Literature Review of Genocide in Rwanda: Leadership, ethics and organizational failure in a post-colonial context

During mid-1994, more than 800,000 Tutsi and a moderate number of Hutus were killed in the Rwandan genocide (Long, Grant, Mills, Gaudet & Warren, 2009, p271). The international community failed to prevent and end the genocide. This happened not because they had no ability to do so, but they lacked better organizational structures and a good process of decision making. Also, the reason why the genocide spread at a faster pace was due to failure of organizations such as the United Nations, which is one of the largest organizations in the world. The Rwandan experiences during the year 1994 are occurrences that are beyond the approach of organizational analysis. Such occurrences are inappropriate to apply to the current organizational and structural analysis. Surprisingly, the genocide had, not only well organized structures, but also depended on militia, the Rwandan government and the police force. The genocide spread fast because of organizational failure. The aspect of organizational failure is blamed on the United Nations, which was reluctant and also unwilling to end the genocide, despite its troops in the nation which Romeo Dallaire led.  The case of genocide in Rwanda depicts organizational issues such as leadership, ethics and organizational structure

After the Rwandan genocide, the commander of the United Nations Assistance Mission for Rwanda (UNAMIR) Romeo Dallaire blamed himself for poor leadership skills. The case study highlights how Dallaire confessed of his poor leadership skills because he did not succeed in convincing the United Nations as well as the Department of Peacekeeping Operations (DPKO) of the seriousness of the situation in Rwanda. However, from his grief, Romeo blamed the United Nations for its ill manner in tackling the Rwandan genocide. Romeo Dallaire also stated that, even though he had good military training as well as basic humanitarian and political skills, the United Nations rules and regulations were too strict that he could not make use of his militia skills (Long, Grant, Mills, Gaudet & Warren, 2009, p275). In addition, his troops, which he was supposed to command, were commanded by their nations. As such, Dallaire’s hands were tied since his troops sometimes openly refused to adhere to his command, if their nations of origin felt that it was not necessary. According to Romeo’s recommendations, the United Nations organizational structure needs to undergo a renaissance. It is only through a renaissance that the organization would not be restricted to its bureaucrats, secretariat and administration and instead, include the member countries. However, it will be important for the member countries to rethink their roles and also commit to renewing their purpose.  Failure to implement such measures, Romeo Dallaire believes that humanity will perish while the United Nations remains irrelevant (Weiss, 2013, p23).

After the post-colonial period, other organizations were formed. For example, the Organization of Africa Union (OAU), currently known as the Africa union (AU) also failed in its mission to prevent the genocide. With all the equipments and resources that the organization had in place, it failed miserably. The fact is that some of its key leaders collaborated with the conflicting parties. This was a demonstration of unethical behavior in leadership.  There were no common goals in decision making. Also, during this time, other world superpowers such as the USA demonstrated poor leadership skills by advising the United Nations to withdraw from Rwanda since they didn’t have any national interests in the country. The nation ignored its political responsibility and allowed hundreds of Rwandese to perish. By doing so, the United States seemed to have been in support of the Tutsi interests.  This was once again unethical.

The United Nations had poor leadership. This made the decision making process almost impossible. Leaders of the organization were not serious with what was happening in Rwanda. The mode of decision making (rational/unitary), which focused on hierarchical authority was so slow that a lot of time was taken during the process (Heffernan, 2014, p18). Also, a lot of people were involved in the decision making process. When Romeo Dallaire was asked to assess the situation in Rwanda and make a report to the United Nations, the report had four options. Although the first two options were the best for the Rwandan situation, the United Nations, after a long time of decision making process concluded that Romeo Dallaire had no option, but to adopt option three. Also, he was reminded that it could take three months or more for the deployment decision to get through. Despite the urgency of the situation in Rwanda, the UN sent 2,500 troops. The slow decision making process can also be blamed for the failure in preventing and ending the Rwandan genocide. Dallaire’s report passed through many hands before it was agreed upon. The report was passed from the DPKO leadership to the UN secretary general, then to the Security Council and then voted out. This shows that there was group decision making (Pettinger, 2010, p12), and this was not important, especially in times of emergency like what was happening in Rwanda.  If the Rwandese Patriotic Front (RPF) had not flown to New York to lobby the UN to speed up the process, then the situation in Rwanda could have worsened.

During the decision making process, there are different decisional roles. One of the roles is resource allocation (Barnett, 2014, p9). Resources are very important if any organizational projects are to be implemented.  This was not so during the Rwandan genocide situation. Although Dallaire returned to Rwanda with the enthusiasm to monitor the fragile peace, one of the challenges he encountered was the lack of resources. The united nations, together with the supporting nations such as Bangladesh, France and Belgium did not offer enough resources to the troops in Rwanda. Most importantly, after his arrival in Rwanda, the situation was worsened by what happened in Burundi.  The United Nations failed to supply more troops. Dallaire was also forced to return his Mercedes and live like any other soldier. Food was also limited, and they were forced to share the little they had. They also lacked serviced vehicles, machinery, equipment and lodgings. This was a frustration among the soldiers. This could have led to their demoralization in ensuring peace in Rwanda.

The government system of Rwanda had poor organizational structures. The government did not ensure equality between the Tutsi and Hutu after independence. The Tutsi enjoyed the country’s wealth under the expense of the Hutu. They also had a higher status in the country. Although the Belgium colony brought about this ethnic diversity, it should have been abolished after independence (Bellamy Alex & Paul, Williams, 2010, p14). It can be said that poor governance was a reason for the genocide even after the Arusha accords. The government could have had departments ensuring that all Rwandese attended equally. As such, the Hutu could never have thought of warring against the Tutsi.  During the time of the genocide, the conflicting parties were the Tutsi and Hutu. This indicated that the government had poor leadership and was unethical as the leadership was based on tribal grounds. Organizational leadership focuses on equality and respect for all.

Coordination is one of the major aspects of leadership. In order for decisions to be implemented, those involved should have a common goal. The United Nations troops led by Dallaire, despite the challenges they were facing were working well to ensure peace. Dallaire was in charge of both military and political operations until Jacques-Roger Booh-Booh arrived, took charge of the political aspects, and acted as the overall head of the mission (Jacobson, 2012, p8).  Booh-Booh and his staff had an absurd work ethic and political approach. There was no coordination between Dallaire, Booh-Booh and the chief administration officer who allocated more resources to the civilians and ignored the staff. This was unethical, and the United Nations overlooked Dallaire’s attempt to have him rejected. Also, after there were several killings in the demilitarized zone, Dallaire recommended to Booh-Booh about the search and seize of the weapons that were used. Surprisingly, Booh-Booh refused the request, arguing that it would damage the peace process, and the UN troops would be seen as if taking action only against the government. Also, Booh-Booh frustrated Dallaire’s report to DPKO in which he had requested for phase two troops and logistical support. From this, it can be understood that, although UN officials in Rwanda were sent for the same purpose, they had different ideas, and there was no coordination to achieve a common goal. This led to UN failure to prevent and end the genocide.

It can be concluded that, although Dallaire is blamed for the genocide in Rwanda. The United Nations is the one to blame. It lacked good leadership and decision making process. Its organizational structure was also a failure. The government of Rwanda and its organizational structure is also to blame. For any project to be fully and well implemented, good leadership, organizational structure and good ethics are important.


Barnett, M. 2014. “The United Nations Security Council in Rwanda,” International Decision-Making in the Age of Genocide. Washington, DC: Geroge Washington University.

Bellamy, Alex J. & Paul D. Williams, (eds). 2010. Understanding Peacekeeping, 2nd Ed, Cambridge: Polity Press.

Heffernan, M. 2014. Topic: Decision Making. Melbourne: RMIT University. Www.

Jacobson, T. W. 2012.  U.N. Peacekeeping: Few Successes, Many Failures, Inherent Flaws. Washington, DC: International Diplomacy & Public Policy Center, LLC.

Long, B. S., Grant, J.,  Mills, A. J.,  Gaudet, E. R. & Warren, A. 2009.  Genocide in Rwanda: Leadership, Ethics, and Organizational “Failure” in a Postcolonial Context. Published in Raufflet and Mills (eds.), The Dark Side: Critical Cases in the Downside of Business. Sheffield: Greenleaf Publishing, pp. 268-289.

Pettinger, R. 2010, Organizational Behavior: Performance management in practice. Routledge, London. Chapter 20.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     

Weiss, T. G. 2013. What’s Wrong with the United Nations and How to Fix it.  Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, pp288.

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Literature review on Logistic Regression


In this part, a form of bankruptcy calculation provisional on financial statements is tendered. Despite giving an argument on the recommended variables, the subject of functional form is presented. The condition most frequently applied for the bankruptcy calculation model denotes that the extent to which two variables can replace another holding projected risk unaffected will be continuous. If the feature confined by sole financial ratios is believed less of a replacement for any other feature as this proportion grows, this restraint might not be suitable. Particularly, the configuration of constant compensation will instigate calculations susceptible to noncredible outliers. A requirement of the logit model that permits flexible rates of reparation is aggravated. The model is projected along with the regression effects are reported.

Literature review on Logistic Regression

Second; by querying the direct associations flanked by financial ratios as well as the meticulous result of bankruptcy, a model configuration that establishes a higher bound on probability estimation is investigated. By referencing an easy model of errors, the specification differentiates between the likelihood of bankruptcy and the likelihood of insolvency. While the forecasted likelihoods of bankruptcy could be assessed empirically, the occurrence of bankruptcy is not apparent. However, provisional on the model configuration, chances can also be obtained for this occurrence. An appraisal is tendered on the model’s capability to gauge the overall growth in credit dangers for the limited company liability sectors. Individual bankruptcy chances proliferate with the company’s debt to calculate expected loss in deficiency of improved values. This computation is then collected and fixed with entire loan losses for the limited company liability sector over its existence. Lastly, the likelihood of reviewing the outcome of macro variables in a small panel of companies are discovered. With indication to aggregation possessions of a probit model, a proposal is tendered on how to approximate time-definite consequences on collective data as a way to make out macro coefficients that could be comprised in the micro-level representation.

Financial ratios reproduce key connections amid financial variables and give basic financial preparation and study principles. Ratios are regularly employed as a foundation for construing a firm’s performance patterns, its trade, fiscal and market risk patterns, and a variety of commercial, and strategic judgments, for example, unifications, consolidations and insolvency. Even though ratios have been productively employed in multiple discriminant analysis (MDA) to categorize unsuccessful and non-failed companies, the procedure used in choosing ratios has been condemned. Numerous researchers have experimented in their appraisal of bankruptcy research that a brute empiricism is characteristically employed to choose the financial percentages for their representations. Previous insolvency forecasting analysis did not encompass a theory of financial breakdown on which to center the selection of definite ratios; consequently, the empirical judgments cannot be simplified to designate the most probable forecasters of financial malfunction. In attempting to comprehend the failure course and distinguishing that financial worth is centered on future cash information current and flow, the cash-centered subsidized flow model was established by Helfcrt and proposed in the FASB.

Logistic Regression

Cornfield (2000, 97) was the foremost researcher to employ logistic regression (LR) in untimely periods. They were followed by other researchers who employed this method to approximate the likelihood of happening of a course as a purpose of additional variables. The deployment of LR augmented in the 1980s, plus currently it comprises one of the main extensively used techniques in the study in, Finance, particularly in accounting. Among the intentions in accounting is to study those features that at a specified instance influence the survival of an accounting difficulty and to direct the latter element, plus to make models with prognostic capability that can review the stipulated Finance problem (Menard 2011, 7). The logistic regression representation is extremely suitable for addressing subjects of this category, offering an adequately copious and well-distributed model is obtainable. Additionally, in scheming the study and trailing an adequate writing investigation and with the excellent familiarity of the topic, all the imperative variables for clarifying the reaction variable ought to be considered (Diaz-Quijano 2012, 9).

Logistic Regression is a trendy and useful system for modeling resounding results as a function of both permanent and clear-cut variables. The issue is: how forceful is it? Or rather: how forceful are the general executions? Even a comprehensive reference for instance scrutinizing clear-cut data, instigates an experimental observation. From a hypothetical perspective, the logistic general linear model is a basic problem. The optimized measure is log-concave, which denotes an exclusive global limit and no confined limits to get cornered (El-Habil 2012, 78). Gradients usually imply bearings that are continually improving. Nevertheless, the standard techniques of resolving the logistic universal linear model are the Newton-Raphson technique or the directly correlated iteratively reweighted technique that uses least squares (Allison 2012, 34). Furthermore, these techniques, while characteristically extremely fast, do not certify convergence in all situations. If Newton-Raphson methods are not appealing, numerous other optimization systems could be employed:

•           Stochastic gradient descent

•           Conjugate gradient

A controlling dilemma with logistic regression emerges from an attribute of training data: divisions of results that are split or quasi split by divisions of the varying aspects.

The Logistic Regression Model

Logistic regression study scrutinizes the manipulation of various aspects on a dichotomous effect by approximating the likelihood of the event’s happening. This is implemented by investigating the connection between one or more sovereign variables as well as the dichotomous result log odds by calculating the log odds alterations of the dependable aspects rather than the individual dependent variable. The ratio of log odds ratio is that of two odds plus it is a synopsis computation of the association of two variables. The employment of the log odds relation in logistic regression gives a more unsophisticated account of the probabilistic connection of the changeable aspects and effect in contrast to a linear regression from which linear associations and further rich statistics can be inferred.

There exist two representations of logistic regression: binomial logistic regression and multinomial logistic regression. Binominal logistic regression is characteristically used in the event the dependent aspect that is varying is dichotomous while the autonomous variables are either permanent or definite variables. Logistic regression is majorly employed in this circumstance. In the event, the dependent variable is never dichotomous in nature and consists of over two instances; a multinomial logistic regression could be utilized. It is as well known as logit regression, whereas multinomial logistic regression encompasses truly comparable consequences to binominal logistic regression.


Dependent variable dichotomous (clear cut) (bearing a seatbelt or avoiding to bear a seatbelt). If this is not the case then, multinomial (logit) regression is supposed to be employed;

Dependent or Autonomous variables: interval or clear cut


Nevertheless, it does not presume a liner connection between the clear-cut dependent along with independent variables

2. The example is great- dependability of estimation reduces or goes down when there are merely a handful of cases

3. Ivs are never considered as linear functions of one other

4. Customary distribution is not essential for the dependent aspect or variable.

5. Homoscedasticity is never essential for every level of the autonomous variables.

6. Generally distributed accounts of mistakes are not presupposed.

7. The independent variables require not being in the levels of intervals

Logistic Regression is considered to be a category of the analytical model, which can be employed when the intended variable is a definite variable having two levels – for instance live/die, having an ailment or not having the ailment, buying a product or not buying, winning a race or not winning and many more.  A logistic regression representation never not entail judgment trees and is further similar to nonlinear regression, for example, fixing a polynomial to a collection of statistics and values. Logistic regression could be employed primarily with two categories of the intended target variables:

1.  A clear-cut target variable, which has precisely two levels (for example a binominal or dichotomous variable).

2.  A constant target variable, which has significances in the degrees of 0.0 to 1.0 in lieu of possibility values or percentages.

As an instance of logistic regression, a person should reflect on a research whose intention is to form the reply to a drug as a purpose of the dosage of the medicine given.  The intended (dependent) variable, reaction, has a degree 1 if the patient is productively given medication through the drug while 0 if the medicine is not thriving.

The Logistic Model Formula 

This formula calculates the likelihood of the selected reaction being functional figures of the forecaster variables. If a forecaster variable is clear-cut variable having two significances, then one distinct variable the values is assigned the price 1 while the other is allocated the 0 price. It should be noted that DTREG permits a person to employ any figure for clear-cut variables for instance “Male” and “Female”, plus it exchanges these figurative names into 0/1 standards.  Therefore, a person does not need being apprehensive of recoding clear-cut values (Consentino & Claeskens 2011, 13). If a forecaster variable is a definite variable having over two levels, then a disconnected model variable is engendered to symbolize every of the levels except for one that is prohibited.  The significance of the model variable is 1 on stipulations that the variable is of that class, and the significance is 0 on the stipulations that the variable is of any additional category. Therefore, not an excess of one model variable will be given level 1.  On stipulations that the variable encompasses the value of the barred class, after that all of the model variables created for the variable are given the level 0 (Yu-Pin et al 2011, 67).  DTREG repeatedly engenders the model variables for clear-cut forecaster variables; all a person requires doing is to select variables as being conditional and clear-cut. In conclusion, the logistic principle has every constant predictor variable, every dichotomous forecaster variable having a 0 or 1 value, and a model variable for each sort of forecaster variables having over two groups minus one group. The outline of the logistic representation principle and rule is: P = 1/(1+exp(-(B0 + B1*X1 + B2*X2 + … + Bk*Xk)))

Where B0 is an invariable while Bi are forecaster variables coefficients (or model variables in the instance of multicategory forecaster variables).  The calculated value, P, is a probability in the assortment 0 to 1.  The exp () role and function is e elevated to a power.

Maximum Likelihood (ML)

Maximum likelihood, as well termed as the ML technique, is the system of establishing the worth of one or additional constraints for a known marker that makes the acknowledged probability distribution a limit. The greatest likelihood approximate for a limit is denoted. Maximum Likelihood Estimation (MLE)

With this information, a person is in a situation to bring in the idea of the likelihood. If the likelihood, of an occurrence X being reliant on representation parameters p is articulated as

P (X | p)

Therefore, he or she could now discuss the likelihood

L (p | X)

That is to state, the probability of the limits given the statistics.

For nearly all reasonable models, people are capable of finding and establishing certain data that are additionally probable than others. The intention of maximum likelihood evaluation is to unearth the limit value(s) that creates the scrutinized data most probably. This is since the probability of the limits given the data is described to be comparable to the likelihood of the data provided the limits (in principle, they are comparative to one other, other than this does not influence the opinion). If this was done in the trade of making forecasts centered on a position of solid suppositions, then probability interests would be developed – the likelihood of certain results happening or not happening. Nevertheless, in the instance of data study, the moment they have been scrutinized they are preset, there exists no probability part to them any longer (the expression data emerges from the Latin expression denoting given). More interest is in the probability of the representation limits that underlie the preset data.

In CDMA, a key feature that bounds system efficiency is the multiuser intrusion instigated by the user’s nonorthogonality autographed waveforms. Multiuser recognition is an influential tool for fighting the consequences of this multiuser intrusion. Under a number of typical assumptions, the ML multiuser sensor is best in the logic that it offers the minimum fault likelihood in mutually denoting the data signs of all users. Regrettably, to execute the ML sensor, it is essential to resolve a risky combinatorial optimization (A simple method for estimating relative risk using logistic regression 2012, 54).

An Easy Case of MLE

To repeat, the easy theory of maximum likelihood limit view is this: get the parameter values, which create the scrutinized data most probably. How would person carry out this in an easy coin toss try out? Specifically, before assuming that p is a definite value (0.5) the researcher might desire to discover the MLE of p, provided with a dataset.  Further than parameter inference, the probability framework permits a researcher to create trials of parameter values. For instance, the researcher might desire to inquire whether or not the predicted p is different considerably from 0.5 or it does not (Kline 2011, 89). This experiment is fundamentally inquiring if there is proof that the coin is unfair. There are further examples of the way such experiments can be carried out with the introduction of the theory of a probability ratio test.

On an assumption that the experimenter tosses a coin 100 occasions and the result appears to be 56 heads along with 44 tails. In place of supposing that p is 0.5, the researcher’s intention is to get the MLE value for p (Sason & Shamai 2006, 76). After that, the researcher will want to inquire if this value varies notably from 0.50. There is a way how this is done. First of all, the p value is established, which makes the scrutinized data most probably. As stated, the scrutinized data are currently set. They will be invariables that are inserted into the binomial likelihood model:-

 •          n = 100 the whole amount of throws)

•           h = 56 the whole amount of heads)

In psychosomatic science, researchers seek out to discover general rules and principles that direct the conduct under study. As these rules and codes are not openly apparent, they are devised in aspects of theories. In mathematical formation, such theories about the formation and internal operation of the behavioral course of significance are affirmed in aspects of parametric relations of likelihood deliveries termed as models. The objective of the formation is to infer the outline of the basic course by checking the feasibility of such formations.

Once a formation is stated with its parameters, as well as, the collection of data, a person is in a position to assess its integrity of fit, specifically, how well it has the capability to fit in the scrutinized data. Integrity of fit is reviewed by establishing parameter figures of a representation that excellently suits the data—a process called parameter inference (Gould et al 2006, 56). There exist two universal techniques of parameter inference. These are LSE and MLE methods of inference. The former has primarily been a well-liked option of model suitability in Finance and is joined to many recognizable arithmetical perceptions, for example, linear regression, summation of squares faults, ratio variance explain, as well as the root mean squared variation (Skiadas 2010, 54). LSE that unlike MLE needs no or negligible distributional suppositions is practical for finding an expressive calculation for the rationale of summarizing experiential data, other than it has no foundation for experimenting hypotheses or making confidence periods (Hosmer & Lemeshow 2000, 67).

Conversely, MLE is never as extensively distinguished among modelers in Finance; however it is a typical progression to parameter inference and suggestion in values. MLE has lots of best properties in inference: satisfactoriness (total information regarding the parameter of concern enclosed in its MLE estimator); uniformity (accurate parameter figure that created the data retrieved asymptotically, for example, statistics of satisfactorily large trials); effectiveness (lowest-possible variation of parameter approximations attained asymptotically); as well as parameterization invariance. On the contrary, no such aspects can be articulated concerning LSE (Wesołowski 2009, 90). Per se, most researchers would not perceive LSE as a common process for parameter inference, but somewhat as a technique that is principally employed with linear regression formations. Additionally, a preponderance of the inference techniques in statistics is established centering on MLE. For instance, MLE is a precondition engulfing the chi-square experiment, the Gsquare experiment, Bayesian techniques, assumption with missing statistics, modeling of arbitrary consequences, and lots of model selection principles, for example, the Akaike statistics criterion, as well as, the Bayesian information principles (Chatterjee & Hadi 2006, 23).


Allison, P. D. (2012). Logistic Regression Using SAS Theory and Application. Cary, NC, SAS


A Simple Method for Estimating Relative Risk Using Logistic Regression 2012, BMC Medical

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Chatterjee, S., & Hadi, A. S. (2006). Regression Analysis by Example. Hoboken (N.J.), Wiley-


Cornfield J, Gordon T, Smith WN (2000). Quantal Response Curves for Experimentally

            Uncontroled Variables. Bull Int Stat Inst.

Consentino, F, & Claeskens, G 2011, ‘Missing covariates in logistic regression, estimation and

distribution selection’, Statistical Modelling: An International Journal, 11, 2, pp. 159-183, Academic Search Complete, EBSCOhost, viewed 26 August 2012.

Diaz-Quijano, F 2012, ‘A simple method for estimating relative risk using logistic regression’,

BMC Medical Research Methodology, 12, p. 14, MEDLINE with Full Text, EBSCOhost, viewed 26 August 2012.

El-Habil, AM 2012, ‘An Application on Multinomial Logistic Regression Model’, Pakistan

Journal Of Statistics & Operation Research, 8, 2, pp. 271-291, Academic Search Complete, EBSCOhost, viewed 26 August 2012.

Gould, W., Pitblado, J., & Sribney, W. (2006). Maximum likelihood estimation with stata.

Hosmer, D. W., & Lemeshow, S. (2000). Applied logistic regression. New York, Wiley.

Kline, R. B. (2011). Principles and practice of structural equation modeling. New York,

            Guilford Press.

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            89, 4, pp. 1409-1428, Academic Search Complete, EBSCOhost, viewed 26 August 2012.

Sason, I., & Shamai, S. (2006). Performance Analysis of Linear Codes under Maximum-

            Likelihood Decoding: A Tutorial. Boston, Mass. [u.a.], Now Publ.

Skiadas, CH 2010, ‘Exact Solutions of Stochastic Differential Equations: Gompertz, Generalized

Logistic and Revised Exponential’, Methodology & Computing In Applied Probability, 12, 2, pp. 261-270, Business Source Complete, EBSCOhost, viewed 26 August 2012.

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Literature Review Acute Coronary Syndrome

The acute coronary syndrome is caused by a lack of adequate blood in the heart. In particular, the condition occurs when the coronary arteries are blocked, limiting their ability to supply oxygenated blood to the heart muscles. Unstable angina refers to the chest discomfort that is caused by the lack of enough blood flow. Unstable angina is more severe compared to stable angina but less severe than myocardial infarction. Unstable angina, also known as the angina pectoris is characterized by pain in the chest. When the left anterior descending artery is occluded, the walls of the left ventricle, the interventricular septum, and other parts are affected. When the right coronary artery is affected, the right atrium and left ventricle become ischemic. On the other hand, when the circumflex artery is occluded the left ventricle, atrium, fasciculus, and bundle branches become ischemic.

Literature Review Acute Coronary Syndrome

The etiology of this condition focuses on the formation of atherosclerotic plaques. The process starts with endothelial dysfunction. Endothelial dysfunction refers to a condition whereby the inner linings of the endothelium fail to function properly. Remember, the endothelium plays an important role in regulating blood clotting but this function is likely to be affected by several conditions including metabolic syndrome, hypertension, smoking and inactivity.  According to Balasubramaniam, Viswanathan, Marshall and Zaman (2012) endothelial dysfunction is characterized by an imbalance between vasodilating and vasoconstricting substances and an increase in leucocyte adhesion, hence leading to vascular reactivity. Ultimately, endothelial dysfunction leads to atherosclerosis. 

According to the American Heart Association, more than a million people are affected by this condition every year. In 2006 alone, more than 1.4 million patients were discharged with a primary or secondary diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome. Currently, more than 7 million people are living with this condition. Beside death, coronary heart disease can lead to premature, chronic disability to the affected patients. Following a discharge, patients suffering from acute coronary syndrome require re-hospitalization within the first six months. One in every five patients diagnosed with non-ST elevation myocardial infarction and ST-segment elevation, dies after hospitalizations. In total, acute coronary syndrome accounts for half of all mortality related to cardiovascular diseases. The cost of rehabilitating patients with acute coronary syndrome is enormous. The direct costs of treatment are estimated to be $75 billion while the indirect costs of treating patients with acute coronary syndrome are more than $142 billion.

A number of studies have been conducted to examine the threat of Acute Coronary Syndrome among the American population. One such study was conducted by Doyle, Simon, and Stenzel-Poore (2008) using a Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance. Using self-reported data, the researchers found out that the Southern Eastern states are the ones that are heavily affected by the Acute Coronary Syndrome menace. The study analyzed the risk factors that are responsible for the high prevalence rates in the South Eastern states. One of the risk factor that was examined is the ethnic background and socioeconomic status. The southern eastern part is mainly occupied by minority communities including the blacks and the socioeconomic status of the occupants there is much lower compared to the rest of the nation. The high prevalence rate can also be explained by the lifestyle factors such smoking. The southeasterners also suffer from contributing diseases such as diabetes, coronary heart diseases and hypertension. Due to the high prevalence rates, death rates as a result of Acute Coronary Syndrome are also significantly higher, in the southeastern regions, compared to the other parts around the nation.

Acute Coronary Syndrome has affected other developed countries. In the UK, Acute Coronary Syndrome is a leading cause of disability, and a leading cause of death. Currently, there are around 1 million Acute Coronary Syndrome survivors while an estimated 150,000 people are diagnosed with Acute Coronary Syndrome every year. The majority of those affected by Acute Coronary Syndrome in the UK are the elderly and the leading risk factor is obesity. In England, Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales, 25% of the whole population is considered obese. The levels of activity among the residents in these four countries are also very low and this explains why Acute Coronary Syndrome is responsible for a significant percentage of deaths that are reported in the country. Overall, £ 8 billion is spent in Acute Coronary Syndrome-related costs.

Developing countries have not also been spared either. In India the prevalence of Acute Coronary Syndrome has been on the rise and this occurrence has been attributed to an increase in the aged population. In Cuba, the crude mortality from Acute Coronary Syndrome is 84 per 100,000 population while in the neighboring countries it is the second leading cause of death (Bonita & Beaglehole, 2871). Just like in India, a significant percentage of the total population in Cuba is made up of elderly people. Incidences of Acute Coronary Syndrome in the developing countries are attributed to several factors. Firstly, low and medium income earning countries account for almost 80% of all chronic noncommunicable diseases that are reported in the world. At the same time, the local population in the developing countries continues to engage in lifestyle choices such as eating high-fat diets, smoking and living a sedentary lifestyle. As the residents continue to adopt the western lifestyle it is expected that the prevalence of Acute Coronary Syndrome will continue to rise. These statistics illustrate to us that Acute Coronary Syndrome is a serious condition which takes huge resources to rehabilitate patients. In addition, the disease has an adverse effect due to the loss in productivity. It is on this basis that it becomes important to evaluate the events surrounding the disease and how it can be prevented and managed.

Literature review

Acute cardiovascular syndrome is a form of cardiovascular disease and is a leading cause of death in the America. Death results when the atherosclerotic plaque breaks up hence stimulating platelet aggregation and thrombus formation. The thrombus formed then prevents myocardial perfusion.  Remember, the myocardial cells require oxygen to function properly but the formation of the thrombus restricts the supply of the oxygen hence increasing the myocardial demand for the oxygen. As a result, the ischemic tissues become necrotic leading to decreased renal perfusion. Ultimately, decreased renal perfusion stimulates the release of renin, angiotensin, aldeosterone, antidiuretic hormone hence increasing workload of myocardium.

Balasubramaniam, Viswanathan, Marshall and Zaman (2012) evaluated the role of the endothelial cells in the atherosclerosis process. In the article Balasubramaniam, Viswanathan, Marshall and Zaman Balasubramaniam (2012) argues that endothelial dysfunction plays a pivotal role in the expression of atherosclerosis.  When the endothelium becomes impaired it fails to maintain vascular homeostasis. As a result, a number of abnormalities are experienced and they include loss of nitric oxide, over-production of vasoconstrictors, and reduction of the ability to control inflammation, thrombosis and cell growth.  The endothelium also plays the role of producing vasodilators such as nitric oxide, and prostacyclin while regulating the effect of vasoconstrictors such as endothelin-1 and angiotensin. The loss of vasodilators and over-production of vasoconstrictors affects the integrity of the arteries. One such vasoconstrictor is angiotensin. Angiotensin not only plays an important role in the loss of normal arterial compliance and patency, but it also mediates the plaque weakening process in a number of ways. Firstly, it leads to the up-regulation of the IL6 gene which is produced by the plaque microphages. Secondly, it leads to the up-regulation of the MMP genes which then lead to the degradation of the plaque fibrous cap. Thirdly, it leads to the activation of the nitrogen-activated protein kinase cascades and tyrosine kinases. Finally, it mediates the stimulation of neo-vascularisation.

In the article, Balasubramaniam, Viswanathan, Marshall and Zaman (2012) further look at the impact of the risk factors such as diabetes in the progression of atherosclerosis. In their view, diabetes mellitus is a strong predictor, and the studies that have been conducted indicate that patients suffering from diabetes have very a little opportunity of recovering from Acute Coronary Syndrome. Mortality rates for diabetes mellitus patients with acute myocardial infarction are also high. In this article, they also look at the role of endothelial NO synthase in the inflammation process. As a vasodilator, eNOS plays an important plays an important role in preventing leukocyte (Balasubramaniam, Viswanathan, Marshall & Zaman, 2012) adhesion while maintaining the antiflammatory state of the endothelium. However, the Acute Coronary Syndrome leads to the low production of eNOS and the endothelial cells are activated to produce vascular cell adhesion molecules such as the VCAM-1 and ICAM-1. These vascular cell-adhesion cells promote the adhesion of the leukocytes to the endothelial surface. 

In this article, Balasubramaniam, Viswanathan, Marshall and Zaman (2012) further argue that diabetes increases the platelet aggregation and adhesion process in several ways. Firstly, the condition leads to reduced platelet membrane fluidity. Secondly, the condition leads to increased production of thromboxane, hence increasing platelet sensitivity. Thirdly, it increases the expression of platelet adhesion molecules and the number of platelets. These two actors play an important role in the pro-coagulant activity. Fourthly, diabetes increases the expression of platelet surface receptors and generation thrombin. Fifthly, diabetes mellitus reduces the sensitivity of the platelets to the effects of the vasodilators. Sixthly, platelets of patients with diabetes mellitus are rich in cytokines and chemokines which contribute to inflammation of the endothelium. These findings are supported by Al Thani et. al. (2012) who concluded that diabetes is an independent predictor for presence of polyvascular diseases and Acute Coronary Syndrome.

Another study that was conducted by Zhong, Tang, Zeng, Wang, Yi, Meng, Mao, and Mao (2012) investigated the role of cholesterol content in atherosclerotic plaque progression. Zhong et al. (2012) used a sample of 136 participants. The researchers assessed the cholesterol content of erythrocyte membranes. It is well acknowledged that cholesterol plays an important role in plaque formation. The key feature of the plaque formation is the erythrocyte membrane. Erythrocyte membrane is a key source of cholesterol in plaques. Their findings are supported by Giannoglou,Koskinas, Tziakas,  Ziakas, Antoniadis, Tentes, and Parcharidis (2009) who found out that CEM in Acute Coronary Syndrome patients is significantly higher that in patients with stable angina pectoris. In the study, Zhong, Tang, Zeng, Wang, Yi, Meng, Mao, and Mao (2012 also (2012) investigated some of the factors that determine the size of the plaque in the artery. Obviously, the amount of the cholesterol determines the size of the lipid core. The researchers concluded that erythrocytes played a major role in plaque expansion by increasing the lipid content. In addition, they argued that cholesterol encouraged apoptosis of macrophages and formation of foam cells.

The role of the low-density lipoproteins as a cause of Acute Coronary Syndrome was investigated by Meisinger, Baumert, Khuseyinova, Loewel, and Koenig (2005). Very Low-density lipoproteins are secreted from the liver, and are then converted to low-density lipoproteins (LDLs).  LDLs may accumulate in the artery wall if their rate of removal is low (Meisinger, Baumert, Khuseyinova, Loewel, & Koenig, 2005). The LDLs stimulate the endothelial cells to express the monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (Meisinger, Baumert, Khuseyinova, Loewel, & Koenig, 2005). MCP-1 then attracts monocytes from the blood. In addition, LDLs encourages differentiation of monocytes into macrophages. Macrophages promote the formation lipid-cell foam cells, which are the hallmark of the atherosclerosis process. Following this narration it is rather apparent that low-density proteins mark the start of atherosclerosis process, and its subsequent progression.

Plaque rupture

According to Kumar and Cannon (2009) the molecules in the endothelium mediate the adhesion of leukocytes on the endothelial surface. The monocytes penetrate the endothelial wall, where they interact with oxidized LDL, transforming into foam cells. The foam cells produce cytokines and other substances that maintain atherosclerosis progression. The plaque usually has a thin fibrous cap which is destabilized by the inflammation cells such as the monocytes, macrophages and T-cells. In the article titled, Coronary events, Armin, Masataka, Renu and Valentin (2012) revisit how the plaque forms and how it later erupts. An atherosclerotic plaque normally has a large necrotic core but a small layer of the fibrous cap. The expansion of the atherosclerotic plaque is facilitated by the accumulation of free cholesterol, and macrophage infiltration. The fibrous cap only has a few smooth muscle tissues and is often inhabited by macrophages and T lymphocytes. Once the fibrous cap erupts, it exposes the thrombogenic materials to the blood stream.  Following the rupture of the plaque, thrombi are formed. It is the rupture of the fibrous cap that leads to the development of unstable angina and myocardial infarction.

A lot of research has focused on how the plaque ruptures. One likely cause is the accumulation of T-lamphocytes and microphages-derived foam cells which secrete cytokines and proteolytic enzymes leading to the depletion of smooth muscle cells. The apoptosis of smooth muscle cells is promoted by the mast cells which are abundant in the plaque. The reduction of the smooth muscle cells impairs the repair process. Remember, smooth muscle cells produce the cap-stabilizing collagen and so a significant reduction of the cells is likely to have deleterious effects. Plaque rupture is also facilitated by the blood flow-induced shear stress. It is assumed that as the plaque grows, the tensile stress on the plaque shoulders increases hence leading to fissuring and subsequent rupturing. Armin, Masataka, Renu and Valentin (2012) found out that areas of low shear stress had advanced plaques than areas with high stress. Armin, Masataka, Renu and Valentin (2012) further notes that not all plaque ruptures lead to coronary events.

Armin, Masataka, Renu and Valentin (2012) examined the atherosclerotic process and the effect it has on the size of the artery. During the initial stage, the size of the artery is usually normal. In the second stage, as the plaque formation progresses, the artery remodels itself to avoid lumen encroachment. In the third stage, the plaque ruptures and hemorrhages leading to formation of intramural thrombi. Armin, Masataka, Renu and Valentin (2012 notes that mostly the plaque heals and continues to grow. Alternatively, the thrombogenic materials may be embolized distally leading to coronary arterial insufficiency or asymptomatic micro-infarctions. In the fourth stage, if the right conditions exist, the rupture of the plaque leads to the occlusion of the affected arteries.

In the article, Armin and his colleagues also looked at the interplay of factors that contribute to acute coronary event risk (2012). One factor is plaque burden which is determined by the blood viscosity, platelet function, stress and smoking (Armin, Masataka, Renu & Valentin, 2012). The other coronary plaque characteristic is lumen encroachment which depends on shear stress, circadian variation, obesity, catecholamine surge and pollution (Armin, Masataka, Renu & Valentin, 2012). Other coronary plaque characteristics include lesion locations, plaque composition, plaque biology, plaque configuration, endothelial dysfunction and plaque remodeling (Armin, Masataka, Renu & Valentin, 2012).

On their part, David and Valentin (1999) looked at the activities surrounding the atheromatous plaques. The formation of plaques according to David and Valentin (1999) can be traced to the early lesions. Early lesions then grow bigger as the extracellular lipid and cholesterol content increase and fibrous cap grow thin. This development according to David and Valentin (1999) occurs in 5 phases. During phase 1 the development of lesion types I-III occurs while in the phase 2, lesion types IV and Va develops (David & Valentin, 1999). Plaque disruption starts from phase 3, eventually leading to the growth of more complicated plaques. The acute coronary syndrome occurs in phase IV, when plaques are more complicated (David &Valentin, 1999). However, plaques may fail to rupture and occlude the affected arteries. Such plaques characterize the last stage of the plaque development.

Clinical sequellae and symptoms

The eruption of the fibrous cap exposes the content of the plaque to the blood elements. In addition, an alteration of the blood flow is experienced around the ruptured plaque and the blood flow supporting myocardial distal is reduced (David &Valentin, 1999). Vasoconstriction at the site of the ruptured plaque makes coronary events to become much more severe. (David &Valentin, 1999) If the ruptured plaque does not significantly disrupt the flow of the blood, only an asymptomatic progression of the lesion is experienced (David &Valentin, 1999). On the other hand, if the rupture leads to complete vessel occlusion, acute myocardial infarction results (David &Valentin, 1999). The common symptoms of Acute Coronary Syndrome include chest pain, arrhythmia, shortness of breath, fatigue, weakness, heart palpitations, nausea, numbness, confusion, slurred speech, vertigo and headache.


Detection of atherosclerosis is one of the main objectives of the diagnostic tools. One such advancement is the use of plasma markers. One of the markers that have been used widely is the C-reactive protein and the lipoprotein associated phospholipase A2. Such markers are used to predict coronary events. Using peripheral blood has become popular due to the low cost that is associated with this process. An alternative method that is used in diagnosing coronary patients is the non-invasive imaging. Some of the imaging tools that can be used for identifying vulnerable carotid plaques include: ultrasound, MRI, nuclear imaging and X-Ray multi-detector. A CT angiogram and a nuclear scan could also be used to check the site of rupture and identify whether the arteries are constricted or blocked. Other diagnostic tests include an electrocardiogram, blood tests, chest X-ray, and coronary angiogram.


Reperfusion therapy

In the article titled, Acute coronary syndromes: diagnosis and management, Cannon and Kumar (2009) looks at the interventions for the acute coronary syndrome. Reperfusion therapy has been found to improve patient outcomes. The efficacy of reperfusion therapy in acute coronary syndrome was tested in a study that was conducted by Desai (2008). The 80 participants in this study were all Acute Coronary Syndrome patients. The two researchers also compared the efficacy of the percutaneous balloon angioplasty and systematic thrombolysis. The two interventions were found to increase systolic and left ventricle functions.

Antithrombotic therapy

According to Kumar and Cannon (2009) the aim of this intervention is to maintain the patency of the infarct-related artery. Antithrombotic therapies are augmented by anti-platelet strategies such as aspirin and glycoprotein IIb/IIIa antagonists. Antianginal therapy could also be used and use of nitrates to reverse the vasospasm, reduce the coronary blood flow at the site of rupture and the myocardial oxygen demand.

Coronary surgery and angioplasty

It is apparent that administration of anti-platelet and anti-thrombotic drugs improves the chances of survival to the patients. These drugs are often used before percutaneous coronary or surgery revascularization is performed. The coronary surgery is performed to bypass the affected portion of the coronary artery. The grafted artery goes around the area with the plaque, a process that creates a new path for oxygen-rich blood. The efficacy of coronary artery bypass surgery is supported by a study that was conducted Kumar and Cannon (2009). All the participants in this study had ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. The result of the study indicates that high-risk patients who undergo surgery intervention have very high chances of survival. An alternative to the bypass surgery is the percutaneous coronary surgery otherwise known as coronary angioplasty or balloon angioplasty. The process entails using a catheter with a balloon at the tip. Once in place, the balloon inflated to compress the plaque against the artery wall. This process targets unstable plaques which have thin fibrous caps, lipid full macrophages, and deficient smooth muscle cells. During balloon angioplasty, a stent is used to maintain the patency of the occluded arteries.


Al Thani, H., El-Menyar, A., Alhabib, K., Al-Motarreb, A., Hersi, A., Alfaleh, H., Asaad, N., Saif, S.A., Almahmeed, W., Sulaiman, K., Amin, H., Alsheikh-A., Alnemer, K. & Suwaidi, J. (2012). Polyvascular disease in patients presenting with acute coronary syndrome: its predictors and outcomes. Scientific World Journal, 2012, 284851

Armin, A., Masataka, N., Renu, V., & Valentin, F. (2012). Acute coronary events. Circulation, 10(1), 1147-1156

Balasubramaniam K, Viswanathan G, Marshall S, & Zaman A. (2012). Increased Atherothrombotic Burden in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus and Acute Coronary Syndrome: A Review of Antiplatelet Therapy. Cardiology Research and Practice, 2012, 1-18

Bonita, R., & Beaglehole, R. (2007). ACUTE CORONARY SYNDROME prevention in poor countries: Time for action. Stroke, 38(11), 2871–2

David, E. G. & Valentin, F. (1999). Pathophysiology and clinical significance of atherosclerotic plaque rupture Cardiovascular Research, 41(2), 323-333

Desai, N.D. (2008). Pitfalls assessing the role of drug-eluting stents in multivessel coronary disease. Annals of Thoracic Surgery, 85 (1), 25–7.

Doyle, K. P., Simon, R. P., & Stenzel-Poore, M. P. (2008).  Mechanisms of ischemic brain damage. Neuropharmacology, 55, 310.

Giannoglou, G., Koskinas, K., Tziakas, D.,  Ziakas, G., Antoniadis, A., Tentes, I., & Parcharidis, G. (2009). Total Cholesterol Content of Erythrocyte Membranes and Coronary Atherosclerosis: An Intravascular Ultrasound Pilot Study. Angiology,  60(6), 676

Kumar, M.D. & Cannon, C. (2009). Acute coronary syndromes: Diagnosis and Management. Mayo Clinic Proceedings, 84(10), 917-938

Meisinger, C., Baumert, J., Khuseyinova, N., Loewel, H. & Koenig, H. (2005). Plasma oxidized low-density lipoprotein, a strong predictor for acute coronary heart disease events in apparently healthy, middle-aged men from the general population. Circulation, 2; 112(5):651-7.

Zhong, Y., Tang, H., Zeng, Q., Wang, X., Yi, G., Meng, K., Mao, Y., & Mao, X. (2012). Total cholesterol content of erythrocyte membrane is associated with the severity of coronary artery disease and the therapeutic effect of rosuvastatin. Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences, 117(4): 390–398

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Literature Review on human resource management

Literature Review

This chapter concentrates on human resource management, its motivation, current views on motivation theories, and identification of the problems Walmart is facing in terms of staff management and evaluation of employers’ efforts. According to Cherrington (1995:55) and Legge (1989:126) employees are vital assets of the organization that need to be managed and organized in a motivational manner. The two authors further suggest that due to the large nature of Walmart, the management should always consider the cultural background of the workers. Different chain stores across Europe are now embracing employees with diverse cultural lifestyles so to serve any customers at the organization. Payment package of is another factor that if well offered the employees will provide top quality services.

Literature Review on human resource management

Other researchers such as Woodruffe (1995) emphasize on the responsibility of the HR management towards ensuring that only qualified and well deserving staff are recruited in the organization. Selection of employees is part of the ethical, corporate responsibility of Walmart that should be the priority of this department. The local community form part of the staff at the chain stores, therefore, is equally vital to consider them in the running of the business units. When this concept is applied, woodruff maintains that people will feel appreciated by the organization. Customer loyalty is a long-term benefit from the family members of the human resources at the stores who need to be maintained. It is also an effect that trade union activities are not incorporated in the affairs of the stores. If this is done, then the employee threats of industrial strikes affect the operations of the profit making venture, Walmart. Motivation factors as asserted by Maslow in the hierarchy of needs are another element, which should be given top priority in the HR management. This crucial department determines the payroll and bonuses of staff’s services. Monetary incentives are not encouraged in the organization because financial gains might be emphasized at the expense of the clients. It is an imperative step to work out the amount of customer satisfaction, which a worker employs to the clients so that to reward workers who make clients appreciated. Wal-Mart is among the vast retailers in the planet.

            The founder of the company is Sam Walton. Sam Walton owns about 48 percent of the total share in the company. Wal-Mart has branches in countries like UK, Argentina, South America, China, Brazil, South Korea, Germany, Japan and Mexico. In 2009, the company made sales that totaled to 258 billion dollars. When Sam Walton founded the company, he successfully ran it personally. In 1962, Walton opened other sub branches in Rogers, Arkansas. In 1970, the company changed its name to Wal-Mart incorporation. The company continued its rapid growth and opened more stores and made more sales. The company opened its first supercentre at Washington. The company made sales of 312 billion dollars in 2005 and further opened over 6200 stores globally. The rapid growth of the company, especially in small countries, brought many worries of competition from the company. This would result in market domination and monopoly, in the small and poor countries. Wal-Mart collaborated with other universities to enlarge their market further in colleges.

Human Resource Management

            Organizations in the world do not operate in a vacuum. In this regard, they incorporate various factors and ingredients for the realization of overall success. These include equipments, clientele base and human resource. Human resource plays a significant role in an organization since they act as engines that propel the organization forward. The number of human resource is lower than the expected output in efforts to scale down expenses and maximize profits. In a situation where the profits decrease, human resource becomes the first avenue of strategy management through retrenchments. Although there are other departments in an organization such as administration, communication and public relations, the human resource department remains the pillar of the entire organization.

            Woodruffe (1995) asserts that the primary role of the human resource department in any organization is selection, training and inspiration of the right personnel. The department is headed by a manager, whose main responsibility is to address and supervise the manner in which people are handled in the organization. He or she reports to the overall authority in an organization. In consultations with the overall authority, the human resource management team ensures that the right category of employees are hired, trained and motivated in the right manner. To this effect, a good relationship in the organization is essential, such that employees are rewarded for outstanding performance and their problems solved in the right way. Employees are the greatest assets that an organization has and their productivity depends on the way they are handled. However, upon recruitment, employees are taken through an orientation program that equips them with the relevant information on what the organization expects from them such as job descriptions and remuneration packages among others. For instance, the organization briefs its employees on work relations to minimize if not alienate future disagreements. There are organizations that desist from enrolling their employees in trade unions and national health insurance schemes. Although this is detrimental on the side of the employee, mutual understanding is paramount. Improper conduct injures excellent working relationship and might surmount to firing of employees. In light of this, it is imperative for the HRM to ensure the realization of similar pay for similar work done. This creates confidence on the part of the employee.

Cherrington (1995:55) and Legge (1989:126) emphasize on the importance of employees in the organization and indicate that they should not be viewed as variable cost in their organization. Employees as earlier stated serve as wheels of any organization as they are the drivers. Employees’, therefore, should be treated well by an organizations command structure. Committed employees can be used by any organization as a competitive advantage (Bratton et al, pp.17) making them an invaluable ingredient in the affairs of the organization.  Apart from human assets, an organization must manage all other assets both tangible and intangible. For instance, cash must be managed well, and organization information must be kept intact. All assets are fundamental, but it is the human asset that manages the other category of assets (Mathis et al 2006, p.8). The human resource is tasked with the responsibility of overseeing the running of the organization.

            Human resource is crucial in ensuring the success of any organization. This means that for an organization to have an edge over its competitors, it needs to have a strategy to manage this crucial resource. For a leading organization like wall mart, the organization has its mandate spread to complement its standing in the retail sector. This means that for organizations to maintain its professional integrity, it needs to employ its human resource to complement its mandate. This means that the human resource needs to be qualified, motivated and strategically employed for the retail giant to maintain its success. This will require the organization to put in place a management strategy that will make certain it optimizes on this resource. If this is achieved, the company will reap by increasing sales and market share which will be consequently reflected on their bottom line. Failure to have a strategy to its human resource, there would be wastage and inefficiency in the part of organization operations. Therefore, management should ensure that the human resource is in line with the organizations long term and immediate strategies. If this is the scenario, the company will meet its intended objectives ensuring sustainable profitability and growth.

            For a company to manage its human resource adequately, there requires being a capable management which is versed adequate on the requirements and functioning of human resource. The management should be encouraged to be conversant with the strategies of the company to ensure that their recruitments and placements complement this factors, it is, therefore, obvious that management of human resource is correlated with the success the company realizes in its operations. Wall mart, despite being a dominant player in the retail market, it is imperative that the management appreciate the significance of management of human resource for them to maintain their edge.

            Resource management is crucial since its enable the organization to handle the challenges, which may be resultant of the human resource of the company. If a company does not have a strategy to this effect, they will be vulnerable to problems of human resource, which is detrimental to its operations. Therefore, wall mart should ensure that this is facilitated to avoid the limitations that may emerge because of operations of the organization. Some of the shortfalls include losses and wastage of the resource, which could have been channeled to profitable employment.

Human Resource Management Theories

Theories are an idea built upon on one or more hypothesis. They tend to explain a certain activity in a particular way and include thorough research. It has been alleged that the most reasons of a service society are its HRs and that the fundamental and indispensable duties of administration is to inspire the sources to get the most out of its presentation and accomplish business sensation and goals. Concepts and theories explaining and describing motivation are multifaceted and questionable. Conversely, those that are critical come into view, to be anticipated and self-usefulness.  Whether these go well with the Human Resource department, it is another affair; consequently in bearing in mind this query, this document will also discuss the older, more recognized theories of inspiration such as the following individuals; Maslow, Herzberg.

The aim of this manuscript is motivational theory in conditions of companies with particular and detailed allusion on ways it goes well with the human resources department.  The conditions of indication are to scrutinize the information and progression theories of motivation and to compare these to human resource management (HRM). The objectives are to create HRM in motivational information and to study the association amid motivational theory and HRM. Amid HRM, the HR mold could be considered to observe man as individuals aggravated by a complex set of unified features and aspects, such as currency, requirement for association, and aspiration for significant employment.  It is debated that every diverse member of staff will search for a dissimilar objective, have an assortment and variety of aptitude and skills in finishing the assignment and include their personal individuality to the association. This is a conceptualization that views workforce and members of staffs as a reservoir of prospective aptitude and put forward it as an administrative accountability, to come across ways most excellent to tap such resources. These comes out to be a fundamental hypothesis that inhabitants desire to have a say absolutely to a job, for example, they are pre-motivated, and that therefore, the more they are aggravated and inspired.  On the other hand, then the owner ought to request to develop it so by redesigning the trade to, for example, making in different. If an organization has a trusted and dependable leadership, in management, it will assist in motivating the workers, to be more prolific, and devoted to their work. Organizational behaviours will enable the management to recognize how employees behave in their workplaces and reward or correct them. Through organizational behaviours, the organization management can recognize individuals with exemplary behaviours and reward them through promotion, salary increment or with other incentives. However, when the behaviours of the behaviours of the employees will lead to a decrease in production and negative behaviour the HR together with the manager, will assist to correct the behaviour through guidance and counselling, and if the employee indicates no change, the firm can even terminate such an employee.

Human resource management theories like organizational behaviour theories explain the ability to tap prospective employees based on their behaviours in the organization put forward by Maslow (1954) and Herzberg (1966). McGregor’s Theory Y (1960) asserts that dedication and performance of employees can be enhanced by a good leadership style. Storey (1989), however, remains emphatic that human resource management implies the importance of managing employees in the most rational way possible (Bratton et al 2001:17-20).

According to Bratton et al (2001:14) human resource management comprises of four functional areas that include staffing, rewarding, employee development and employee maintenance.  Staffing involves recruitment of people with the proper skills and knowledge.  Staffing ensures that the best placed individuals are recruited into the organization. By training employees and constantly rewarding them, the firm will not only ensure that they enable such employees to remain focused, but also enable them aim to attain better salaries, and positions within the firm. This will be integral in retaining the employees will feel that they are satisfied with their job. They will continuously strive to attain better organization results, since they know that by performing excellently, they stand a chance to rise within the store that they are serve, and hence they do not feel stagnated in one position, which sometimes can demoralize or disorient them. People like novel challenges and rewards and training within the organization offers employees such opportunities like attending forums to expound their knowledge.

 Skills can either be academic or technical based on the requirements. Absorption of unqualified staff easily waters down the organization thanks to incompetency in the handling of work. For example, recruitment of semi-illiterate staff tarnishes the image and name of the company. On the other hand, rewarding of employees involves giving incentives to the most exemplary performance. Rewarding can either be financial, material or either promotions. In most cases, employees who exhibit exemplary performance in their jobs are awarded promotions or salary increments. This motivates them even further in the delivery of services in an organization. However, employee development involves training of employees for better performance while employee maintenance is the management and monitoring of safety of the work place, wellbeing and health policies and employee relations. Training increases the already held knowledge. This is carried out through workshops and seminars. For instance, a workshop can be arranged to have employees equip themselves with information technology tools for their organization that might not been provided during their school days. To increase employees’ efficiency and effectiveness, it’s important to manage these four functional areas. In addition, the Guest model illustrates that employees’ behaviour is perpendicularly synonymous to overall performance in the presence of dedication, flexibility and quality (Bratton et al 2001).

On the other hand, the term staff turnover means the eventual cessation of employees’ contracts and subsequent hiring of new staff. This gradual process is aimed at increasing efficiency and punishing redundancy. It’s dependant on both external and internal determinant factors. Although its overall effectiveness remains a subject of debate, there is a requirement for an unremitting examination due to emerging trends on human resource management. Therefore, Wal-Mart should endeavour to recover the functioning conditions of its employees so as to retain them and ensure that the chain stores keep on expanding and even improve from the third best public organization to become the overall best. Since, the store registers immense turnover, the company can afford to pay their employees, handsomely, and clear the complaints of the employees, of poor working conditions and poor payment.  This will enhance and promote the company’s publicity and enhance their market.

It should be eminent that many Wal-Mart workers do not get salaried “generous” wages.  They are some part time employees who are remunerated with the local minimum wage.  Absence of  employee benefits injure the survival of most employees thus taking part-times staff more than five years to be considered entitled for remuneration, profit-sharing, or other such compensation resulting to a high employee turnover. In most cases, the local minimum wage of those employees is below the poverty line. In the past years, Walmart has been blamed for locking night-shift employees in at night, (159) which exposes those staffs to health hazards (157). Wal-Mart’s own “Standards for Suppliers” reports states these kinds of difficulties among the company’s “directly-sourced” factories (160). Most of the Full-time Wal-Mart employees receive their remuneration of about $10.78 per hour, but according to critics this amount negligible compared with the salaries unionized companies give (161). Others condemn low levels of health coverage or exclusive health insurance, although the company reports that it offers rates at $5 per month while  the recommended remuneration is $9 per month nationwide and most of its associates are insured (though not necessarily through Wal-Mart) (162). There are many other complains like poor working condition, poor employer-employee interaction, and anti-union policies. Most people propose that Wal-Mart’s high yearly turnover-rate of ~70 percent indicate that most of its workers are not handled properly and are not satisfied with the company (161).


In the past, organization considered employees as an input into the manufacture of products. According to Dickson (1973), this belief about employees was changed through the study called Hawthorne Studies done by Elton Mayo from 1924 to 1932. According to this study, employees are not only motivated by money (Dickson 1973, pp.298-302). Bedeian (1993) indicates that Hawthorne Studies started with the approach of human relations management that states that needs and motivation of employees should be the focus of managers.

Kreitner (1995) defines motivation as that mental process that gives actions purpose and direction whereas Buford, Bedeian and Lindner (1995) defines it as the tendency to act purposively in a way to realize exact requirements that are not available. In addition, Higgings (1994) defines motivation as an internal force that enables a person to satisfy unsatisfied requirements. According to Green (1994), motivation is the commencement, course, passion and determination of human behavior. Therefore, motivation can be defined as that individual internal process that energizes, directs, and sustains a person performance. It is an individual energy enabling one to act in a certain way. The most successful managers are always highly motivated.

A person who evades work is said to be lacking motivation. Motivation is loosely connected with morale. Morale includes the employee’s sentiments toward the job, management, and organization. In this regard, high morale results from the complete satisfaction of requirements on a job. High morale also generates the willpower to execute jobs well with devotion and faithfulness. For example, a highly motivated advertizing sales executive is likely to gather more adverts to the astonishment of the senior management team. On the contrary, low morale mostly leads to hasty work, non-attendance, and high rates of employee turnover (Agarwal 1983, p.319).

Smith (1994) singles out motivation as a key determinant factor in the survival of employees in an organization. According to him, motivated employees are highly productive. If travel business has staffs that are highly motivated and provide excellent customer service, for instance, growth in skills and become more significant to their employers. However, for staff to be more efficient and fruitful, managers need to recognize what motivates employees. As stated by Bowen and Radhakrishna (1991), among all the duties that a manager performs, motivating employees is the most complicated. This is because requirements for motivation in employees change with time. Kovach (1987) explains this by giving an example that money inferior to employees as they get older instead fascinating and pleasing work takes its place (Bowen et al 1991).

Motivation Theories:

The journal Theories of motivation: borrowing the best states that understanding the process of motivation was a crucial point of various researchers after the introduction of the Hawthorne Study results (Terpstra 1979). There are numerous approaches of motivation, which will be discussed in this study or rather research. People work to satisfy different needs. All aspects of motivation merely grew from Instinct hypothesis of motivation. Motivation is the strength that kicks off, guides and sustains goal-oriented conducts. It is what instigates people to get going, whether to seize a snack to decrease hunger or register in college to get a degree. The compelling aspects that lie under motivation can be natural, social, poignant or cognitive in nature. Analysts have developed numerous different hypotheses to clarify motivation. Each hypothesis tends to be somewhat partial in scope. However, by examining the key thoughts behind each hypothesis, one can get a better comprehension of motivation all together.

Instinct Hypothesis of Motivation

Regarding instinct hypotheses aggravated to behave in definite ways since they are evolutionarily intended to do so. Timely and apparent examples are the seasonal migration in the animal kingdom. The animals are not born with the acquaintance and knowledge to do this, but they somewhat happen subconsciously to migrate. William James established a catalog of human characters that comprised of such aspects as affection, play, disgrace, anger, terror, wariness, humility and love. The key problem with this hypothesis is that it never expounded on behavior it merely portrayed and expounded it. By the 1920s, these hypotheses were shoved aside in support of other motivational hypothesis, but modern evolutionary psychologists currently research on the control of heritable traits and inheritance on human conduct.

Human deeds such as mocking others can be considered similar to an animal being aggressive to younger creatures of the identical genus, in order to dishearten them from attempting to usurp the head in the bunch. Frequently this presents an elucidation for why an individual would act in his desired actions. Infidelity is an additional outline of this aspect. Instinct gives animals the desire to assume the simplest path to the continued existence. If a noteworthy, other does not create offspring or adequately satisfy an individual, that individuals might check an additional way to bring the geneses or to live extra easily. It is a superior feature of basic animal behavior. The perception of instinct hypothesis enjoyed colossal reputation and maintenance in the belatedly 19th century. The therapist Sigmund Freud, as well as, William James who was a functionalist established two extremely diverse instinct hypotheses of motivation. Critics attacked instinct hypothesis of motivation for simply labeling yet deteriorating to give details of behavior. Furthermore, instincts are never visible and are never subjected to experiential testing or behaviorist appraisal.

Abraham Maslow’s hierarchyofneeds study about what stimulates people to perform. He outlines five levels of needs that affect a person’s behavior. There are basic needs that include food, drink and shelter. In addition, there are safety needs that entail protection against danger. In addition, there are social needs, self-esteem needs, reputation, status, and self-actualization. In Maslow hierarchy theory, the things at the top are the least important than those at the bottom.

Maslow suggests the lower level needs have to be satisfied first. Only when those desires have been fulfilled will the person attempt satisfying the upper needs. A business can provide these wants as follows Basic needs, fair wage, meal and rest facilities. Safety needs include job security, healthy working conditions and maybe pension schemes. Social needs covers pleasant working atmosphere and self-esteem need may include cars and job titles. Allowing staff to expand the experience at work can help increase their self-esteem. Finally, Self-actualization is about achieving the full potential of an employee. A business must make sure that promotion is likely and that there are opportunities to be presented (Maslow 1943,pp.370-396).

Herzberg’s (1959) work classified motivation into two areas: motivators and hygiene. Motivator includes things such as achievement, approval and creation of job satisfaction. Hygiene or basic factors, such as low pay and job insecurity, produce job dissatisfaction.

Different from Maslow and Herzberg, Vroom expectancy theory of motivation does not only focus on needs but also focuses on outcomes. While Herzberg and Maslow look at the relationship between internal needs and the attempt that is expected to fulfill, Vroom separates the efforts and suggests variables such as valence, expectation and instrumentality.

In light of this, the expectancy variable represents certainty that better efforts lead to better performances. The realization, for example, that when an individual works, then other factors will also be better. This is perpetuated by the mere fact of the right skills for the job, have supervisors support to get the job completed and include the right resources available. Instrumentality, which is the belief that if employees perform duties well appreciated results, will be recognized. In addition, valence is the significance of the individual in the job. It is dedicated to using motivation theories to motivate employees. Working for long hours coupled with low pay and negligent treatment and working environment contribute immensely to the lack of employees’ motivation. This leads to untimely staff exodus that is injurious to the organization.


This chapter deals with the research approach that will be applied in conducting the research on the problems facing Walmart in terms of treating staff members. In addition, data collection methods will be applied to investigate the data gathered.


Research Question

In conducting this study, a couple of questions will be formulated that will guide the researcher in developing and enhancing a research proposal.

The questions will be simply constructed for easy comprehensibility and help in the realization of proper data. Questions will be close ended to limit the respondents to the tenets of the study. Construction of open-ended questions might result to the influx of information that might otherwise jeopardize the overall intentions of the study. The target respondents will be youthful employees preferably between the ages of 22 to 35 since people in this age bracket are more likely not to have settled in their workplaces. In light of this, they will offer insightful information that will greatly help in the realization of a good research project. The project will concentrate on blue-chip companies as government institutions might limit the employees’ diversion of information let alone in-house bureaucracies.

Research Questions:

  1. . Briefly, highlight employees’ challenges at Wal-mart.
  2. How is the employees’-top brass managers’ relationship at Wal-Mart?
  3. Does the management of Wal-Mart have fitting policies with regard to staff-turnover and employee motivation?
  4. How do staff/employee motivation and staff-turnover policies at Wal-Mart influence both workers and customers?
  5. What are the major challenges and problems faced with regard to staff turnover and employee motivation at Wal-Mart?

Research Approach:

A research in Wal-Mart is conducted to determine the level of motivation with the employees, how the staffs are treated and the problems they face. Data is collected and examined to offer an apparent comprehension of the above aspects (Hopkins 1998). In this case, both qualitative and quantitative researches are used entirely so that I can get concrete conclusions from the study.

Research is instrumental in the change process. This is because it injects new knowledge after gathering information from various quarters. However, a number of scholars define the term in diverse ways. Research is an orderly use of data to clarify a point (Bouma 1994). In addition, Burgess and Bryant (2001) define research as a recipe of knowledge by grouping together inaccessible information from various fields therefore creating fresh insights and understanding. However, Norbert Elias defines research as, the process of making known something earlier unknown by people. It is to progress person’s acquaintance, to make it more convincing or enhanced fitting (Elias 1986, p.20). Another function of research is evaluating the data needed to solve a particular problem (Veal 2006, p.3).

In this research study, primary and secondary data have been used and quantitative and qualitative research methods have been applied. According to Veal (2006) quantitative research approach, research involves carrying out data analysis to verify or disapprove a hypothetical statement. To be sure of the consistency of the outcome, it is often necessary to have a large number of data (Veal 2006, p.40).

In qualitative research approach, it uses to basic concepts reliability and validity (Hopkins 1998). Reliability deals with whether the research is done are efficient and meaningful manner. Validity on the other hand is about the finding out whether the research study done is relevant in any future research (Bouma 1994). Veal (2006) qualitative research involves assembling a great deal of data about a small group instead of limited amount of information of a large group. The information gathered is usually not presentable in arithmetical form (Veal 2006, p.40).

Primary and Secondary Research:

Primary research is tailored research that gives new information, whereas secondary research entails already accessible information collected from the past. Depending on the type of research and physical and intangible situation, both research methods are of rational nature. As stated by Glass (1976), primary data should always be original. Mc Givern (2006) explains that primary research entails collection of data more than once. Pickton and Broderick (2005) advise that secondary information should be used and taken advantage of as groundwork before assembling of primary data. This research uses secondary data such as journals, articles and past researches.

Qualitative and Quantitative Research Approaches Combined:

According to Hopkins (1998), for a research work to have the required methodical rigidity, the study should reflect on all probable ways of gathering information. However, according to Hunt (2004), every research ought to be handled and information necessary so that, physical results are achieved. In this case, the quantitative approach results into arithmetical values like the number of staff who think they are ill-treated by the organization.

Quantitative Research Approach:

This approach has a hypothesis set which is tested in order to clarify a point (Barzun 1992). According to Witt (2002) argues that ‘Quantitative research is reliant on different information not embodied in the result but very important to include. In addition, qualitative researchers normally rely on four methods of gathering information that includes involvement in the situation, direct observation, in-depth interrogation and examination of documents and resources   (Marshall & Rossman 1998).

Quantitative research process involves the collection and subsequent conversion of dare to numerical form in a bid to offer statistical calculations and realization of conclusions. In quantitative research, a researcher implicates one or more hypothesis. Hypothesis includes questions that the data gatherer intends to ask and seek answers from respondents on certain paramount variables. Modernity has simplified quantitative data collections as the researchers apply the use of computer-generated software to key in their data. In light of this, quantitative research process is guided by several principles. First, the research data must be objective. In this regard, the researchers are supposed to remain impartial and desist from inputting own opinion on the results. This is because such actions might render the research incredible and thus lack taste.

External factors that might affect the results must also be controlled. In the above instance, it would be significant to ensure that the opening and preface of the music was not put together with by other modifications, for instance, the individual who conveys the CD player discussing the inhabitants after the melody setting, as it might be a different issue which fabricates the outcomes, that is communal contact. A few possibilities contributing features cannot for all time be ruled out but ought to be approved by the investigative of the research. Qualitative study major prominence is on deductive way of thinking which is inclined to shift from the overall more particular. This is from time to time known as top down approach. The legitimacy of ending is highlighted to be reliant on one or more site.

Qualitative Research Approach

White (2000) describes qualitative approach as explanatory, non numerical way to collect and understand information. This approach utilizes people who have been drawn in to certain activities. This approach is more valuable than the quantitative approach that only deals with numbers.

Data Collection Methods:

Data collection methods are extremely many in research circles. In light of this, selection of the best method remains the prerogative of the researcher based on his or her ability and period. Research that is constrained by time assumes a simplistic avenue of data collection. On the other hand, cost implications also are a determinant factor in the research process. Many researchers tend to choose cost-friendly methods of research. It is worth depicting that costs, as well as, time are not hindrances to proper research if executed wisely. Since this research combines both qualitative and quantitative approaches, data collection is carried out using the following tools:


A questionnaire is a tool used in the collection of data by either giving it to the interviewees or mailing it. Brehob (2001) defines a questionnaire as a form that interviewees fill out and used to get demographic information or views of those questioned. However,   Kirakowski (1998) defines a questionnaire as the method used for elicitation and recording of information. Therefore, the category of questionnaire used was a self-designed questionnaire, where workers were asked to respond to the queries concerning human resource in their company. The aim of the questionnaire was to provide data about their personal opinions of the human resources management of Wal-Mart. The outcomes of the questionnaire were calculated using the Likert Scale. Respondents were asked to point out the degree to which they agree or disagree with the questions provided. The responses are then scored, agreements with strongly agree and disagreements with strongly disagree are given higher scores. There are 5 response alternatives a score of 5 would be given to those who stated strongly agree’, 4 to those who said agree 3 to uncertain 4 to disagree and 5 in disagreeing’ and so on. The complete score of every question is decided by adding together the item scores and then divided by the number of participants (Polit & Beck 2004).

Another tool used in this research is the self-structured interview. According to Jupp (2006, p.158) an interview is a meeting where a social interaction takes place. However, developments in information technology have resulted in other ways of conduction interviews like through emails. Interview is noteworthy because it allows an interviewer to get more responses, facial expressions, feelings, and gestures. In addition, according to Wallace (2005) interviews are more reliable. Jupp (2006) indicates that interviews are more guided and focused it takes less time and results in reduced problems, in the analysis. To promote a better understanding of the human resource management of Wal-Mart, the interview represented a form of direct interaction with managers and staff a human resource manager was selected and one assistant, a floor manager at the store itself in and two employees.

Issues of Ethics

            All research whereby humans participate must involve issues of ethics (Callahan 2008). The collected data is used for particular reasons. It is also crucial to consider secrecy of the information. Secrecy of information means protection of information from spreading to other people without prior knowledge of the owner of the information. Information that belongs to an individual must always be kept secret. This is the right of the owner of the information.

Presenting outcome:

            This chapter’s main objective is to analyse outcomes of first hand and second hand sources collected during the research. The source of qualitative data was the superstore of Wal-Mart that is located in Michigan. The secondary sources of data included questionnaires. All the format of the questionnaires were analyzed before conducting the research.

The Secondary Data Source

Recognition of the Treatment and Efforts of Wal-Mart Staff:

Scheduling and Wages:

Wal-Mart Includes the Poor While They Offer Wages

            The average salary of a poor, full time Wal-Mart employee sums up to an annual salary of $ 19,200.  According to the federal bureau of investigations, a poor family in the United States would earn an annual salary of $ 21,200 (2008 Wal-Mart Employee Handbook 2008 HHS Poverty Guidelines).

The Average Pay for Jobs by Wal-Mart Is Less than That of the Government

            Wal-Mart payment for jobs is usually less than seventy percent of the total payment that workers, who are nationally employed, receive in the retail industry (Brennan Center for Justice Economic Policy Brief 2005).

Wal-Mart Is Charged For a Suit Involving Work Breaks in Minnesota

            According to a New York article(2008) Wal-Mart dishonored the laws of state regarding the issues of salary. Wal-Mart practiced this violation from 1998 to 2004 for over 2 million instances. The violation made Wal-Mart accumulate over 2 billion charges

U.S. Labor Division Orders Walmart to Compensate Overtime Wages

The use labor division declared that the management of Walmart to compensate a whooping $34 million as unsettled wages and interest to workers claiming overtime hours. The company blamed errors in the calculation for the mishap for the underpayment of 87,000 employees countrywide. It is approximately 57 other wage-and-hours disputes filed across the U.S. against the world’s foremost retailer, and numerous of the cases are pending due to class-action certification (Washington Post 2007).

Wal-Mart Has Not Changed

Wal-Mart is still facing many lawsuits since it has been in the past for reduced handling of workers. The organization has negligently violated employees’ rights and the workforce is working in poor deplorable conditions.

Wal-Mart Intimidates Workers Who Claim Unpaid Wages

Wal-Mart store in Texas requested a U.S. judge to command the company to stop intimidating fire fighters who join a lawsuit contending over unpaid wages. The workers assert that Wal-Mart has requested or permitted hourly staff to work off the timepiece without reimbursement, in violation of U.S. labor laws stipulated in the workers rights constitution (International Herald Tribune 2006).

Wal-Mart’s Remuneration and Hour Practices

Wal-Mart Plays Games with Worker’s Pay Packet

Majority of the workers who were interviewed concerning their plight with the organization cited that the HR management increased pay, and then cut the hours so that employees’ check are a fraction of what it happened to be. The full-time vending associates in the department, apart from the department manager, have been slashed to 25-35 hours a week instead of 40.

40 Hours a Week Is Unpaid

Another interviewee stated that workers labored for about 8 months at Wal-Mart, and had not accessed the promised benefits even though the work was on the full-time hour’s basis. The workers were told that the delay was because some of the workers were classified as part time workers.

Anonymous On Burning Overtime

However, most of the interviewee claimed that the management forces them to work for long overtime hours, which associates call exchanging back overtime. The workers who worked overtime had to forgo eating lunch, for example, one-hour overtime jobs would be provided during lunchtime.

The staff would get an hour voluntary lunch, but the management would force other staff to have a two-hourlunch instead, proceeding the Friday (payday). It is a violation of the Federal Law according to the Wage Commission to force staff working.

Wal-Mart Forces Staff to Labor Off-The-Clock

 According to Wal-Mart’s annual report of 2006, the company was sued 57 times concerning wage and hour offenses.   Significant lawsuits were either won or are still ongoing through the legal process in numerous states such Indiana, California and Washington. Furthermore, other cases in states such as Minnesota Penn Sylvania and Oregon are still running their mode through the justice structure (Wal-Mart Annual Report 2006).

Besides, in 2005, Wal-Mart was ordered to pay $172 million to compensate for damages by a California Court after it failed  to offer meals breaks to around 116,000 hourly workers, which is a requirement enacted by the state law.  The company appealed the case, which it felt was unfair (The New York Times, 2005).

Wal-Mart with Labor Unions:

The retail giant is recalled as a strong counter of unionization as Sam Walton, can be recalled as he notorious attempted to block unions from coming to their stores. The company was against unions, to the extent that Walton hired union-busting attorney John E. Tate, to repeal some of the initial efforts, which were intended to arrange stores in Missouri. Although unionization efforts succeeded in china, Wal-Mart could not shift from its perspective Canada and the US. Nonetheless, since Barrack Obama was elected president there is a possibility that the employee free choice act will be passed. This has inflicted fear in Wal-Mart, which feels that most of its anti-staff practices, which were dominant in the past half century, are coming to an abrupt end. However, Wal-Mart still persists that its associates do not require a union. Contrary, Wal-Mart watch, believe that after a lengthy period of Wal-Mart paying its employees low wages, offering expensive healthcare benefits as well as poor, working conditions, the company’s staff, is on the verge of witnessing changed times, of better working conditions and salaries.

Human Rights Watch Releases Statement on Wal-Mart and Union Busting

Furthermore, a watchdog faction called Human Rights Watch released a report in 2007 that lambasted Wal-Mart’s union-busting policies and practices in the US.  The report highlighted that although most US companies apply loopholes and weak laws to hinder employees from organizing. The giant retail dominates because of its immense aggressiveness on anti-union policies (Human Rights Watch, 2007).

Wal-Mart Cautions of Democratic Presidential Succession

More lately, it was exposed that Wal-Mart has been cautioning its hourly overseers of the probability of amalgamation if Democrats succeeded in the November polls and elections. One particular overseer articulated that he is an intelligent person yet he was instructed how to vote. Workers articulated that they used threats by highlighting all the unconstructive effects of amalgamation. They were also cautioned that in case the Worker Free Choice Act was enacted, it would increase the union course (Wall Street Journal 2008).

Butchers Cut Out Of Wal-Mart Stores

‘Wal-Mart instantaneously ended their whole system of in-store butcher sections. The business declined to recognize and discuss with the meat cutters union. They instead traded the labor of skilled employees for the expediency of pre-cut, as well as, prepackaged meats” (Occupational Health & Safety 2008).

In the editorial ‘Wal-Mart closes down stores and departments that unionize’

“Wal-Mart stopped its Jonquierre store situated in Quebec on April 2005 following its workers obtaining union certification. The store turned into being the initial unionized Wal-Mart in the entire part of North America in the event that 51 percent of the workers at the store authorized union cards” (Washington Post 2005).

Wal-Mart Family Finances the Anti-Union Association

It is not sufficient for Wal-Mart as a business to oppose unions. Sam Walton’s viewpoint more than expected prompted the Walton family to hold up the anti-union National liberty to Work Foundation, by means of grants accumulating to 70,000 dollars from 2000 up to 2003. By the time workers establish an NLRB election, if they have the capability to get to that position, an open and reasonable alternative is not an alternative. EFCA seeks out to correct these actualities through:

Bulk Sign-Up:

If a preponderance of employees in a projected negotiating unit signs cards depicting they wish for representation, the State Labor Relations Panel would need the company to be acquainted with the union, ending the trend of employer risks, aggravations and firings that usually come before union elections.

First Contract Mediation and Arbitration:

            The appropriate remedy for the stalling tactics employed by employees is to allow the employer or union to acquire federal mediation. This is in the event when a contract is not conceived in 90 days. If this action proves fruitless in 30 days, the parties will be subjected to a binding arbitration.

Stronger Penalties for Violations:

            If an employer is involved in willing violation of the rights of its employees in the event, there is bargaining or organization they are liable to civil fines of $20,000, and triple pay for the workers who were subjected to illegal firing and discriminations in the event of the union campaigns.

Workplace Discrimination and Wall Mart:

Women in Lawsuit against Wal-Mart

            Despite being among the most influential retails globally, wall mart faced a lawsuit on accusations of employing gender bias in their operations.  This resulted in a judgment by martin Jenkins, a district magistrate to grant 1.6 million female employees both former and current status of class action. This was due to the accusations that fewer opportunities were offered to female employees (Dukes v. Wal-Mart Stores, In.).

Wal-Mart Paying Women Less than Men

            Further controversies involving wall mart and gender bias is evident with a lawsuit in 2001, citing men were better paid and promoted than their female counterparts regardless of their qualifications. Some of the facts which were cited included the presence of a significant number of the employees being women, only 36 percent of the demographic were assistant managers with 14% and 10% being store and district managers respectively. This case was classified as a class-action lawsuit in 2004 (Arkansas Democrat-Gazette 2007).

Wal-Mart Pays Out For Violating The Americans With Disabilities Act.

            Concerning violations of rights of disabled customers, wall-mart was ordered by a jury in a district court of long island to pay 7.5 million for violating the act protecting the interests of the disabled. This payment

In current existence, regardless of the emerging economy, the middle class in the society has been compressed.

Business earnings and profits reimbursement have increased incredibly, but the middle class in the community has experienced their payments and salaries languish, while the expenditures for fundamental requirements like healthcare, schooling, foodstuff, energy and accommodation maintain to augment as time progresses.

Employees who fit in Unions are salaried 30 % more than nonunion corresponding unions.

Furthermore, they are 62 % more probably expected to have health offered and guaranteed by the employer of the organization and 4 times more liabll to have retirement fund.

The recent development of creating unions is twisted in those who oppose the unions.

Members of staff who are dynamic union followers have a one out of five opportunities of being removed from lawful union actions. Numerous managers decide to scout, intimidate, terrorize, annoy and when conducting their campaigns of the unions.

The punishment for illegitimate movement, involving firing employees for involving in guided actions, is scrawny and does diminutive to discourage rule Breakers.

            For instance, a manager found culpable of illegitimately firing a worker for union movement ought to onlyprovide back income to that worker—minus whatever one salaried in the short-term. Copious manager find the chastisement forflouting the rule a good deal if firing a pro-union member of staff frightens other individuals from sustaining and supporting the union.

Even when managers do not break the rule, the deck is mounded in opposition to Union followers.

The manager has all the authority; they organize and manage the information human resources can attain, can force employees to concentrate in anti-union summits and meetings throughout work hours, can compel working personnel to gather with managers who distribute and convey anti-union post, and can still mean that the company will shut up if the union succeeds. Union groups are able to access workers, conversely, is heavily limited.

“In 2003, federal the system detained 250 undocumented migrants who were working and hired by Wal-Mart in 21 nations. Countless of the janitors who come from Mexico, Russia, Mongolia, Poland hosting other countries – worked 7 without overtime.

References for secondary data 4.1 only

35 Olsson, Karen, “Up Against Wal-Mart,” Mother Jones, Apr./May 2003.

36 NLRB, FOIA request by Erin Johansson, filled 28 June 2005; UFCW database of unfair labor practice charges filed by the union against Wal-Mart. The NLRB list only included closed cases, and the list provided by the UFCW included all the charges the union filed, both closed and open cases. The two lists combined may be missing charges filed by another union or by an individual that are still open.

37 Recently, the Seventh Circuit Court upheld an NLRB order for Beverly Enterprises to cease and desist violating its employees’ rights to organize in all of its facilities, not just those involved in the specific case. This remedy was based on the high number of violations committed at multiple locations, and issued the centralized control of its human resource policies. Beverly California Corp. 326 NLRB 153 (1998) enfd. 227 F.3d 817 (7th Cir. 2000).

38 Pearlstein, Steven, “Workers’ Rights Are Being Rolled Back,” The Washington Post, 25 Feb. 2004: E01.

39  Lafer, Gordon, Free and Fair? How Labor Law Fails U.S. Democratic Election Standards, American Rights atWork, June 2005.

40 Walton, Sam and John Huey, Sam Walton: Made in America (New York: Doubleday, 1992) 129.

41 Walton, Sam and John Huey 130-131.

42 Wal-Mart Stores, “A Manager’s Toolbox to Remaining Union Free,” 1997 < actions/walmart_workers_campaign_info/relevant_links/


43 Ibid.

44 Rosetta Brown, testimony at the National Workers’ Rights Board hearing on Wal-Mart, organized by Jobs with Justice, St. Louis, MO, 24 Sept. 2005.

45 Gaetan Plourde, former Wal-Mart employee, personal interview, by Erin Johansson, translated between English and French by Dica Adotevi, 19 July 2005.

46 Wal-Mart Stores, Inc., JD(ATL)-37-03 (2003).

47 Media Transparency, grant search of National Right to Work Legal Defense and Education Foundation, accessed

20 Oct. 2005: < recipientgrants.php?recipientID=1128>.

48 Chip Berlet, Senior Analyst, Political Research Associates, personal interview, by Erin Johansson, 20 Oct. 2005.

49 Sexton, Steve, “Right to Work leader steps down, keep fighting,” The Washington Times, 6 July 2003: A4.

50 Martin, John, amicus brief filed on behalf of the National Right to Work Legal Defense and Education Foundation in Firstline Transportation Security, Inc., 17-RC-12354 before the NLRB, 3 Aug. 2005.

51 Wal-Mart Stores, Inc. memo, provided by the UFCW content/managing_the_store/02_05_01_grass_roots_20>. 

52 Ibid.

53 Wal-Mart Stores, “A Manager’s Toolbox to Remaining Union Free.”

54 Wal-Mart Stores, “Labor Relations and You at the Wal-Mart Distribution Center #6032,” prepared by Orson Mason, Sept. 1991 < actions/walmart_workers_campaign_info/relevant_links/ anti_union_manuals.cfm>.

55 Ehrenreich, Barbara, Nickel and Dimed: On (Not) Getting By in America (New York: Henry Holt and Company, 2001) 144-145.

56 Wal-Mart Stores, “Labor Relations and You at the Wal-Mart Distribution Center #6032.”

57 George Wiszynski, Assistant General Counsel of the UFCW, personal interview, by Erin Johansson, 28 Sept. 2005.

58 Joe Hendricks, former Wal-Mart employee, personal interview, by Erin Johansson, 24 July 2005.

59 Ghemawat, Pankaj, Ken A. Mark, and Stephen P. Bradley, Wal-Mart Stores in 2003, case study, Harvard Business School Publishing, 30 Jan. 2004.

60 NLRB, Second Order Consolidating Cases, 16-CA-20298, 16-CA-20321, 16-CA-20723, 16-CA- 20951, 16-CA-21276, from the National Labor Relations Board, Region 16, 5 Nov. 2001.

61 Wal-Mart Stores, Inc., JD(ATL)-37-03 (2003).

62 Greenhouse, Steven, “Trying to Overcome Embarrassment, Labor Opens a Drive to Organize Wal-Mart,” The New York Times, 8 Nov. 2002: A1.

63 Geller, Adam, “Wal-Mart Finds Union at Its Back Door,” Associated Press Online, 17 Oct. 2004.

64 Sylvie Mavoie, former Wal-Mart employee, personal interview, by Erin Johansson, translated between English and French by Dica Adotevi, 18 July 2005.

65, “Union Indicators,” managed by the Work Network of Canadian Policy Research Networks <>. 33

66 Johnson, Susan, “Card Check or Mandatory  Representation Vote? How the Type of Union Recognition Procedure Affects Union Certification Success,” Economic Journal 112 (2002): 355-359.

67 Louis Bolduc, Assistant to the National Director of UFCW Canada, personal interview, by Erin Johansson, 14 Sept. 2005.

68 Wal-Mart Stores, Inc., 2005 Annual Report.

69 Macgregor, Kerry, “Quebec law gives union David best shot at retail Goliath,” Ottawa Citizen, 22 Mar. 2005: F1.

70 Austen, Ian, “Quebec Rules Against Wal-Mart in Closing of Unionized Store,” The New York Times, 20 Sept. 2005: C7.

71 Ibid.

72 Joshua Noble, Wal-Mart employee, personal interview, by Erin Johansson, 27 June 2005.

73 National Labor Relations Board, FY 2003 Annual Performance Report, Mar. 2004.

74 Previous NLRB decisions on tire and lube units at Wal-Mart include: 6-RC-11844, New Castle PA; 28-RC- 5889, Kingman, AZ; 21-RC-20301, Elsinore, CA.

75 Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, May 2004 National Industry Specific Occupational Employment and Wage Estimates < oes/current/naics4_445100.htm>.

76 Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, May 2004 National Industry Specific Occupational Employment and Wage Estimates.

77 Curry, Tom, “Campaign veterans run anti-Wal-Mart effort.”

78 Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, Union affiliation of employed wage and salary workers by occupation and industry, 2004 <>.

79 Data from a UFCW analysis of membership and sales figures, Sept. 2005. Figures exclude warehouse stores like Costco and Sam’s Club, but include Wal-Mart supercenters.

80 U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey (March 2005 Supplement), generated by Erin Johansson using DataFerrett, 7 Sept. 2005 <http://dataferrett.>. Analysis controlled for employees’ gender, race, ethnicity, educational attainment, age, and full-time


81 Ibid.

82 Ibid.

83 Lovell, Vicky, and Xue Song, April Shaw, The Benefits of Unionization for Workers in the Retail Food Industry,Institute for Women’s Policy Research, 2002.

84 Ibid.

85 Johansson, Robert C., Jay S. Coggins, Ben H. Senauer, Union Density Effects in the Supermarket Industry, Working Paper 99-05, The Retail Food Industry Center, University of Minnesota, Aug. 1999.

86 Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, National Employment, Hours and Earnings (SIC) <>.

87 Ibid.

88 Ibid.

89 Ghemawat, Pankaj, Ken A. Mark, and Stephen P. Bradley, Wal-Mart Stores in 2003.

90 “The Super 50: Views from the top,” Progressive Grocer, 1 May 2005: 74.

91 Ibid.

92 Wal-Mart Stores, Inc., 2005 Annual Report.

93 Abelson, Reed, “States Are Battling Against Wal-Mart Over Health Care,” The New York Times, 1 Nov. 2004: A1.

94 AFL-CIO, Wal-Mart: An Example of Why Workers Remain Uninsured and Underinsured, Oct. 2003<>.

95 PBS, “Store Wars: When Wal-Mart Comes to Town,” web content to supplement film that aired June 2001 <>.

96 AFL-CIO, Wal-Mart: An Example of Why Workers Remain Uninsured and Underinsured.

97 Boarnet, Marlon and Randall Crane, Supercenters and the Transformation of the Bay Area Grocery Industry: Issues, Trends, and Impacts, Bay Area Economic Forum,

Jan. 2004.

98 Ibid.

99 Shils, Edward B., “Measuring the Economic and Sociological Impact of the Mega-Retail Discount Chains on Small Enterprise in Urban, Suburban and Rural Communities,” The Wharton School, University of Pennsylvania, 7 Feb. 1997 <


100 Walton, Sam and John Huey 110.

101 Stone, Kenneth E., “Impact of Wal-Mart Stores on Iowa Communities: 1983-1993,” Economic Development Review 13 (1995): 60-69. 34

102 Stone, Kenneth E., Georgeanne Artz, and Albert Myles, The Economic Impact of Wal-Mart Supercenters on Existing Businesses in Mississippi, Iowa State University, 2002 < publications/ms_supercenterstudy.pdf>.

103 Bianco, Anthony and Wendy Zellner, “Is Wal-Mart Too Powerful,” Business Week, 6 Oct. 2003: 100.

104 Basker, Emek, “Job Creation or Destruction? Labor- Market Effects of Wal-Mart Expansion,” The Review of Economics and Statistics 87 (2005): 174-183.

105 Ibid.

106 Dube, Arindrajit, Barry Eidlin, and Bill Lester, The Impact of Wal-Mart Growth on Earnings Throughout the Retail Sector, University of California at Berkeley IIRWorking Paper, 2005.

107 Ibid.

108 Ibid.

109 Boarnet, Marlon and Randall Crane, Supercenters and the Transformation of the Bay Area Grocery Industry: Issues, Trends, and Impacts.

110 Boarnet, Marlon and Randall Crane, The Impact of Big Box Grocers on Southern California: Jobs, Wages, and Municipal Finances, prepared for the Orange County

Business Council, Sept. 1999 < studies.htm>.

111 Congressman George Miller, Everyday Low Wages: The Hidden Price We All Pay for Wal-Mart.

112 Dube, Arindrajit and Ken Jacobs, Hidden Cost of Wal-Mart Jobs: Use of Safety Net Programs by Wal-Mart Workers in California, University of California at Berkeley

Labor Center, 2 Aug. 2004.

113 Mayfield, Dan, “Good times, bad times,” Albuquerque Tribune, 30 July 2001: Business Pg. 3.

114 Velasco, Diane, “Chain’s Demise Blamed on Leadership, Competition,” Albuquerque Journal, 2 Sept.

2001: A8.

115 Linda Winter, former Furrs employee, personal interview, by Erin Johansson, 12 July 2005.

116 UFCW analysis of Trade Dimensions market share data, 2000, 2005.

117 Ibid.

118 Ibid.

119 Collective bargaining agreement between Furr’s Supermarkets, Inc. and UFCW Local 1564, effective 1998-2001; Greg Frazier, Secretary-Treasurer of UFCW Local 1564, personal interview, by Erin Johansson, 29 Aug. 2005.

120 Greg Frazier, personal interview.

121 Bill Quintana, Business Representative of UFCW Local 1564, personal interview, by Erin Johansson, 27 July 2005; Helen Chesser, Secretary, UFCW Local 540, personal interview, by Erin Johansson, 27 July 2005.

122 February 2005 CHIP data obtained by the Center for Public Policy Priorities, provided to Good Jobs First <>.

123 Jette, Julie, “Bradlees milestones,” The Patriot Ledger, 27 Dec. 2000: Business 17.124 Reidy, Chris, “Discounter Bradlees exits fromChapter 11,” The Boston Globe, 4 Feb. 1999: C5.

125 Reinert, Sue, “Competition forces discount retailer to sell store,” The Patriot Ledger, 19 Jan. 1998: Business 15.

126 Gibb, Alison, “Bradlees plans to close five stores,” The Boston Herald, 3 Dec. 1997: Finance 40.

127 Joey Hipolito, Senior Research Associate of the UFCW, personal interview, by Erin Johansson, 13 June 2005.

128 Bradlees Inc., Form 10-K, Securities and Exchange Commission, filed 27 Apr. 2000.

129 Collective bargaining agreements between Bradlees and the UFCW Locals 328, 919 and 1445; Jeffrey Bollen, Secretary-Treasurer of UFCW Local 1445, personal interview, by Erin Johansson, 25 Aug. 2005; Dave Fleming, President of UFCW Local 328, personal interview, by Erin Johansson, 25 Aug. 2005.

130 Ibid.

131 Congressman George Miller, Everyday Low Wages: The Hidden Price We All Pay for Wal-Mart.

132 Ibid.

133 Elaine Vance, former Bradlees employee, personal interview, by Erin Johansson, 17 Aug. 2005.

134 Halverson, Richard, “Discount pioneer Caldor blazing upscale trail in the Northeast,” Discount Stores News, 16

Aug. 1993: 57.

135 Reidy, Chris, “Troubled Bradlees files for Chapt. 11,” The Boston Globe, 24 June 1995: C1. 35

136 Green, Frank, “Wal-Mart’s shadow dims contract hopes,” The San Diego Union-Tribune, 26 Sept. 2003: C1.

137 Mecoy, Laura, “Health benefits fight heats up,” The Sacramento Bee, 19 Jan. 2004: A1.

138 Cleeland, Nancy, “The Supermarket Strike: Clash Focuses on Co-Pays, Premiums—and Risk,” The Los Angeles Times, 23 Oct. 2003: C1.

139 Galvin, Andrew, “Grocery strike looks likely,” The Orange County Register, 7 Oct. 2003.

140 Jackie Gitmend, Ralphs employee, personal interview, by Erin Johansson, 21 July 2005.

141 Kristine Dall, Ralphs employee, personal interview, by Erin Johansson, 26 May 2005.

142 Pseudonym used. Anonymous, employee of Ralphs, personal interview, by Erin Johansson, 21 July 2005.

143 Stephenie Massey, Vons employee, personal interview, by Erin Johansson, 27 May 2005.

144 Eire Garcia, Vons employee, personal interview, by Erin Johansson, 21 July 2005.

145 The Coalition for a Better Inglewood was formed in response to Wal-Mart’s plan to open a supercenter in Inglewood. After the city council passed a ban on supercenters, Wal-Mart challenged the ban by initiating a referendum vote that would give the company carte blanche to build without city oversight or public review. Through a major education and mobilization effort by the Coalition, residents voted 61 percent to reject Wal-Mart’s initiative on Apr. 6, 2004. For further information about this effort, see Gray-Barkan, Tracy, “Southern California’s Wal-Mart Wars,” Social Policy 35 (2004).

146 Romero, Dennis, “A War With No Winner,” LosAngeles City Beat, 8 Jan. 2004 <>.

147 George Green, Albertsons employee, personal interview, by Erin Johansson, 21 July 2005.

148 Katzanek, Jack, “Grocery Strike: One Year Later, Employees Notice Changes,” The Press Enterprise, 5 Mar. 2005: A1.

149 Cleeland, Nancy, “The Supermarket Strike: Clash Focuses on Co-Pays, Premiums—and Risk.”

150 Dube, Arindrajit and Alex Lantsberg, Wage and Health Benefit Restructuring in California’s Grocery Industry.

151 Ibid.

152 Ibid.

153 Ibid.

154 Washburn, David, “Grocery strike’s benefits realized in Bay Area,” Copley News Service, 30 Jan. 2005.

155 Hamstra, Mark, “The New Workforce,” Supermarket News, 14 Feb. 2005: 12.

156 Ibid.

157 Ibid.

158 Twila Mandella, former Albertsons employee, personal interview, by Erin Johansson, 26 May 2005.

159 Rev. William Jarvis Johnson, pastor of Calvary CME church in Pasadena, CA and Senior Clergy Organizer for CLUE, personal interview, by Erin Johansson, 28 June


160 Goldman, Abigail, “The Wal-Mart Effect; Proud to Be at the Top,” The Los Angeles Times, 23 Nov. 2003: A32.

161 Green, Frank, “Both sides in grocery strike stand ground,” The San Diego Union-Tribune, 14 Oct. 2003: A1.

162 Fulmer, Melissa, “Cornered Grocers May Have to Be What Wal-Mart Isn’t,” The Los Angeles Times, 27 Oct.

2003: A1.

163 Hamstra, Mark 12.

164 Greenhouse, Steven, “How Costco Became the Anti-Wal-Mart,” The New York Times, 17 July 2005: C1.

165 Ibid.

166 Shulman Beth, “As Goes Wal-Mart,”, 3 May 2005 < as_goes_walmart.php>.

167 Luria, Daniel D. and Joel Rogers, “A New Urban Agenda,” Boston Review, Feb./Mar. 1997.

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Review the Rare Full Video: Utah Nurse Arrest—Jeff Payne Body Cam(30:01) video from the Verbal and Nonverbal Communication Resource Section for this discussion.

Review the Rare Full Video: Utah Nurse Arrest—Jeff Payne Body Cam(30:01) video from the Verbal and Nonverbal Communication Resource Section for this discussion.

Take a position. Do you agree or disagree with the officer’s choice of communication style in this situation?

Review the Rare Full Video: Utah Nurse Arrest—Jeff Payne Body Cam(30:01) video from the Verbal and Nonverbal Communication Resource Section for this discussion.

First, title your initial post either “The officer’s choice of communication style was appropriate” or “The officer’s choice of communication style was not appropriate.”

Then in your initial post, make your case. Consider the following:

  • Which verbal communication style did the officer use?
  • Which nonverbal components did the officer use to control the situation?
  • If you did not agree with the officer’s choice of communication, use research to explain why that communication style was ineffective.
  • If you felt the officer’s response was not appropriate, what would you change? Use research to support your changes.
  • If you felt the officer did handle the situation appropriately, why do you think the situation turned out the way it did? What other forms of communication in this situation helped to create the situation? Use research to explain how these other forms of communication contributed to the breakdown of this situation.

In your response to your peers, consider the changes they would make to improve or alter the outcome or why they felt the approach was appropriate. Do you agree with the changes they would make or their rationale for not making changes? Why or why not?

To complete this assignment, review the Discussion Rubric document.


Your active participation in the discussions is essential to your overall success this term. Discussion questions will help you make meaningful connections between the course content and the larger concepts of the course. These discussions give you a chance to express your own thoughts, ask questions, and gain insight from your peers and instructor.


For each discussion, you must create one initial post and follow up with at least two response posts.

For your initial post, do the following:

  • Write a post of 1 to 2 paragraphs.

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A Review of Literature on the Effects of Using Repeated Reading to Aid Comprehension and Fluency with Learning Disabled Students

Table of Contents

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION……………………………………………………………………………………… 2

1.0 Background Information…………………………………………………………………………………………. 2

1.1 Problem Statement…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 2

1.2 Purpose of the Study………………………………………………………………………………………………. 3

1.3 Conceptual Framework…………………………………………………………………………………………… 3

1.4 Significance of the Study………………………………………………………………………………………… 4

1.6 Assumptions………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 5

1.7 Outline of the Paper……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 5

CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW…………………………………………………………………………….. 7

2.0  Reading Research: Historical Overview…………………………………………………………………… 7

2.1 Fluency and Reading………………………………………………………………………………………………. 8

2.2 Repeated Readings and its Impacts on Fluency and Comprehension Skills……………………. 9

2.3 Repeated Readings and Fluency among Students with Learning Difficulties……………….. 11


3.1 Discussions………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 13

3.2 Implications for Teachers………………………………………………………………………………………. 15

3.3 Conclusion…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 16

3.4 Implications for Future Research……………………………………………………………………………. 17

References……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 18




1.0 Background Information 

According to the data from National Centre for Education Statistics (2009), almost half of the country’s 1st to 8th-grade students have a problem with reading fluency. This data also indicate sustained levels of reading difficulties in the country for the past 10 years. This has propagated increased research on reading achievement by educationalists (NCES, 2009). However, the legislation of the No Child Left Behind legislation on 2002 has forced instructors and leaders in education to revise their strategies to meet this need (NCLB, 2002). According to Calhoon (2005), academic success, independence, and employability of an individual are founded on the ability to master the reading skills. Illiteracy is known to prevent an individual from being productive in a society (Kim, 2008). Due to this challenge, researchers have in the recent past focused on developing the most appropriate approach to teaching learners how to read (Cassidy et al., 2010). Well-educated citizens that are literate are better placed to positively contribute to the advancement of a society through evaluating data, making informed decisions, effectively solving problems, and improving the quality of their lives as well as that of others of others in a society. This places emphasis on the imperativeness of reading skills in the society

1.1 Problem Statement

As much as teaching learners how to read is considered as among the main aims of education, numerous students are found to have difficulty in learning even the basic reading skills. Studies indicate that 20 percent of students suffer significant difficulties in acquiring reading skills (NCES, 2009). Furthermore, over a third of students in fourth-grade level have poor basic reading skills. The situation is further compounded for students with special learning needs, as they are found to struggle with reading difficulty in educational life as well as adult life (Calhoon, 2005). The sustained prevalence of students with reading difficulties has forced educationalists to reexamine the approaches to teaching reading skills in schools. A report from the national reading panel published in 2001 identified reading fluency, text comprehension strategies, vocabulary instructions, phonics, and phonemic awareness as essential reading skills (NICHHD, 2000). This paper presents a critical analysis the concept of repeated reading and its effectiveness in promoting comprehension and fluency reading skills among students with learning disabilities

1.2 Purpose of the Study

This paper purposed to scrutinize whether repeated reading approach had an effect on the general reading capabilities and attitudes among school going children. Recent studies on this issue have emphasized on the need of implementing research findings into the instructional process as a way of positively influencing the reading skills of learners (Brown, 2011).This paper presents an analysis the effectiveness of repeated reading strategy in enhancing reading skills among learners based on existing studies on the issue

1.3 Conceptual Framework 

The importance of reading fluency in education emerged in the late 1960s (Brown, 2011). This was built on two theoretical constructs that have been greatly cited by various authors on this issue. Specifically, reading fluency problems are believed to originate from poor decoding skills by the readers (Brown, 2011; Guthrie et al., 2004). The existence of slowed down decoding skills results in formation of a bottleneck that obstructs the thought flow ultimately inhibiting comprehension (Brown, 2011; Cassidy et al., 2010) Learners with poor reading skills spend most of their cognitive capabilities on decoding limiting their comprehension capabilities (Cassidy et al., 2010). Effortless readers, on the other hand, are able to decode words speedily with accuracy allowing them to have enough capabilities for comprehension (Lo et al., 2011). 

On the contrary, another theory on reading asserts that the difficulty to read fluently originates from the lack of prosodic cues in written language (Francis et al., 2005). This position is defended by the argument that some readers are incapable of conveying from oral language, where prosodic markers are precise to written language, and the learner must infer the markers (Therrien & Hughes, 2008). Learners that are unable to come up with suitable prosodic markers are not in a position to separate sentences into meaningful expressions and thus face difficulties in comprehending written text even if they are able to effectively decode individual words (Morgan & Sideridis, 2006). This position is backed by various authors who argue that text-reading process is complex and requires assimilation of all levels of processing as from the initial decoding of individual words to acquisition of the denotation of the sentence, paragraph, and the whole information in general (Morgan & Sideridis, 2006; Therrien, 2004; Neumann et al., 2008). 

1.4 Significance of the Study

The study contributes to educational practice and theory on teaching learners how to read. From a theoretical perspective, the study offers various contributions to existing positions on approaches to teaching students how to read. Concerning repeated reading strategy, the study provides insight into how repeated reading is perceived by various authors in terms of its effectiveness in promoting student reading capabilities. The study indicates the existence of differentiation in students with the learning disorder in terms of their reading capability due to adherence and non-adherence to repeated reading strategy (O’ Connor et al., 2007).

These results of this research study are also relevant to practical teaching practice as they show student variations in reading capacity. Consequently, teachers will have evidence required for designing and implementing differentiated programs aimed at improving reading skills among learners. Particularly, this will assist education leadership and teachers to design effective teaching programs that recognize the differences in how learners acquire reading skills with a focus on the use of repeated reading strategy in the management of reading deficiency among students with learning disabilities

1.6 Assumptions

This research paper is based on specific assumptions that are delineated below:

  1. The data collected by existing studies was adequate in terms of covering all the variables that were under investigation in this study 
  2. The existing studies provided truthful information regarding the issues under analysis

1.7 Outline of the Paper 

The introductory chapter has background information, the research problem, Conceptual framework, and the contributions of the study. The second chapter provided a comprehensive review of the literature on reading difficulties among learners with a specific focus on the role of repeated rereading strategy in the management of reading difficulties. In the third chapter, the discussion, implications, conclusions, and recommendations on the issue with a specific focus on the information in literature review was developed



2.0 Reading Research: Historical Overview 

The methodology of teaching was blamed for ineffectiveness in the development of reading skills among learners as early as 1955 (Brown, 2011). A study by Chall (1967) examined whether children are able to develop reading skills well if the teaching methodology emphasized on phonics code or an approach centered on stressing the meaning. Findings of this study indicated that emphasis on phonics code had better results that comprehension and word recognition. Goodman (1965), disproof disapproved this position by arguing that children have different approaches in the identification of words including context clues and background knowledge. A study by Brown (2011) affirmed that reading out the whole word enhanced the reading abilities among learners. However, Goodman was against the approach that focused on teaching word recognition in isolation. This resulted to the development of psycholinguistic theory of reading that resulted to increased interest in research on how learners mind behave when occupied in reading (Kim, 2008). 

The position adopted by Goodman was influential on the studies on reading behaviors among students (Brown, 2011). In the 1979s and 1980s, reading research was dominated by cognivitism with the focus on the eye movement during reading as well as the effect of context on the reading process (Brown, 2011). In the 1990s, more studies on reading were develop emphasizing on the processes and practices of teaching and learning how to reading (Brown, 2011). A study by Adams (1990) came up with an integrated approach to teaching how to read that combined systematic coding and meaningful reading in the teaching process. 

Currently, the national reading panel (NRP) is the main source of instructional approaches for teaching learners how to read ((NICHHD, 2000). This approach recommends the use of several teaching approaches that amalgamates into a well-balanced literacy program. Specifically these approaches target the five pillars of reading, namely vocabulary, comprehension, fluency, phonics, and phonemic awareness as being the vital aspects of reading instruction (Cassidy et al., 2010). 

2.1 Fluency and Reading

The NRP has been at the center on the development of fluency as an essential reading skill. There exist innumerable studies that have analyzed the concept of fluency and its application to the learning process (Hudson et al., 2005; O’ Connor et al., 2007). However, its definition in the context of reading is varies from one researcher to another. Specifically, some studies define fluency based on speed and accuracy, while others identify prosody and comprehension as major attributes of fluency (Brown, 2011). Fluency can be defined as the capability of a learner to read with accuracy, speed, and expression (Armbruster et al., 2003). It can also be defined as an accurate approach to reading of information as a conversation with fitting prosody (Hudson et al., 2005)

The National Reading Panel identified high levels of fluency neglect in most schools in the United States (NCES, 2009). NRP went further and proposed two instructional strategies targeting promotion of reading fluency among learners. These strategies included the independent silent reading strategy and the guided repeated oral reading (Kim, 2008). The common agreement among researchers that fluency is developed through reading has resulted to increased adoption of the NRP strategies in a classroom environment. Specifically, studies have shown that guided oral reading has a positive impact on comprehension, word recognition, and fluency (Kim, 2008; Cassidy et al., 2010). However, the existence of numerous approaches for implementing the repeated reading approach demanded research into the most effective approach for promoting fluency and comprehension

2.2 Repeated Readings and its Impacts on Fluency and Comprehension Skills

Several research studies have been conducted on repeated readings dating back to as early as 1979, which iterated that repeated reading is founded on repetitive practice of the text (Samuels, 1979; Dahl, 1979). Kuhn and Stahl (2003) conducted a review of various studies on the impact of repeated reading on fluency. The findings indicated that most studies found a significant impact while others had null impact, and some showed the impact was limited to the repeated text only and not transferable to other texts. The position adopted in these studies was explained that the studies that found null impact did not meet the minimum number of times for defining repetitive reading, which were placed at five times by Dahl and Samuel. 

Another study by O’Connor et al. (2007) examined the impact of complexity of the reading material and found out that using material that was relevant to the instructional level of the learner greatly influenced the fluency gains. Repeated reading among learners has been found to result to better work accuracy and comprehension (Hudson et al., 2005). Therefore, as learners repeat reading a text, they learn new sight words, which they then apply in new texts (Neumann et al., 2008). Most studies that have reported insignificant or no improvement in comprehension skills had no effective baseline for developing the measure. Therrien (2004) suggests that the students under study many not have fluency problems making it hard to detect improvement in comprehension skills. 

As much as repeated reading is generally known to positively impact on fluency, its impact on comprehension skills is not always guaranteed (Morgan & Sideridis, 2006). Various studies on comprehension skills have provided varied findings. Some studies show a general trend in the increase of fluency and comprehension skills simultaneously (Kuhn & Stahl, 2003). Other studies affirm that repeated reading enhances fluency but does not always result to the development of better comprehension skills (Therrien, 2004). Another suggestion for this anomaly is the possibility of students reading a text that is inappropriate to their level. A study by Therrien & Hughes (2008) identifies shortage of higher order thinking skills such as supervision of the text as contributory to inability of repetitive reading to result to better comprehension skills. 

Furthermore, the approaches adopted in measuring comprehension in repetitive reading studies are also varied. Learners that are reading a text learn facts from the information and, therefore, repeated reading is supposed to generally show improved comprehension skills when measured as learners are able to clearly identify the answer they are being comprehended on in the text. However, many studies use literal knowledge to test comprehension skills that demand a learner to integrate previous knowledge and the information in the text (Therrien & Hughes, 2008). The fact that repeated reading strategies do not emphasize on inferential comprehension, such tests are likely to present a negative outcome of repeated reading on comprehension skills. Moreover, many studies on repeated reading present data for both literal and inferential questioning as a single score. This atonality limits the ability of testing the gains in comprehension skills (Bryant et al., 2000). This position is further illustrated by Freeland et al. (2000) who pointed out that repeated reading has a positive impact on the learners’ literal comprehension skills but has null impact on inferential comprehension skills. Therefore, the use of text comprehensions strategies that combines both literal and inferential comprehension is necessary for improving the reading achievement. 

2.3 Repeated Readings and Fluency among Students with Learning Difficulties

The effectiveness of repeated reading in enhancing fluency and comprehension skills among students with learning disabilities has not been fully studies to affirm the status of evidence-based justification (Chard et al., 2009). This position was adopted by Chard et al. (2009) after conducting an analysis of existing studies and concluded that the studies were not empirical in nature. However, this position was adopted devoid of studies that more than one additional instructional components such as comprehension and development of vocabulary. However, the fact that most studies have documented that repeated readings promote oral fluency, a blended approach with several instructional components is bound to enhance the effectiveness. Several studies have analyzed students with learning disabilities and identified deficits in skills such a comprehension, fluency, word recognition, and motivation (Francis et al., 2005; Guthrie et al., 2004). Since all these skills are directly attributed to the development of comprehension capabilities, the use of reading instructions that combine all these components offers better outcomes (Guthrie & Wigfield, 2005). For instance, an approach that combined readings and question generation developed by Wickstrom & Jones (2006) was effective in promoting fluency and comprehension skills among learners with learning disabilities. 

A more recent look into this issue was by Lo et al. (2011), was based on a study that contained an adult-directed reading meditation. The study found out that direct involvement of an adult in the repeated reading process hastened the rate of acquisition of the reading skills. In general, repeated reading has been found to positively impact on the reading skills among learners with learning disabilities (Therrien, 2004). In his study, Therrien (2004) concluded that adult implementation, cueing, a minimum of four times of text repetition, corrective feedback and performance criterion are vital components of an effective instructional strategy targeting enhancement of reading skills among students with learning disabilities. 



3.1 Discussions

From the above literature review, it is evident that learners that have poor literacy skills require data based intervention to enable them improve in their reading skills. Many of the studies analyzed have indicated that repeated reading is a powerful tool that can help in the enhancement of fluency and comprehension skills among learners (Hudson et al., 2005; Cassidy et al., 2010; Lo et al., 2011). Repeated reading has been shown to positively influence reading achievement as well as attitudes among learners (Lo et al., 2011; Calhoon, 2005). However, when implementing the reading training among learners, teachers should consider motivational factors, the needs of the learners, materials that relay the content to the learners in an appropriate manner, instructional approaches that have scientific backing and engage the learner, and the specific skills needed by the learner to become a proficient reader (NCES, 2009; Brown, 2011; Kim, 2008). 

Based on the literature reviewed above, repeated readings that considered content based literacy proved effective in addressing the reading problems among learners. More so, the studies conducted a measure of repeated readings based on performance assessments that clearly indicated that repeated readings positively enhance fluency and comprehension skills (Kuhn & Stahl, 2003). This is evidenced by the position taken by Therrien (2004) that validated previous studies that had asserted that repeated reading is effective for promoting development of fluency and comprehension skills among learners. The analysis drawn from various studies clearly indicated that repeated reading has a positive impact on student’s word efficiency, sight word, and reading comprehension, as well as general improvement in literacy (Kuhn & Stahl, 2003; O’ Connor et al., 2007; Neumann et al., 2008). Specifically, studies on the impact of repeated reading for learners with learning disabilities showed that if well used with several approaches, repeated reading can effectively promote literacy in such students (Calhoon, 2005; Morgan & Sideridis, 2006). This is a clear indication that repeated reading has the potential of promoting development of fluency and comprehension skills among learners with learning disabilities. The fact reading is a cornerstone in the learning process, considerations of implementing repeated reading strategy in learning institution targeting students with learning difficulties is essential in the elimination of reading and comprehension gaps between the normal learners and the learners with learning difficulties. 

Consequently, repeated reading is an effective tool for improvement of fluency and comprehension skills among disabled as well as non-disabled learners in terms of learning difficulties. The use of sources that utilized both transfer and non-transfer measures allowed this investigation to develop a deeper analysis of the concept of repeated reading and its impact on learner’s literacy (Morgan & Sideridis, 2006). The analysis of studies founded on non-transfer perspective that measured the ability of a student to fluently read a specific text after repeated reading indicated that repeated reading is effective for promoting fluency and comprehension skills for a specific text (Therrien & Hughes, 2008). Therefore, students that are exposed to reading a passage more than once generally read it more fluently and offer better comprehension of the passage. On the other hand, transfer results that examined the student’s ability to read fluently and comprehend another text after reading a different text repeatedly indicated that students that are exposed to repeated readings of a specific text are better placed in terms of fluency and comprehensions skills when reading a different text (Chard et al., 2009). As a result, repeated reading has the capability of improving learners’ comprehension and fluency abilities when exposed to new reading materials. 

The review of literature also offered insights into the instructional components for promoting repeated reading among learners. The most evident approach that was considered essential in most studies is the approach that demanded learners to read the text loudly to the teacher (Chard et al., 2009; Francis et al., 2005; Guthrie et al., 2004). This position was founded adult implemented approach to repeated reading  as studies demonstrated that instances where a teacher was actively involved in the repeated reading process produced better results compared to instances where the learners were exposed to repeated reading individually (Guthrie et al., 2004). Another important finding on repeated reading from the review of the literature was provision of a cue and repetition process being more than four times. Specifically, the cue to be provided was a challenging issue as studies were divided between using speed and comprehension or fluency, or comprehension (Lo et al., 2011; Cassidy et al., 2010). However, from the studies, there was negligible impact on fluency and comprehension skills when the cueing approach was changed and therefore provided cuing is part of the repeated reading instructions, then it is bound to work effectively in promoting literacy. For the learners with learning disabilities, cueing approach that considered comprehension has better results in terms of memory as compared to speed cuing. Nevertheless, since several studies suggested that an integrated approach has better results, this study proposed that the most effective approach for cuing should combine both comprehension and speed cuing (Cassidy et al., 2010; Kim, 2008; NCES, 2009). 

3.2 Implications for Teachers

This research developed two major findings that have implications for the teacher-learner environments regarding reading skills. To begin with, studies have shown that repeated reading can be used as an instructional approach for improving learners’ fluency and comprehension of text. The second finding is that there are specific instructional components that are needed to ensure repeated reading strategy is beneficial as a tool for promoting literacy among learners. Specifically, the choice of instructional components is dependent on the objective of the intervention. If repeated reading targets improvement of students’ fluency and comprehension skills for a specific text, the approach should cue students with a focus on comprehension and speed, and the text should be loudly read by the learners more than three times. However, if the intention of repeated reading targets the overall literacy of the learners, then the essential components of the instruction process should include reading the passage loudly to an adult instructor, the instructor should provide corrective feedback on specific words in the text. Additionally, the student must read the text many times until the set performance standards are met. 

3.3 Conclusion

Using the literature review, this study has been able to offer a better understanding of the current position regarding repeated reading and its impact on the improvement of fluency and comprehension skills among learners with learning disabilities. Specifically, the study has pointed out that the impacts of repeated reading in the development of reading skills is positive for students with learning difficulties as well as those without learning difficulties. Moreover, it was evident that the approach adopted in offering repeated reading instructions is controlled by the objectives of the process with a specific focus on nontransferable and transferable fluency and comprehension skills. The fact that effective literacy is founded on transferable reading skills where a student is able to apply fluency and comprehension skills read in a text to another different text, the focus on developing instructional approaches that promoted development of transferable reading skills was viewed as imperative in educational development.  

3.4 Implications for Future Research

As much as this study proved that repeated reading has a positive impact on fluency and comprehension skills among learners, there are several critical queries that were not well responded to in the reviewed studies. The most burning issue relates to the approach for increasing instructional components, using a modeling component, the role of peers in promoting repeated reading effectiveness, and the most effective approach for measuring the overall impact for repeated reading on literacy achievement. This study has identified the vital instructional components of repeated reading but the lack of analysis on the impact of additional instructional components limited the ability of this investigation in pointing out how they may influence development of literacy skills. Thus, developing a better understanding of the effect of repeated reading in promoting literacy among learners with learning difficulties, long-term studies are necessary. The lack studies that have focused on this group of learners for more than 6 months makes the existing data limited in terms of affirming the importance of repeated learning and developing the most appropriate instructional approach targeting learners with learning difficulties is challenging. Specifically, developing a quasi-experiment approach may provide deeper insights into this issues and their impact on repeated reading as a reading skill development strategy. 



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Francis, D., Fletcher, J., Catts, H., & Tomblin, J. (2005). Dimensions affecting the assessment of reading comprehension. In S. Paris, & S. Stahl (Eds.), Children’s reading comprehension and assessment (pp. 369-394). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Guthrie, J. T., Wigfield, A., Barbosa, P., Perencevich, K. C., Taboada, A., Davis, M. H., et al. (2004). Increasing reading comprehension and engagement through concept-oriented reading instruction. Journal of Educational Psychology, 94(3), 403-423.

Guthrie, J. T. & Wigfield, A. (2005). Roles of motivation and engagement in reading comprehension assessment. In S. Paris, & S. Stahl (Eds.), Children’s Reading Comprehension and Assessment (pp. 187-213). Mahwah: NJ: Erlbaum.

Goodman, K. (1965). A linguistic study of cues and miscues in reading. Elementary English Journal, 42, 39-44.

Hudson, R. F., Lane, H. B., & Pullen, P. C. (2005). Reading fluency assessment and instruction: What, why, and how? Reading Teacher, 58, 702–714.

Kim, J. (2008). Research and the reading wars. Phi Delta Kappan, 89(5), 372-375.

Kuhn, M., & Stahl, S. (2003). Fluency: A review of developmental and remedial practices. Journal of Educational Psychology, 95(1), 1-21.

Lo, Y., Cooke, N., & Starling, A. (2011). Using a Repeated Reading Program to Improve Generalization of Oral Reading Fluency. Education & Treatment of Children, 34(1), 115-140.

Morgan, P. L., & Sideridis, G. D. (2006). Contrasting the effectiveness of fluency interventions for students with or at risk for learning disabilities: A multilevel random coefficient modeling meta-analysis. Learning Disabilities: Research and Practice, 21, 191-210.

National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) (2009). The Nation’s Report Card: Reading 2009 (NCES 2010–458). Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education, Washington, D.C.

National Center for Education Statistics. (2006). Average Scale Scores and Achievement-Level Results in Reading by Grade. Retrieved from

National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHHD) (2000). Report of the National Reading Panel. Teaching children to read: an evidence-based assessment of the scientific research literature on reading and its implications for reading instruction. Retrieved from

Neumann, V., Ross, D. & Slaboch, A. (2008). “Increasing Reading Comprehension of Elementary Students Through Fluency-Based Interventions.” M.A. action research project, Saint Xavier University and Pearson Achievement Solutions, 2008. ERIC document number ED500847. 

No Child Left Behind (NCLB) (2002).Act of 2001, Pub. L. No. 107-110, § 115, Stat. 1425. 

O’ Connor, R. E., White, A., & Swanson, H. L. (2007). Repeated reading verses continuous reading: Influences on reading fluency and comprehension. Council for Exceptional Children, 74(1), 31-46.

Samuels, S. J. (1979). The method of repeated readings. The Reading Teacher, 32, 403-408.

Therrien, W. J., & Hughes, C. A. (2008). Comparison of repeated reading and question generation on students’ reading fluency and comprehension. Learning Disabilities: A Contemporary Journal, 6(1), 1-17.

Therrien, W. J. (2004). Fluency and comprehension gains as a result of repeated reading: A meta-analysis. Remedial and Special Education, 25, 252–261.

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Credibility of literature sources plays a particularly important role for the quality of your brief literature review

Credibility of literature sources plays a particularly important role for the quality of your brief literature review

Assessment 3 – Research Report: Topic Presentation (200 words) and Brief literature review of academically 4 credible sources with a bibliography in Harvard style with Conclusion (800 words), 1000 with +/-100 words waiver, words per student, without counting the reference list (30%),

You should work on your topic associated with social psychology by developing your understanding of it though academic sources.

You should ideally use the findings of references you have evaluated as useful during an Annotated Bibliography exercise, which would optimize your efforts. Yet, you are welcome to use other sources, too.

Please note that this is a Research Report assignment called a BRIEF LITERATURE REVIEW, meaning that your work will be evaluated on the basis of literature sources that you will synthesize to discuss a specific theory explaining one of the aspects of your topic.

Credibility of literature sources plays a particularly important role for the quality of your brief literature review

In general, the Research Report should have approximately 1’000 words:

– an explanation of topic importance should contain about 200 words per individual student,

– A brief literature review should contain about 800 words per individual student, excluding bibliography.

3000words Please ! our group have 3 persons

Credibility of literature sources plays a particularly important role for the quality of your brief literature review. For doing a brief literature review on a theory from social psychology of your choice, use primarily credible academic sources (academic journal publications, book chapters, and academic research papers). Alternatively, you can use other sources, such as STR hotel analytics, HVS hospitality industry reports, industry reports, statistical publications, newspaper articles, and/or recognized professional association websites. However, the other sources do not count towards the credible academic source count.

The following literature review sources breakdown will be used as a minimal requirement for the indicated grade (overall evaluation will be capped at the indicated grading level):

Excellent (A, 100 maximum): 1 book chapter + 3 academic research papers

OR 2 book chapters + 2 academic research paper

OR 3 book chapters + 1 academic research paper

Above average (B+, 89 maximum): 1 book chapter + 2 academic research papers

OR 2 book chapters + 1 academic research paper

Course average (B-, 82 maximum): 1 book chapter + 1 academic research paper + 1 other source

Minimum pass (C+, 79 maximum): 1 book chapter OR 1 academic research paper + 1 source of any type

Below average (C-, 69 maximum): 1 source of any type

Fail (F, 59 maximum): No credible literature sources used in text

The grade will be penalized in case of substantial misunderstanding or lack of familiarization with the topic content resulting from misuse of literature sources, such as (but not limited to):

1. systematic or major lack of originality in analysis (10 points), synthesis of key findings from the source (10 points), and conclusion development (10 points) (30 points in total);

2. systematic or major evidence of familiarization with the content of findings with one specific source (10 points);

3. systematic or major mismatch between the actual and reported source content (10 points);

4. systematic or major mismatch between the sources referenced and used in the bibliography (10 points).

Following structure is expected:

  • • _Introduction: (half a page to 1 page): Present the topic importance
  • • _Literature review (two to four pages): Describe your key construct or theory; explain its key premises by analyzing, comparing and contrasting the findings from your sources; evaluate your reviewed source credibility
  • • _Conclusions: synthesize the main ideas to remember on your topic by combining the knowledge from reviewed sources
  • • _Reference list (attention, please use Harvard Referencing).
  • • _Appendices (detailed analytical tables, other materials, if any)

Electronic copy of your brief literature review should be submitted on e-learning from Friday, W9.

Specific grading criteria for Assessment 3 (10% each):

  • use of theory and social psychology concepts (topic importance)
  • links among theory and social psychology concepts (topic importance)
  • analysis (of literature sources)
  • synthesis(of literature sources)_
  • evaluation-level thinking (conclusions)
  • development of a logical and well-ordered argument (specific theory use or concept description)
  • Harvard style use (academic sources, reference list, citations, quotations)
  • organization: paragraphs, transition of words and phrases
  • clarity of expression
  • spelling and grammar

Eveything about topic I put on other files

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Hello! Can you help me with this assignment? For your first assignment you will select a healthcare-based organization for review and compose a report.

For your first assignment, you will select a healthcare-based organization for review and compose a report. In a 4-6 page paper, be sure to include the following sections:


Be sure to include basic information about the organization. This may include location, size, mission, values, etc. You will be examining and discussing the internal and external factors that impact this particular organization.


Explain each of the key internal factors that impact the business. Internal factors could be:

Human resource management
Research and development
Service delivery
Information technology services
Customer service call centers
Management information systems
Investigate how factors outside the organization could affect their operations. Be sure to discuss the impact on the business activities, strategy, internal structures, functional activities and stakeholders. External factors may include:


How does the structure relate to the particular sector (private/public/voluntary) that the organization is in?

Evaluate how well the organizational structure works (does it work well or could it be improved?).

Your completed exercise should follow the conventions of Standard American English (correct grammar, punctuation, etc.). Your writing should be well ordered, logical and unified, as well as original and insightful. Your work should display superior content, organization, style, and mechanics.

NOTE: Be sure to cite sources in APA format throughout your paper, especially when drawing conclusions and making recommendations, to support your ideas.

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A Methodical Review

Discussion: A Methodical Review

Assignment 1: A Methodical Review

Using the Argosy University online library resources, locate a research study related to forensic psychology. Present an analysis of the article by addressing the following points:

· Provide a brief overview of the problem being studied, the research design, and the participants being used for the study and the general findings of the study.

· Identify the research question, independent variable, and dependent variable.

· If you were the researcher conducting this study and found that you were not familiar with the particular research population, what steps would you take to prepare yourself to conduct the research with this population?

· Was any deception used in this study? If so, why was this deception necessary? If not, do you think that the study would have benefited from any kind of deception?

· What steps did the researcher take to protect his or her participants?

· What are the limitations of the study’s design and/or implementation?

· If you were the researcher, would you have conducted this study the same way in relation to ethics and protection of the participants? If not, what changes would you make?

Post your response in a minimum of 300 words.

All written assignments and responses should follow APA rules for attributing sources.

While responding to classmates, offer suggestions, ideas, and evaluative comments.

Submission Details:

· By the due date assigned, post your responses to this Discussion Area.

· Through the end of the module, respond to at least two of your classmates’ posts. While responding, compare the similarities and differences between what you have constructed and what your classmates have.

Grading CriteriaMaximum Points
Quality of initial posting, including fulfillment of assignment instructions16
Quality of responses to classmates12
Frequency of responses to classmates4
Reference to supporting readings and other materials4
Language and grammar4






Using the Argosy University online library resources, locate a research

study related to forensic psychology. Present an analysis of the article by


ressing the following points:


Provide a brief overview of the problem being studied, the research

design, and the participants being used for the study and the general

findings of the study.


Identify the research question, independent variable, and depende




If you were the researcher conducting this study and found that you were

not familiar with the particular research population, what steps would

you take to prepare yourself to conduct the research with this



Was any deception used i

n this study? If so, why was this deception

necessary? If not, do you think that the study would have benefited from

any kind of deception?


What steps did the researcher take to protect his or her participants?


What are the limitations of the study’s desig

n and/or implementation?


If you were the researcher, would you have conducted this study the

same way in relation to ethics and protection of the participants? If not,

what changes would you make?

Post your response in a minimum of 300 words.

All written a

ssignments and responses should follow APA rules for

attributing sources.

While responding to classmates, offer suggestions, ideas, and evaluative










post your responses to this




Assignment 1: A Methodical Review

Using the Argosy University online library resources, locate a research

study related to forensic psychology. Present an analysis of the article by

addressing the following points:

 Provide a brief overview of the problem being studied, the research

design, and the participants being used for the study and the general

findings of the study.

 Identify the research question, independent variable, and dependent


 If you were the researcher conducting this study and found that you were

not familiar with the particular research population, what steps would

you take to prepare yourself to conduct the research with this


 Was any deception used in this study? If so, why was this deception

necessary? If not, do you think that the study would have benefited from

any kind of deception?

 What steps did the researcher take to protect his or her participants?

 What are the limitations of the study’s design and/or implementation?

 If you were the researcher, would you have conducted this study the

same way in relation to ethics and protection of the participants? If not,

what changes would you make?

Post your response in a minimum of 300 words.

All written assignments and responses should follow APA rules for

attributing sources.

While responding to classmates, offer suggestions, ideas, and evaluative


Submission Details:

 By the due date assigned, post your responses to this Discussion Area.


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Strategic Philanthropy Literature Review

Strategic Philanthropy: Literature Review

Klára Kubíčková
Acta Oeconomica Pragensia, Vol 26, Iss 3, Pp 70-89 (2018)
Publisher Information:
University of Economics Prague, 2018.
Publication Year:

LCC:Economic theory. Demography

Subject Terms:
corporate philanthropy

impact measurement

share value

strategic philanthropy



Economic theory. Demography


This literature review article aims to facilitate a better understanding of the concept of


philanthropy as a controversial topic at the crossroads of business and society. The

strategic role of corporate

philanthropy has been emphasised by both academics and practitioners and is a topic of long-standing discussion as is the original concept of corporate

philanthropy. This article summarises the different definitions, approaches and categorisations that have been adopted by management scholars working in the field of corporate

philanthropy and published in the top academic journals. Four main lines of inquiry were distinguished within the literature: the evolution and essence of


philanthropy, theoretical foundations of


philanthropy, empirical foundations of


philanthropy and the measurement of the impact of


philanthropy. The results show that the concept of


philanthropy is still evolving and different approaches to define and theorise it can be found. The implications for further research are provided at the end of the article.
Document Type:
File Description:
electronic resource





Access URL:
Journal Licence: CC BY
Accession Number:

Directory of Open Access Journals

Your submission must include the following information in the following format:

DEFINITION: a brief definition of the key term followed by the APA reference for the term; this does not count in the word requirement.

SUMMARY: Summarize the article in your own words- this should be in the 150-200 word range. Be sure to note the article’s author, note their credentials and why we should put any weight behind his/her opinions, research or findings regarding the key term.

DISCUSSION: Using 300-350 words, write a brief discussion, in your own words of how the article relates to the selected chapter Key Term. A discussion is not rehashing what was already stated in the article, but the opportunity for you to add value by sharing your experiences, thoughts and opinions. This is the most important part of the assignment.

REFERENCES: All references must be listed at the bottom of the submission–in APA format. Be sure to use the headers in your submission to ensure that all aspects of the assignment are completed as required. Any form of plagiarism, including cutting and pasting, will result in zero points for the entire assignment


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Use Discount Code “Newclient” for a 15% Discount!

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