This chapter concentrates on human resource management, its motivation, current views on motivation theories, and identification of the problems Walmart is facing in terms of staff management and evaluation of employers’ efforts. According to Cherrington (1995:55) and Legge (1989:126) employees are vital assets of the organization that need to be managed and organized in a motivational manner. The two authors further suggest that due to the large nature of Walmart, the management should always consider the cultural background of the workers. Different chain stores across Europe are now embracing employees with diverse cultural lifestyles so to serve any customers at the organization. Payment package of is another factor that if well offered the employees will provide top quality services.
Literature Review on human resource management
Other researchers such as Woodruffe (1995) emphasize on the responsibility of the HR management towards ensuring that only qualified and well deserving staff are recruited in the organization. Selection of employees is part of the ethical, corporate responsibility of Walmart that should be the priority of this department. The local community form part of the staff at the chain stores, therefore, is equally vital to consider them in the running of the business units. When this concept is applied, woodruff maintains that people will feel appreciated by the organization. Customer loyalty is a long-term benefit from the family members of the human resources at the stores who need to be maintained. It is also an effect that trade union activities are not incorporated in the affairs of the stores. If this is done, then the employee threats of industrial strikes affect the operations of the profit making venture, Walmart. Motivation factors as asserted by Maslow in the hierarchy of needs are another element, which should be given top priority in the HR management. This crucial department determines the payroll and bonuses of staff’s services. Monetary incentives are not encouraged in the organization because financial gains might be emphasized at the expense of the clients. It is an imperative step to work out the amount of customer satisfaction, which a worker employs to the clients so that to reward workers who make clients appreciated. Wal-Mart is among the vast retailers in the planet.
The founder of the company is Sam Walton. Sam Walton owns about 48 percent of the total share in the company. Wal-Mart has branches in countries like UK, Argentina, South America, China, Brazil, South Korea, Germany, Japan and Mexico. In 2009, the company made sales that totaled to 258 billion dollars. When Sam Walton founded the company, he successfully ran it personally. In 1962, Walton opened other sub branches in Rogers, Arkansas. In 1970, the company changed its name to Wal-Mart incorporation. The company continued its rapid growth and opened more stores and made more sales. The company opened its first supercentre at Washington. The company made sales of 312 billion dollars in 2005 and further opened over 6200 stores globally. The rapid growth of the company, especially in small countries, brought many worries of competition from the company. This would result in market domination and monopoly, in the small and poor countries. Wal-Mart collaborated with other universities to enlarge their market further in colleges.
Human Resource Management
Organizations in the world do not operate in a vacuum. In this regard, they incorporate various factors and ingredients for the realization of overall success. These include equipments, clientele base and human resource. Human resource plays a significant role in an organization since they act as engines that propel the organization forward. The number of human resource is lower than the expected output in efforts to scale down expenses and maximize profits. In a situation where the profits decrease, human resource becomes the first avenue of strategy management through retrenchments. Although there are other departments in an organization such as administration, communication and public relations, the human resource department remains the pillar of the entire organization.
Woodruffe (1995) asserts that the primary role of the human resource department in any organization is selection, training and inspiration of the right personnel. The department is headed by a manager, whose main responsibility is to address and supervise the manner in which people are handled in the organization. He or she reports to the overall authority in an organization. In consultations with the overall authority, the human resource management team ensures that the right category of employees are hired, trained and motivated in the right manner. To this effect, a good relationship in the organization is essential, such that employees are rewarded for outstanding performance and their problems solved in the right way. Employees are the greatest assets that an organization has and their productivity depends on the way they are handled. However, upon recruitment, employees are taken through an orientation program that equips them with the relevant information on what the organization expects from them such as job descriptions and remuneration packages among others. For instance, the organization briefs its employees on work relations to minimize if not alienate future disagreements. There are organizations that desist from enrolling their employees in trade unions and national health insurance schemes. Although this is detrimental on the side of the employee, mutual understanding is paramount. Improper conduct injures excellent working relationship and might surmount to firing of employees. In light of this, it is imperative for the HRM to ensure the realization of similar pay for similar work done. This creates confidence on the part of the employee.
Cherrington (1995:55) and Legge (1989:126) emphasize on the importance of employees in the organization and indicate that they should not be viewed as variable cost in their organization. Employees as earlier stated serve as wheels of any organization as they are the drivers. Employees’, therefore, should be treated well by an organizations command structure. Committed employees can be used by any organization as a competitive advantage (Bratton et al, pp.17) making them an invaluable ingredient in the affairs of the organization. Apart from human assets, an organization must manage all other assets both tangible and intangible. For instance, cash must be managed well, and organization information must be kept intact. All assets are fundamental, but it is the human asset that manages the other category of assets (Mathis et al 2006, p.8). The human resource is tasked with the responsibility of overseeing the running of the organization.
Human resource is crucial in ensuring the success of any organization. This means that for an organization to have an edge over its competitors, it needs to have a strategy to manage this crucial resource. For a leading organization like wall mart, the organization has its mandate spread to complement its standing in the retail sector. This means that for organizations to maintain its professional integrity, it needs to employ its human resource to complement its mandate. This means that the human resource needs to be qualified, motivated and strategically employed for the retail giant to maintain its success. This will require the organization to put in place a management strategy that will make certain it optimizes on this resource. If this is achieved, the company will reap by increasing sales and market share which will be consequently reflected on their bottom line. Failure to have a strategy to its human resource, there would be wastage and inefficiency in the part of organization operations. Therefore, management should ensure that the human resource is in line with the organizations long term and immediate strategies. If this is the scenario, the company will meet its intended objectives ensuring sustainable profitability and growth.
For a company to manage its human resource adequately, there requires being a capable management which is versed adequate on the requirements and functioning of human resource. The management should be encouraged to be conversant with the strategies of the company to ensure that their recruitments and placements complement this factors, it is, therefore, obvious that management of human resource is correlated with the success the company realizes in its operations. Wall mart, despite being a dominant player in the retail market, it is imperative that the management appreciate the significance of management of human resource for them to maintain their edge.
Resource management is crucial since its enable the organization to handle the challenges, which may be resultant of the human resource of the company. If a company does not have a strategy to this effect, they will be vulnerable to problems of human resource, which is detrimental to its operations. Therefore, wall mart should ensure that this is facilitated to avoid the limitations that may emerge because of operations of the organization. Some of the shortfalls include losses and wastage of the resource, which could have been channeled to profitable employment.
Human Resource Management Theories
Theories are an idea built upon on one or more hypothesis. They tend to explain a certain activity in a particular way and include thorough research. It has been alleged that the most reasons of a service society are its HRs and that the fundamental and indispensable duties of administration is to inspire the sources to get the most out of its presentation and accomplish business sensation and goals. Concepts and theories explaining and describing motivation are multifaceted and questionable. Conversely, those that are critical come into view, to be anticipated and self-usefulness. Whether these go well with the Human Resource department, it is another affair; consequently in bearing in mind this query, this document will also discuss the older, more recognized theories of inspiration such as the following individuals; Maslow, Herzberg.
The aim of this manuscript is motivational theory in conditions of companies with particular and detailed allusion on ways it goes well with the human resources department. The conditions of indication are to scrutinize the information and progression theories of motivation and to compare these to human resource management (HRM). The objectives are to create HRM in motivational information and to study the association amid motivational theory and HRM. Amid HRM, the HR mold could be considered to observe man as individuals aggravated by a complex set of unified features and aspects, such as currency, requirement for association, and aspiration for significant employment. It is debated that every diverse member of staff will search for a dissimilar objective, have an assortment and variety of aptitude and skills in finishing the assignment and include their personal individuality to the association. This is a conceptualization that views workforce and members of staffs as a reservoir of prospective aptitude and put forward it as an administrative accountability, to come across ways most excellent to tap such resources. These comes out to be a fundamental hypothesis that inhabitants desire to have a say absolutely to a job, for example, they are pre-motivated, and that therefore, the more they are aggravated and inspired. On the other hand, then the owner ought to request to develop it so by redesigning the trade to, for example, making in different. If an organization has a trusted and dependable leadership, in management, it will assist in motivating the workers, to be more prolific, and devoted to their work. Organizational behaviours will enable the management to recognize how employees behave in their workplaces and reward or correct them. Through organizational behaviours, the organization management can recognize individuals with exemplary behaviours and reward them through promotion, salary increment or with other incentives. However, when the behaviours of the behaviours of the employees will lead to a decrease in production and negative behaviour the HR together with the manager, will assist to correct the behaviour through guidance and counselling, and if the employee indicates no change, the firm can even terminate such an employee.
Human resource management theories like organizational behaviour theories explain the ability to tap prospective employees based on their behaviours in the organization put forward by Maslow (1954) and Herzberg (1966). McGregor’s Theory Y (1960) asserts that dedication and performance of employees can be enhanced by a good leadership style. Storey (1989), however, remains emphatic that human resource management implies the importance of managing employees in the most rational way possible (Bratton et al 2001:17-20).
According to Bratton et al (2001:14) human resource management comprises of four functional areas that include staffing, rewarding, employee development and employee maintenance. Staffing involves recruitment of people with the proper skills and knowledge. Staffing ensures that the best placed individuals are recruited into the organization. By training employees and constantly rewarding them, the firm will not only ensure that they enable such employees to remain focused, but also enable them aim to attain better salaries, and positions within the firm. This will be integral in retaining the employees will feel that they are satisfied with their job. They will continuously strive to attain better organization results, since they know that by performing excellently, they stand a chance to rise within the store that they are serve, and hence they do not feel stagnated in one position, which sometimes can demoralize or disorient them. People like novel challenges and rewards and training within the organization offers employees such opportunities like attending forums to expound their knowledge.
Skills can either be academic or technical based on the requirements. Absorption of unqualified staff easily waters down the organization thanks to incompetency in the handling of work. For example, recruitment of semi-illiterate staff tarnishes the image and name of the company. On the other hand, rewarding of employees involves giving incentives to the most exemplary performance. Rewarding can either be financial, material or either promotions. In most cases, employees who exhibit exemplary performance in their jobs are awarded promotions or salary increments. This motivates them even further in the delivery of services in an organization. However, employee development involves training of employees for better performance while employee maintenance is the management and monitoring of safety of the work place, wellbeing and health policies and employee relations. Training increases the already held knowledge. This is carried out through workshops and seminars. For instance, a workshop can be arranged to have employees equip themselves with information technology tools for their organization that might not been provided during their school days. To increase employees’ efficiency and effectiveness, it’s important to manage these four functional areas. In addition, the Guest model illustrates that employees’ behaviour is perpendicularly synonymous to overall performance in the presence of dedication, flexibility and quality (Bratton et al 2001).
On the other hand, the term staff turnover means the eventual cessation of employees’ contracts and subsequent hiring of new staff. This gradual process is aimed at increasing efficiency and punishing redundancy. It’s dependant on both external and internal determinant factors. Although its overall effectiveness remains a subject of debate, there is a requirement for an unremitting examination due to emerging trends on human resource management. Therefore, Wal-Mart should endeavour to recover the functioning conditions of its employees so as to retain them and ensure that the chain stores keep on expanding and even improve from the third best public organization to become the overall best. Since, the store registers immense turnover, the company can afford to pay their employees, handsomely, and clear the complaints of the employees, of poor working conditions and poor payment. This will enhance and promote the company’s publicity and enhance their market.
It should be eminent that many Wal-Mart workers do not get salaried “generous” wages. They are some part time employees who are remunerated with the local minimum wage. Absence of employee benefits injure the survival of most employees thus taking part-times staff more than five years to be considered entitled for remuneration, profit-sharing, or other such compensation resulting to a high employee turnover. In most cases, the local minimum wage of those employees is below the poverty line. In the past years, Walmart has been blamed for locking night-shift employees in at night, (159) which exposes those staffs to health hazards (157). Wal-Mart’s own “Standards for Suppliers” reports states these kinds of difficulties among the company’s “directly-sourced” factories (160). Most of the Full-time Wal-Mart employees receive their remuneration of about $10.78 per hour, but according to critics this amount negligible compared with the salaries unionized companies give (161). Others condemn low levels of health coverage or exclusive health insurance, although the company reports that it offers rates at $5 per month while the recommended remuneration is $9 per month nationwide and most of its associates are insured (though not necessarily through Wal-Mart) (162). There are many other complains like poor working condition, poor employer-employee interaction, and anti-union policies. Most people propose that Wal-Mart’s high yearly turnover-rate of ~70 percent indicate that most of its workers are not handled properly and are not satisfied with the company (161).
In the past, organization considered employees as an input into the manufacture of products. According to Dickson (1973), this belief about employees was changed through the study called Hawthorne Studies done by Elton Mayo from 1924 to 1932. According to this study, employees are not only motivated by money (Dickson 1973, pp.298-302). Bedeian (1993) indicates that Hawthorne Studies started with the approach of human relations management that states that needs and motivation of employees should be the focus of managers.
Kreitner (1995) defines motivation as that mental process that gives actions purpose and direction whereas Buford, Bedeian and Lindner (1995) defines it as the tendency to act purposively in a way to realize exact requirements that are not available. In addition, Higgings (1994) defines motivation as an internal force that enables a person to satisfy unsatisfied requirements. According to Green (1994), motivation is the commencement, course, passion and determination of human behavior. Therefore, motivation can be defined as that individual internal process that energizes, directs, and sustains a person performance. It is an individual energy enabling one to act in a certain way. The most successful managers are always highly motivated.
A person who evades work is said to be lacking motivation. Motivation is loosely connected with morale. Morale includes the employee’s sentiments toward the job, management, and organization. In this regard, high morale results from the complete satisfaction of requirements on a job. High morale also generates the willpower to execute jobs well with devotion and faithfulness. For example, a highly motivated advertizing sales executive is likely to gather more adverts to the astonishment of the senior management team. On the contrary, low morale mostly leads to hasty work, non-attendance, and high rates of employee turnover (Agarwal 1983, p.319).
Smith (1994) singles out motivation as a key determinant factor in the survival of employees in an organization. According to him, motivated employees are highly productive. If travel business has staffs that are highly motivated and provide excellent customer service, for instance, growth in skills and become more significant to their employers. However, for staff to be more efficient and fruitful, managers need to recognize what motivates employees. As stated by Bowen and Radhakrishna (1991), among all the duties that a manager performs, motivating employees is the most complicated. This is because requirements for motivation in employees change with time. Kovach (1987) explains this by giving an example that money inferior to employees as they get older instead fascinating and pleasing work takes its place (Bowen et al 1991).
The journal Theories of motivation: borrowing the best states that understanding the process of motivation was a crucial point of various researchers after the introduction of the Hawthorne Study results (Terpstra 1979). There are numerous approaches of motivation, which will be discussed in this study or rather research. People work to satisfy different needs. All aspects of motivation merely grew from Instinct hypothesis of motivation. Motivation is the strength that kicks off, guides and sustains goal-oriented conducts. It is what instigates people to get going, whether to seize a snack to decrease hunger or register in college to get a degree. The compelling aspects that lie under motivation can be natural, social, poignant or cognitive in nature. Analysts have developed numerous different hypotheses to clarify motivation. Each hypothesis tends to be somewhat partial in scope. However, by examining the key thoughts behind each hypothesis, one can get a better comprehension of motivation all together.
Instinct Hypothesis of Motivation
Regarding instinct hypotheses aggravated to behave in definite ways since they are evolutionarily intended to do so. Timely and apparent examples are the seasonal migration in the animal kingdom. The animals are not born with the acquaintance and knowledge to do this, but they somewhat happen subconsciously to migrate. William James established a catalog of human characters that comprised of such aspects as affection, play, disgrace, anger, terror, wariness, humility and love. The key problem with this hypothesis is that it never expounded on behavior it merely portrayed and expounded it. By the 1920s, these hypotheses were shoved aside in support of other motivational hypothesis, but modern evolutionary psychologists currently research on the control of heritable traits and inheritance on human conduct.
Human deeds such as mocking others can be considered similar to an animal being aggressive to younger creatures of the identical genus, in order to dishearten them from attempting to usurp the head in the bunch. Frequently this presents an elucidation for why an individual would act in his desired actions. Infidelity is an additional outline of this aspect. Instinct gives animals the desire to assume the simplest path to the continued existence. If a noteworthy, other does not create offspring or adequately satisfy an individual, that individuals might check an additional way to bring the geneses or to live extra easily. It is a superior feature of basic animal behavior. The perception of instinct hypothesis enjoyed colossal reputation and maintenance in the belatedly 19th century. The therapist Sigmund Freud, as well as, William James who was a functionalist established two extremely diverse instinct hypotheses of motivation. Critics attacked instinct hypothesis of motivation for simply labeling yet deteriorating to give details of behavior. Furthermore, instincts are never visible and are never subjected to experiential testing or behaviorist appraisal.
Abraham Maslow’s hierarchyofneeds study about what stimulates people to perform. He outlines five levels of needs that affect a person’s behavior. There are basic needs that include food, drink and shelter. In addition, there are safety needs that entail protection against danger. In addition, there are social needs, self-esteem needs, reputation, status, and self-actualization. In Maslow hierarchy theory, the things at the top are the least important than those at the bottom.
Maslow suggests the lower level needs have to be satisfied first. Only when those desires have been fulfilled will the person attempt satisfying the upper needs. A business can provide these wants as follows Basic needs, fair wage, meal and rest facilities. Safety needs include job security, healthy working conditions and maybe pension schemes. Social needs covers pleasant working atmosphere and self-esteem need may include cars and job titles. Allowing staff to expand the experience at work can help increase their self-esteem. Finally, Self-actualization is about achieving the full potential of an employee. A business must make sure that promotion is likely and that there are opportunities to be presented (Maslow 1943,pp.370-396).
Herzberg’s (1959) work classified motivation into two areas: motivators and hygiene. Motivator includes things such as achievement, approval and creation of job satisfaction. Hygiene or basic factors, such as low pay and job insecurity, produce job dissatisfaction.
Different from Maslow and Herzberg, Vroom expectancy theory of motivation does not only focus on needs but also focuses on outcomes. While Herzberg and Maslow look at the relationship between internal needs and the attempt that is expected to fulfill, Vroom separates the efforts and suggests variables such as valence, expectation and instrumentality.
In light of this, the expectancy variable represents certainty that better efforts lead to better performances. The realization, for example, that when an individual works, then other factors will also be better. This is perpetuated by the mere fact of the right skills for the job, have supervisors support to get the job completed and include the right resources available. Instrumentality, which is the belief that if employees perform duties well appreciated results, will be recognized. In addition, valence is the significance of the individual in the job. It is dedicated to using motivation theories to motivate employees. Working for long hours coupled with low pay and negligent treatment and working environment contribute immensely to the lack of employees’ motivation. This leads to untimely staff exodus that is injurious to the organization.
This chapter deals with the research approach that will be applied in conducting the research on the problems facing Walmart in terms of treating staff members. In addition, data collection methods will be applied to investigate the data gathered.
In conducting this study, a couple of questions will be formulated that will guide the researcher in developing and enhancing a research proposal.
The questions will be simply constructed for easy comprehensibility and help in the realization of proper data. Questions will be close ended to limit the respondents to the tenets of the study. Construction of open-ended questions might result to the influx of information that might otherwise jeopardize the overall intentions of the study. The target respondents will be youthful employees preferably between the ages of 22 to 35 since people in this age bracket are more likely not to have settled in their workplaces. In light of this, they will offer insightful information that will greatly help in the realization of a good research project. The project will concentrate on blue-chip companies as government institutions might limit the employees’ diversion of information let alone in-house bureaucracies.
- . Briefly, highlight employees’ challenges at Wal-mart.
- How is the employees’-top brass managers’ relationship at Wal-Mart?
- Does the management of Wal-Mart have fitting policies with regard to staff-turnover and employee motivation?
- How do staff/employee motivation and staff-turnover policies at Wal-Mart influence both workers and customers?
- What are the major challenges and problems faced with regard to staff turnover and employee motivation at Wal-Mart?
A research in Wal-Mart is conducted to determine the level of motivation with the employees, how the staffs are treated and the problems they face. Data is collected and examined to offer an apparent comprehension of the above aspects (Hopkins 1998). In this case, both qualitative and quantitative researches are used entirely so that I can get concrete conclusions from the study.
Research is instrumental in the change process. This is because it injects new knowledge after gathering information from various quarters. However, a number of scholars define the term in diverse ways. Research is an orderly use of data to clarify a point (Bouma 1994). In addition, Burgess and Bryant (2001) define research as a recipe of knowledge by grouping together inaccessible information from various fields therefore creating fresh insights and understanding. However, Norbert Elias defines research as, the process of making known something earlier unknown by people. It is to progress person’s acquaintance, to make it more convincing or enhanced fitting (Elias 1986, p.20). Another function of research is evaluating the data needed to solve a particular problem (Veal 2006, p.3).
In this research study, primary and secondary data have been used and quantitative and qualitative research methods have been applied. According to Veal (2006) quantitative research approach, research involves carrying out data analysis to verify or disapprove a hypothetical statement. To be sure of the consistency of the outcome, it is often necessary to have a large number of data (Veal 2006, p.40).
In qualitative research approach, it uses to basic concepts reliability and validity (Hopkins 1998). Reliability deals with whether the research is done are efficient and meaningful manner. Validity on the other hand is about the finding out whether the research study done is relevant in any future research (Bouma 1994). Veal (2006) qualitative research involves assembling a great deal of data about a small group instead of limited amount of information of a large group. The information gathered is usually not presentable in arithmetical form (Veal 2006, p.40).
Primary and Secondary Research:
Primary research is tailored research that gives new information, whereas secondary research entails already accessible information collected from the past. Depending on the type of research and physical and intangible situation, both research methods are of rational nature. As stated by Glass (1976), primary data should always be original. Mc Givern (2006) explains that primary research entails collection of data more than once. Pickton and Broderick (2005) advise that secondary information should be used and taken advantage of as groundwork before assembling of primary data. This research uses secondary data such as journals, articles and past researches.
Qualitative and Quantitative Research Approaches Combined:
According to Hopkins (1998), for a research work to have the required methodical rigidity, the study should reflect on all probable ways of gathering information. However, according to Hunt (2004), every research ought to be handled and information necessary so that, physical results are achieved. In this case, the quantitative approach results into arithmetical values like the number of staff who think they are ill-treated by the organization.
Quantitative Research Approach:
This approach has a hypothesis set which is tested in order to clarify a point (Barzun 1992). According to Witt (2002) argues that ‘Quantitative research is reliant on different information not embodied in the result but very important to include. In addition, qualitative researchers normally rely on four methods of gathering information that includes involvement in the situation, direct observation, in-depth interrogation and examination of documents and resources (Marshall & Rossman 1998).
Quantitative research process involves the collection and subsequent conversion of dare to numerical form in a bid to offer statistical calculations and realization of conclusions. In quantitative research, a researcher implicates one or more hypothesis. Hypothesis includes questions that the data gatherer intends to ask and seek answers from respondents on certain paramount variables. Modernity has simplified quantitative data collections as the researchers apply the use of computer-generated software to key in their data. In light of this, quantitative research process is guided by several principles. First, the research data must be objective. In this regard, the researchers are supposed to remain impartial and desist from inputting own opinion on the results. This is because such actions might render the research incredible and thus lack taste.
External factors that might affect the results must also be controlled. In the above instance, it would be significant to ensure that the opening and preface of the music was not put together with by other modifications, for instance, the individual who conveys the CD player discussing the inhabitants after the melody setting, as it might be a different issue which fabricates the outcomes, that is communal contact. A few possibilities contributing features cannot for all time be ruled out but ought to be approved by the investigative of the research. Qualitative study major prominence is on deductive way of thinking which is inclined to shift from the overall more particular. This is from time to time known as top down approach. The legitimacy of ending is highlighted to be reliant on one or more site.
Qualitative Research Approach
White (2000) describes qualitative approach as explanatory, non numerical way to collect and understand information. This approach utilizes people who have been drawn in to certain activities. This approach is more valuable than the quantitative approach that only deals with numbers.
Data Collection Methods:
Data collection methods are extremely many in research circles. In light of this, selection of the best method remains the prerogative of the researcher based on his or her ability and period. Research that is constrained by time assumes a simplistic avenue of data collection. On the other hand, cost implications also are a determinant factor in the research process. Many researchers tend to choose cost-friendly methods of research. It is worth depicting that costs, as well as, time are not hindrances to proper research if executed wisely. Since this research combines both qualitative and quantitative approaches, data collection is carried out using the following tools:
A questionnaire is a tool used in the collection of data by either giving it to the interviewees or mailing it. Brehob (2001) defines a questionnaire as a form that interviewees fill out and used to get demographic information or views of those questioned. However, Kirakowski (1998) defines a questionnaire as the method used for elicitation and recording of information. Therefore, the category of questionnaire used was a self-designed questionnaire, where workers were asked to respond to the queries concerning human resource in their company. The aim of the questionnaire was to provide data about their personal opinions of the human resources management of Wal-Mart. The outcomes of the questionnaire were calculated using the Likert Scale. Respondents were asked to point out the degree to which they agree or disagree with the questions provided. The responses are then scored, agreements with strongly agree and disagreements with strongly disagree are given higher scores. There are 5 response alternatives a score of 5 would be given to those who stated strongly agree’, 4 to those who said agree 3 to uncertain 4 to disagree and 5 in disagreeing’ and so on. The complete score of every question is decided by adding together the item scores and then divided by the number of participants (Polit & Beck 2004).
Another tool used in this research is the self-structured interview. According to Jupp (2006, p.158) an interview is a meeting where a social interaction takes place. However, developments in information technology have resulted in other ways of conduction interviews like through emails. Interview is noteworthy because it allows an interviewer to get more responses, facial expressions, feelings, and gestures. In addition, according to Wallace (2005) interviews are more reliable. Jupp (2006) indicates that interviews are more guided and focused it takes less time and results in reduced problems, in the analysis. To promote a better understanding of the human resource management of Wal-Mart, the interview represented a form of direct interaction with managers and staff a human resource manager was selected and one assistant, a floor manager at the store itself in and two employees.
Issues of Ethics
All research whereby humans participate must involve issues of ethics (Callahan 2008). The collected data is used for particular reasons. It is also crucial to consider secrecy of the information. Secrecy of information means protection of information from spreading to other people without prior knowledge of the owner of the information. Information that belongs to an individual must always be kept secret. This is the right of the owner of the information.
This chapter’s main objective is to analyse outcomes of first hand and second hand sources collected during the research. The source of qualitative data was the superstore of Wal-Mart that is located in Michigan. The secondary sources of data included questionnaires. All the format of the questionnaires were analyzed before conducting the research.
The Secondary Data Source
Recognition of the Treatment and Efforts of Wal-Mart Staff:
Scheduling and Wages:
Wal-Mart Includes the Poor While They Offer Wages
The average salary of a poor, full time Wal-Mart employee sums up to an annual salary of $ 19,200. According to the federal bureau of investigations, a poor family in the United States would earn an annual salary of $ 21,200 (2008 Wal-Mart Employee Handbook 2008 HHS Poverty Guidelines).
The Average Pay for Jobs by Wal-Mart Is Less than That of the Government
Wal-Mart payment for jobs is usually less than seventy percent of the total payment that workers, who are nationally employed, receive in the retail industry (Brennan Center for Justice Economic Policy Brief 2005).
Wal-Mart Is Charged For a Suit Involving Work Breaks in Minnesota
According to a New York article(2008) Wal-Mart dishonored the laws of state regarding the issues of salary. Wal-Mart practiced this violation from 1998 to 2004 for over 2 million instances. The violation made Wal-Mart accumulate over 2 billion charges
U.S. Labor Division Orders Walmart to Compensate Overtime Wages
The use labor division declared that the management of Walmart to compensate a whooping $34 million as unsettled wages and interest to workers claiming overtime hours. The company blamed errors in the calculation for the mishap for the underpayment of 87,000 employees countrywide. It is approximately 57 other wage-and-hours disputes filed across the U.S. against the world’s foremost retailer, and numerous of the cases are pending due to class-action certification (Washington Post 2007).
Wal-Mart Has Not Changed
Wal-Mart is still facing many lawsuits since it has been in the past for reduced handling of workers. The organization has negligently violated employees’ rights and the workforce is working in poor deplorable conditions.
Wal-Mart Intimidates Workers Who Claim Unpaid Wages
Wal-Mart store in Texas requested a U.S. judge to command the company to stop intimidating fire fighters who join a lawsuit contending over unpaid wages. The workers assert that Wal-Mart has requested or permitted hourly staff to work off the timepiece without reimbursement, in violation of U.S. labor laws stipulated in the workers rights constitution (International Herald Tribune 2006).
Wal-Mart’s Remuneration and Hour Practices
Wal-Mart Plays Games with Worker’s Pay Packet
Majority of the workers who were interviewed concerning their plight with the organization cited that the HR management increased pay, and then cut the hours so that employees’ check are a fraction of what it happened to be. The full-time vending associates in the department, apart from the department manager, have been slashed to 25-35 hours a week instead of 40.
40 Hours a Week Is Unpaid
Another interviewee stated that workers labored for about 8 months at Wal-Mart, and had not accessed the promised benefits even though the work was on the full-time hour’s basis. The workers were told that the delay was because some of the workers were classified as part time workers.
Anonymous On Burning Overtime
However, most of the interviewee claimed that the management forces them to work for long overtime hours, which associates call exchanging back overtime. The workers who worked overtime had to forgo eating lunch, for example, one-hour overtime jobs would be provided during lunchtime.
The staff would get an hour voluntary lunch, but the management would force other staff to have a two-hourlunch instead, proceeding the Friday (payday). It is a violation of the Federal Law according to the Wage Commission to force staff working.
Wal-Mart Forces Staff to Labor Off-The-Clock
According to Wal-Mart’s annual report of 2006, the company was sued 57 times concerning wage and hour offenses. Significant lawsuits were either won or are still ongoing through the legal process in numerous states such Indiana, California and Washington. Furthermore, other cases in states such as Minnesota Penn Sylvania and Oregon are still running their mode through the justice structure (Wal-Mart Annual Report 2006).
Besides, in 2005, Wal-Mart was ordered to pay $172 million to compensate for damages by a California Court after it failed to offer meals breaks to around 116,000 hourly workers, which is a requirement enacted by the state law. The company appealed the case, which it felt was unfair (The New York Times, 2005).
Wal-Mart with Labor Unions:
The retail giant is recalled as a strong counter of unionization as Sam Walton, can be recalled as he notorious attempted to block unions from coming to their stores. The company was against unions, to the extent that Walton hired union-busting attorney John E. Tate, to repeal some of the initial efforts, which were intended to arrange stores in Missouri. Although unionization efforts succeeded in china, Wal-Mart could not shift from its perspective Canada and the US. Nonetheless, since Barrack Obama was elected president there is a possibility that the employee free choice act will be passed. This has inflicted fear in Wal-Mart, which feels that most of its anti-staff practices, which were dominant in the past half century, are coming to an abrupt end. However, Wal-Mart still persists that its associates do not require a union. Contrary, Wal-Mart watch, believe that after a lengthy period of Wal-Mart paying its employees low wages, offering expensive healthcare benefits as well as poor, working conditions, the company’s staff, is on the verge of witnessing changed times, of better working conditions and salaries.
Human Rights Watch Releases Statement on Wal-Mart and Union Busting
Furthermore, a watchdog faction called Human Rights Watch released a report in 2007 that lambasted Wal-Mart’s union-busting policies and practices in the US. The report highlighted that although most US companies apply loopholes and weak laws to hinder employees from organizing. The giant retail dominates because of its immense aggressiveness on anti-union policies (Human Rights Watch, 2007).
Wal-Mart Cautions of Democratic Presidential Succession
More lately, it was exposed that Wal-Mart has been cautioning its hourly overseers of the probability of amalgamation if Democrats succeeded in the November polls and elections. One particular overseer articulated that he is an intelligent person yet he was instructed how to vote. Workers articulated that they used threats by highlighting all the unconstructive effects of amalgamation. They were also cautioned that in case the Worker Free Choice Act was enacted, it would increase the union course (Wall Street Journal 2008).
Butchers Cut Out Of Wal-Mart Stores
‘Wal-Mart instantaneously ended their whole system of in-store butcher sections. The business declined to recognize and discuss with the meat cutters union. They instead traded the labor of skilled employees for the expediency of pre-cut, as well as, prepackaged meats” (Occupational Health & Safety 2008).
In the editorial ‘Wal-Mart closes down stores and departments that unionize’
“Wal-Mart stopped its Jonquierre store situated in Quebec on April 2005 following its workers obtaining union certification. The store turned into being the initial unionized Wal-Mart in the entire part of North America in the event that 51 percent of the workers at the store authorized union cards” (Washington Post 2005).
Wal-Mart Family Finances the Anti-Union Association
It is not sufficient for Wal-Mart as a business to oppose unions. Sam Walton’s viewpoint more than expected prompted the Walton family to hold up the anti-union National liberty to Work Foundation, by means of grants accumulating to 70,000 dollars from 2000 up to 2003. By the time workers establish an NLRB election, if they have the capability to get to that position, an open and reasonable alternative is not an alternative. EFCA seeks out to correct these actualities through:
If a preponderance of employees in a projected negotiating unit signs cards depicting they wish for representation, the State Labor Relations Panel would need the company to be acquainted with the union, ending the trend of employer risks, aggravations and firings that usually come before union elections.
First Contract Mediation and Arbitration:
The appropriate remedy for the stalling tactics employed by employees is to allow the employer or union to acquire federal mediation. This is in the event when a contract is not conceived in 90 days. If this action proves fruitless in 30 days, the parties will be subjected to a binding arbitration.
Stronger Penalties for Violations:
If an employer is involved in willing violation of the rights of its employees in the event, there is bargaining or organization they are liable to civil fines of $20,000, and triple pay for the workers who were subjected to illegal firing and discriminations in the event of the union campaigns.
Workplace Discrimination and Wall Mart:
Women in Lawsuit against Wal-Mart
Despite being among the most influential retails globally, wall mart faced a lawsuit on accusations of employing gender bias in their operations. This resulted in a judgment by martin Jenkins, a district magistrate to grant 1.6 million female employees both former and current status of class action. This was due to the accusations that fewer opportunities were offered to female employees (Dukes v. Wal-Mart Stores, In.).
Wal-Mart Paying Women Less than Men
Further controversies involving wall mart and gender bias is evident with a lawsuit in 2001, citing men were better paid and promoted than their female counterparts regardless of their qualifications. Some of the facts which were cited included the presence of a significant number of the employees being women, only 36 percent of the demographic were assistant managers with 14% and 10% being store and district managers respectively. This case was classified as a class-action lawsuit in 2004 (Arkansas Democrat-Gazette 2007).
Wal-Mart Pays Out For Violating The Americans With Disabilities Act.
Concerning violations of rights of disabled customers, wall-mart was ordered by a jury in a district court of long island to pay 7.5 million for violating the act protecting the interests of the disabled. This payment
In current existence, regardless of the emerging economy, the middle class in the society has been compressed.
Business earnings and profits reimbursement have increased incredibly, but the middle class in the community has experienced their payments and salaries languish, while the expenditures for fundamental requirements like healthcare, schooling, foodstuff, energy and accommodation maintain to augment as time progresses.
Employees who fit in Unions are salaried 30 % more than nonunion corresponding unions.
Furthermore, they are 62 % more probably expected to have health offered and guaranteed by the employer of the organization and 4 times more liabll to have retirement fund.
The recent development of creating unions is twisted in those who oppose the unions.
Members of staff who are dynamic union followers have a one out of five opportunities of being removed from lawful union actions. Numerous managers decide to scout, intimidate, terrorize, annoy and when conducting their campaigns of the unions.
The punishment for illegitimate movement, involving firing employees for involving in guided actions, is scrawny and does diminutive to discourage rule Breakers.
For instance, a manager found culpable of illegitimately firing a worker for union movement ought to onlyprovide back income to that worker—minus whatever one salaried in the short-term. Copious manager find the chastisement forflouting the rule a good deal if firing a pro-union member of staff frightens other individuals from sustaining and supporting the union.
Even when managers do not break the rule, the deck is mounded in opposition to Union followers.
The manager has all the authority; they organize and manage the information human resources can attain, can force employees to concentrate in anti-union summits and meetings throughout work hours, can compel working personnel to gather with managers who distribute and convey anti-union post, and can still mean that the company will shut up if the union succeeds. Union groups are able to access workers, conversely, is heavily limited.
“In 2003, federal the system detained 250 undocumented migrants who were working and hired by Wal-Mart in 21 nations. Countless of the janitors who come from Mexico, Russia, Mongolia, Poland hosting other countries – worked 7 without overtime.
References for secondary data 4.1 only
35 Olsson, Karen, “Up Against Wal-Mart,” Mother Jones, Apr./May 2003.
36 NLRB, FOIA request by Erin Johansson, filled 28 June 2005; UFCW database of unfair labor practice charges filed by the union against Wal-Mart. The NLRB list only included closed cases, and the list provided by the UFCW included all the charges the union filed, both closed and open cases. The two lists combined may be missing charges filed by another union or by an individual that are still open.
37 Recently, the Seventh Circuit Court upheld an NLRB order for Beverly Enterprises to cease and desist violating its employees’ rights to organize in all of its facilities, not just those involved in the specific case. This remedy was based on the high number of violations committed at multiple locations, and issued the centralized control of its human resource policies. Beverly California Corp. 326 NLRB 153 (1998) enfd. 227 F.3d 817 (7th Cir. 2000).
38 Pearlstein, Steven, “Workers’ Rights Are Being Rolled Back,” The Washington Post, 25 Feb. 2004: E01.
39 Lafer, Gordon, Free and Fair? How Labor Law Fails U.S. Democratic Election Standards, American Rights atWork, June 2005.
40 Walton, Sam and John Huey, Sam Walton: Made in America (New York: Doubleday, 1992) 129.
41 Walton, Sam and John Huey 130-131.
42 Wal-Mart Stores, “A Manager’s Toolbox to Remaining Union Free,” 1997 <http://www.ufcw.org/issues_and_ actions/walmart_workers_campaign_info/relevant_links/
44 Rosetta Brown, testimony at the National Workers’ Rights Board hearing on Wal-Mart, organized by Jobs with Justice, St. Louis, MO, 24 Sept. 2005.
45 Gaetan Plourde, former Wal-Mart employee, personal interview, by Erin Johansson, translated between English and French by Dica Adotevi, 19 July 2005.
46 Wal-Mart Stores, Inc., JD(ATL)-37-03 (2003).
47 Media Transparency, grant search of National Right to Work Legal Defense and Education Foundation, accessed
20 Oct. 2005: <http://www.mediatransparency.com/ recipientgrants.php?recipientID=1128>.
48 Chip Berlet, Senior Analyst, Political Research Associates, personal interview, by Erin Johansson, 20 Oct. 2005.
49 Sexton, Steve, “Right to Work leader steps down, keep fighting,” The Washington Times, 6 July 2003: A4.
50 Martin, John, amicus brief filed on behalf of the National Right to Work Legal Defense and Education Foundation in Firstline Transportation Security, Inc., 17-RC-12354 before the NLRB, 3 Aug. 2005.
51 Wal-Mart Stores, Inc. memo, provided by the UFCW http://storeinet.wal-mart.com/home/US/wm/store/ content/managing_the_store/02_05_01_grass_roots_20>.
53 Wal-Mart Stores, “A Manager’s Toolbox to Remaining Union Free.”
54 Wal-Mart Stores, “Labor Relations and You at the Wal-Mart Distribution Center #6032,” prepared by Orson Mason, Sept. 1991 <http://www.ufcw.org/issues_and_ actions/walmart_workers_campaign_info/relevant_links/ anti_union_manuals.cfm>.
55 Ehrenreich, Barbara, Nickel and Dimed: On (Not) Getting By in America (New York: Henry Holt and Company, 2001) 144-145.
56 Wal-Mart Stores, “Labor Relations and You at the Wal-Mart Distribution Center #6032.”
57 George Wiszynski, Assistant General Counsel of the UFCW, personal interview, by Erin Johansson, 28 Sept. 2005.
58 Joe Hendricks, former Wal-Mart employee, personal interview, by Erin Johansson, 24 July 2005.
59 Ghemawat, Pankaj, Ken A. Mark, and Stephen P. Bradley, Wal-Mart Stores in 2003, case study, Harvard Business School Publishing, 30 Jan. 2004.
60 NLRB, Second Order Consolidating Cases, 16-CA-20298, 16-CA-20321, 16-CA-20723, 16-CA- 20951, 16-CA-21276, from the National Labor Relations Board, Region 16, 5 Nov. 2001.
61 Wal-Mart Stores, Inc., JD(ATL)-37-03 (2003).
62 Greenhouse, Steven, “Trying to Overcome Embarrassment, Labor Opens a Drive to Organize Wal-Mart,” The New York Times, 8 Nov. 2002: A1.
63 Geller, Adam, “Wal-Mart Finds Union at Its Back Door,” Associated Press Online, 17 Oct. 2004.
64 Sylvie Mavoie, former Wal-Mart employee, personal interview, by Erin Johansson, translated between English and French by Dica Adotevi, 18 July 2005.
65 JobQuality.ca, “Union Indicators,” managed by the Work Network of Canadian Policy Research Networks <http://www.jobquality.ca/indicator_e/uni001_1.stm>. 33
66 Johnson, Susan, “Card Check or Mandatory Representation Vote? How the Type of Union Recognition Procedure Affects Union Certification Success,” Economic Journal 112 (2002): 355-359.
67 Louis Bolduc, Assistant to the National Director of UFCW Canada, personal interview, by Erin Johansson, 14 Sept. 2005.
68 Wal-Mart Stores, Inc., 2005 Annual Report.
69 Macgregor, Kerry, “Quebec law gives union David best shot at retail Goliath,” Ottawa Citizen, 22 Mar. 2005: F1.
70 Austen, Ian, “Quebec Rules Against Wal-Mart in Closing of Unionized Store,” The New York Times, 20 Sept. 2005: C7.
72 Joshua Noble, Wal-Mart employee, personal interview, by Erin Johansson, 27 June 2005.
73 National Labor Relations Board, FY 2003 Annual Performance Report, Mar. 2004.
74 Previous NLRB decisions on tire and lube units at Wal-Mart include: 6-RC-11844, New Castle PA; 28-RC- 5889, Kingman, AZ; 21-RC-20301, Elsinore, CA.
75 Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, May 2004 National Industry Specific Occupational Employment and Wage Estimates <http://www.bls.gov/ oes/current/naics4_445100.htm>.
76 Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, May 2004 National Industry Specific Occupational Employment and Wage Estimates.
77 Curry, Tom, “Campaign veterans run anti-Wal-Mart effort.”
78 Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, Union affiliation of employed wage and salary workers by occupation and industry, 2004 <http://www.bls.gov/news.release/union2.t03.htm>.
79 Data from a UFCW analysis of membership and sales figures, Sept. 2005. Figures exclude warehouse stores like Costco and Sam’s Club, but include Wal-Mart supercenters.
80 U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey (March 2005 Supplement), generated by Erin Johansson using DataFerrett, 7 Sept. 2005 <http://dataferrett. census.gov/>. Analysis controlled for employees’ gender, race, ethnicity, educational attainment, age, and full-time
83 Lovell, Vicky, and Xue Song, April Shaw, The Benefits of Unionization for Workers in the Retail Food Industry,Institute for Women’s Policy Research, 2002.
85 Johansson, Robert C., Jay S. Coggins, Ben H. Senauer, Union Density Effects in the Supermarket Industry, Working Paper 99-05, The Retail Food Industry Center, University of Minnesota, Aug. 1999.
86 Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, National Employment, Hours and Earnings (SIC) <http://www.bls.gov/ces/cesoldsic.htm>.
89 Ghemawat, Pankaj, Ken A. Mark, and Stephen P. Bradley, Wal-Mart Stores in 2003.
90 “The Super 50: Views from the top,” Progressive Grocer, 1 May 2005: 74.
92 Wal-Mart Stores, Inc., 2005 Annual Report.
93 Abelson, Reed, “States Are Battling Against Wal-Mart Over Health Care,” The New York Times, 1 Nov. 2004: A1.
94 AFL-CIO, Wal-Mart: An Example of Why Workers Remain Uninsured and Underinsured, Oct. 2003<http://www.aflcio.org/corporatewatch/ns10212003.cfm>.
95 PBS, “Store Wars: When Wal-Mart Comes to Town,” web content to supplement film that aired June 2001 <http://www.pbs.org/itvs/storewars/stores3_2.html>.
96 AFL-CIO, Wal-Mart: An Example of Why Workers Remain Uninsured and Underinsured.
97 Boarnet, Marlon and Randall Crane, Supercenters and the Transformation of the Bay Area Grocery Industry: Issues, Trends, and Impacts, Bay Area Economic Forum,
99 Shils, Edward B., “Measuring the Economic and Sociological Impact of the Mega-Retail Discount Chains on Small Enterprise in Urban, Suburban and Rural Communities,” The Wharton School, University of Pennsylvania, 7 Feb. 1997 <http://www.lawmall.com/rpa/
100 Walton, Sam and John Huey 110.
101 Stone, Kenneth E., “Impact of Wal-Mart Stores on Iowa Communities: 1983-1993,” Economic Development Review 13 (1995): 60-69. 34
102 Stone, Kenneth E., Georgeanne Artz, and Albert Myles, The Economic Impact of Wal-Mart Supercenters on Existing Businesses in Mississippi, Iowa State University, 2002 <http://www.seta.iastate.edu/retail/ publications/ms_supercenterstudy.pdf>.
103 Bianco, Anthony and Wendy Zellner, “Is Wal-Mart Too Powerful,” Business Week, 6 Oct. 2003: 100.
104 Basker, Emek, “Job Creation or Destruction? Labor- Market Effects of Wal-Mart Expansion,” The Review of Economics and Statistics 87 (2005): 174-183.
106 Dube, Arindrajit, Barry Eidlin, and Bill Lester, The Impact of Wal-Mart Growth on Earnings Throughout the Retail Sector, University of California at Berkeley IIRWorking Paper, 2005.
109 Boarnet, Marlon and Randall Crane, Supercenters and the Transformation of the Bay Area Grocery Industry: Issues, Trends, and Impacts.
110 Boarnet, Marlon and Randall Crane, The Impact of Big Box Grocers on Southern California: Jobs, Wages, and Municipal Finances, prepared for the Orange County
Business Council, Sept. 1999 <http://na4lc.org/ studies.htm>.
111 Congressman George Miller, Everyday Low Wages: The Hidden Price We All Pay for Wal-Mart.
112 Dube, Arindrajit and Ken Jacobs, Hidden Cost of Wal-Mart Jobs: Use of Safety Net Programs by Wal-Mart Workers in California, University of California at Berkeley
Labor Center, 2 Aug. 2004.
113 Mayfield, Dan, “Good times, bad times,” Albuquerque Tribune, 30 July 2001: Business Pg. 3.
114 Velasco, Diane, “Chain’s Demise Blamed on Leadership, Competition,” Albuquerque Journal, 2 Sept.
115 Linda Winter, former Furrs employee, personal interview, by Erin Johansson, 12 July 2005.
116 UFCW analysis of Trade Dimensions market share data, 2000, 2005.
119 Collective bargaining agreement between Furr’s Supermarkets, Inc. and UFCW Local 1564, effective 1998-2001; Greg Frazier, Secretary-Treasurer of UFCW Local 1564, personal interview, by Erin Johansson, 29 Aug. 2005.
120 Greg Frazier, personal interview.
121 Bill Quintana, Business Representative of UFCW Local 1564, personal interview, by Erin Johansson, 27 July 2005; Helen Chesser, Secretary, UFCW Local 540, personal interview, by Erin Johansson, 27 July 2005.
122 February 2005 CHIP data obtained by the Center for Public Policy Priorities, provided to Good Jobs First <http://www.goodjobsfirst.org/gjfhealthcaredisclosure.htm>.
123 Jette, Julie, “Bradlees milestones,” The Patriot Ledger, 27 Dec. 2000: Business 17.124 Reidy, Chris, “Discounter Bradlees exits fromChapter 11,” The Boston Globe, 4 Feb. 1999: C5.
125 Reinert, Sue, “Competition forces discount retailer to sell store,” The Patriot Ledger, 19 Jan. 1998: Business 15.
126 Gibb, Alison, “Bradlees plans to close five stores,” The Boston Herald, 3 Dec. 1997: Finance 40.
127 Joey Hipolito, Senior Research Associate of the UFCW, personal interview, by Erin Johansson, 13 June 2005.
128 Bradlees Inc., Form 10-K, Securities and Exchange Commission, filed 27 Apr. 2000.
129 Collective bargaining agreements between Bradlees and the UFCW Locals 328, 919 and 1445; Jeffrey Bollen, Secretary-Treasurer of UFCW Local 1445, personal interview, by Erin Johansson, 25 Aug. 2005; Dave Fleming, President of UFCW Local 328, personal interview, by Erin Johansson, 25 Aug. 2005.
131 Congressman George Miller, Everyday Low Wages: The Hidden Price We All Pay for Wal-Mart.
133 Elaine Vance, former Bradlees employee, personal interview, by Erin Johansson, 17 Aug. 2005.
134 Halverson, Richard, “Discount pioneer Caldor blazing upscale trail in the Northeast,” Discount Stores News, 16
Aug. 1993: 57.
135 Reidy, Chris, “Troubled Bradlees files for Chapt. 11,” The Boston Globe, 24 June 1995: C1. 35
136 Green, Frank, “Wal-Mart’s shadow dims contract hopes,” The San Diego Union-Tribune, 26 Sept. 2003: C1.
137 Mecoy, Laura, “Health benefits fight heats up,” The Sacramento Bee, 19 Jan. 2004: A1.
138 Cleeland, Nancy, “The Supermarket Strike: Clash Focuses on Co-Pays, Premiums—and Risk,” The Los Angeles Times, 23 Oct. 2003: C1.
139 Galvin, Andrew, “Grocery strike looks likely,” The Orange County Register, 7 Oct. 2003.
140 Jackie Gitmend, Ralphs employee, personal interview, by Erin Johansson, 21 July 2005.
141 Kristine Dall, Ralphs employee, personal interview, by Erin Johansson, 26 May 2005.
142 Pseudonym used. Anonymous, employee of Ralphs, personal interview, by Erin Johansson, 21 July 2005.
143 Stephenie Massey, Vons employee, personal interview, by Erin Johansson, 27 May 2005.
144 Eire Garcia, Vons employee, personal interview, by Erin Johansson, 21 July 2005.
145 The Coalition for a Better Inglewood was formed in response to Wal-Mart’s plan to open a supercenter in Inglewood. After the city council passed a ban on supercenters, Wal-Mart challenged the ban by initiating a referendum vote that would give the company carte blanche to build without city oversight or public review. Through a major education and mobilization effort by the Coalition, residents voted 61 percent to reject Wal-Mart’s initiative on Apr. 6, 2004. For further information about this effort, see Gray-Barkan, Tracy, “Southern California’s Wal-Mart Wars,” Social Policy 35 (2004).
146 Romero, Dennis, “A War With No Winner,” LosAngeles City Beat, 8 Jan. 2004 <http://www.lacitybeat.com/article.php?id=549&IssueNum=31>.
147 George Green, Albertsons employee, personal interview, by Erin Johansson, 21 July 2005.
148 Katzanek, Jack, “Grocery Strike: One Year Later, Employees Notice Changes,” The Press Enterprise, 5 Mar. 2005: A1.
149 Cleeland, Nancy, “The Supermarket Strike: Clash Focuses on Co-Pays, Premiums—and Risk.”
150 Dube, Arindrajit and Alex Lantsberg, Wage and Health Benefit Restructuring in California’s Grocery Industry.
154 Washburn, David, “Grocery strike’s benefits realized in Bay Area,” Copley News Service, 30 Jan. 2005.
155 Hamstra, Mark, “The New Workforce,” Supermarket News, 14 Feb. 2005: 12.
158 Twila Mandella, former Albertsons employee, personal interview, by Erin Johansson, 26 May 2005.
159 Rev. William Jarvis Johnson, pastor of Calvary CME church in Pasadena, CA and Senior Clergy Organizer for CLUE, personal interview, by Erin Johansson, 28 June
160 Goldman, Abigail, “The Wal-Mart Effect; Proud to Be at the Top,” The Los Angeles Times, 23 Nov. 2003: A32.
161 Green, Frank, “Both sides in grocery strike stand ground,” The San Diego Union-Tribune, 14 Oct. 2003: A1.
162 Fulmer, Melissa, “Cornered Grocers May Have to Be What Wal-Mart Isn’t,” The Los Angeles Times, 27 Oct.
163 Hamstra, Mark 12.
164 Greenhouse, Steven, “How Costco Became the Anti-Wal-Mart,” The New York Times, 17 July 2005: C1.
166 Shulman Beth, “As Goes Wal-Mart,” TomPaine.com, 3 May 2005 <http://www.tompaine.com/print/ as_goes_walmart.php>.
167 Luria, Daniel D. and Joel Rogers, “A New Urban Agenda,” Boston Review, Feb./Mar. 1997.