Market-Based Alternatives to Regulation

Market-Based Alternatives to Regulation

Market-based tools are regulations that are used to encourage behavior through the adoption of market signals as opposed to explicit directives regarding control levels of pollution.  The market-based alternative has become increasingly significant due to the advancement of neoliberalism. According to Fowlie, Reguant & Ryan (2016), the cost of the other options provides an effective way to realise environmental improvements.  The commonly market-based options to regulation include taxes, deposit-refund system, licenses, subsidies and charges, industrial property rights, and ecological labeling laws. For instance, taxes acts as a way through various operations are controlled and their contribution to the overall performance of an organization.  Similarly, market-based alternatives such as industrial property rights and environmental labeling laws address the efficiency problems that arise from the application of uniform standards.

According to Golden, Scheer & Best (2019), market-based alternatives are real alternatives and address issues that are pertinent for the success of a premise. For instance, in monitoring population, better controls are always device to ensure the cost is limited based on the economic status of an organization. This shows that the shifting emissions approaches reduce the amount of money that can be used to control pollution and achieve the outline regulatory target of the organization at a reduced cost.  According to the economist, the levy of taxes by the government on each money spent on pollution creates an incentive cost that can be used for pollution reduction. Once the government establishes the tax rates, polluters will be forced to implement of reduction process project such as ensuring that the marginal cost is less than the amount used to pay tax. 

To sum, market-based alternatives have adversely shaped the economy of nations. Through various examples, the option addresses valuable issues that, if accorded a meaningful approach, can reduce all instances of market lax and other related problems. For example, levying taxes on various activities has been seen as the best way to balance a country’s revenues.


Golden, M., Scheer, A., & Best, C. (2019). Decarbonization of electricity requires market-based demand flexibility. The Electricity Journal32(7), 106621.

Fowlie, M., Reguant, M., & Ryan, S. P. (2016). Market-based emissions regulation and industry dynamics. Journal of Political Economy124(1), 249-302.

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Practical Temperature Regulation


Temperature regulation or thermoregulation is defined as the control of temperature(s) of a body under finite environmental conditions. The regulation is obtained through the control of heat gain and loss between the body and the immediate environs through the utilization of automatic and behavioral mechanism. Various chemical reactions are involved in the metabolism of living organisms. The reactions change chemical energy form one form to the other and some heat lost (Eckert, 2004). The paper in details examines the complex homeostatic system regulating the body temperature using comparatively measurements of temperature at different body location and under different physiological conditions. The capacity by which organisms preserve their proper heat under different environmental conditions is important on determining the life sustainability at adverse conditions and so the importance of the practical.


Thermoregulation is the ability of an organism to maintain its normal temperature regardless of the changes in the external environment. The process is among the aspects of homeostasis, a dynamic stability condition between the internal and external temperatures. Suppose the body cannot main a constant internal temperatures, then a condition referred to as heat stroke occurs. When temperature reduces below expected levels, then a condition known as hypothermia occurs. In the practical, three beakers of water with different temperatures were used (one beaker contained water at 400C, 150C and 30oC (Eckert, 2004). The different water temperatures were important since it could help determine the response of the body when subjected to different weather conditions. The temperature of the body was measured in an interval of 2 minutes for 6 minutes. This was to thoroughly monitor the response of the water on the body temperature and how the rate at which the body resumes to its normal temperature. Both hands were dipped in 400C and 150c at once. This made comparison easier and done at the same time. The resulted were plotted ad and so it was easy to determine or identify the rate of changes of temperatures and the reaction of the cells to different temperatures.

Methods and materials

  1. The sensation of transferring limbs from different ambient temperatures was determined into the same ambient temperature.
  2.  Three large beakers (500ml) were picked and then labeled A, B and C.
  • I placed my left hand in in beaker A (15oC), and right in beaker C (40oC). This was for duration of 2 minutes.
  • After 2 minutes, I transferred both handles to beaker B (30oC).
  • The body responses were recorded (in regard to the heat felt at both hands).
  • Then hands were then returned to their initial beakers, left hand in in beaker A (15oC), and right in beaker C (40oC) and then the process repeated once again. The average temperature was determined. The temperatures were recorded for ten minutes on both left and right hands and the following result was obtained.


  1. Other environmental factors did not have effects on the experiment
  2. The body internal variations never affected the outcome of the experiment. The person was healthy.  


Table 3 show the result of exercise (worming and codling biceps)

At Rest33.1 ºC
2 min33.8 ºC32.5 ºC
4 min34.0 ºC32.0 ºC
6 min34.2 ºC29.3 ºC
8 min34.4 ºC28.2 ºC
10 min34.1 ºC28.0ºC

The graph below shows the variations in temperature of the two hands in different beakers (due to different temperatures).

Form the graph, its is evident that the temparture of hand dipped in cold water decraesed and the tenperature of hand dipped in hot water increased. The maximum and minimu temperatures were obtained after 8 minutes. At 8 minutes, the hand heat recptors had detecetd the improvised environmental condition and so had to act. After ten minutes the graph started curvign to its former point. Howver, the period cannot be detremined isnce the exptreiment was between 0 minutes and  10 minutes.


Basal metabolic rate is the minimum calorific requirement to sustain life when an organism is at the state of rest. At this state minimum energy is produced and so the temperature (33.1 ºC).

Eternal temperatures also have effects on the metabolic rates. When an organism is exposed to cold environment, the body reacts by increasing the metabolic rate to supply the extra heat needed to maintain the body’s internal temperature. A short exposure to high temperatures has less impact on the body’s metabolism as it is compensated by increase in the heat lost to the environment form the body. When an organism is exposed to heat for long the metabolic rate increases.

Enzymes are protein-based biological catalysts needed by human body cells to speed up chemical reactions and are affected by temperature variances. Their roles range from speeding up chemical reactions in the cells to ridding off waste products from the cells. Enzymes speed up all chemical reactions that take place in cells of human body. Metabolic enzymes speed up conversion of the digested food into new body structures such as flesh, muscle, nerves, glands and bones with the release on energy (Eckert, 2004).

With enzyme-catalyzed reactions, although the rate at which the reaction comes to equilibrium increases with temperatures, there is a second effect of temperatures; denaturation of the enzyme protein, leading to irreversible loss of activity. However, dipping the hands in water of 400C cannot denature the enzymes and so the possibility of the experiment. The hands were thus never burnt or harmed.

In hot conditions

In the beaker containing hot water, the body temperature was lower than the water temperature. The sweat glands produced sweat which passed to the skin surface to be lost and hence decrease in temperature. This caused heat loss through sweat evaporation. Conversely, the hair on the skin lay flat to allow for the escape of heat. This is caused by small muscles under the skin surface (known as errectorpili muscles) to relax and thus preventing their hair follicles from erecting (Rhodes, 2003). The air circulation is increased when the hair lays flat and thus maximum flow of air and so heat loss through convection as well as radiation. The water temperature was above the normal body temperature and sweating was the only physiological way to it to loose excess heat (Borque, 2002).

On the other hand in reducing the excess heat, arterioles vasodilation must have occurred as well. This is the process of relaxation of smooth muscles n arteriole walls permitting raised flow of blood in the arteries. The process made the blood to main flow in the superficial capillaries in the skin raising heat loss through convection and radiation. The hand was thus able to react to the environmental condition.

In cold conditions

In beaker A, sweating was stopped. The tiny muscles under the skin surface (errectorpili muscles) contracted and thus lifting the hair follicle and making them stand upright. This made hair stand and hence blocking the way through which heat could escape. Maximum heat was thus retained in hand dipped in beaker A. this is what caused goose pimple visible on the hand dipped in beaker A as there are not many hair and the muscles that contracted could be easily seen.

Arterioles carrying blood beneath the skin contracted (through the process called vasoconstriction) and blood was redirected away from the skin towards the inner and warmer body parts (Rhodes, 2003). The blood exposed to the surface thus reduced and the heat loss through convention reduced as well. Les blood flowed near the surface and hence reduced heat loss. This helped retain much heat. The hand was thus able to react to the environmental condition through took more than ten minutes to reverse the heating process.

Lowering environmental temperatures

Considering lowering the temperature or an organism from for example 290C to 150C has various effects. To begin with, the subject relies entirely on purely physical mechanism to maintain a constant temperature, the metabolic rate remained constant. However, at about 270C, the physical mechanisms are no longer capable of maintaining a constant body temperature on their own, and the metabolic rates starts going up. The condition is known as lower critical temperature, the lowest temperature at which physical mechanism alone can regulate the body temperature (Borque, 2002). As the outside temperature is further lowered, the metabolic rate continuous to increase until eventually chemical mechanism breaks down. At this point, the lower lethal temperature is reached (the experiment however, never reaches this stage).

Increasing environmental temperature

The various mechanisms promoting heat loss succeed in keeping the body temperatures constant, but there comes a point when the ability of the body to regulate its temperature breaks down (high critical temperature) and various depending on the humidity. Once the high critical temperature is reached the metabolic rate starts going up and this continues until environmental temperature rises. No longer protected by the body’s cooling processes, chemical reactions in the cells become subject to the temperature rule, doubling their rate every time the temperature increases by 100C. The experiment does not reach this point however. The curve after the 10th minute curves to back to their original reading and this is an indication that the temperatures (from 150C-400C) never denatured the enzymes.

Relevance of the experiment

Each animal species appears to have a distinct temperatures range, within which there is an optimum temperature for metabolism. Moreover, the temperature tolerance of species differs, so that some have a wide temperature range, some are thermophilic and others are cold blooded. Throughout, climates changes, any particular niche will be occupied by a succession of species each succeeding the other as their optima are exceeded. Temperatures are therefore fundamental factor in controlling the metabolic rate. It is thus essential to determine the range of temperatures in which an organism can operate (Rhodes, 2003). This will minimize the random death of majority of the animals when taken to other regions or when subjected to various conditions (temperature). The low critical temperatures, has been determined for a number of different species, and it has been found that animals living in cold areas have a lower critical temperatures than those living in warm places. For example kangaroo rat has a low critical temperature of about 310C, whereas for artic fox it may be as low as -400C (Eckert, 2004). Moreover, below the low critical temperature the curve of metabolic rate against environmental temperature is much less steep, and the lower lethal temperature much lower, for cold-dwellers than for warm dwellers. The findings reflect the fact that in cold environments the animals have better insulation mechanism than those living in warmer places, an important aspect of survival.

Experiment limitations

  1. Environmental factors like draught must have affected the outcome of the experiment.
  2. Left and right hands have different qualities and characteristics since left is characterized by many arteries and left veins. This must have affected heat retention and lost.
  3. The experiment only considers one person. There is no control experiment as well. This means that any variation in the body of the person greatly affected the outcome of the experiment and conclusions were make form the errors.  
  4. Errors obtained through reading of thermometers. The thermometer accuracy is only up to the second decimal place and so the less accurate results.


Behavioral as well as chemical control is essential to organisms. Some animals have poor control over their body temperatures. After ten minutes the graph showing the effects of heat on the body started recovering its normal readings. This must be after the heat gained form the hot water was lost and the hand was slowly responding to the increased heat. The reverse happened to the left hand. After immersion, the body fully acquired the water temperature after 8 minutes (when the effects were maximum). The body started slowly responding to the change and hence the rise in the graph after 10 minutes. The experiment has confirmed that human hands can tolerate a temperature of from 150C to 400C. the process of reverting to the also started ten minutes later and so the human capability of dealing with adverse temperatures.


Eckert, R. et al. 2004. “Body Size and Metabolic Rate.” Animal Physiology: Mechanisms and Adaptations. pp. 563 – 566.

Rhodes, S. 2003. Biology 360: Comparative Animal Physiology: A Lab Manual.

Borque, H. (2002). Causes, signs, and effects of sugar in the body. National Institute Of Justice Press: Washington.

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Explain whether your proposed policy could be enacted through a modification of existing law or regulation or the creation of new legislation/regulation.

How is this policy affecting your nursing practice

To prepare:

· Select one public policy that currently is impacting you and your practice. Consider the following:

o What health care driver was the policy designed to address: cost, quality, access, or a combination?

o Does the policy appear to be achieving its intended results? On what data are you basing your assumption?

o What have been the effects (adverse or positive) of this policy on health care cost, quality, and access?

o How is this policy affecting your nursing practice?

· Next, select a health care issue-something you see or experience on a daily basis-about which you would like to influence a practice change through the policy process.

· Review the Learning Resources, focusing on Kingdon’s Model. How would you utilize this model to guide your policy development?


To prepare:

· Review Chapter 3 of Milstead, J. A. (2012). Health policy and politics: A nurse’s guide (Laureate Education, Inc., custom ed.). Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett Publishers

· In the first assignment, you reflected on whether the policy you would like to promote could best be achieved through the development of new legislation, or a change in an existing law or regulation. Refine as necessary using any feedback from your first paper.

· Contemplate how existing laws or regulations may affect how you proceed in advocating for your proposed policy.

· Consider how you could influence legislators or other policymakers to enact the policy you propose.

· Think about the obstacles of the legislative process that may prevent your proposed policy from being implemented as intended.

To complete:

Part Two will have approximately 3-4 pages of content plus a title page and references. Part Two will address the following:

· Explain whether your proposed policy could be enacted through a modification of existing law or regulation or the creation of new legislation/regulation.

· Explain how existing laws or regulations could affect your advocacy efforts. Be sure to cite and reference the laws and regulations using primary sources.

· Provide an analysis of the methods you could use to influence legislators or other policymakers to support your policy. In particular, explain how you would use the “three legs” of lobbying in your advocacy efforts.

o Summarize obstacles that could arise in the legislative process and how to overcome these hurdles.

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Propose a change to the current law or enactment of a governmental regulation that can alleviate a current healthcare problem in Saudi Arabia

Assignment 14 DS – 515

· Research a current healthcare problem in Saudi Arabia.

· Provide a summary of the situation, including specific examples. Discuss the current law or lack thereof.

· Propose a change to the current law or enactment of a governmental regulation that can alleviate the problem.

· Support your statements with logic and argument, citing any sources referenced

· Be 2 pages in length, not including the required cover and reference pages

· Formatted according to APA writing guidelines

· Provide support for your statements with in-text citations from a minimum of three scholarly articles from peer-reviewed journal articles.


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Discuss the changes that have occurred because of this law or regulation.


Discussion Prompt 1
Select a state or federal law or regulation related to patient safety that has been implemented within the last five years requiring hospitals or any other health care organizations to change the way they manage the delivery of care. Discuss the changes that have occurred because of this law or regulation.

Additionally, discuss the technology associated with either your selected law/regulation or a similar one. Are there ethical dilemmas that have resulted from technology changes when delivering care to patients or patient safety? Explain the dilemmas and how they might be resolved.

Discussion Prompt 2
Evidence-based practice is extremely important in nursing. Throughout your master’s program, you will complete research on various topics. Knowing how to construct a strong problem statement and complete a critical analysis of the available information to write a literature review is essential. Follow the instructions in the bullets below to direct you where to find resources on problem statements and literature reviews.


you will write a problem statement and perform a literature review in

preparation for your ethical issues debate presentation. Share your

problem statement in this discussion so that you can review each other’s

work and provide peer-to-peer feedback. Also, describe what you think

are the most important learning takeaways from the literature review

resources you reviewed.


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Discuss how institutions such as the rule of law competitive markets stable money and prices and regulation are sources of economic growth.

Discuss how institutions such as the rule of law, competitive markets, stable money and prices, and regulation are sources of economic growth.

Create a PowerPoint presentation of 12-15 slides (not including the title and reference slides) discussing the future of the Public sector of the Economy. Include the following:

  1. Explain economist Paul North’s institutional theory as a model for economic reform.
  2. Discuss how institutions promote growth based on Douglass North’s theory.
  3. Discuss how institutions such as the rule of law, competitive markets, stable money and prices, and regulation are sources of economic growth.
  4. Looking forward, which institutions or polices do you think will promote economic growth in the future?
  5. How will economic inequality and poverty challenge economic growth in the future?

Be sure to include graphs, charts and other visuals in your presentation that will enhance your analysis. Include slide notes containing explanations and rationale.

Be sure to cite three to five relevant scholarly sources in support of your content. Use only scholarly sources found in the GCU Library or those provided in Topic Materials.

This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion.

While APA Style format is not required for the body of this assignment, solid academic writing is expected, and in-text citations and references should be presented using APA documentation guidelines, which can be found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center.

You are required to submit this assignment to Turnitin. Refer to the directions in the Student Success Center.

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Emotion regulation of children with autism

While there has been considerable clinical and research effort in delineating the problems of social interaction, communication, and cognition in those with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), the disturbances of sensory processing and the performance of emotion regulation remain less explored.

Emotion regulation is the modification of any process in the system that generates emotion or its manifestation in behavior. The processes that modify emotions come from the same set of processes as the ones that are involved in emotion in the first place.Levels of emotion regulation are one of the main concerns of caregivers and occupational therapists because they are essential for helping with the integration of a child into daycare and school. However, emotion regulation is not documented much in scientific literature on ASDs.

Sensory processing involves the registration and modulation of sensory information, as well as the internal organization of sensory input. This allows human beings to execute successful adaptive responses to situational demands and thus engage meaningfully in daily occupations (Humphry, 2002).Approximately 10% of the pediatric populations in the United States have severe over- or under-responsiveness to sensory stimuli that interfere with activities of daily living (ADL) (Ahn, Miller, & Milberger, 2002). Although sensory over-responsivity has been identified in children with specific diagnoses such as autism (Baranek et al.

2006; Liss et al. 2006; Miller et al. 2007; Rogers & Ozonoff 2005), occupational therapists often receive referrals for children with ASDs to mitigate sensory processing difficulties and help families cope more effectively.Sensory over-responsivity, however, has only been minimally described separate of this diagnosis (Kinnealey and Fuiek 1999; Kinnealey et al.

, 1995) and has still failed to be recognized unanimously as an independent syndrome. In sum, the impact of sensory over-responsivity on emotion regulation has not yet been investigated in children with ASDs. In order to better understand the specific needs of school-age children with ASDs and to facilitate their emotion regulation competence, it is important to document the relationship between sensory over-responsivity and emotion regulation in children with ASDs.The purpose of this reaction paper is a literature review of the relationship between sensory over-responsivity and emotion regulation in children with ASDs in order to use the information in later research, which will investigate whether sensory over-responsivity is associated with the emotion regulation of children with ASDs.

Sensory Over-Responsivity and Children with ASDs Children with ASDs struggle with social interaction problems, communication impairments, and restricted and repetitive behaviors (American Psychiatric Association, 1994).Although sensory over-responsivity is not included in current diagnostic criteria, studies using caregiver questionnaires have consistently found children with ASDs to exhibit atypical behavioral responses to sensory input (Baranek et al, 2006; Rogers, Hepburn, & Wehner, 2003; Tomchek & Dunn, 2007). There is a growing body of literature on the disturbances of sensory processing in children with ASDs. A study conducted by Kern et al.

2001) of 39 children with a diagnosis of autism or pervasive development disorder (3 to 11 years of age) found that sensory difficulties were one of the most common of the associated clinical features observed in the children. On Dunn’s (1999) Sensory Profile, an instrument sensitive to anomalous sensori-motor behavior, 32 individuals with autism scored significantly higher than the control group on 85% of the items across all factors. Watling et al. (2001) found that 8 of 10 Sensory Profile factor scores of 40 children with autism indicated abnormality relative to matched controls.

However, none of these studies specifically related the question of general or special sensitivities in the majority of children with ASDs. Some authors suggest that children with ASDs have sensory under-responsivity impeding their social and emotional development (DesLauriers & Carlson, 1969; Rutter et al. , 1999; van Engeland, 1984). Others hypothesize that children with ASDs have sensory over-responsivity and fail to integrate new experiences efficiently (Bergman & Escalona, 1949; Dawson & Lewy, 1989).

Within the field of occupational therapy, sensory over-responsivity has been identified as the more common form of sensory modulation dysfunction, with approximately 80% based on referrals to research programs (Schaaf, Miller, Seawell, & O’Keefe, 2003). Rogers and Ozonoff (2005) utilized reports from parents that examined the sensory reactivity. Their study suggested that children with autism had significantly more sensory symptoms overall than the comparison groups. Researchers from fields outside of occupational therapy have also contributed to scientific literature regarding sensory over-responsivity and children with ASDs.

Baranek et al. (2006) used a new caregiver-report assessment, the Sensory Experiences Questionnaire (SEQ), and explicated the nature of sensory patterns of hyper- and hypo-responsiveness that correlates in autism relative to comparison groups. The study was conducted such that the pattern of hyper-responsiveness was significantly greater in ASDs than in the typical group. Liss et al.

(2006) also used an expanded version of the Sensory Profile to request 144 parents to rate items in three domains: “sensory over-reactivity,” “sensory under-reactivity,” and “sensory-seeking behaviors. Cluster analysis showed the predicted over-focused pattern of sensation and attention, comprising over-reactivity in 43% of this sample. Although these important studies document the physical and behavioral features or consequences of physiological hyper-activities, Miller et al. (2007) also indicated that children with ASDs who have sensory over-responsivity will engage in sensory-seeking behaviors as an attempt at self-regulation.

They are not targeted specifically, however, for the sensory classification of the children with ASDs.Characteristics Associated with Emotion Regulation and Children with ASDs Emotion regulation in children with ASDs has not been investigated directly. Much of the research on emotion regulation and children with ASDs has focused on the extent of defining characteristics of children with ASDs (such as cognition and restricted repetitive behaviors). For example, research has been conducted with children diagnosed with Down syndrome, autism, schizophrenia, disruptive behavior disorders [e.

g. conduct disorder (CD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD)], and depressive disorders. Children with autism demonstrate a poorer ability to pose emotion expressions (e. g.

, Kasari ; Sigman, 1996; Loveland et al. , 1994) compared both to nondisordered children and children with Down syndrome. The deficits are particularly apparent in social situations, where children with autism fail to exhibit “affective sharing” or socially aimed expressions of positive affect.This deficit suggests possible difficulties in the expression of complex emotions like pride (e.

. , Kasari, Sigman, Baumgartner, ; Stipek, 1993; for review, see Kasari ; Sigman, 1996). Studies on hypervigilance and attention in individuals with anxiety disorders can inform our understanding of how anxiety might elicit sensory over-responsivity in children with ASDs. Evidence indicates that anxiety disorders are characterized by hyperarousal (i.

e. , heightened baseline levels of autonomic arousal), which supports a state of hypervigilance (i. e. , scanning the environment for threat-relevant stimuli and preparation for a potential threat).

It is posited that, for anxious individuals, this hypervigilance is part of an overall difficulty in regulating negative affectivity, known as threat-based emotion regulation (Craske 2003). These individuals may have trouble shifting attention and activating or inhibiting behavior in such a way that decreases negative affectivity and arousal. These studies may diminish the potential for emotion regulation. Few studies have investigated age-related changes in emotion regulation, particularly through school-aged children.

Age-related changes in emotional experience may or may not lead to changes in emotion-expressive behavior, yet it is the emotion-expressive behavior that may be of greatest significance in shaping social interaction (Gross et al. , 1997). Given how important such attempts at emotion regulation are for psychological health (Gross ; Mufioz, 1995), it is essential to consider whether age-related changes in emotional experience and expression are associated with parallel age-related changes in emotional control.There are a few age-related influences in emotion regulation in infants that have been reported by several investigators.

Infant-stranger interaction is an appropriate situation in which to examine infant “coping” or emotion regulation, because it has been well documented that, beginning around 6 months of age on through the second year of life, infants generally find interactions with strangers to be emotionally arousing events (e. g. , Kagan, 1983; Sroute, 1977).These researchers do not, however, address whether the developmental changes affect the emotion regulation of school-aged children with ASDs in everyday life.

In addition to the potential influence of emotion regulation in children with disabilities, sensory skills play important roles. Descriptions of attention-deficit–hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and sensory modulation disorder (SMD) include an inability to modulate systematically physiological, sensory, and affective responses that can have an effect on emotion regulation (Greenspan ; Wieder, 1993).Both ADHD and SMD include hyperactivity and impulsive behaviors. Emotion regulation has been investigated indirectly in the literature on hyperactivity, conduct disorder, and aggression in children and in the perseverative behavior and lack of executive-function skills in delinquent children (Moffitt ; Henry, 1989).

Although these connections appear to be well accepted clinically, none of these studies specifically relate only the problem of sensory processing to individual differences in emotion regulation in the emotion regulation of children with ASDs.Sensory Over-Responsivity and Emotion Regulation There are few psychology or occupational therapy studies directly examining how sensory information processing affects emotion regulation. However, a large body of neuroscience literature illuminates how sensory stimuli are processed in the fear system. The “fear circuit,” which includes the amygdala, prefrontal cortex, and other areas, has emerged as part of a larger system that likely plays a role in regulating emotional arousal.

Structural and functional changes in this system have been associated with psychiatric and developmental disorders such as anxiety, depression, schizophrenia, borderline personality disorder, and autism. It is now established that sensory stimuli are processed similarly in these structures in rodents and humans. Drawing from the more general emotion regulation literature, one may expect increases in the self-regulation of sensory responsiveness with maturation. However, it is currently unclear whether there are developmental shifts in sensory over-responsiveness in early childhood (i.

e. normative increases or decreases) or whether there is individual continuity in a child’s level of sensory over-responsiveness from infancy to elementary school. Many studies have examined sensory processing’s affect on the emotion regulation of children. Research conducted with cue-target paradigms demonstrates that attention-directing cues elicit activity in a fronto-parietal attentional control network (Giesbrecht, Woldorff, Song, ; Mangun, 2003; Woldorff et al.

, 2004). This activity appears to index multiple processes, including sensory processing, cue interpretation, and execution of the cued task.By extension, it may be argued that results obtained in emotion regulation paradigms primarily reflect cue-directed attentional operations that are emotion independent. However, the specificity of these sensory symptoms has not yet been established and still needs to be identified.

Sensory over-responsivity is a sensory processing disorder (SPD) characterized by over-orientation, distress, resistance, and avoidance reactions to certain types of sensations (Lane, 2002). SPD is estimated to affect 5% to 13% of children in the general population (Ahn, Miller, Milberger, ; McIntosh, 2004).It is important to assess sensory over-responsivity in development because it entails distress and may interfere with children’s emotion regulation. This atypical responsiveness has a significant impact on the quality of life for these children and their families by limiting their participation in home, school, and community activities (Cohn, Miller, ; Tickle-Degnen, 2000; Dunn, 2001; Dunn ; Westman, 1997).

For example, significant food preferences due to hypersensitivities to taste and touch in the mouth may limit opportunities to participate in mealtimes with family and peers.Similarly, restricted manual exploration and manipulation may interfere with participation in school and social activities (Schaaf et al. , 2003). Miller et al.

(2007) found that individuals with sensory over-responsivity respond to sensation faster, with more intensity, and for a longer duration than those with typical sensory responsivity. Their responses may range from active, negative, impulsive, or aggressive responses to passive withdrawal or avoidance of sensation. Individuals with sensory over-responsivity may be rigid and controlling, and this can influence their emotion regulation.Parham and Mailloux (2005) also suggested that individuals with over-responsivity to sensation may withdraw from certain types of touch, cover their ears in response to everyday sounds, and/or avoid movement activities that are typically enjoyable or non-noxious to others.

Additionally, they may have limited diets due to sensitivity to the taste, smell, or texture of certain foods. They may also become easily overwhelmed in certain environments, demonstrate strong emotional reactions to sensory stimuli, and engage in disruptive behaviors when demands become too great.This type of anxious hypervigilance and poor regulation of negative arousal through attentional bias could contribute to sensory over-responsivity. If children are hyperaroused and scanning the environment, looking for threats, they are more likely to notice and react to environmental sensory stimuli.

A threat-based style of emotion regulation would exacerbate this reactivity, as they would be more likely to attribute a threat to these stimuli and have difficulty shifting their attention and nhibiting negative affect. A study by Liss et al. (2006) lends some support to the relevance of this model for children with ASDs. Liss and colleagues showed that parent ratings of sensory over-responsivity, excellent memory, and overfocused and overselective attention clustered together in a subgroup of children with ASDs.

The authors suggested that these individuals overreact to aversive sensory stimuli because they are more likely to attend to them and have difficulty disengaging from them.Thus, this study supports the idea that there is a subgroup of children with ASDs who are particularly prone to sensory over-responsivity, and these children show some symptoms similar to individuals with anxiety disorders, including difficulty with rapid disengagement and selective attention. Although this connection appears to be accepted clinically, few studies have documented it and specifically described the relationship between sensory over-responsivity and the emotion regulation.

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The part of the brain involved in regulation of states of consciousness (alert drowsy etc.) and sleep and waking is the 48 question (multiple choice) Psychology/The part of the brain involved in regulation of states of consciousness (alert drowsy etc.) and sleep and waking is the

The part of the brain involved in regulation of states of consciousness (alert drowsy etc.) and sleep and waking is the 48 question (multiple choice) Psychology/The part of the brain involved in regulation of states of consciousness (alert drowsy etc.) and sleep and waking is the.

a. reticular formation

b. occipital lobe

c. limbic system

d. corpus callosum

1. Which of the following is NOT characteristic of REM sleep?

a. Slow, delta waves in the electroencephalogram (EEG)

b. The eyes move rapidly

c. It begins about once every 90 minutes during the night

d. Dreams are likely to occur

2. The corpus callosum

a. is the part of the brain most important for thought and language

b. is densely packed with cell bodies of neurons

c. connects the left and right hemispheres of the cerebral cortex

d. is the part of the brain most important for coordinating skilled voluntary movements

3. After damage to the corpus callosum, a person has difficulty naming

a. objects that were unfamiliar before the time of the damage

b. objects felt with the right hand

c. objects seen in the right visual field

d. objects seen in the left visual field

4. The right hemisphere of the cerebral cortex is specialized for controlling

a. rapid or athletic movements

b. hunger, thirst, and other biological motivations

c. complex visual and spatial tasks

d. language production

5. In the human brain, most of the axons from the optic nerve go to the

a. hypothalamus

b. thalamus

The part of the brain involved in regulation of states of consciousness (alert drowsy etc.) and sleep and waking is the 48 question (multiple choice) Psychology/The part of the brain involved in regulation of states of consciousness (alert drowsy etc.) and sleep and waking is the

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Cost-Benefit Analysis, Economics of Regulation

Cost-Benefit Analysis, Economics of Regulation.

This is an open book assessment and covers the following topics: Cost-Benefit Analysis, Economics of Regulation, Public Finance and Taxation, Asymmetric Information, Choice under Uncertainty, Social Welfare and Income Distribution.

Cost-Benefit Analysis, Economics of Regulation

This is an open book assessment and covers the following topics: Cost-Benefit Analysis, Economics of Regulation, Public Finance and Taxation, Asymmetric Information, Choice under Uncertainty, Social Welfare and Income Distribution.

You are free to consult text books, published journal articles, and budget documents. However, please provide proper referencing.

Please submit as a PDF document

Your essay should be concise and well structured. Maximum of 2 pages essay.

1. Critically evaluate Fiji’s COVID-19 response budget and discuss its implications for revenue, also expenditure and public debt.

2. Discuss why “balanced economic regulation” and not excessive economic regulation, is necessary during the COVID-19 pandemic?


3. Additionally, Discuss three strategies individual and institutional investors can use to maximize their return on
Investment under current financial market conditions.

4.  Evaluate the (in) effectiveness of fiscal policy in the Pacific Islands during the current COVID-19

More details;

What is economic theory of regulation?

theory of economic regulation are to explain who will receive the. benefits or burdens of regulation, what form regulation will take, and. the effects of regulation upon the allocation of resources. Regulation may be actively sought by an industry, or it may be thrust upon it.

What is meant by cost benefit analysis?

A cost-benefit analysis is a process businesses use to analyze decisions. The business or analyst sums the benefits of a situation or action and then subtracts the costs associated with taking that action.

How does consumer make his choice under uncertainty?

Choice under Uncertainty # 8.

The decision a consumer makes when outcomes are uncertain is based on limited information. If more information were available, the consumer could reduce risk. Since information is a valuable commodity, people will be prepared to pay for it.

Cost-Benefit Analysis, Economics of Regulation

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