Local Disaster Risk Reduction

Local Disaster Risk Reduction

Important factors to support Local Disaster Risk Reduction

Disasters occur due to other causes rather than natural causes, such as social, economic, political, and cultural factors. The factors people inhabit are areas and regions prone to natural hazards due to the different aspects of social, economic, and cultural environments. For instance, people are forced by difficult situations such as poverty to settle in hazardous areas such as flood plains and mountain slopes where floods, landslides, and earthquakes are common. Other factors especially affecting the political environment are the distribution of resources such as education, health services, income, and important information. There is a lot of discrimination in many communities in developing countries, especially on the issues of welfare and social protection. Disasters occur due to both natural and human action and contribute to the major problems related to famine, diseases such as HIV-AIDS, wars, drought, and many others. The potential of various groups of people to exposure to some of natural disasters and hazards constitutes the disaster risk that depends on the social and political systems of the community. The vulnerability of different groups to hazard exposure helps to understand disasters by looking at the political, economic, social, and cultural systems. The important factors to support local disaster reduction in the community and places with risks of natural hazards are political, economic, social, and cultural practices.

There is a big link between poverty, vulnerability, and disasters such the poorest people are always the victim as their poverty leads to their vulnerability. Preparing those people will make them cope with disasters in case they occur. Due to climatic change, countries need to adopt Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR )due to the adverse effects of the occurrence. Organizations such as Practical Action works with various communities to help them cope with future hazards by taking measures such as disaster risk management, and food security. The organization uses the research approach and its experience in disaster management for many years to help people cope with disasters especially in the developing countries such as South Asia, Peru, and Africa. The body also secures and sustains livelihoods in communities with high poverty levels by reducing their susceptibility to disaster. Practical Action works with the humanitarian agencies to help families, communities, and local markets to come out of the crises and cope with future disaster threats. The organization works by involving the survivors off various disasters in the decision-making and management of the resources. The world’s poorest and marginalized communities suffer from climate change compared to the well up communities. These people depend on natural resources for agriculture and other means of production.

Climate change affects the living conditions of vulnerable people especially in developing countries as a result of global warming contributed by human activities such as cultivation methods. Some cultural beliefs such as disasters are a punishment from God, or other supreme being prevents people from taking action to avoid more disasters.  Organizations like the UNDP should always offer education to the vulnerable communities and change their evolutionary behaviours especially the ones touching on religious beliefs. Other factors that increase the vulnerability of communities to disasters are personality, upbringing, and level of education, peer pressure and many more. For countries to support DRR, the government should work closely with charitable organizations such as the Red Cross to reduce the influence of culture on disaster occurrences. The beliefs that it is the God’s ill for some disasters such as earthquakes and floods to happen are not healthy for DRR and DRM as people cannot engage in activities that reduce the risks of disaster occurrences.

Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) aims to identify and reduce disaster risks by dealing with socio-economic vulnerabilities to the disasters. Governance is an important factor in addressing the occurrence of disasters through DRR and DRM especially in the third-world countries. The government is very important in the DRR approach to disaster management as it is one of the main actors. The government should always ensure that its citizens are safe, and there is equality in resource allocation to all communities. The government also is the main coordinator of DRR projects through the formulation of policies and programmes through legislation.  The government is also mandated to ensure protection of the rights of its citizens through disaster prevention and early warnings of any impending disasters such as floods. Disaster management organisations such as UNDP and BRAC prefer working in environments where the rights of the citizens are respected and protected.

Social factors also contribute to occurrence and reoccurrence of disasters depending on the organisation of communities and the social classes. For countries to achieve Disaster Risk reduction, it must do away with social classes and bridge the gap between the rich and the poor. Some people fail to protect themselves believing that someone like the government or charitable organizations will come to their help. For example the in Kenya, people are warned to vacate the lowlands and avoid living in mountainous areas but fail to take action only to call the government when their homes floods or whenever there are landslides. The international community should always emphasize on the necessity of local ownership of the disaster risk reduction (DRR) through the local governments. Policy makers need to support the local actors to manage natural disasters by spreading awareness of the environmental risks facing the communities.  The leaders and the NGOs should work with mayors and community leaders to enable active participation of the local community groups in reducing the risks due to natural disaster. Consequences and social outcomes of projects for poverty alleviation, community development, and reduction of disaster vulnerability depend on the social impact assessment.

 Social factors are human populations or private actions that can affect the way of living, working, and the relation of humans to each other as the members of the society. The way a society live determines the possibility of occurrence of disasters and their management. There is a big relationship between vulnerability, disasters and hazards especially on the deep-rooted factors in different societies, which can alleviate or increase the seriousness of a disaster. Some societies or groups of people lack basic services at the household level, and others face exposure to unsafe conditions. For instance people who construct shanty houses on sloppy and hilly lands especially in urban centres increasing the risk of disasters such as floods and landslides. Disaster management through DRR should always aim at involving communities at risk in risk management and reduction of vulnerability through their projects. The civil society and the public authorities will also play an important especially in coordination and mobilization of the local communities.

Political factors may also influence the effectiveness of DRR especially in the developing countries here politicians engage in corrupt activities such as land grabbing. When leaders, politicians, and the wealthy class take all the good land, the marginalized communities end up settling in disaster-prone areas such as in the slopes and dry areas. The countries should fight corruption by the political class and allocate land and resources equality to the communities. Politics can also limit the local ownership of DRR if politics takes the centre stage during the implementation of DRR projects. There are some officials who hold positions for their interests and embezzle fund meant for disaster management and may use the resources to win votes from a few individuals. Countries need to monitor the DRR projects closely to prevent political interferences especially if they disagree with the local leaders on implementation of the DRR projects. Some political leaders will also avoid dealing with some disaster threats waiting for the next campaign period to use it a campaign tool. To avoid delays, NGOs and other international charitable organizations should monitor DRR projects and avoid political involvement of any nature. DRR is mostly part of the political debate in many countries, and its effectiveness depends on who wins the motion. Some politician’s ill use it for their political interest and limits the participation of the locals in managing disasters. Consequently, the communities do not understand their role in alleviating some disasters such as drought and famines brought about by climate changes. Some local leaders might fail to implement policies from their competitors or continue with previous projects after new elections. For DRR projects to work, politics should never play any part in the implementation of the projects dealing with disaster management and risk reduction.

Economic factors contribute to the occurrence of natural disasters and the vulnerability of some communities in depending on the distribution of the resources and agricultural activities of the country. Countries with a large wealth disparity expose the poor to deadly disasters such as landslides, as they live in areas prone to disasters. The people’s economic activities such as farming, mining, and grazing may accelerate the occurrence of natural disasters such as floods due to soil erosion. Due to the disparity in resource distribution, these people have no other option and have to cope with the frequency of the disasters as they await government intervention. DRR approach aims at bridging the gap by involving the local community in self-protection during disasters and offering permanent and long-lasting solutions to the occurrence of disasters. Understanding the economic factors in any country will assist NGOs and other organizations to manage disasters and alleviate poverty in many countries.


Disasters occur due to other causes rather than the natural causes such social, economic, political, and cultural factors. Disasters occur due to both natural and human action and contribute to the major problems related to the famine, diseases such as HIV-AIDS, wars, drought and many others. The world’s poorest and marginalized communities suffer from climate change compared to the well up communities. These people depend on natural resources for agriculture and other means of production. Social factors also contribute to occurrence and reoccurrence of disasters depending on the organisation of communities and the social classes. Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) aims at identifying and reducing the risks of disaster by dealing with socio-economic vulnerabilities to the disasters. The people’s economic activities such as farming, mining, and grazing may accelerate the occurrence of natural disasters such as floods due to soil erosion.

Place this order or similar order and get an amazing discount. USE Discount code “GET20” for 20% discount

Order your Paper Now

Cyber Risk Insurance

Cyber Risk Insurance

With the increase in the technological advancement in modern society, there is also an increasing level of crime which targets advanced technology (Biener, Eling & Wirfs, 2015). This has, therefore, lead to a reactionary measure taken by individuals, organizations and the authorities to ensure that such risks are countered by ensuring that they develop technology are not vulnerable to any malicious moves taken by the malicious individuals.  The advancement in technology, therefore, has equally affected the cyberspace and thus leading to various risks facing this sphere of human life.  With the ever-evolving crime, the cyberspace has faced the cyber security threats which target its IT systems. , therefore, the technology industry has reacted by developing cyber security approaches which are aimed at countering cyber risks.  In the modern world, the cyberspace involves the use of the IT systems for different reasons including data storage used for various purposes such as for business and other administrative purposes such as those undertaken by the government.  Individuals, organizations and government authorities have however employed various strategies to cut the risk incurred as a result of cyber risk threats. The two main strategies which have been employed include cyber risk insurance and employing cyber security measures.

Cyber risk insurance is an insurance product which individuals and organizations purchase to prevent adversities which may be caused by the cybercrime attacks aimed at tampering with the information by malicious individuals (Biener, Eling & Wirfs, 2015).  The cyber risk insurance covers the cost related to the first and third parties.  The aim of this product is to insulate the company in regard to the cost adverse implications which may result from the cybercrime attacks.

 Some of the aspects in which this policy covers include the cost related to the investigation. The investigation process has cost implications.  The investigation is geared towards forensic investigation to find out what happened, repairing what was damaged and how to prevent future occurrence by identifying the loopholes (Romanosky et al., 2017).  This may involve the third party, and thus this policy will cater for this cost.  Secondly, this policy involves the losses which are incurred during the period in which the system is not functional. This may also involve covering of data loss recovery and the repair of the reputation that is damaged.   This policy also covers the cost related to data breach notifications of the affected parties in case of a data breach.  Finally, cyber risk insurance covers the cost related to lawsuits and extortion.  These are costs which are incurred during the legal battles over the leakage of sensitive information such as intellectual property among others.  

Therefore, insurance companies look at various aspects regarding the systems their clients are insuring. Some of these aspects include the technical issues relating to the attack. For instance, the damages which are caused or are the potential targets by the attackers have implications in the compensation since the higher the damage, the higher the cost (Romanosky et al., 2017). Other technical aspects include physically replacing stolen or damaged computers which may be at the center of the attack.  Other aspects that the insurance companies consider include legal compliance.  Compensations will only be done if the company involved in the attack fully complied with the legal requirements.   Other aspects which are of great concern include organizational and procedures (Romanosky et al., 2017). The organizational set up will either make an organization susceptible to any attack or prevent vulnerability to cybercrime attacks.  All these aspects are the key to possible exposure to the of the IT systems to any possible attack. In assessing the extent to which exposure might occur then the insurance company will then be able to undertake possible implications on their side in the case of an eventuality (Romanosky et al., 2017). The assessment of the risk will also help set the terms basing on the findings since incase the company is liable for some of the poor practice which exposed the system for an attack then the insurance company may not take the liability.

My opinion on whether the cyber insurance policy is a viable option for the business to mitigate the risks is that it is not an absolute solution to the cyber security risk. This is because, despite the use of the modern technology to secure the IT systems, it does not guarantee hundred percent sureties that the system cannot tamper since there are various factors which cause the system vulnerability (Bailey, 2014). Some of the reasons which cause cyber-attack include the organizational factors such as the laxity in the system administration which makes the system very prone to attack. For instance, poor system security administration may make lead to vulnerabilities which could have otherwise been avoided if proper system security measures had been put in place. I believe that having a good security measure including strict regulations in matters system security reduces the chances of cyber risks (Bailey, 2014).  Conclusively cyber risk insurance risk cannot be mitigated by solely taking insurance but implementing integrated approaches, including investing in system security and sealing loopholes of a cybercrime attack.


Romanosky, S., Ablon, L., Kuehn, A., & Jones, T. (2017). Content analysis of cyber insurance policies: How do carriers write policies and cyber price risk?

Biener, C., Eling, M., & Wirfs, J. H. (2015). Insurability of cyber risk: An empirical analysis. The Geneva Papers on Risk and Insurance-Issues and Practice40(1), 131-158.

Bailey, L. (2014). Mitigating moral hazard in cyber-risk insurance. JL & Cyber Warfare3, 1.

Place this order or similar order and get an amazing discount. USE Discount code “GET20” for 20% discount

Order your Paper Now

In terms of risk, what are the advantages (and/or disadvantages) of a well-diversified portfolio?

Investments are based on the belief that the rate of return justifies or compensates the investor for the risk associated with that particular investment. The risk associated with this investment is the chance of a loss. Or, to put it another way, the greater the chance of a loss the riskier the investment. Therefore, some statistical measures of the risk involved with an investment are necessary before the investment is made.

Address one of the following prompts in a concise but thorough manner.

  • What is the Expected Rate of Return on investment and what does it tell us about the probability of the risk involved with a particular investment?
  • In terms of risk, what are the advantages (and/or disadvantages) of a well-diversified portfolio?

Place this order or similar order and get an amazing discount. USE Discount code “GET20” for 20% discount

Order your Paper Now

Layout A Plan For Reducing The Risk Of Secondary Or Vicarious Trauma In The Classroom

Consider how you would lay out a plan for school staff on reducing the risk of secondary or vicarious trauma in a presentation. Reflect and consider at least two ways that educators and school professionals (i.e., social workers, counselor, or school psychologists) can work to reduce the risk of secondary or vicarious  trauma in the classroom. Reflect upon the importance of inclusive education environments and types of trauma. Also, define inclusive education and consider at least two strategies for creating an inclusive  learning environment. See the attached articles below.

Teacher Attrition: The Impacts of Stress By Dionna Farmer

Teachers are highly stressed because of issues they experience in their work environment. Because education is a profession filled with relationship building, problematic relationships with students and parents can cause teachers undue stress. Teachers are subjected to a myriad of issues, from violence within the classroom to workplace expectations that are beyond the scope of their professional knowledge. Teachers may also experience compassion fatigue and burnout from working with students with severe issues. Parents and unsupportive administrators are also causing the educational workplace to be stressful and embedding a culture that causes teachers to leave the profession. State and federal policies limit the ability of educators to utilize mental health benefits for situations they experience as a result of their employment. This research summarizes the extent and scope of how those who work in the field of education are put at risk for mental health issues resulting from stress on the job.

Nationwide in the United States, approximately 20% of teachers will leave the profession by the end of their third year of teaching, and 50% will leave by the

end of their fifth year (Boe et al., 2008). With 17% of new teachers leaving after their first year and 10% of veteran teachers (with 10 or more years of experience) leaving the profession annually, significant numbers of classroom teachers are exiting the profession each year and seeking new career paths (Blatt, 2016). According to the United States Labor Department, during the first 10 months of 2018, public school teachers quit at an average rate of 83 per 10,000 each month (Hackman & Morath, 2018). Although this is still low compared to “the rate for American workers overall—231 voluntary departures per 10 thousand workers in 2018—it is the highest rate for public educators since such records began in 2001” (Hackman & Morath, 2018).

Work-related stress is a well-known concept with roots in every facet of a teacher’s workday. Teachers are expected to have constant knowledge of each student’s mental state in order to make necessary referrals. Many administrators are exploiting teachers by unfair treatment and giving staff members more work than they can manage on top of their daily duties (Jacobs & Teise, 2019). When situations arise where students are put in direct danger, teachers are in the forefront of ensuring their safety. Teachers are experiencing compassion fatigue at an unprecedented level. The expectations put on educators in their work environment have a direct relationship to the current mental state of educators.

Special educators are at particular risk. The 2012-2013 Teacher Follow Up Survey (TFS) indicated that nearly 20% of teachers in the field of special education either moved schools or left the profession (NCES, 2014). When coupled with approximately 10% of special educators who transfer to general education each year, the numbers are alarming. Kersaint et al. (2007) noted that one significant reason for these departures is the emotional stress involved in teaching special education. Williams and Dikes (2015) confirmed that special education teachers report high levels of both emotional exhaustion and depersonalization. As these feelings are coupled with low levels of personal accomplishment, special education teachers experience burnout at higher rates and more quickly than their general education

The Delta Kappa Gamma Bulletin: International Journal for Professional Educators

peers, likely contributing to their higher turnover rates (Mitchell & Arnold, 2004; Williams & Dikes, 2015).

Teachers’ perceptions of working conditions influence positive or negative outlooks at a particular time. Perceptions of working conditions have also been linked to teacher satisfaction (Boyd et al., 2011). Teachers who report more positive working conditions also report greater satisfaction with teaching, while those who report less satisfaction report less than desirable working conditions. This holds true when comparing teachers within the same school (Boyd et al., 2011). Although the correlation of working conditions to satisfaction is not surprising, this serves as a reminder that an individual’s perceptions are his or her own reality.

In their 2007 study, Kersaint et al. examined the factors that influenced teachers in Florida who had either left the profession or remained. They identified six factors that influenced teachers’ decisions regarding staying or leaving:

• administrative support • financial benefits • paperwork/assessment • family responsibilities • joy of teaching • time with family. (p. 508)

Loeb et al. (2005) indicated that the strongest predictor of teacher stress is how a teacher perceives his or her workplace characteristics. Existing research has examined how workplace characteristics, such as administrative support, student behavior, classroom autonomy, teaching conditions, school organization, and professional culture impact teacher turnover (e.g., Boyd et al., 2011; Buckley et al., 2005; DeAngelis & Presley, 2011; Kelly & Northrop, 2015; Tye & O’Brien, 2002). Although these factors can be examined individually, with some having greater impact on individual teachers than others, likely, they do not function in isolation. Furthermore, Kukla-Acevedo (2009) stated that workplace characteristics are “driven by administrator behavior” (p. 443), which provides additional evidence of the interconnectivity of these factors. Boyd et al. (2011) stated, “Not surprisingly, schools with more positive working conditions on one dimension also tend to have more positive working conditions [in] other dimensions” (p. 318).

Factors in Perceptions of Working Conditions School Leadership

Supportive principals are indirectly able to alleviate the stress that their teachers feel (Saekiet al., 2018). Administrative support, as defined by Boyd et al. (2011), is “the extent to which principals and other school leaders make teachers’ work easier and help them to improve their teaching” (p.307). A lack of administrative support plays an important role in teacher attrition (Struyven & Vanthournout, 2014). Fifty- one percent of movers indicated that poor administrative support was a reason for dissatisfaction in their previous workplace, while 32% of leavers indicated it as a factor of their dissatisfaction (Ingersoll, 2000). Referring to “executive support,” (2013, p. 265), Burke at al. argued that support provided by school leaders strongly impacts a teacher’s decision to remain in the profession. Kersaint et al. (2007) also found that a lack of administrative support plays a role in teachers’ decision to leave the profession.

Controversial Issues in Education

Ladd (2011) utilized the results of a statewide teacher survey in North Carolina to explore the relationship between teachers’ perceptions of their working conditions and their departure rates from their schools. The survey examined working conditions by asking teachers about the quality of school leadership, professional development opportunities, opportunities for collaboration, facilities and resources, and teacher growth and leadership opportunities. Ladd analyzed survey items designed to measure the quality of school leadership, including whether the teachers viewed the administrator(s) as supportive with student discipline and classroom instruction, as well as if they were perceived to be fair with the evaluation process, included teachers in decision making, upheld high expectations of both students and teachers, and were trustworthy. Ladd found that the quality of school leadership was the highest predictor of teacher departure rates of all working-condition variables. Additionally, she found that the quality of school leadership had a stronger effect on teacher stress than the school characteristics of percentage of free or reduced lunch prices or the percentage of students of racial minorities.

Positive Relationships Burke et al. (2013) found that the most influential factor identified by beginning

teachers in their decision to remain in the profession was “student involvement,” described as the “extent to which you engage your students” (p. 265). This aligned with existing literature that explored the motivations of those entering the teaching profession, including the desire “to make a difference in the lives of their…students” (p. 265). Individuals who find that their visions of what teaching would be like do not match the reality of their experiences are more likely to leave the profession (Rinke, 2013).

Positive staff relationships have also been found to impact teacher stress, with teachers being more likely to stay in schools in which they engaged in positive relationships. Allensworth et al. (2009) defined positive relationships as those that are “trusting and working” and that allow teachers to feel comfortable engaging in discourse with their peers about their challenges and seeking advice from others. Correspondingly, collegial support and relationships play an important role in teacher attrition (Burke et al., 2013). Collegial support refers to the level of support offered by other teachers within school, which is a great importance to teachers, particularly new and beginning teachers. Similarly, positive relationships within the school setting with colleagues and between individuals who are involved in student learning allow for professional collaboration, which leads to higher levels of stability among a faculty (Burke et al., 2013). One may conclude that when positive relationships and collegial support are missing, the likelihood of teachers moving or leaving increases.

An individual’s desire to be liked, accepted, included, and supported is not exclusive to person-group interactions but is also applicable at the person-individual level, defined as the compatibility between an individual and a significant other in his or her work environment. Hargreaves (2001) explained that, although “classroom responsibilities are at the core of teachers’ work, it is teachers’ relations with other adults that seem to generate the most heightened expressions of emotionality among them” (p. 506). In fact, while many teachers describe their work of teaching as a source of pleasure, negative emotions such as dissatisfaction, anger, frustration, and fear seem to surface more frequently when describing their professional relationships (Hargreaves, 2001). The findings of the study described in this article

Dionna Farmer has completed her fourth year as a Grade 6 International Baccalaureate English Language Arts teacher at Sebastian River Middle School in Sebastian, Florida. Throughout her 14-year career, she has taught at the elementary, middle school, and high school levels and enjoys mentoring new teachers and collaborating with veteran teachers. A member of Beta Nu Chapter in Florida State Organization, Farmer is currently in her second year of doctoral studies at Florida Southern College. Her dissertation focus is how the field of education mentally affects teachers.

44 The Delta Kappa Gamma Bulletin: International Journal for Professional Educators

differed slightly from those of Hargreaves (2001). Each of the participants described in detail their interactions with individuals within their new building, primarily their building administrator. However, participants who experienced a strong fit with their administrators expressed positive emotions such as joy, happiness, and relief when describing their new professional relationships.

Mental Health Issues Teachers have reported increased contact with health providers due to increased

Place this order or similar order and get an amazing discount. USE Discount code “GET20” for 20% discount

Order your Paper Now




Prepared by: Mary H. Maguire, California State University, Sacramento Kim Schnurbush, California State University,Sacramento

Psychology of Drugs and Abuse

Drug Addiction May Be Hereditary, Study Suggests

Steve Connor

Learning Outcomes

After reading this article, you will be able to:

  • Discuss the role of genetics in drug addiction. • Identify the contribution of self-control to drug addiction.

The human brain may be “wired up” for addictive behav- iour according to a study that shows how some people are more likely than others to become addicted to crack cocaine.

Scientists have found specific abnormalities in the brains of regular cocaine users which are likely to have been present in early childhood rather than coming about as a result of the drug misuse.

The researchers also found similar abnormalities in the brothers and sisters of cocaine addicts—even though the sib- lings were not themselves drug users—but did not find the same brain patterns in the general population.

The discovery of specific brain abnormalities in the families of drug addicts suggests a genetic basis for addictive behav- iour. But it also implies that some people can overcome this predisposition to remain free of drugs, said Karen Ersche of the University of Cambridge.

“Cocaine is a highly addictive drug but only some people get hooked on it. However, your chances of getting hooked rise about eight times if you have a family member who is addicted,” Dr Ersche said.

“Our findings suggest that drug addiction is not a failure of character or a life-style choice. It’s a problem with the brain.

If your brain is wired for addiction it’s easier for the drugs to take over, but the good thing is that this is not inevitable,” she said.

The study, funded by the Medical Research Council and published in the journal Science, used hospital scanners to anal- yse the brains of 50 cocaine addicts and compared them against the brain scans of their nonaddicted siblings. As an overall con- trol, the researchers also scanned the brains of 50 unrelated, healthy volunteers.

The scans showed that both the addicts and their siblings shared defects in the nerve fibres that communicate with the front part of the brain, the temporal cortex, which is known to be involved in controlling impulsive behaviour.

Previous research has shown that drug addiction is linked with brain abnormalities involved with self control but it was not known whether the drug misuse was the cause or the result of the irregularities in the brain.

“Given that some forms of drug addiction are thought to develop out of bad habits that get out of control, it’s intriguing that siblings who don’t abuse drugs show similar brain abnor- malities as the ones who have been abusing drugs for many years,” Dr Ersche said.

“Our findings now shed light on why the risk of becoming addicted to drugs is increased in people with a family history of drug or alcohol dependence—parts of their brains underlying self-control abilities work less efficiently,” she said.

“The use of drugs such as cocaine further exacerbates this problem, paving the way for addiction to develop from occa- sional use,” she added.

The next stage of the research is to find out why the drug- free siblings were able to avoid getting hooked on drugs.



Drug Addiction May Be Hereditary, Study Suggests by Steve Connor

They may have developed other interests that led them away from drug taking, or have been influenced by older family members.

“While we still have more work to do to fully address the reasons why some family members show a greater resilience against addiction, our results will provide the scientific basis for the development of more effective prevention and treatment for people at risk,” Dr Ersche said.

Professor Les Iversen of the University of Oxford said: “These new findings reinforce the view that the propensity to addiction is dependent on inherited differences in brain cir- cuitry, and offer the possibility of new ways of treating high- risk individuals to develop better ‘self control’.”

Critical Thinking

  1. Discusswhytheriskforbecomingaddictedtodrugsis increased in those with a family history of drug dependence.

Analyze two different theories that explain the onset of drug addiction.

Internet References

National Council on Alcohol and Drug Dependence


National Institute on Drug Abuse


Connor, Steve, “Drug Addiction May Be Hereditary, Study Suggests,” The Independent, February 3, 2012. Copyright © 2012 The Independent. Reprinted by permission. All rights reserved.


Do you need a similar assignment done for you from scratch? We have qualified writers to help you. We assure you an A+ quality paper that is free from plagiarism. Order now for an Amazing Discount!
Use Discount Code “Newclient” for a 15% Discount!

NB: We do not resell papers. Upon ordering, we do an original paper exclusively for you.

Place this order or similar order and get an amazing discount. USE Discount code “GET20” for 20% discount

Order your Paper Now

Discuss where person grew up household members abandonment or losses family strengths/support family stressors/problems family mental health and substance abuse history and other important family risk factors.

Stress On 18 yr. old. fem. college stude.Adult Biopsychosocial Assessment The biopsychosocial model (abbreviated ”BPS”) is a general model or approach positing that biological, psychological (which entails thoughts, emotions

Adult Biopsychosocial Assessment The biopsychosocial model (abbreviated ”BPS”) is a general model or approach positing that biological, psychological (which entails thoughts, emotions, and behaviors), and social (socio-economical, socio-environmental, and cultural) factors, all play a significant role in human functioning in the context of disease or illness. Indeed, health is best understood in terms of a combination of biological, psychological, and social factors rather than purely in biological terms. Spiritual constructs also affect an individuals disease or illness. This is in contrast to the traditional, reductionist biomedical model of medicine that suggests every disease process can be explained in terms of an underlying deviation from normal function such as a pathogen, genetic or developmental abnormality, or injury. The concept is used in fields such as medicine, nursing, sociology, and particularly in more specialist fields such as psychiatry, health psychology, family therapy, chiropractic, clinical social work, and clinical psychology. The biopsychosocial paradigm is also a technical term for the popular concept of the ”mindbody connection”, which addresses more philosophical arguments between the biopsychosocial and biomedical models. FORMAT for NOTES We will use the Mental Status Examination template for documenting notes. ( See folder in Blackboard). Constructing a Case Formulation Demographic Information: Basic demographic information disguised for confidentiality (Ex:. S is a 28 yr. old Caucasian, single mother of 3 children 2 in foster care. She has been living in a womens residential program with her youngest child since August 2013. She has ongoing involvement with substance abuse treatment programs…) Identification of Subject: How was this person selected? Why did you pick them? Using the subjects own words, when possible, why are they agreeable to participating in this assessment? History: (past personal and social history) Family and other Significant Relationships during Childhood/Adolescence : Discuss where person grew up, household members, abandonment or losses, family strengths/support, family stressors/problems, family mental health and substance abuse history, and other important family risk factors. Educational History: Discuss educational environment (public, private, large, small, etc.), academic abilities, any special education services, grade completed, college or trade school attendance, educational strengths/support, and educational stressors/problems. Occupational/Work History: Discuss occupational/work experience, mention any special circumstances that prevented work, strengths/support, and occupation related stressors/problems. Also discuss the subjects ability to express and regulate emotions. Past Interferences with Global

Place this order or similar order and get an amazing discount. USE Discount code “GET20” for 20% discount

Order your Paper Now

Does improved communication with elderly patients (P) Braden score (I) increase nursing interventions (C) for patients with increased risk of developing pressure ulcers during hospitalization (O)


APA formatting (no title page needed, APA citations, APA style reference list, headings, and proper introduction and conclusion paragraphs). End the introductory paragraph with a purpose statement and follow with required APA headings. Please use word or spell check to help with spelling. Please use : Times New Roman 12-point font, double spacing, 1” margins, 1/2” indentations beginning of each paragraph, and page numbers. Be sure to use evidence from the readings and include in-text citations. Avoid quotes; paraphrase to incorporate evidence into your own writing. *** locate 3 to 4 different articles/sources representing two different types of evidence from the following categories: (a) systematic review, (b) national clinical guidelines and/or (c) peer-reviewed quantitative / qualitative studies. A reference list is required. Use the most current evidence (usually ≤ 6-years-old.) *** Also please utilize your own words for main ideas. Topic: Does improved communication with elderly patients (P) Braden score (I) increase nursing interventions (C) for patients with increased risk of developing pressure ulcers during hospitalization (O) Directions: Explain the challenges of performing a literature search on this topic. Then, describe the databases and the search terms and key words that you used in your online search related to the specific clinical problem listed in the topic for your evidence base problem (ebp) Project. Explain what went well, what were the challenges, and the amount of time needed to complete the search. Please also list some recommendations and tips that you would give to help or improve searches. *** locate 3 to 4 different articles/sources representing two different types of evidence from the following categories: (a) systematic review, (b) national clinical guidelines and/or (c) peer-reviewed quantitative / qualitative studies. A reference list is required. Use the most current evidence (usually ≤ 6-years-old.) ***

Place this order or similar order and get an amazing discount. USE Discount code “GET20” for 20% discount

Order your Paper Now

Explain how the joint venture limited the risk of the international business.

1. International Joint Venture Anheuser-Busch (which is now part of AB InBev due to a merger), the producer of Budweiser and other beers, has engaged in a joint venture with Kirin Brewery, the largest brewery in Japan. The joint venture enabled Anheuser-Busch to have its beer distributed through Kirin’s distribution channels in Japan. In addition, it could utilize Kirin’s facilities to produce beer that would be sold locally. In return, Anheuser-Busch provided information about the American beer market to Kirin.

a. Explain how the joint venture enabled Anheuser-Busch to achieve its objective of maximizing shareholder wealth.

b. Explain how the joint venture limited the risk of the international business.

c. Many international joint ventures are intended to circumvent barriers that normally prevent foreign competition. What barrier in Japan did Anheuser-Busch circumvent as a result of the joint venture? What barrier in the United States did Kirin circumvent as a result of the joint venture?

d. Explain how Anheuser-Busch could have lost some of its market share in countries outside Japan as a result of this particular joint venture.


2. Valuation of Walmart’s International Business In addition to all of its stores in the United States, Walmart Stores, Inc. has 13 stores in Argentina, 302 stores in Brazil, 289 stores in Canada, 73 stores in China, 889 stores in Mexico, and 335 stores in the United Kingdom. Overall, it has 2,750 stores in foreign countries. Consider that the value of Walmart is composed of two parts, a U.S. part (due to business in the United States) and a non-U.S. part (due to business in other countries). Explain how to determine the present value (in dollars) of the non-U.S. part assuming that you had access to all the details of Walmart businesses outside the United States.


3. Impact of International Business on Cash Flows and Risk Nantucket Travel Agency specializes in tours for American tourists. Until recently, all of its business was in the United States. It just established a subsidiary in Athens, Greece, which provides tour services in the Greek islands for American tourists. It rented a shop near the port of Athens. It also hired residents of Athens who could speak English and provide tours of the Greek islands. The subsidiary’s main costs are rent and salaries for its employees and the lease of a few large boats in Athens that it uses for tours. American tourists pay for the entire tour in dollars at Nantucket’s main U.S. office before they depart for Greece.

a. Explain why Nantucket may be able to effectively capitalize on international opportunities such as the Greek island tours.

b. Nantucket is privately owned by owners who reside in the United States and work in the main office. Explain possible agency problems associated with the creation of a subsidiary in Athens, Greece. How can Nantucket attempt to reduce these agency costs?

c. Greece’s cost of labor and rent are relatively low. Explain why this information is relevant to Nantucket’s decision to establish a tour business in Greece.

d. Explain how the cash flow situation of the Greek tour business exposes Nantucket to exchange rate risk. Is Nantucket favorably or unfavorably affected when the euro (Greece’s currency) appreciates against the dollar? Explain.

e. Nantucket plans to finance its Greek tour business. Its subsidiary could obtain loans in euros from a bank in Greece to cover its rent, and its main office could pay off the loans over time. Alternatively, its main office could borrow dollars and would periodically convert dollars to euros to pay the expenses in Greece. Does either type of loan reduce the exposure of Nantucket to exchange rate risk? Explain.

f. Explain how the Greek island tour business could expose Nantucket to political country risk.

4. Exposure of MNCs to Exchange Rate Movements Arlington Co. expects to receive 10 million euros in each of the next 10 years. It will need to obtain 2 million Mexican pesos in each of the next 10 years. The euro exchange rate is presently valued at $1.38 and is expected to depreciate by 2 percent each year over time. The peso is valued at $.13 and is expected to depreciate by 2 percent each year over time. Review the valuation equation for an MNC. Do you think that the exchange rate movements will have a favorable or unfavorable effect on the MNC?


Place this order or similar order and get an amazing discount. USE Discount code “GET20” for 20% discount

Order your Paper Now

Describe why a manager needs to understand the characteristics and importance of financial markets including risk and efficiency


Principles of Finance

W1 1In 200 words, summarize the role of management as
it relates to finance in a corporation. In your post, address the

  • Indicate the various aspects of
    finance that management must understand.
  • Describe why a manager needs to
    understand the characteristics and importance of financial markets
    including risk and efficiency.
  • Describe why cash flow is more
    important than sales in a business.
  • Discuss what could happen if
    management does not fulfill responsibilities related to finance. If
    you have one, share a real world example from your own professional
    experience or from an external source.


Imagine that you have decided you need a new
car, but not any car will do; you have decided to purchase the car of your
dreams. Conduct some research as to the cost of this car. You have
determined in this imagined scenario that you could afford to make a 10% down
payment. You can borrow the balance either from your local bank using a
four-year loan or from the dealerships finance company. If you purchase
from your dealerships finance company, the APR will be 10% with your 10% down
and monthly payments over three years. However, the dealership will give you a
rebate of 5% of the car price after the three year term is complete. You
want the best deal possible, so you consider the following questions:

  • What type of car have you
    selected, and what will it cost?
  • What is the interest rate from
    your local bank for a car loan for four years?
  • What will your payment be to
    your local bank, assuming your 10% down payment? Be sure to use the
    formula provided in Chapter 4 and show your work. How much will that car
    have cost in four years?
  • What will your payment be to
    the dealership finance company assuming your 10% down payment? Be sure to
    use the formula provided in Chapter 4 and show your work. How much will
    that car have cost in 3 years?
  • Which is the better deal and

Under: Features / BOND LOOKUP / Find Bonds by Name:

Type in the first letter of your last name.

Under œType Choose one of the œCorp Bonds.

interest rates for bonds today is 5% for an AAA rated bond. Calculate the price
of the bond you have selected relative to the 5%. Is the bond selling at a
premium or a discount? Why? Be sure to show how you arrived at your
answer. What other factors may influence the value of a bond?

Imagine the producers of this video ask you to
appear in the video to offer two additional considerations in capital budgeting
decisions. One consideration must be quantitative (numeric). The other must be
qualitative (non-numeric). Write a script to describe capital budgeting
considerations that you think are important for managers to consider. Your
script should be 200 words.

W4 2 Corporations often use different costs of capital for
different operating divisions. Using an example, calculate the weighted cost of
capital (WACC). What are some potential issues in using varying techniques for
cost of capital for different divisions? If the overall company weighted
average cost of capital (WACC) were used as the hurdle rate for all divisions,
would more conservative or riskier divisions get a greater share of capital?
Explain your reasoning. What are two techniques that you could use to develop a
rough estimate for each divisions cost of capital? Your response should be 200

W5 1 Ratio Analysis

Using PROQUEST or JSTOR, find two articles that
discuss financial ratio analysis. Identify two advantages and two disadvantages
to using ratios in financial analysis 200 words.

Place this order or similar order and get an amazing discount. USE Discount code “GET20” for 20% discount

Order your Paper Now

Risk Response Matrix

Risk Response Matrix

1. Project Purpose

The Food Club, Gujarat, India, authorized a project to design a wellness program with the expectations of long-term benefits for both employees and the company.

Organizational need: It is expected to reduce employee turnover, increase motivation and engagement, reduce absenteeism, manage chronic diseases in the workplace, create an attractive work culture and enhance the corporate image while improving the employees’ productivity.

Risk Response Matrix

Social needs: The result of this project will be precisely focused on improving each employee’s mental and physical health, which will lead to gaining a work-life balance.

2. Measurable Project Objectives and Related Success Criteria

Measurable Project ObjectivesRelated Success Criteria
1. Reduce employee turnoverReduce employee turnover by 5% in 2022 and 10% by 2023.
2. Reduce absenteeism among employeesReduce employee absenteeism by 2% immediately.
3. Significantly reducing work-related stress among employees.Reduce work-related stress by at least 5%.
4. Improve employee productivity.Increase employee productivity by 5%.
5. Increasing employee morale and loyalty.Increase employees’ loyalty to the company and gain a high program participation rate.
6. Create an attractive work culture.Gain a high job applying rate through job banks.

Note: The above-mentioned success criteria can be measured through employee surveys and reviews, customer surveys, employee interviews, and record analysis.

3. High-Level Requirements

1. Project Charter Approval

2. Health care contract approval

3. Change implementation Plan approval

4. Budget approval

4. High-level Project Boundaries and Key Deliverables

Project boundaries

The wellness program would consist of training, Zumba, meditation, yoga, program launch, health care for employees, free consultation for families, and third party contract for doctor (physiotherapist, physiologist) appointments.

However, it does not include physicians, medical tests, medicines, financial support, ENT, dental, and bonus payments.

Key Deliverables

The main deliverables are project charter, project master plan, scope statement, budget, risk management plan, designing the wellness plan, and conducting an employee survey.

5. Overall Project Risk

There might be a posibility that a wellness program transition not met the expectation along with a significant risk of financial benefit as a result of improved health. There can be a risk of not finding a health team in the covid situation, and also, health care insurance premiums might be expensive. In addition, there may be a risk of time management in terms of planning and launching the initial design and the pilot program.

6. Summary Milestone Schedule

1.Initial discussion with CEO, directors, and the managersDue on 10/10/2021
2.Conduct an employee survey to identify designing requirements and set goals.Due on 15/11/2021
3.Project charter preparation and get the approvalDue on 20/11/2021
4.Connect with clinic staff, insurance agent, training coach, motivational guest speaker, and the gym owner to get the best packages, appointments, and reservationsDue on 05/12/2021
5.Get approval from the finance department for each criterionDue on 10/12/2021
6.Project master plan and risk management plan approvalDue on 15/12/2021
7.Launch and begin a three-month pilot programStart on 02/01/2022
8.Estimated completion of the pilot programDue on 31/03/2022

7. Pre Approved Financial Resources

(All values are in Indian Rupees.)

Initial Research expenses = 10,000

Wellness program designing fees = 60,000

Three months pilot program = 190,000

260,000 (Approximately CAD 4,350)

8. Key Stakeholder List

Internal/ ExternalPosition/OrganizationRole in the Project
InternalCEOApproving the project
InternalProject ManagerMonitor the project overall (resources, progress, budget, and deadlines)Get the documents approved for activities
InternalOwner of The Food ClubInvestor
InternalFinance headDistribute budget for activities in the pilot program
InternalHR headSchedule employees appropriately for the shifts and the program participation.Negotiate with the insurance company and gym organization
InternalTeam employeesParticipate in the initial Research and pilot program
ExternalMotivational SpeakerConduct motivational speech
Team employeeGet document approval for activities
ExternalOwner of ABC gym clubMembership for employees
ExternalCo-ordinator – IVC private clinicConduct the flu clinic
ExternalTrainerTrain employees
ExternalAgent – XYZ insurance companyCover mediclaim for employees

9. Project Approval Requirements

The business owner is responsible for approving the project charter and signing off on the project. The project management team is responsible for designing the wellness program and conducting employee interviews and surveys. If the project meets all related success criteria, then the project will be considered approved.

In order for the project to move to the:

1. Planning phase: the project charter needs to be approved.

2. Closing phase: the project master plan needs to be approved.

10. Project Exit Criteria

Criteria for closing the project:

1. All milestones must be completed within the timeframes and budgets specified.

2. All the risks identified during this project must be considered and sorted out properly.

4. The project team should be trained and appropriately placed with assigned duties.

Criteria for canceling the project:

If there is no approval on the project charter or the master plan, the project will be canceled.

Place this order or similar order and get an amazing discount. USE Discount code “GET20” for 20% discount

Order your Paper Now