complete the following:

Prepare a PowerPoint presentation of the health promotion plan you developed in Assessment 1, with detailed speaker’s notes that include your evaluation of session outcomes. Speaker notes should reflect what you will actually say when you conduct the face-to-face session.

Implement your health promotion plan by conducting a face-to-face educational session addressing the health concern and health goals of your chosen participants. Collaborate with the participants in setting session goals, evaluating outcomes, and suggesting possible revisions to improve future sessions.

As you begin to prepare this assessment, you are encouraged to complete the Vila Health: Conducting an Effective Educational Session activity. The information gained from completing this activity will help you succeed with the assessment as you consider key issues in conducting an effective educational session for a selected audience. Completing activities is also a way to demonstrate engagement.

Completion of this assessment, and the course, requires that you spend a minimum of three hours face-to-face working with your identified patient who may be a community member or group. Remember that it is a requirement to log your direct clinical hours in the CORE ELMS system.

Please be advised that the Volunteer Experience form requires that you provide the name and contact information for at least one individual with whom you worked as part of your direct clinical activity. Your faculty may reach out to this individual to verify that you have accurately documented and completed your clinical hours.


You may use Microsoft PowerPoint (preferred) or other suitable presentation software to create your slides. If you elect to use an application other than PowerPoint, check with your faculty to avoid potential file compatibility issues.

The number of content slides in your presentation is dictated by nature and scope of your health promotion plan. Be sure to include title and references slides per the following:

Title slide:

Health promotion plan title.

Your name.


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What kinds of action steps would make sense in the next few weeks or months?

What kinds of action steps would make sense in the next few weeks or months?.

Building a Professional Identity

Reflective Discussion

How can you take the information in this unit, using your professional interests and background, and factoring in your doctoral degree, and begin to create discrete action steps to proactively build your professional identity?

Begin by working through the Career Planning Checklist uploaded below in this unit’s second study:

  • In what areas have you already taken action? Briefly provide examples.
  • What areas have you not yet considered? Describe ideas that might work for you.
  • What kinds of action steps would make sense in the next few weeks or months?



Your Career Planning Checklist

Cross-Specialization Discussion

Customize the Career Planning Checklist to create an active, ongoing plan for your own career. Each aspect of the checklist represents a piece of the puzzle of building your professional experience and reputation, so that each aspect presents an opportunity for you to put yourself in a stronger position to pursue the kind of future that you want.

For example, for the second aspect of the checklist, professional affiliation membership and involvement, most learners in this course would include the APA. Depending on your career direction, though, you might choose to focus on a particular division within APA. If your specialization is educational psychology, you might naturally gravitate toward APA’s Division 15, Educational Psychology, and focus more of your efforts there. Choose at least two aspects of each time frame within the checklist (Early in Your Program, Mid-Way Through Your Program, and Late in Your Program) and customize their focus for your career direction.

For your initial post in this discussion, attach your customized Career Planning Checklist, along with a brief paragraph explaining how your customizations fit your career interests.



In each case, reflect on the learner’s analysis. Do you see a consistency between the learner’s analysis in Parts 1 and 2? If not, point out anything that appears inconsistent. If you do see consistency, what values seem to guide the learner in both parts? Your responses are expected to be substantive in nature and should reference the assigned readings or other professional literature, as applicable, to support your views.

Richild post

I am not surprised at the results of this study, Students have their own reasons for why they do what they do when it comes to plagiarism.  I do agree that there are three group types. Students who chose to cheat their way through tend to have excuses why they can not do their work on there own. As far as writing the proper citing it can quickly become a form of plagiarism. I myself have issues at times making sure that My citing is properly written. I think dishonest is world wide because we are all humans and sometimes under pressure we tend to want to take the easy way out. So it is important as students everywhere to have the awareness of learning the proper way to write a paper and cite. When you are writing and you decide to use words or information from a source it is important to give credit to the source. The reason it is world wide is because it is important for students all around and not just students but anyone who is researching information. My role as Capella academic community is to continue to spread awareness of the proper way to cite and write a paper. I have a duty to encourage my peers to continue to be honest and take pride in their work. For instance, at workI have to make a lot of ethical disussions. Each failure to practice value-based workplace ethics affects your self-image and what you stand for far more than it affects your coworkers. But the effect of your behavior on your fellow employees is real, tangible, and unpredictable, too. The solution? Change the behavior, of course. You may never have thought of these actions as problems with ethical behavior, but they are. And, all of them affect your coworkers in negative ways. On example where I may judge is if a person is doing something that they know is wrong and continue to victimize the situation. In my upbringing we were thought to learn from our wrongs and keep going, just don’t make the same mistake twice. I try my best to keep my opinions that are not so positive to myself , but still provide my peers or others with constructive criticism. I would come into the situation very open-minded and try to view the other’s point of view, than try to understand their concept. If others do not understand I will articulate it to the best of my abilities so that, that individual understands.



1 day agoSherita Freeman

RE: general- Richild Morgan


Richild, marvelous breakdown of why and how dishonesty exists. On an academic level, I do agree that many reasons exist behind why individuals do not adhere to guidelines. This week’s scenarios displayed how a sheer lack of knowledge behind many regulations can be the cause for the neglect in research as well. When it comes to writing, I believe your personal view aligns with the views made within this week’s text. What we do does affect those we engage with and this can be applied to our research and observations also. Without the consciousness to approach professional and personal situations with a particular mainframe, we are prone to making situations worse. Ruscio (2006) discusses how pseudoscience thrives because of the practitioners willingness to implement common treatment, for whatever reasons, despite the lack of or given evidence. Just as our behaviors affect those around us, the actions we take in our professions have influences and consequences when we forget to abide by our purposes and values (regulations, limitations, adequacy). The production of inadequate resources can be detrimental to practices and patients, alike.


The articles I read regarding ethics and unethical behaviors in research took me by great surprise. According to Langlais (2006 p 1), this has been continually increasing given the heightened amount of competition and demand placed on researchers to produce such findings to substantiate their work. I understand for graduate learners, still learning the concepts to understand best how both integrity and ethics play an impactful part in writing on a scholar-practitioner or practitioner-scholar level. The articles did propose ethical best practices on how to minimize and alleviate by providing sufficient empirical support when citing to avoid plagiarism.

I think dishonesty is so widespread due to researchers practicing improper behaviors, and they lack integrity by upholding the standards that were supported in the past. I believe not enough emphasis is placed on unethical actions and the consequences of its results. Additionally, Langlais (2006 p 3) noted that it would take the community of academia and graduate incumbents to understand and help share in the awareness to teach professionally ethical standards and the role it plays within the workplace. Dishonesty can also become widespread due to certain past beliefs and cultural upbringing that may contend with the practical teachings of ethics and the role it plays in research.

My role in the Capella academia community is to understand, practice, and uphold the professional standards of integrity set forth by the University as well within the APA Psychology community. It is a privilege to be able to learn and research within a doctoral learning program. Therefore, the role I play is to display best practices and use resources in the field to avoid any mishaps at it pertains to plagiarism. As part of my acceptance into the doctoral program, I acknowledged that I am accepting to be held accountable to the standards applicable in the APA community and I will follow the academic principles of ethical behaviors in interpreting written information as well as within my writings.

As a Human Resources professional, each day, I am confronted with decisions that entail the ability to assess and evaluate outcomes in an ethical manner. Employees are the fabric of organizations as an HR professional; it is my conscious duty to operate in the best interest of not only the employer but also as an advocate for the employees. For example, each year, our organization launches an annual, global employee engagement survey. As part of the survey process, practitioners are trained and responsible for ensuring a level of autonomy and confidentiality to uphold to provide a level of anonymity – in which trust is created.

One situation in which I might be vulnerable to judging others based on my values is to do what you say you are going to do. I am a proponent of accountability, and as discussed in the prior post, mindfulness comes to mind when if someone says they are going to do something my expectation is that it either happens or response is given in advance as to other alternatives and timeframe. Setting reasonable expectations will help minimize the risk for the right actions, which ultimately will allow for accountability.

Langlais, P. J. (2006). Ethics for the next generation. The Chronicle of Higher Education, 52(19), B11. Retrieved from

Ruscio, J. Critical Thinking in Psychology: Separating Sense from Nonsense. [Capella]. Retrieved from



1 day agoSherita Freeman

RE: U08D1 – IO Jimmie Jones


Jimmie, I enjoyed your explanation of the article you used in relation to how my personal understanding of the literature was conveyed in my own post. Ruscio (2006) heavily discussed how the beliefs of the field’s forefathers and practitioners still influence our approaches to modern application and understanding. This can be detrimental not only during engagements but also to how the field continues to develop, apply and justify its advancements. I believe dishonesty is just the root for the behaviors witnessed when professionals abandon the need for evidence, research, sustainability and accountability.  No matter the personal reasons, time, money, accolades or control, we as professionals must remember to retain the morals, values and goals of our field’s purpose. Your understanding of this does align with your practices as it serves to establish the trait through a method that can be observed, applied through honest* practice and measured for the sake of educating others on accountability.

What kinds of action steps would make sense in the next few weeks or months?

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The English Bill of Rights and Common Sense Essay

The English Bill of Rights and Common Sense Essay.

The English Bill of Rights, the Cahier of the Third Estate of the City of Paris and Common Sense were all written during a time of revolution in their respective countries. Although all three political writings originated in a different country, they each share several important similarities. Each document also addressed specific issues, which the others did not. The English Bill of Rights, the Cahier of the Third Estate of the City of Paris and Common Sense all served as a bridge between their countries’ different forms of political structure.

The English Bill of Rights came after the reign of the first two Stuart kings, James I (1603-1625) and his son Charles I (1625-1649). Both kings ran into problems with the House of Commons over religious, economic and other political issues. The birth of James’s II son led to the Glorious Revolution of 1688-1689. The revolution resulted in Mary II and her husband, William of Orange of Holland taking the Crown and signing the English Bill of Rights.

The English Bill of Rights was signed by Parliament in 1689. The English Bill of Rights placed parliamentary limitations on the authority of the crown, which is still a central part of England’s political system.

The Cahier of the Third Estate of the City of Paris resulted after Louis XVI of France could not balance the national budget. In an attempt to correct the budget problem, Louis called the Estates General, France’s representative assembly, to convene in the hopes it would establish new taxes that would balance the nation’s budget. The convening of the Estates General had a much larger effect on France than Louis had expected. At the assembly, the forty thousand attendants wrote cahier de doleances, which listed local and national issues that needed to be addressed. The cahier of the Third Estate of the city of Paris was a document that contained the grievances of many people including: lawyers, businessmen, upper-middle-class, peasants, artisans, shopkeepers and women. Due to the Estates General, the nobility lost most of their privileges and the king lost most of his power. Later, in 1793, Louis was beheaded as a traitor.

Common Sense was a 35 page political pamphlet written by Thomas Paine in 1776. During the beginning of the American Revolution, many Americans still hoped that America could reconcile with Great Britain. Paine wrote the pamphlet as a reaction to the Battle of Lexington and Concord in April of 1775. Paine’s pamphlet expressed many American’s worries concerning Great Britain, as well as the Colonies’ hopes to create their own free independent nation. Common Sense encouraged the Second Continental Congress to create the United States of America on July 2, 1776. The pamphlet also contributed to the United States Declaration of Independence from Great Britain on July 4, 1776.

There are several major similarities between the three political texts. Each text was written at a time of political revolution within their country and each was written as a reaction to current political hardships. Another major similarity all three texts shared was the importance of freely elected representatives. The timing of the documents as well as the configuration of assemblies plays a large role in the restructuring of their countries.

The English Bill of Rights and the French Cahier of the Third Estate share several important ideals. Both the English and French documents addressed religious matters. The English Bill of Rights stopped the practice of creating courts that try religious cases, while the Cahier of the Third Estate asked for religious toleration. Another major similarity between the English and French documents regarded taxes. The English Bill of Rights declared that there would be no more collecting of taxes without the permission of the Parliament. The Cahier of the Third Estate also stated that the elected officials should only establish the collecting of taxes. The final major similarity between the two documents has to do with the treatment of prisoners. The English Bill of Rights was the first document to coin the phrase “cruel and unusual punishment” when it declared that treatment of prisoners should be humane. The Cahier of the Third Estate also addressed the treatment of prisoners by banning torture.

The English Bill of Rights shared one major similarity to Thomas Paine’s Common Sense. Although the French Cahier of the Third Estate did not address when assemblies should be held, both the English and American did address the issue. The English Bill of Rights declared that Parliaments should be held frequently, and Paine suggested in Common Sense that assemblies should be held every year. The concept of frequent parliamentary meeting was unheard of before this time. Previously, assemblies could go over a decade without convening.

The French Cahier of the Third Estate and Paine’s Common Sense also shared a major similarity. The Cahier of the Third Estate wanted the Kingdom to be divided into assemblies, which would be represented by freely elected officials. The Cahier of the Third Estate also wanted individual cities, towns and villages to have elected officials that would decide local issues. Thomas Paine presented a similar idea in Common Sense. Paine suggested that the colonies should be divided into districts and each district should be represented in the assembly.

Although all three documents shared similar characteristics, there were differences between the English Bill of Rights, the Cahier of the Third Estate and Common Sense. Each document addressed issues that were specific to their individual needs as a country. Although the problems addressed may not have been unique to their country, the fact that their political text contained a remedy to the problem is distinctive.

The English Bill of Rights addressed several issues that the other documents did not. The English Bill of Rights declared that the quartering of soldiers was against the law. Although the quartering of soldiers was present in America, Thomas Paine did not choose to address the issue in Common Sense. The English Bill of Rights also stated that the King should not have an army during a time of peace without the permission of Parliament. Neither the French or American political texts addressed this issue. The English text also gave Protestants the right to bear arms for self-defense. An important point made in the English Bill of Rights, which was not addressed in the other documents, was that of freedom of speech in Parliament.

The Cahier of the Third Estate of the City of Paris was a very unique document. The French political texts included the greatest amount of new, unique political concepts. The Cahier of the Third Estate was the only document to state, “all men are equal in rights.” Before this time, people were granted different rights based on their social and economic standing. The Cahier of the Third Estate created great change pertaining to the execution of laws. The French document stated that citizens could not be arrested or punished without a legal trial. The document also stated that no citizen could be arrested without a just cause and an order from a judge.

The Cahier of the Third Estate went on to state that citizens had a right to call a lawyer before interrogation began. The document also declared that all citizens should receive the same punishment for their crimes, no matter their rank in society. The final major change dealing with punishments for crimes was the ending of torture and dungeons. Cleanliness and moral rules were set in place for prisons. The Cahier of the Third Estate established that prisons are for securing prisoners, not punishing them. The French political text also put an end to many other hardships including: personal servitude, compulsory military service, tampering with the mail, hunting monopolies and exclusive privileges.

Although the English Bill of Rights and the Cahier of the Third Estate were both a list of grievances, neither document attacked the current political order with the zeal that Common Sense contained. Thomas Paine ripped apart the political structure of Great Britain and declared that the American constitution should have no resemblance to that of England. Paine believed that the constitution of England was far too complex and its complexity had caused many years of hardship.

Paine also believed that hereditary succession was wrong and should not be practiced. Common Sense asserted that the American constitution should be based on “union, faith and honor.” Paine expressed two major exceptional ideas in Common Sense. Paine believed that in America a President, and not a King, should head the executive branch of government. Paine also believed that all laws should be passed by a majority of the assembly, or Congress. Paine suggested that a majority should be considered no less than three fifths of Congress.

England, France and America all went through political revolutions within a relatively close time period. As a result of the new political ideals, in each country a text was written upon which the future government was to be based. Although each of the documents contained distinct characteristics, the major ideas and end results were very similar for each country.

The English Bill of Rights and Common Sense Essay

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