War in Afghanistan in Response to the Attacks of September 11th

Annotated bibliography and outline with prof feedback comments are uploaded just for a better understanding of the paper.

This is an extremely important term paper for the international studies justice, war, and power course, the essay should be qualitative and relevant. Clear arguments, and clear counterarguments, with in-text citations to the four sources provided in the annotated bibliography, those sources should be used for sure, and a maximum of two more peer-reviewed sources can be added from the author’s choice and research.

The entire actual topic is as follows and should be considered by the author: In 2001, the U.S. initiated a war in Afghanistan with support from Canada and a number of other allies. This military action was taken in response to the attacks of September 11. The stated aims of the war included destroying Al Qaeda and removing the Taliban regime (which had allowed Al Qaeda to operate and be based on its territory) from power. Was this war morally justified? Why or why not? (The paper must address relevant aspects of just war theory, information discussed by Micheal Walzer in “Just and Unjust War”, and relevant articles regarding civilian harms, the morality of war, etc.)

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Integration of theory with experience

Part 1 – The case study experience (450-550 words in length)

When I got the job I was required to tackle and submit, I had to finish it in good time. After getting it, I read it carefully to understand what was required of me. I had to preview the information give on the assignment. When I had done that, I had to identify all the required materials to make sure I had all I required before I started on my job. I looked at any work that could be relevant to my assignment. Then I had to make sure I had all these materials eight her in soft copy and hard copies were possible. I believe reading a hard copy is relatively better and easier. When this was done, I went through the job in order to decide what my first step could be, to understand it in details and highly the key information that was given in the job. Then I had read all the materials I had looked for, and learn as much as I could from the. I had to ensure I am well equipped with the know-how before I set to do the paper. Then I had to go through and understand the marking model that would be used to range how well or poorly I had performed in the paper. I had leant what a high performer would have to write, who would be termed as a medium performer and what I would write and have it rated as poor and hence a fail. The fail had to be avoided at all cost. It was also essential to understand the academic writing language that has to be used. In most cases, in academic writing, a third person language is used but in some cases you may be directed to do otherwise. It is essential to keep this directive, as it can be used to rate my performance. I had to read the assignment again to ensure I am well aware of what is required of me. So now it was time to write. I had to sit down and write according to the professor’s directives. I knew very well I had to write the paper objectively, making sure I am giving all the relevant information required of me. This I knew very well is what would present my mind and thinking to the marker. What I write is what says how much I had studied and prepared for a given paper. I had to make sure I had presented no negative information about other people and that it was all positive. However, sometimes, I thought, it would do no harm writing a few negative things about an individual, when needed to and when what you say is true. It, however, has to be made sure that nothing is personal or meant to attack the other person. When I had written down all the main point I needed to write my paper, I brainstormed on the requirement with friends. This is critical in order to ensure I have what is only relevant and what would make me perform well. Then I had to write down the final copy that had to be submitted for marking. Making sure it was in the required format. Then I had to go through the paper again to correct all the errors

Part 2 Integration of theory with experience – (450-550 words in length)

In preparing my paper, I had to use the conceptual review theory. By this, I choose to concentrate on the job idea and analyse it unit by unit other than getting information about the whole paper all at once. It was critical to making sure got the information that was needed in good time for a job to be of high quality. To start with, I had to locate the relevant research and literature. Where I could get any information that would help me I tackling the paper. Then I treated the understanding of major communication theories with quality. In handling an assignment, what is important is communicating with the marker. If you do not get that information to him through good communication, he cannot be able to know whether you understood what was needed of you. Then I closely criticized the research I had carried out trying to point out any mistake I could have made. I had to correct the errors and do away with any information that I found not well convincing to use in the job. When I was sure what I had was what I needed, I proceeded to write a paper. Here what I had to do was compare and contrast some of the major information models looking at both the negative and positive sides. After this process, I had to settle for the best. In preparing the paper, I had to allow maximum space for class performance. For a class presentation, adequate space has to be allowed to make sure we leave space for creativity. It is an important thing to ensure we leave space to allow us to be flexible in our performance, making sure we can always incorporate class contribution, when it is right, into our work. The format of presentation is also essential. I had to make sure my job can be presented to encourage dialogue with the class ensuring all the students understand what I present to them. This can only be ensured by engaging them in the performance, giving them chances to ask questions and make a contribution. We must also allow them to challenge what it is that we have. I made sure that my study was up to date by using only works published in the recent years for my study. It is crucial to do to make sure we offer only relevant information for marking. Using works written long ago would mean we might be presenting information that is outdated and passed by time. It is hence essential to ensure what we are putting the work we have done; we have the most up to date information. Also before the performance, it was critical to ensure I give the discussion material to the class 8 days before the actual performance. This is intended to just ensure that the class is aware of what we intend to discuss and have them read on the relevant issues. This would mean they are able to make their own contributions, a thing that is essential in the learning process. It would also give them a chance to make corrections. The value of this process is to learn and, therefore, it is important essential to have the student correct me where I go wrong.

Part 3 Personal reflections – (270-330 words in length)

For the work I did, I leant that the paper I write must give a review of the idea or the theory at question. My writing had to be expanded and written according to a well researched information. Ascertaining that the information is varied was a key thing to making sure I pass my paper. In finding the literature, I had to make sure I limit my research to as little scope as I could. This was to make sure that I could easily manage the business that I was doing. It would help me to ensure that I do not rule out some important event or information that needed to be written down as not needed. If I handled the whole lot like one, I thought, it would make it a hard thing to ensure that I look into every aspect of the issue to be discussed. It was also necessary to ensure that I outlined the paper and formatted it as required. It was important to ensure that the paper was well divided into clear units that would make marking easily. For instance, there had to be a clear introduction of the work. Clearly defining what you intend to do in your job to make sure I do not move out of the course am expected to follow. Then it is also important to define of the concepts you are using at in dealing with the job. I had to tackle the business giving relevant example where necessary in order to make sure there is clarity in our business. It was also necessary to discuss the concept within the context not what I have not research. All the technical details of the paper the paper should had to be made clear and it was also crucial to ensure the paper was handed in as was directed by the administrator


Reisenberger, A & Dadzie, S (2002), Equality and diversity in adult and community learning

– a  guide for managers

Theoretical Review Assignmenthttp://www2.hawaii.edu/~tkell/611/review.htm. retrieved

on 24th  April 2014

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Premium cruise lines

Premium cruise lines

Cruise ship industry is among the fasters growing segment in the hospitality industry all over the world, with an approximate annual growth rate of about 8.4%. According to darity (2008), in 2007 alone 12.6 million tourists cruise worldwide. This number grew the year after and it was approximately 80 million at end of 2013. At present, about 350 premium cruise lines are sailing the world’s seas. Premium cruise industry has a number of economic benefits to a port state. These benefits arise from five principles: cruise tourist and crew spending, employment by the Premium cruise lines companies, premium cruise lines expenditure on goods and service, which are necessary for cruise operation, cruise line expenditure for port services, and expenditure for premium cruiser maintenance.

Most tourist in the world chooses premium cruise lines because they are smaller as compared to the larger cruise ships and, therefore, take fewer cruisers. The space ratio of the premium cruise lines is greater than the larger one, who make premium cruise lines are less crowded as compared to the greater. Some premium cruise lines, sometimes, characterize themselves up premium cruise. Most premium cruise lines offer larger staterooms and more luxurious bathing facilities as compare to large cruise ship (Dickinson & Vladimir, 2008).

How currents affect premium cruise lines

With the current technologies, premium cruise lines trends are shaping up with a greater focus on multigenerational groups with more unique food offering. Most of these premium ships now offers about a quarter mile boardwalk. Mullins & Walker (2013) show that some Cruise lines carry up to 3600 passengers and still include a jogging track and space for walk. Unlike the ancient premium cruise, modern cruise reflects new trends of being outside all the time with outdoor restaurants, much on-deck seating and other things that will make you be outside most of the time.

Modern technology has made it possible for premium cruiser to offer most luxurious things such as skating rings, planetariums, climbing walls, among other new attractive activities that keep coming. Among the most modern is Crystal symphony, which includes a vertical garden. The other two most competitive premium cruises are carnival Cruise lines and Holland America line cruise. Carnival lines cruise offer TV game, which allows passengers to participate while watching it (Papathanassis, 2012). The carnival cruise lines also include 3-D movies, which are shown on theatres equipped with motion seats, which has special effects like wind and water. America cruise lines, on the other hand, include programming partnership, which are usually used for fitness workout and pool parties.

With advance technology, most premium cruises have expanded food option. Some such as Norwegian have everything from separate bars of Asian noodles, raw shellfish to churrascaria. Most cruise lines also are trying to accommodate diverse needs for youth and adults. They are expanding where youths can have enough exercises and at the same time creating cool places for adults where they can sun, read books, and nap (Peng, 2009).

Lastly in the current trends is the information technology, which has shifted the way travellers book cruise lines. Unlike sometimes back where travellers were forced to book cruise lines with some middlemen, they now book it directly online through cruise’s company branded website.

Effects of cruise industry on economy

The benefits of the cruise industry are derived from income generated from the spending at the port. These incomes, which include money received from dockage, wharfage, and passenger’s spending were originally earned somewhere. In fact, direct purchases by cruise lines and passengers from local business create income and jobs. Local government benefits from the cruise industry through taxes imposed on this sector. In most cases, taxes flow directly from the port authority rather than local government (Walker, 2012)..

Benefits derived from the cruise industry are usually measured by impact analysis, which is based on input-output model. An input-output model calculates effects on the income; employment on the region, and value added which resulted from the original input. Direct and indirect effects that arise from the passenger’s spending become an income the affected local firms. All these incomes are received from the services and goods rendered. That means for a firm to produce and distribute the requisite goods and services, needed by cruise lines, local firms must invest some money. Therefore, if a country’s economy is poor and has less to invest on the cruise business, then the amount obtained from the travellers, are also low. If a country is so poor and fails to invest on this industry, the number travellers wishing to visit such a country will also reduce dramatically (John, 2008).

Social impact of cruise industry:

Premium cruise industry has a social and cultural impact on the destination. This impact is as a result of the relationship between residents and guest. Premium cruise lines have both social and negative impacts and positive impacts.

Cruise lines impact the society positively through culture exchange, labour issues, and revitalization of culture and tradition. Destination gives an opportunity for travellers to learn by visiting museums, cultural centres, and heritage centres. On the other site, social exchange is likely to increase the chances for people to develop mutual sympathy, understanding and tolerance. Therefore, it is clear that tourism can be away for local people to trade he culture and knowledge. The culture of the community can improve cruise industry in many ways. For instance, festivals and events local communities can increase the number of the premium cruise lines visiting a country.

Another positive social effect of the cruise industry is on education. A research show that cruise tourism has promoted and increase educational opportunity. According to Henkens(2006), tourism can also bring a positive force toward peace, and fosters pride in traditional culture that can assist in avoiding urban relocation.

On the negative side, cruise industry may lead to misunderstanding and conflicts. Generally, social impacts of cruise vary from place to place. However, the result can be managed by regulating the number and timing of visitors to avoid disruption of social and economic cycle (Butler, 2010).                             


According to Cetron,  DeMicco, & Davies (2006), it is undeniable that the premium cruise industry brings money to the local economy, however, ensuring development of the cruise industry at the destination require much capital. Therefore, the question is, do the cruise lines bring fewer benefits that the initial cost?

As could be seen, we have to make a decision that pressure to promote cruise industry. However, there is no policy in most government imposed to control the impact of such activity. Lack of planning allows confronting the massive arrival of cruise tourism will eventually lead negative effects in the destinations. Ports too often say those cruises are more important to them than the way they are important to the cruise lines. With the recent growth in the cruise industry, more ports need to be build (Conrady & Buck, 2009).


Butler, M. (2010). Cruise tourism: current situation and trends.. Madrid: World Tourism Organization.

Cetron, M., DeMicco, F., & Davies, O. (2006). Hospitality 2010: The future of hospitality and travel.. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Prentice Hall.

Conrady, R., & Buck, M. (2009). Trends and issues in global tourism 2009. Berlin: Springer.

Customer-to-customer interaction : impact on cruise experience and overall vacation satisfaction. (2008). Oxford Press: John.

Darity, W. A. (2008). International encyclopedia of the social sciences (2nd ed.). Detroit, Mich.: Macmillan Reference USA.

Dickinson, B., & Vladimir, A. (2008). Selling the sea an inside look at the cruise industry (2nd ed.). Hoboken, N.J.: Wiley.

Mullins, J. W., & Walker, O. C. (2013). Marketing management: a strategic decision-making approach (8th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.

Papathanassis, A. (2012). Cruise tourism and society a socio-economic perspective. Berlin: Springer.

Peng, Q. (2009). International Conference on Transportation Engineering, 2009 Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Transportation Engineering, July 25-27, 2009, [Southwest Jiaotong University] Chengdu, China. Reston, VA: American Society of Civil Engineers.

Walker, J. R. (2012). Introduction to hospitality management. s.l.: Prentice hall.

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Practice Evaluation Findings

In the entire process of Lee’s intervention, there will be various findings that will come up. Firstly, the best method to be used in the intervention will be determined. In this case, Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) will be the best. This is a form of treatment that “focuses on examining the relationships between thoughts, feelings, and behaviors. By exploring patterns of thinking that lead to self-destructive actions and the beliefs that direct these thoughts, people with mental illness can modify their thinking patterns to improve coping” (National Alliance on Mental Illness, 2012). CBT usually includes exposing the clients to trauma memories through individual and group processing, imagining, and exposure to real-life situations (Jaycox, Zoellner, &Foa, 2002). A widely used form of treatment, CBT has been used with many populations and for several issues, including with women who have experienced the traumatic event of sexual assault.

The other step, included in the findings, will be choosing participants to be involved in Lee’s intervention.  The rationale used for choosing the individual varies on different factors, as well as reasons. In the case of a religious leader, Marge would respect him and so listen to whatever he says. This will also mean that the influence of the religious leader might in some proportions, surpass that of her best friend whom she has got used to for all the time they have been living together. Rather than take the negative consequences of he abuseas told by her friend seriously, she would listen keenly and consider the advice of a religious leader.

At the same time, there would the involvement of a qualified person to guide the entire process. The person would be most likely a counselor, who is experienced with matters of sexual abuse or molestation. The counselor would be qualified to fit in this intervention because he knows all about sexual abuse and how he can steer the intervention effectively (American Psychiatric Association, 2006). The counselor will benefit Lee in terms of learning how to overcome trauma that she has been undergoing since her ordeal.


Kim, J. Y., & Lee, J. H. (2011). Factors influencing help-seeking behavior among battered korean women in intimate relationships.Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 26(15), 2991-3012.doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0886260510390946

National Center for PTSD (2013). Understanding PTSD. Retrieved from www.ptsd.va.gov.

Wachen, J. S., Jimenez, S., Smith, K., &Resick, P. (2014). Long-term functional outcomes of

women receiving cognitive processing therapy and prolonged exposure. American

Psychological Association. doi: 10.1037/a0035741

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Political Economy of Canada


Political economists are mostly concerned with the allocation of the called scarce resources in this world which has the infinite wants and needs as well. Therefore, for allocation of these resources, then politics are used in the state for provision to the people. Political economy therefore is a branch of social science which entails the studies of the relationship between individuals and society in addition with markets and state by the use of a diverse set of tools and ways drawn largely from economics and sociology. Notably, the word political economy comes from derivation of the Greek word polis, which means city or state and oikonomos, which means one who can manage a household or an estate. Political economy however, can be understood as a study of how the country –public household- is governed by the government considering both political and economic factor.

Traditionally, political economy was understood as the social change and historical transformation. To the classical theorists for instance Adam smith it all meant comprehending the great capitalist revolution, an upheaval that transformed the societies majorly based on agricultural labour into commercial, manufacturing and finally the industrial societies. Therefore, in the introductory of the 1923 edition of the author John Kells Ingram’s influential ‘history of political economy’ in the explanation of the role of history in the mind of the political economist. “It is now universally acknowledged that societies are subject to a process of development, which itself is not arbitrary, but regular; and that no social fact can be really understood apart from its history. Hence the ‘pocket formulas’ in favour with the older school, which were supposed to suit all cases and solve all problems, have lost the

Esteem they once enjoyed and Economics has become historical in its method, several stages of social evolution being recognized as having different features, and requiring in practice a modifying intervention which ought to vary from one stage to another.” (Ingram, 1923:4-5)

Over the years Canada has encounter a lot of challenges and crises. As a failure of efforts in the constitution reform that ensure that the outstanding issues like provincial and Aboriginal rights remains the forefront of Canadian political problem, hence this failure calls for the government of Canada to manage a range of other challenges. With the continentals pressure put by the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Canada has to adjust. Moreover the international pressure set by the globalization of business and commerce as well will adjust it too. Question such as how will the Canadian cope up with this pressure? And will the political and economic system encounter with this challenge in its present form will be addressed by the political economy.

Political economy in relation to the study of domestic is majorly concerned with the relative balance in the economy of the country between the state and the market forces. Most of this debate can be followed from the thoughts of the English political economist John Keynes (1883-1946) who postulated in the theory of employment, interest and money which existed as an inverse relationship between the unemployment and the inflation hence the government should manipulate the fiscal policy to ensure a balance between the two. The Keynesian revolution which happened when the state were attempting to ameliorate the impacts in the world great depression of the 1930s, it contributed to the rise states welfare and increase in the governments size relatively to the private sector.

In some countries, specifically Canada, Keynesianism development led to gradual shift of the meaning of the liberalism, from doctrine calling for a relatively passive state as well as an economy that is guided by the ‘invisible hand’ of market to the view that the state needs actively intervention in an economy so as to generate growth and sustain employment levels as well.

Keynesianism dominated domestic economic policy as well as development of the post-world II international economic system which consisted of creation of international Monetary Fund and World Bank that was from 1930s. Countries of political complexion practised Keynesianism, with inclusive of those that embraced capitalism, social democracy and fascism. In 1970s majority of western countries experienced stagflation or high unemployment and inflation which was simultaneous, this phenomenon contradicted the Keynes’s view. The effects of it were the revival of classical liberalism also known as the neoliberalism which was now the cornerstone of economic policy in Canada and United States of America.

The neoliberals and others state that the state should once again reduce its role in the economy. It could happen by the government selling off the national industries and promoting free trade. The pioneers of this approach, who influenced the policies of the international financial institutions and government worldwide, maintained generation of prosperity, would be through free market. However, opponents of neoliberalism has argued that the classical theory overlooked many of the negative social and political impacts of the free markets, which includes the creation of the large disparities of wealth and damages to the environment. In 1990s, the major point of debate was the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) that facilitated the creation of a free trade zone which was between the United States, Canada and Mexico. Since its effect in 1994 it has generated the

Controversy of whether it has created or eliminated work or rather jobs in the United States and Canada. Moreover, the controversy as well is about whether it has helped or harmed the labour condition, local culture in Canada.

The contemporary periods is witnessed remarkably with the ability of capitalist institutions to restructure themselves anew. It was attributed by forms of production which were new to new communication networks that linked the world market in a way that is remarkable to the political alliances of the neoliberalism. Canada is witnessed registering all this remarkable shifts. In some assessment, Canada’s position amongst the highly advanced capitalist countries is under threat if it lacks a concerted industrial policy; while others, Canada is once again re-establishing its competitive place within the NAFTA economic bloc; still others, the new egalitarian politics was offset by deepening social inequalities as well as Canadian decline of the economy relatively. The trajectory development of Canada in the world market was attributed by all those factors mentioned above. They need some of conceptual and historical perspective which is of political economy of Canada.

Majority of the Canadian scholars agree that the pre-eminent Canadian political was Harold Innis the economist. The economist studied the fur trade relationship between the extractions of staple products with the nature of the Canadian state; moreover, he theorized the interaction between the means of communication as well as system government.

Bourgeois Canadian Political Economy

The Canadian political economy was cognizant which was of the contradictions leading to peripheral development within the world’s capitalist system expanding. Since its starting point of analysis its distinctive was the international character of the market economy as well as international division of labour. It emphasised on the specificity of historical circumstance that helps in the understanding of development, with the rejection of most part of the abstract normative assumptions of the modern economics. Therefore, in the sense it recognises the specificity of Canadian capitalism and development of Canadian capitalist. “Since the household [in the simplest form of competitive capitalism] always has the alternative of producing directly for itself, it need not enter into any exchange unless it benefits from it. Hence no exchange will take place unless both parties gain from it. Cooperation is thereby achieved without coercion…. In the complex enterprise and money-exchange economy, co-operation is strictly individual and voluntary provided… that individual is effectively free to enter or not into any particular exchange, so that every transaction is strictly voluntary…. Payment according to product is therefore strictly necessary in order that resources be used most effectively, at least under a system depending on voluntary co-operation.” (Milton Friedman, Capitalism and Freedom)

The Canadian union leaders highly committed to organizing the organizing s they believed that they could attain the objective without further transformation to labour laws. Increase in the union in Canada increased the organizing the investment which is necessary in the maintenance of the levels of organizations through two decades of neoliberal in the structure as well as major affiliates had made them. Since 1960s, Canadian labour laws have been more conducive to organizing than their United States counterpart with the impact that there has been pressure which is less to a development in innovation organizing tactics. Therefore there was need for the CLC to be a stimulus to the higher level of expenditure on organizing and disseminator that promises innovations in this domain. In the past five years the AFL-CIO conjunction with the unions backed the New Voice leadership has made moves closer to Canadian labour movements that long stood stress continuous, and building of the members commitments to their unions that is organizational forces which includes movements for the greater social justice and economic democracy. The federation in Canada took the lead in development of broad social movements’ alliances in the scramble against the Canada-U.S. Free Trade Agreement (CUSFTA), the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) The frame work of Marxian analysis is stressed in their discussion of the nature Canadian capitalism which was largely incidental to their principal themes that were the question of the logic of a unified Canadian nation-wide.

Canada’s transformation under neoliberalism

For the past few years Canada began to transform after the post war expansion, economically and socially Canada progressed. The living standard of the Canadian citizens improved, fuelled by the rising of the real wage-which doubled in the generation and dramatic expansion of the social wage. This was inclusive of the national Medicare and Canada pension plan. This showed that Canada was economically catching up with the US and socially surpassing it. Moreover, Canada carved a unique and in some way independent role for the nation in the global economic military, and political affairs. Canada hosted Expo 67 in Montreal which showed hope and confidence as well as momentum which was officially opened by the Prime Minister Lester Pearson. Compared to other countries, the recipe of

strong profits and business investments and the Keynesian welfare-stat was fine-tuned and thus began to disintegrate. It was predicted that the capitalism would eventually experience the full-employment sickness. Workers were empowered by the long run employment which increased the capitalist employers in the maintain ace of complaint disciplined and the low cost workforce. Therefore, confident workers of the high class won the larger and larger shares of economic pie. The GDP of Canada grew steadily through the post war time/era which peaked in the 1970s. The power of the business was constrained by the employers, workers demanding changes in the workplace and in society.

Neoliberalism therefore, represents a multi-faceted global strategy by the scholars (which is in both the financial and real sphere economically) to change the whole ship around. Hence, it is important to consider how that transition or strategy has being successfully. This strategy has empowered many and put the employee/workers on the defensive side. Despite f all this success however neoliberalism has not led to creation of world economy that is stable, efficient and successful in meeting the human needs. In Canada, the neoliberalism has being harshly applied consistent with the trend which also reflects the unique characteristics of Canadian capitalism.

The review of the neoliberalism in Canada can be identified into three crucial transition points. The following are the crucial transitions

  • Monetary policy which was attributed by the drastic shift in the early year of 1980s
  • The Canada-U S free trade which was implemented in 1989
  • A dramatic rise in the economy’s reliance on the resource export and extraction.

Monetary policy

The advent of the neoliberalism in Canada was the rate of interest shock teat happened early in the 1980s, which the banks of Canada’s oversaw then later Governor Gerald Bouey. The monetary shift which was an action by an unelected economic authority, created a foundation for that advent of neoliberal macroeconomic priories. It was to be evident by abandonment of the full employment moreover, prioritizing of the interest of the financial wealth and as well as ushering of new ideology of the tough love capitalism. The time when Canada was governed by the Trudeau Liberals that represented one of the last gasps of the post war Keynesian interventionism. The central bank could intervene by directly controlling the growth of the money supply following the new-disproven belief of the hard core monetarists. At this time the credit growth curtailed and the interest rate shot up. The lending rate at this time reached the historic incredibility peak of 22.75 per cent in 1981 during summer.

Neoliberalism has played a key role in the transformation of the Canada economy from recession. It was attributed by the se of the Keynesian tools of economics. In the successive political and fiscal attack on program the scale of the government shrinks rapidly. Therefore for a good a good economic growth, a constitution should be formulated which will enhance in the development of the economy. Constitutional reform in Canada cannot divorce from its materialist base. It is not agnostic towards power relations. The Atlantic Provinces are situated in a particular structural economic relationship with Canada, the continental (North American) economy and the global economy. It does not mean a simple causal relationship exists between extreme economic dependency and constitutional docility. It merely locates provincial constitutional concerns and interests in a wide framework which helps to explain their motives


Bickerton, J., & Gagnon, A. (2009). Canadian politics. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.

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Governance in northern ontario. (2012). S.l.: Univ Of Toronto Press.

Savoie, D. J. (1986). The Canadian economy: A regional perspective. Toronto: Methuen.

Morales, G. D. A., & Torres, A. M. J. (1995). Social policy in a global society: Parallels and lessons from the Canada-Latin America experience. Ottawa ;Cairo ;Dakar [u.a.: International Development Research Centre.

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Nijkamp, P., Mills, E. S., Cheshire, P. C., Henderson, J. V., & Thisse, J.-F. (1986). Handbook of regional and urban economics. Amsterdam: North-Holland.

Economist Newspaper Limited. (2011). Guide to economic indicators: Making sense of economics. Hoboken, N.J: Wiley.

Blad, C. (2011). Neoliberalism and national culture: State-building and legitimacy in Canada and Québec. Leiden: Brill.

Finkel, A. (2006). Social policy and practice in Canada: A history. Waterloo, Ont: Wilfrid Laurier Univ. Press.

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Man versus Machine in the Workplace

Investigating the role of Artificial Intelligence in the Increasing Levels of Unemployment

Man versus Machine in the Workplace:

Investigating the role of Artificial Intelligence in the Increasing Levels of Unemployment

Proposed Research Topic:

New Technology and the End of Jobs

 Human beings are slowly being replaced with machines in almost every sector as well as industry by technology revolution. Many people are permanently getting eliminated from their jobs as the work category and job assignments continue to sink even further. Jobs are also being restructured and others are disappearing because of the continuous adoption of technology. There is continued unemployment and according to findings, global unemployment is at its record high since the great depression back in 1930s. An estimated 800 million people are un employed and this figure could even rise further. Millions of graduates who are hopeful for employment opportunities, who are continually entering the work force are continually finding themselves jobless. It is now clear that the rising figures of unemployment indicates a short term adjustment to a market so powerful and powerfully driven by forces that drive the global economy towards a new direction. The global market is looking forward towards an exciting world of high tech automated production, abundant materials that are unprecedented, and booming world commerce. In the US alone it is estimated that 2 million people are being eliminated annually from their jobs by corporations. In return the jobs that are created are low paying low sector jobs. The worrying factor is that this transition is all over the world. Even the developing nations are increasingly eliminating employees with built state of art which tech facilities used for production (Bailey, 2013).

Technology has changed to the disadvantage of human labor. There is what is referred to as “Big Data” by scientists. This is the use of computers to thrive on information from the international website, barcodes are placed on nearly every product. More information is passed across the internet every second twice the total amount of information that was stored on the entire internet some 20 years back. Giving an example with Wall-Mart, the store is capable of collecting approximately 50 million cabinets of information from the customer’s transactions every 1 hour. This is far much the capability of a human if they were to be left to handle the transactions, according to Andrew McAfee and Erick Brynjolfsson, (2012). Computers can make sense of so much data than human beings.

It is true that the world is changing technologically and this the major force towards unemployment, because machines are replacing human labor but corporations are taking this as an advantage to gain Return on Investment. ROI refers to the capital invested in a company and the return realized from the capital based on then net profit of the business. It is important to understand that profit and ROI are two different things. Profit is used to measure the performance of the business. ROI is not necessarily the same as profit.  However ROI can be used to gauge the profitability of the business. It is used to identify the past and potential financial returns of a business looked by the managers as a project. This is because it can portray how successful a business is expressed in ratios or percentages. It is also used to describe financial returns and increased efficiencies in the organization. It is also used to calculate the much of a value an investment is.

ROI has been used in line with Artificial Intelligence (AI). It worth knowing that it is customer demand that drives today’s business and the demand patterns varies from period to period.  Because of these variables it has become very difficult for organizations to develop accurate forecasts, which refers to the process of estimating future events. Forecasting reduces uncertainty and used to provide benchmarks used to monitor performance. Combinations of AI and emerging technologies have been used to improve the accuracy of forecasts to contribute to organization enhancement. It is perceived that the use of machines to replace human labor is more effective and contributes to profitability and improved ROI. This has also fueled investors to replace human labor with machinery and computer software.

There is a saying that goes that whatever is measured gets done. Human nature can also be measured. It is true that many workers constantly re-prioritize their work activities. It is also worth understanding that not everyone in an organization will work towards a common goal, that is, the success of the organization. It is therefore important to measure performance against input. Metrics have the attention of both manufacturing and business leaders. It is important to measure sectors in business activities and provide improvement where necessary. The following are some of the manufacturing metrics utilized mostly by process, discrete, and hybrid manufacturers:

Improving customer expectations and responsiveness such as on time delivery and manufacturing cycle time, Metrics to improve quality such as yield, consumer rejects, material returns, supplier quality incoming, Metrics for improving efficiency such as capacity utilization, throughput, overall equipment effectiveness, schedule of production effectiveness, Metrics for reducing inventory like WIP Inventory/ Turns, Metrics on increased flexibility and innovation like rate of new product introduction, and Engineering change order cycle time. Metrics for Ensuring Compliance, Metrics for reducing maintenance like percentage planned, Metrics for cost reduction and increasing profitability like net operating profit, productivity in revenue per employee, energy cost per unit, productivity in revenue per employee, and manufacturing cost as per percentage of revenue.

ROIReturn On Investment-this is a business term used to identify the past and potential financial returns. It helps to indicate how successful a business is.Metrics on Improving Costumer Experience and Responsiveness-Manufacturing cycle time, On-time delivery to Commit  Bailey, R. (2013, February 8). Were the Luddites right? Smart machines and the prospect of technological unemployment. Reason45(1), 48.  
AIArtificial Intelligence-this is a computer science emphasizing on intelligent machines working and relating like humans.Metrics on improving quality-Customer rejects, Yield  Brynjolfsson, E., & McAfee, A. (2012). Technology’s influence on employment and the economy. In Race against the machine: How the digital revolution is accelerating innovation, driving productivity, and irreversibly transforming employment and the economy (p. 10). Lexington, MA: Digital Frontier Press.  
MetricThese are quantifiable measures used to assess the position and status of a venture.Metrics on Improving Efficiency-effectiveness, Through put, Capacity utilization,  Grint, K., & Woolgar, S. (2013). The machine at work: Technology, work and organization. John Wiley & Sons.  
InventoryThese are stock held by a business in form of materials or goods for the purpose of repair, resale, or raw materials waiting processing.Metrics on Reducing inventory- Work in progress inventory turnSachs, J. D., & Kotlikoff, L. J. (2012). Smart machines and long-term misery (No. w18629). National Bureau of Economic Research.  
WIPWork In Progress- these are materials that are partly finished. They are materials that are already in the production process but have not yet turned to a fully finished product.Metrics on Increased flexibility and innovation-Engineering change, Rate of new product introduction  Hart, M. (2013). Educating cheap labour’r. The learning society: Challenges and trends, 96.  
Big DataThis is the use of computers to thrive on information from the international website, barcodes are placed on nearly every productMetrics on Cost reduction and profitability-Productivity in revenue per employee, Net operating profit   

The agricultural industry has seen numerous changes in the previous 100 years. Since the conception of the modern horticulture in 1900, we have pushed ahead to the period of computerized improved farming where everything that is carried out before seeding and up to after harvesting produces data that can be broke down or analyzed. Big Data officially changed the horticulture industry a ton and in the impending decade this will get to be unmistakable or visible in every aspect of farming in the Western world and progressively likewise in the Developed world. There are three ranges that will be influenced the most by the chances of big data: reduced costs of operation and improved efficiency, crop and animal efficiency and improved productivity, optimization of crop prices and mitigation of weather conditions (Grint, 2013).

In the agricultural industry, the internet of things and industrial internet are adversely affecting agricultural equipment such as sprayers, tractors, harvesters, milking machines and soil cultivators. Farmers are now capable of getting information thanks to the sensors that have been deployed in machines such as tractors, cow milking and several others. These machines offer information in real time 24/7 even in the absence of the farmer. These machines act as smart machine that are capable of talking and can coordinate with each other to give the farmer the overall condition of the farm. They can predict problems and even take action before adamage can be realized. The farmer can take action immediately he sees a problem dismayed by the sensors and if the problem is very serious, a service employee will visit the farm.

These sensors have led to increased productivity in many processes of agriculture. They also predict failure and maintenance and also safe the farmer fuel and energy for harvesting and transportation by optimizing the best driving conditions especially in large farm because they can predict shorter routes to drive and help save a lot of fuel. These computers are integrated and they pass information to each other making the entire process manageable by only 1 person. These machines are managed by diagnostics to make sure that optimal settings are in place. These data are passed to the farmer who will then analyze them to ensure continuity of effective operation now and in future. Big Data technologies are continually making precision agriculture interesting. This includes recognition, understanding, exploitation of information capable of quantifying variations in crops and soil. This has helped the farmers a lot especially in optimization of the crop productivity (Sachs, 2012).

Not just yields and crops can be enhanced with huge information, additionally the farm animals will gain from enormous information innovation. Having sensors in the sheds will allow input on the states of the animals. Sensors can consequently measure the animal’s weight and conform bolstering if needed. Contingent upon the conditions in the shed or the states of the creatures, sustaining can be balanced too. The creatures will get the right nourishment and the perfect sum at the right minute. There are also chips inserted on the animals that can monitor their health conditions. Sick animals can receive medication through the food there are given and conditions of the sheds adjusted in any case they are affecting the animals. The heard can also be traced via the smart phone with the help of the chips placed on them. These sensors also display the mental health of the animals. Big Data flips around the customary horticulture industry. Despite the fact that the ventures can be significant for ranchers, the potential advantages of applying huge information advancements on the field are gigantic (Hart, 2013).

I used both primary and secondary data collection methods to collect data. Under primary data collection, I collected the data myself by through qualitative and quantitative methods. I used observations, interviews, focus group interviews and questionnaires.

The following were the sourced of data I used:

Primary Data: interviews-I will use forms that the respondents will complete. Interviews are better for complex questions that I will be asking even though being expensive than questionnaires. Questionnaires: these are forms that are completed and returned by respondents. I will use this method of data collection because it is cheaper and they allow the respondents humble time to give feedback to the questions asked. Focus group interviews: I will identify a group of particular group of people especially the farmers and people employed in the agriculture industry and conduct an interview on them. Observations: I will use direct observation to collect data. I will try and find observer programs to help me with the exercise.

Secondary data sources: Previous researches: I would use previous researches on how smart machines are affecting employment in Agriculture industry; official statistics: statistics published by government agencies or other public agencies on economic and social development and environment; Mass media products: data from media houses on development in the Agricultural and horticultural industry and how machinery is affecting employment in the industry; Government reports: the government publications and reports on Agricultural Industry and how smart machinery and Big Data is affecting employment; Web Information: searching the international network for data on Big Data and smart machinery and how they are affecting employment in Agricultural industry; Historical data and information: the history of smart machinery and Big data.


Bailey, R. (2013, February 8). Were the Luddites right? Smart machines and the prospect of technological unemployment. Reason45(1), 48.

Brynjolfsson, E., & McAfee, A. (2012). Technology’s influence on employment and the economy. In Race against the machine: How the digital revolution is accelerating innovation, driving productivity, and irreversibly transforming employment and the economy (p. 10). Lexington, MA: Digital Frontier Press.

Grint, K., & Woolgar, S. (2013). The machine at work: Technology, work and organization. John

Wiley & Sons.

Sachs, J. D., & Kotlikoff, L. J. (2012). Smart machines and long-term misery (No. w18629).

National Bureau of Economic Research.

Hart, M. (2013). Educating cheap labour’r. The learning society: Challenges and trends, 96.

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Positive Psychology in the United States

Positive Psychology in the United States

Life can be tough sometimes and challenges are unavoidable, especially with the current economic hardship in the country.  Citizens are highly stressed more than ever. This is why demand for positive psychology is increasing daily. As it seeks to increase the psychological wellbeing of people, it enables them to navigate the upsetting lifestyle of this era more effectively and enjoy life despite them (Gable S. L., Haidt J., 2005).

People are more stressed nowadays mainly because of the ever rapidly accelerating pace of modern life and constant human and natural change. The world is more demanding. Prices of consumer goods and gas are on the rise day by day. This means people have to dig deeper in to their pockets for resources that are not even enough (Snyder C.R., 2005). Teenagers on the other hand are under pressure to pursue education as the only resort for better future. Their stress levels are higher than in the past. In most adults though, money and job stability are the major contributors to anxiety (Snyder C.R., 2005).

On a scale of 1-10, where 1 represents ‘not happy at all’ or ‘sad’, and 10 represents ‘happiest’, I can gauge my level of happiness at 7. This shows I am not badly off. My level of happiness is this better because I have learnt to live with others and the environment. Persons can enhance their own happiness by being self-aware, and speaking well with others. The art of forgiving, for example, can relieve one a lot of stress.

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The Role of Self-Kindness and Self-Esteem in Children in Fostering Psychological Resilience and Positive Psychology

The Role of Self-Kindness and Self-Esteem in Children in Fostering Psychological Resilience and Positive Psychology


Psychological resilience is the capacity of an individual to avoid stress and adversity in order to prevent such problems as bad health. The other problems are depression, mental illness, and general body dysfunction (Cooper, Flint-Taylor & Pearn, 2013). People and children with psychological resilience can make good plans to execute it, and increase their self-confidence and self-esteem[G1]  (Cooper, Flint-Taylor & Pearn, 2013). [G2] 

Positive psychology is the use of scientific understanding and psychological intervention to bring happiness to individuals with mental disabilities and psychological stress (Fuller, Chapman & Jolly, 2009).  It is possible to achieve a satisfying life through positive psychology rather than treating mental disability (Fuller, Chapman & Jolly, 2009). One way of promoting positive living is by increasing the Child’s self-esteem and self-confidence through resilience (Fuller, Chapman & Jolly, 2009). This essay aims to analyze the ways to promote psychological resilience to help a child with mild learning disabilities and physical health problems[G3] . The limitations and any other issues related to clinical matters will be vital to the discussion.  Psychological resilience and positive psychology are two areas that help young children and adults to raise their self-esteem through avoiding stress to cope with the learning challenges (Fuller, Chapman & Jolly, 2009).[G4] 

Self-esteem is the way we perceive value to ourselves, to the world, and the way we think we are valuable to other people (Svebak, 2010). Self-kindness is the quality of being kind, having consideration for others, or having the urge to help other people (Svebak, 2010).  Kind people have compassion for others and do not show any selfish behaviour to the friends or neighbours (Hefferon & Boniwell, 2011). The connections in the terms are positive psychology helps individuals to tolerate, cope, and live well in spite of the stress and the adversities they are facing. Psychological resilience helps individuals, both the adults and the children to cope with stress and adversities while positive psychology deals with the treatment of mental disabilities to attain psychological resilience (Svebak, 2010). Positive psychology enhances self-esteem in individuals, and self-esteem promotes psychological resilience when individuals have a high regard for themselves (Svebak, 2010). Self-kindness results from having a positive attitude towards other people, which make them, cope with stressful situations, such as financial difficulties (Cope & Whittaker, 2013). From the definitions and the evaluation of all the terms, it is true that psychological resilience, positive psychology, self-esteem, and self-kindness have a connection (Seligman, 2006). A research by the Institute for Research and Society, on psychological resilience, showed that people with a high self-esteem and self-kindness have increased psychological resilience [G5] [G6] (Seligman, 2006). Positive psychology promotes self-esteem and self-kindness, which in turn, promote psychological resilience according to the National Institute of Health (Cope & Whittaker, 2013).[G7] [G8] 

Approaches to Positive Psychology

Positive psychology is a very pivotal intervention in stress management and the treatment of learning disabilities in both children and adults [G9] [G10] (Cope & Whittaker, 2013). The main approaches to positive psychology involve activities that make a person happy, have a meaningful life, and promote the mental well-being (Cope & Whittaker, 2013). The approaches are:[G11] [G12] [G13] 


Pleasures are those activities that cause happiness to a person easily and lead to delight of the individual (Coulson, Oades & Stoyles, 2012). The activities have a quick impact on peoples’ emotions and the senses, making them feel better within a very short time. In essence, a person does not require any efforts to feel the happiness; joy and delight just happen to the individual or child. Examples of the pleasures are body massages, which lead to the relaxation of the muscles and the mind. Relaxation helps in making a person happy, which in turn help him cope with stress [G14] [G15] (Coulson, Oades & Stoyles, 2012). Another example is good food that enhances the appetite, decorated rooms, swimming pools, bathtubs and many others, which relieve stress in a person or a child (Coulson, Oades & Stoyles, 2012).  [G16] [G17] 


Gratifications are those activities that are challenging and make people use more strength at the same time making them happy (Seligman, 2013). They require a lot of efforts to achieve, but their long-term effects are rewarding. One example of a gratification activity is long-term love relationship through kindness, listening, and doing good things for the people one loves. The activities require self-sacrifice and effort to impress the loved ones. For the case study, showing the boy some love and doing kind things will promote his self-esteem. His learning capability will also improve once he accepts and puts effort into the gratification activities, for example, by reading his favourite book more often (Hefferon & Boniwell, 2011). The other gratification activities are drawing, gardening, solving puzzles, volunteering and writing (Hefferon & Boniwell, 2011).

Doing Meaningful Activities

Meaningful activities are those activities that involve engaging in activities that promote the [G18] fulfilment to people’s lives, either personally or professionally (Svebak, 2010). These activities can bring happiness once the person achieves his/her objectives.  Everybody cherishes success and any time an individual attains his/her goals, he/she becomes very happy and satisfied.  Meaningful life activities require somebody, especially children to involve more in gratification activities (Svebak, 2010), which will strengthen the skills of the person. A researcher, Martin Seligman said,” Total immersion, in fact, blocks consciousness, and emotions are completely absent”(Seligman, 2013).In this, he encourages people to engage fully in the activities that bring satisfaction to their lives. Some of the activities may involve assisting the poor in legal representation to enable them acquire justice. For example, since the withdrawal of the legal aid in England in April 2013 (Stewart & Brennan, 2013), many low-income families cannot afford legal fees for[G19] in divorce cases. As a lawyer, one can offer his/her services to the poor families, which will be a gratification gesture (Stewart & Brennan, 2013). The activities make the individual forget many bad emotions and conscience reducing mental stress. The boy in the case study can benefit from the approach, as being active in many activities will enhance his mental capacity. Seligman, (2013) notes that the three approaches are important for mental, emotional, and physical development of individuals hence leads to psychological resilience.[G20] [G21] [G22] [G23] 

Psychological Interventions

Positive emotions are very important to help achieve happiness and excitement for both physical and emotional satisfaction that lead to happiness (Seligman, 2013). Some of the interventions improve a person’s well-being, growth, creativity, fulfillment and any other activity that brings joy and relaxation of the person. For the case study, the boy can apply some of the interventions to promote his mental and physical health and improve his learning capability. The positive psychological interventions are:


According to Fuller, Chapman & Jolly, (2009), gratitude can be a source of positive feelings to a child. The research shows that those people who express gratitude to other people feel a lot of inner satisfaction and happiness with their actions. Being grateful is a virtue that brings about the feeling of wellbeing to a person and reduces depression, increases happiness, and raises self-esteem. A study by Morgan, Gulliford, and Kristjánsson in 2014 on the effects of expressing gratitude showed that those who express gratitude are more relaxed  (Morgan, Gulliford & Kristjánsson, 2014). The boy in the case study can gain from gratification by receiving grateful notes and comments from the teachers and other stakeholders to improve his health. [G24] 

Best Possible Selves

Children can write the events in their lives and any actions they undertake and how they feel about them (Morgan, Gulliford & Kristjánsson, 2014). The activities create a lot of self-confidence to the individuals, and they can achieve their goals in life. Writing will always remind the child the experiences and can provide some comparison with the recent happenings.


According to Morgan, Gulliford & Kristjánsson, hope is the ability of individuals to pursue their goals in life, which make them feel excited, determined, and committed to their roles.  Hope brings harmony to different individuals, especially the one that results from spirituality or it may lead to the reduction of broodiness in individuals ([G25] Morgan, Gulliford & Kristjánsson, 2014). Hope enables people to seek advice from their peers and parents, which reduces stress and depression of the individuals seeking advice. [G26] 

Signature Strengths

Signature strengths refer to the exhibition of appreciation of bravery, beauty, gratitude, and forgiveness by individuals depending on their experiences. For example, individuals who recover from certain illnesses show positive characteristics than those who have never experienced severe illness (Morgan, Gulliford & Kristjánsson, 2014). The recovery makes them be strong and believe in their physical fitness. [G27] Thus, they do not worry about facing difficult situations. Some people possess emotional courage to face and counter challenges to achieve difficult goals in their lives through persistence and bravery.  The other forms of strengths are humanity, pursuit of justice and temperance, which lead to physiological toughness and reduce depression and stress.
[G28] [G29] [G30] 

Positive Psychology and its Relevance to Children Development

Positive psychology has a big effect on the human brain, especially that of a growing child (Fuller, Chapman & Jolly, 2009). The brain can master everything that the child experiences when he/she is very young, and as the child matures, the mastery improves. Positive teachings create optimistic thinking as the brain can register the actions that become habitual to the child [G31] (Schueller, 2010). Repeated actions make the child do the same thing repeatedly and unconsciously, which forms part of their character.

According to Dr Seligman positive psychology, helps in getting rid of learning difficulties in young children (Fuller, Chapman & Jolly, 2009). For example, consider the scale of -5 to +5. In many cases, education will move an individual from -5 to 0. In this case, 0 denotes that somebody is okay and getting from 0 to +5 is very difficult. Therefore, education does not assist so much in moving from 0 to +5, and the only way somebody can assist children to get there is by promotion of good habits and correcting their weaknesses.

Concepts or Clinical Approaches to Promoting Psychological Resilience

There are various concepts that help in promoting a healthy living for the children and adults, such as:

Mental Training

Mental training is a new approach for assisting people to relax the body and the brain to facilitate confidence in individuals and positive thinking (Fuller, Chapman & Jolly, 2009). The approach also assists people to solve problems and develop critical thinking. Through the method, individuals and children can improve their mood and lower anxiety levels while lowering depression and increasing the individual’s self-esteem (Fuller, Chapman & Jolly, 2009).

Strengthening the Human Spirit

The parents and caregivers should play a big role in strengthening the human spirit in children as they grow up to help them improve their psychological resilience (Fuller, Chapman & Jolly, 2009). As the children develop, the parents need to do many tasks, and their parents and caregivers should make sure they assist their children in that area. Engaging in various activities will help the children acquire a sense of responsibility and develop physically and intellectually (Fuller, Chapman & Jolly, 2009).

Teaching and Discussion

Teaching children from an early development stage help the child to acquire skills in various fields and become responsible. The child can control bad emotions at an early age by incorporating the ideas from the lessons taught (Fuller, Chapman & Jolly, 2009). Teaching can occur in various places such as  homes, worshiping centres, social places, or in schools. A child should learn how to remain positive and have the self-confidence to prevent any possibilities of stress and depression. Discussions are very important for any growing children as they assist the child to express him/herself at the same time acquiring self-confidence. Through resilience, a growing child can achieve many good qualities and abilities.[G32] 

Trusting Relationships

Trust is very important to growing children in enhancing positive thinking. Parents and caregivers should not expose their children to a dangerous environment, especially those children with disabilities[G33]  (Schueller, 2010). A good and trustworthy relationship should exist between the parents, teachers, and any other member to ensure that the children can share their problems and challenges. Parents should avoid issues that can lead to their divorce or separation as it brings agony to the children. Since many parents cannot afford the legal fees after the Ministry of Justice withdrew the legal aid to low-income earners in the UK [G34] [G35] (Stewart & Brennan, 2013), parents should try to live in harmony. In the case of a divorce or separation, many parents cannot afford to pay a lawyer to handle children cases involving their upkeep. The children end up traumatized and stressed[G36]  (Schueller, 2010), although positive psychology can help them to cope with the situation and make them attain psychological resilience.
[G37] [G38] 

Encouragement, the Children to be Autonomous

Children should learn how to be independent at an early stage to instill a sense of responsibility to the child. The environment should allow the child to do an activity on their own and seek guidance in case of any challenges (Schueller, 2010).

Setting Role Models

Children always imitate the actions of the parents and, therefore; parents should provide an environment free from people of unquestionable characters (Schueller, 2010). The children with learning disabilities can suffer both physical and psychological trauma if exposed to a dangerous environment, such as a divorced or a separated family.  The withdrawal of legal aid for low-income earners will affect families with children suffering from learning disabilities [G39] (Stewart & Brennan, 2013), as in the case of separation, these children end up suffering psychological stress. For such a case, the parents should struggle and maintain peace in their homes to avoid incidences that can cause trauma to the child.  [G40] However, in case of a separation or a divorce, the parents should struggle to raise the legal representation fees and not just depend on the government legal aid. The other approaches for enhancing resilience are home rules, problem-solving, and access to education.
[G41] [G42] 

Empirical Findings from Positive Psychology

Research by various scholars; show that there are variables that promote the well-being of children and adults (Schueller, 2010). The variables enable the children to manage stress and adversities to overcome any possible trauma. The factors are showing gratitude to other people, being selfless, and extraversion.  The other variables that lead to the well-being of young children are, exercising daily through plays, having goals for their life as they mature, and the existence of stable marriages for adults. Children who grow in stable marriages have less stress than the ones whose parents separated (Cope & Whittaker, 2013). Studies by Schueller show that attaining a good education, maintaining a healthy lifestyle, and maintaining a healthy weight will improve the wellbeing of children and adults (Schueller, 2010). The other activities that enable children cope with the challenges of life are having self-acceptance, being physically fit, perseverance during hard times, and having enough sleep [G43] (Schueller, 2010).

Limitations of the Empirical Findings

Some of the limitations of the empirical findings may include inadequate time to engage in some of the healthy activities (Cope & Whittaker, 2013). Such activities are playing and working for the attainment of individuals’ goals (Cope & Whittaker, 2013).  The issues of getting a good education may not bring resilience to the children as what matters are the children’s interests. Children with learning disabilities might not benefit from some of the findings, such as play due to their learning disabilities, such as recalling verses in play songs. Some children with disabilities can have self-acceptance, but the others might not accept them, leading to stress. Children with learning disabilities may not acquire a good education in some nations, where there are no special schools.


Psychological resilience is a good remedy for some conditions like stress and depression, according to the findings by the National Institute of Health (Cope & Whittaker, 2013). Through positive psychology, children and adults can heal from mental illnesses, live a good life, and have high self-esteem and self-kindness. Clinical and concepts approaches include mental training of the children and trustworthy relationships while psychological interventions include gratitude and hope. Some empirical findings, such as selflessness and exercises promote positive psychology. Some limitations such as the limited time to engage in play may hinder the achievement of positive psychology. The parents and the caregivers should make sure that their children have some spare time to play and socialize with their peers.


Cope, A., & Whittaker, A. (2013). The art of being brilliant. Chichester, UK: Capstone Pub.

Coulson, J., Oades, L., & Stoyles, G. (2012). Parents’ subjective sense of calling in childrearing: Measurement, development and initial findings. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 7(2), 83-94. doi:10.1080/17439760.2011.633547

Cooper, C., Flint-Taylor, J., & Pearn, M. (2013). Building Resilience for Success. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

Fuller, N., Chapman, J., & Jolly, S. (2009). Positive behaviour management in sport. Leeds: Coachwise.

 Hefferon., & Boniwell. (2011). Positive Psychology. Maidenhead: McGraw-Hill Education.

Morgan, B., Gulliford, L., & Kristjánsson, K. (2014). Gratitude in the UK: A new prototype analysis and a cross-cultural comparison. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 9(4), 281-294. doi:10.1080/17439760.2014.898321Seligman, M. (2006). Learned optimism. New York: Vintage Books.

Schueller, S. (2010). Preferences for positive psychology exercises. The Journal Of Positive Psychology, 5(3), 192-203. doi:10.1080/17439761003790948

Seligman, M. (2006). Learned optimism. New York: Vintage Books.

Seligman, M. (2013). Flourish. New York: Atria.

Stewart, C., & Brennan, F. (2013). Legal issues concerning withholding and withdrawal of dialysis. Nephrology, n/a-n/a. doi:10.1111/nep.12086

Svebak, S. (2010). The Sense of Humor Questionnaire: Conceptualization and Review of 40 Years of Findings in Empirical Research. Europe’S Journal of Psychology, 6(3). doi:10.5964/ejop.v6i3.218

nts that are not appropriate for children are clubs, fighting scenes, conflict, and abusive places.  The

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Positive psychology concerns itself with positive experiences and positive traits of individuals.


Positive psychology concerns itself with positive experiences and positive traits of individuals.  It also involves the study of the institutions that facilitate the development of the positive traits in individuals (Seligman, 2003). While the main goal of clinical psychology is to lessen the suffering, sadness and worry of troubled individuals, positive psychology seeks to achieve much more than that. It seeks to go beyond relieving suffering. Positive psychology relies on the premise that individuals deserve satisfaction joy and contentment, not just lessening their problems (Duckworth, Steen & Seligman, 2005). While clinical psychology focuses on correcting weaknesses, positive psychology lays more emphasis on building strengths with an aim helping an individual achieve his meaning and purpose in life.

Positive psychology recognizes that the removal of suffering does not automatically lead to contentment and achievement of one’s purpose in life. One has to have positive emotions and build a character that will help him attain the meaning and purpose he intends for his life (Duckworth, Steen & Seligman, 2005). Building a positive character, which is one of the goals of positive psychology, helps not only alleviate suffering but also helps do away with the main causes of suffering. Positive psychology yields best results when used along with clinical psychology.

It is mostly used to complement clinical psychology. Positive psychology focuses on elements thought to be indicators of a good life. Good value in this context means what one holds to be the most important thing in his life (Seligman, 2003). Elements that define a good life are those elements that make life worth living and encourage one to develop a strong character. Positive psychology seeks to develop positive connections with others, positive individual traits and develop the qualities that regulate life.

The basic assumption of positive psychology

One major assumption of positive psychology is that there is a relationship between one’s emotional state and one’s well-being. Before the development of positive psychology, most people assumed that elimination of negative emotions alone was enough to guarantee wellbeing (Seligman, 2003).  They thought that once negative emotions are done away with positive emotions immediately move to replace them.  For instance, making money eliminates emotions such as worry and desire leading to immediate happiness. Further studies have, however, revealed that when one does away with negative emotions they are replaced by neutral emotions (Waterman, 2013). It takes effort to move from the state of neutrality to a state of positive emotion.  Hence positive psychology assumes that one’s emotional state plays.

When negative emotion factors such as unemployment, stress, and low economic status are done away with, the individual feels better but this does not automatically lead him to happiness.  A person with a job may be more relaxed than when he was jobless but still has room for more happiness. Positive psychology takes it that eliminating negative emotions does not necessarily create virtues, strengths and the ability to flourish (Duckworth, Steen & Seligman, 2005). One may be free of depression and anxiety yet lack the will to make self-sacrifice, or show integrity.

Emotions do affect mood. For instance, optimism is associated with positive mood. An optimistic person will always be on a good mood and vice versa for pessimism. However, the degree of pessimism has nothing to do with the mood. Hence one can decrease his pessimism yet his mood will not change his mood from hay to unhappy.

Positive emotions contribute towards one’s well being. Positive psychology assumes that the more positive emotions one acquires, the closer one gets to attaining happiness. However attaining total happiness and contentment in life cannot be done by acquiring positive emotions alone.  One major motivating factor for human behavior is to find pleasure and avoid pain (Waterman, 2013). People seek to find as much pleasure as possible and avoid trouble as much as they can. Pleasure comes from satisfying ones needs and meeting expectations. Expectations can be biological, or as a result of social conditioning (Seligman, 2003). However, not all pleasurable experiences that lead one to grow psychologically. Such experiences need to be renewed after every short period if one is to remove positive. Pleasure is an important factor towards attaining human satisfaction.

Attaining a positive emotional state is a very important step towards attaining human satisfaction. Bodily pleasures, for instance sex, last for a short period of time and have minimal effect on the general well being of an individual. Higher pleasures, for instance joy, are usually more complex, but their effects last longer compared to bodily pleasures (Duckworth, Steen & Seligman, 2005). Emotions like enjoyment do contribute a lot to overall well-being of an individual. Enjoyment comes as a result of going beyond expectations to come up with something that was not expected. By so doing one, not only convinces himself of his abilities but also makes others around him believe in him too; which contributes towards his well-being. Enjoyment gives one a sense of accomplishment and makes one realize that it is possible to achieve even more than one already has.

Positive psychology hence assumes that pleasurable experiences and enjoyment contribute towards an individual’s overall well being (Seligman, 2003). Although pleasure as an emotion is important to a person’s overall wellbeing, pleasure that seeks to benefit just the individual is self defeating and cannot eventually lead to contentment. Sensual pleasures only last for a short time. Once done, an individual then gets into a constant struggle to repeat similar pleasures. Too much focus on repeating sensual pleasures can lead one to attain undesired changes in personality.

While search for pleasure is a basic motivating force behind most of human actions, it works best if the search is done while at the same time ensuring that one maintains positive social interactions with the rest of the members in the community. Focusing exclusively on self eventually does not lead to satisfaction as envisioned in positive psychology (Duckworth, Steen & Seligman, 2005). Search for personal pleasure has to be accompanied by positive relations with other members of the society. One has to be aware of the emotional needs of other members of the society. By having a positive relationship with the rest in the society, one improves the well being of not only the other members of the society but also his own.

Positive psychology advocates for the idea that in striving to attain a good life for oneself, one should also contribute in creating higher levels of happiness for other people in the society. Hence one cannot create a good life, which is what positive psychology aims to achieve, without taking measures to create positive emotions such as joy, satisfaction contentment and happiness among those close to him (Seligman, 2003).  Well, being is closely related to maximization of positive emotions such as happiness. It is also associated with oneself. Cultivating positive emotions help an individual expand his potential as well as achieving personal growth. This in return contributed towards achieving contentment and satisfaction which are major goals of positive psychology.

Although positive psychology insists on positive emotions as a way to achieve satisfaction and contentment, negative emotions are also important. Ignoring the importance of negative emotions should be like to deny that numerous problems in the globe need to be addressed (Duckworth, Steen & Seligman, 2005). Although undesirable, negative emotions help one to survive. For instance, without any sense of fear at all one would e vulnerable a wide array of dangers. Without skepticism, on the other hand, helps one avoid untrustworthy people. This helps an individual avoid situations that would prevent one from attaining satisfaction and contentment and happiness. Whereas positive psychology assumes that one can best achieve satisfaction and happiness by strengthening his positive emotions, negative emotions play a great role in reminding individuals that they are human. Hence, striving to attain emotions that are for the general benefit of the society at large (Waterman, 2013). Negative emotions like sadness, defeat and tragedy play a significant role in reminding an individual there is higher satisfaction as compared to sensual pleasures.

People appreciate positive emotions better when they have experienced negative emotions at one time, or another. Although positive psychology emphasizes on positive emotions, it does not deny that there is a serious need to address injustices that affect the various sections of the society. Addressing such issues contributes to general well-being of the society. This in turn contributes towards the attainment of personal well being, which is a major goal of positive psychology. People regardless of what of part of the world they are strive to be happy and rely on systems set up by the society to attain this emotional state. Hence, ensuring emotional well being of the society make it easier to attain an individual’s own satisfaction. By helping others attain satisfaction and happiness, one increases one’s own satisfaction too.

The idea that interests like aggression and egoism drive humans were once accepted as basic assumptions on which human behavior was explained. Positive psychology, however, does not hold the view that the society makes not make attempts to curb aggression in its midst (Duckworth, Steen & Seligman, 2005). Although humans are indeed motivated by selfish gains, they have a lot of control on those emotions. Hence, positive psychology does not approve of the idea that only the lucky in the society deserve to have satisfaction and happiness.

The assumption there is a relationship between emotional status and well being is important in that the things that make life worth living are mostly feelings. Happiness and well being can be attained by working towards attaining emotions like comfort.  This may at times demand that an individual actively engages in search of positive emotions to the point of completely getting absorbed into the act (Seligman, 2003). Positive emotions can be geared towards being contented with the past, the present or the future. Positive emotions like satisfaction and pride have to do past actions while optimism and confidence have to do with the future. Good life may not necessarily refer to feelings but involves activities that one love doing.  These activities all contribute to an individual’s overall wellbeing.

That there is a relationship between emotional state and well being is an important assumption in positive psychology. Positive psychology works on the premises that positive emotions help develop the well being of the individual.  However, positive psychology understands that merely replacing negative emotions with positive ones does not elevate one into a state of satisfaction and total wellbeing.  The role played by emotions by emotions; especially positive emotions in positive psychology cannot be ignored. Hence the idea that emotional state plays a major role in determining one’s well being is a major assumption that cannot be ignored.

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Post Colonial Criticism Of My Name Is Red

Post Colonial Criticism Of My Name Is Red

0.1 Introduction

            The extent of discovery of the imperial and colonial topos, of the imagined space temperament is dissimilar in the works of different transcultural authors. The works of the transcultural writers negates the corporation of milieu, ethnic culture and time as the fundamental foundation of poetological mechanism typical for validity discourses. The way out of impasse of permanent passage has been looked for, both in the tales by postmodernists passageway. Post-colonial theory is a term of collection of critical and theoretical polices employed to investigate the culture of former European empires, colonies and their links to the rest of the world. While postcolonial theory embraces no particular technique or school, the theories question the salutary impacts of the empire and raises exploitation and racism issues. Key among all, is the stance of the post-colonial or colonial subject. In this regard, post-colonial criticism provides a counter-narrative to the long practice of European imperial narratives.  This paper provides criticism of the novel; My Name is Red, by Pamuk, and places it in the context of post-colonial theory.  The paper also highlights an intellectual discourse that contains reactions to colonialism cultural legacy. The views and theory of Edward-Said will be highlighted as he is a leading intellectual figure in the 20th Century, and presents a fruitful cultural critique of the modern Western World.

            Literary criticism practiced in the modern world comes in four different forms. One of these forms is the practical criticism found in reviewing of books and literary journalism. The second one is academic literary history, which is a descendant of 19th Century specialties as classical, philology, cultural history and scholarship. The third form of literary criticism is primarily academic, but not confined to regularly appearing writes or professionals. The last form of literary theory is the post-colonial theory. In the contemporary world, all literature, art and culture belong to definite classes directed to clear-cut political lines. Art and literature form part of blue-collar revolutionary cause. Orhan Pamuk method of utilizing cultural history in the reformulation of the contemporary literature defines a politics of form. Therefore, My Name is Red writes against the prominent secular discourse of the Ottoman legacy as pre-modern and post-modern. Pamuk tries to recoup an early modern Ottoman Cosmopolitanism, which is cast as a blank space in the course of the obfuscating strategies of the Cultural Revolution through modern creation of secular modern. As a result, Pamuk’s regeneration of sequence of events through Ottoman documentation becomes the foundation for change in literary modernity and a political assessment of secular modernity.

  1. Orhan Pamuk

            Orhan Pamuk, a Turkish novelist, an academic and a screenwriter, was born on June 7, 1952 in Stanbul. Pamuk is one of the highest-flying novelists in Turkey. This is because he sold over 11 million novels in six different languages, an aspect that made him the best seller in Turkey. He grew up in a huge family living in the rich district of Nisantasi. Pamuk devoted his childhood and teenage life in painting and he one time dreamt of becoming an artiste. He studied in the secular American Robert College after which he joined Istanbul Technical University to study architecture for three years. He did not complete his architecture course as he dumped it and joined Istanbul University where he studied Journalism. 

            When he turned twenty-three years, Pamuk chose to become a novelist and he gave up everything else to do writing. He wrote his earliest novel, Cevdet Bey and His Sons, published in 1982. His first novel talks of a tale of 3 generations of a rich Istanbul family that lives in Nisantasi, his home district. The novel received both the Milliyet and Orhan Kemal literary prizes. Other works following his first novel include, The Silent House, translated in French and published in 1983. Just like his initial nover, The Silent House, also won a prize. His other works include the 1985 White Castle,  the 1990 Black Book,  the film, the Hidden Face,  the 1995 Yeni Hayat, the 1999 Öteki Renkler, and the 1998,My Name is Red

0.2 Summary of My Name Is Red

            My Name is Red (Benim Adım Kırmızı) was originally published 1998 and the initial translation was done in 2001. The book starts with an exceptional establishment through which Orhan Pamuk highlights the motivation that led him to write the novel, the autobiographical components, its literary impacts and the reason why the story is narrated in scores of voices, and from divergent perspectives. The author included an expansive record of his life and a literary context. At the end of the book, he presents an expanded chronological account that juxtaposes history, art, historical events and literature. Pamuk inscribes every chapter of novel in the person’s presented voice. For instance, chapter 1 is written in the voice of the dead Elegant Effendi.  The seven characters whose voices tell the story encompass, a corpse, other storytellers include a dog, a gold coin, color red, death and a miniature symbol of a horse. Apart from murder, behavioral taboos and art, the Pamuk highlight love and lust

            My Name is Red is a historical work of fiction set in Istanbul in the course of Sultan Murat III reign (1574-95).  The book explores the conflicts of identity and cultural memory prompted by Westernization. The novel highlights romance, philosophical puzzles and mystery experienced in sixteenth Century in Istanbul.  It also highlights the providence of illuminators and miniaturists whose artistic works started in the course of the Timurid Dynasty between 1370 and 1526. Pamuk translated the book in twenty- four languages, and it won the most profitable literary award, the International Dublin Literary Award, in 2003. The novel highlights Ottoman Sultan Murat III’s reign in 1591. 

            The book entails a wonderful exploration of the culture of Islam. It invites readers to tension amid West and East from an anxiously critical approach. My Name is Red hold an appended chronology and contains more that 400 hundred pages. Through the novel, Pamuk highlights the constructive capacity and patience of the 19th century fabricators. The book contains 59 chapters narrated from a twelve different perspectives entailing that of the killer. The two slain actors address the reader from the next world, and the reader even get treated at the final part of the highest chapter to the attitude of a cut off head whose brain and eyes persistently function in a miserable fashion. The reader takes part with revulsion, through the need that the highest Persian miniatures master, Heart, shaded himself with.

            The story occurs at the miniature’s paintings demise cusp. It opens with killing of elegant Effendi, “”I am nothing but a corpse now, a body at the bottom of a well…I was happy; I know now that I’d been happy. I made the best illuminations in Our Sultan’s workshop….” (Pamuk 5).  A colleague in the art world kills Elegant. Elegant and 3 other miniaturists were secretly working on a book that was initiated by Murat III.  In the novel, both blasphemous and radical, were to entail Sultan’s portrait.

            Pamuk creatively weaves a story of art, mystery, murder and love via manifold storyline character voices. The story is set in Ottoman Empire situated in Istanbul in the course of 1500s. The tale develops through the killing of a miniaturist, Elegant Effendi.  Enishte Effendi specially made Elegant to assist him paint a document highlighting Sultan’s reign. While the master visual artist searches for the murderer of Elegant, a story of romance opens up. Enishte Effendi’s nephew arrives from abroad and he instantaneously resumes his love for Shekure, his cousin. She, nevertheless, had already been married and separated with two children, and his husband left for war. Enishte Effendi’s nephew used a letter carrier named Esther to assist him win the love of Shekure via romantic propositions and words. In the meantime, Black Effendi helped his uncle to explore who killed Elegant besides helping him complete the document in absence of Elegant. 

            Black visits the places of the three miniaturists employed by Osman and who had been assisting Enishte Effendi with the text of Sultans. The three miniaturists who were assisting Enishte Effendi were nicknamed Olive, Stork and Butterfly. They divulged tales to Enishte’s nephew that outlined the tension amid the conventional artistic method of flat, mimetic representation and the novel Venetian approach of difference and dimension. The most questionable aspect included the conflict amid the novel and old, East and West conflict and the personal approach. While Black tries to disclose any top secret that, the three miniaturists have, he attempts to Pursue Shekure. Nevertheless, Shekure realizes that she needs to protect her stance and get hold of the best status for her sons and herself. Her husband’s parents are indisposed to release her and Hassan, her brother-in-law too does not want her to go. While Shekure wants to stay in her in-laws home, she eventually gives in to Black’s proceeds and creates a plan to split-up with her husband. 

            Eventually, Shekure and Black Effendi get married in quick wedding ceremony. As the story unfolds, Enishte Effendi almost finds out who killed Elegant before a person who pays him a visit in his home is kills. Following the murder of Enishte Effendi, Sultan calls for a detailed investigation and he threatens to torture the miniaturists if the killer never surfaces. In an astonishing turn of occurrences, the killer is disclosed, an aspect that questions the temperament of inventive style and its links to the celestial.

Chapter 1

1.0 Literature Review

            According to Bugeja, an author, my Name is Red brings in a discrete Mashridi cultural and historical milieu to establish itself to a European readership from when the records of Tabriz and Isfahab are alien or esosteric (Bugeja 195). Pamuk Memoir Istanbul serves a different purpose. He actively prioritizes the cultural schemata that would bring on his European readerships’ natural and immediate identification with the subject matter of his personal memories. Orhan attains this description via a comprehensive and historicized analysis of Meling’s lithographs of the metropolis, and Gautier’s and Flaubert’s highly intimate incidents of Istanbul that would be familiar to his German, Austrian and French reader. 

            In his novel, Pamuk does not exocitize the city but he represents it as a space that is always already confidentially present within the European reader’s gear of culture. His memoir looks for a very highly interactive and direct engagement with the readers as himself is a kind of flaneur investigating the memoirist’s own cultural landscape. Pamuk secures the sufficient transference of his vision, and as a result, through playing upon the reader’s cultural preconditioning, situating the space he focuses on across the paths of European literary-cultural canonicity (Bugeja 195). By situating himself in the propinquity to Flaubert and Gautier, Orhan self-consciously attempts to rise above the cultural politics engaged in locating the origin of Istanbul’s modernity. He identifies himself with Harold Bloom’s idea that political positions hold little effect in the distinctively intimate family romance of the major writers influenced by one another without putting into consideration political differences and similarities. Pamuk used chronicle form as a link to some kind of Western canonicity. By using chronicle form, he fraught question that warrants comprehensive study, particularly in view of the chronicle as a distinctly writing medium. Through this medium, he admits to a particular Blanchot-esque rhetoricity regarding the temperament of literary relations and literature (Bugeja 195). 

1.1 Postcolonial Theory                                                               

            Post-colonial theory refers to a post-modern rational discourse that encompasses the response to colonialism cultural legacy as well as the evaluation of the colonialism cultural legacy. Post colonialism holds different theories present among film, human geography, feminism, sociology, political science, philosophy, and literature, theological and religious studies (Ashcroft 89). Post-colonialism aims at preventing lasting  impacts of colonialism on different cultures. It functions to recoup past worlds and entails the strategies needed for the world to move past the effects of colonialism and attain mutual respect.

             Edward W.Said is among the most prominent intellectual figures of the twentieth Century.  Post-colonial theory grew in essence, from the work of the colonial discourse theorist Edward Said, specifically in his books Orientalism, Culture and Imperialism. Edward Said evaluated the means in which Europe represented scores of the cultures in the 19th Century, which the continent met via imperil expansion. Said asserted that the Western World offered these other cultures as an “Other” to a Western custom. For instance, scholars and travelers represented these other cultures as the divergent British culture and as a negatively divergent culture. According to Said, other people apart from the British got identified as degenerate, lazy, uncivilized and barbaric. 

            Post-colonial theory has grown in the last 10 years by both building on Said’s work and responding to some of its globalizing tendencies. Post-colonial theory is concerned with theorizing and analyzing the lasting effect of the 19th Century European colonialism in countries such Africa and India which were under colonial rule and countries such as France and Britain which were the colonies. Post-colonial theorists maintain that there were assortments of dissimilar imperial and colonial links during the nineteenth Century, which hold serious effect on the manner in which different cultures viewed themselves. As a result, the present-day-legacy of imperialism is the basic focus of post-colonial theory. While post-colonial theory covers broad theoretical concerns, it greatly focuses not only on analysis of political and economic structures, but also on the evaluation of the growth of certain structures of behavior and mode of thinking.

1.2 Edward W. Said and His Theory

1.2.1 Edward W. Said and His “Culture and Imperialism” 

            Edward Said, a political commentator, a cultural and literary theorist illustrated the usual paradoxical temperament of identity in a considerable globalised and itinerant world. Said is a person placed in a tangle of theoretical and cultural contradictions; contradictions amid political concern of his Palestinian and Westernized persona. The close link between identity of Said and his cultural theories demonstrates something regarding the convolution and constructedness of intellectual identity. Edward Said (1935-2003) is one of the widely recognized and controversial intellectuals in the world. He was a breed of academic critic who also took the role of vocal public intellectual who placed the plight of Palestine before a world audience. His effect on developing school of post-colonial studies made it to be soundly vindicated as the cultural and political functions of literary writing that has been re-confirmed.

            Edward Said was a Palestinian and an Arab of cultural identity itself. He was also a Christian Palestinian, certainly making him an intellectual who was the most important critic of the modern Western demonization of Islam. The paradox of Said’s identity is the most theoretical aspect of his own worldliness, an aspect that offers a key to the convictions and interests of his cultural theory. Edward Said believed that in the beginning all theoretical and cultural movements held scores of starting points as opposed to a single origin. His orientalism is closely awarded the condition of an influential text. According to Said, the Western world formed an Orient as an aspect of investigation via divergent disciplinary, administrative and cognitive practice.

            Cultural imperialism refers to the cultural features of imperialism. Imperialism on the other hand, refers to the maintenance and formation of unequal links among civilizations supporting the strongest civilization. Imperialism is utilized in an uncomplimentary sense usually calling for rejection of favoring strong civilization. Cultural imperialism take different forms among them military action, a formal strategy to strengthen cultural supremacy. Edward Said highlights cultural imperialism in his Orientalism book where he evaluates enlightenment. In his Orientalism book, Edwards evaluates Western acquaintance concerning Western formation of the East. The acquaintance prompts an affinity concerning a binary rejection of the Occident verses the Orient where description of one is in rejection of the other. According to Said, imperialism holds a cultural birthright in earlier colonized civilizations. Moreover, he ascertains that cultural imperialism legacy is very dominant in worldwide power systems. Cultural imperialism in the modern world refers to the compelled acculturation of a given population or intentional embracement of a certain foreign culture by people without compulsion but out free will.

            Edward Said asserts that culture and imperialism starts from the understanding that institutional, economic and political functions of imperialism are nothing in the absence of the culture that upholds them (Ashcroft & Ahluwalia 82). Culture and imperialism centers on how strong an ideology functions, both unconsciously and consciously, to create and uphold a domination system that rises above military force. Through considering tales of colonized countries written or told by Westerners, Edward assesses the images, symbols and language to demonstrate how their influential as opposed to communicative nature functioned to model the imagination, identity, history, subjectivities, interactions and culture of the oppressed and the oppressor. 

            Edward contends that oppression have modeled how the Western world unenthusiastically conceptualized other nations. From the growth of empire and worldwide strive for homegrown freedom, Edward credibly discloses the separatist temperament of nationalism besides trying to elucidate the prospects of the worldwide community. The insights, outlook and critique in culture and imperialism are evident in America and other powerful nations where Western cultural values and nationalism are woven into the opinionated expression and public edification where conventional learners are instructed on how to celebrate the distinctiveness of the culture while taking advantage of minority culture. According to Said, cultural imperialism shows that the Western countries control all aspects of the world, an aspect that makes these nations hold a strong effect on the 3rd World cultures through enforcing their Western views thereby damaging the native cultures of the third world countries.

            Edward questions the construction, adherence and acceptance of beliefs and ideologies. Colonialism and imperialism are intrinsically bound up through philosophical and ideological concepts regarding moral and cultural superiority (Said 184). Said confirms that it is deceiving to pay no attention to the more basic beliefs that makes a cultural group or a nation feel defensible in taking over other groups, culture or people. Said centers on the participation of culture and the way of describing people, their customs and the spread of their beliefs and values. His concepts regarding an invented or imagined practice are impressive. He utilizes a proportional literary theory as a device for evaluation. He further ascertains that people are not liberated from thrash about geography (Said 183).  The struggle remains to be intricate and attention grabbing as it regards forms, imaginings, images and ideas. According to Said, geography is a subjective political boundary and must entail cartography of ideas to discovery blueprints that instigated the minds of colonizing and occupied imagination territories. As occupation blueprints deepen because of the current abundance of the mass media, it becomes natural for a given culture to fight to protect its particularity.

            The term cultural imperialism does not hold a particularly long history. It appears to have surfaced along with scores of other terms of radical criticism in early 1960s (Said 183). It has endured to become a part of the general rational prevalence of the second half of the 20th Century. Cultural imperialism is a generic ideal and refers to an assortment of generally similar phenomena. According to Tomlinson, a writer, cultural imperialism is one, which should be assembled out of its discourse (Tomlinson 3). The role of culture in maintaining imperialism cannot be overestimated because it is through culture that the statement of the divine right of colonial powers to rule is authoritatively and vigorously recognized. The struggle of domination is hidden and systematic, and there is an interminable interaction amid nations, regions, classes and power centers looking to dominate and displace one another. However, what makes the struggle more than a random tight battle is that values’ struggle is entailed. What tells the differences between the contemporary European empires from the Spanish or Roman or Arab with reference to said, is the constant reinvestment of their systematic enterprises. They do not go into a nation, loot it and leave. What maintains them is the lack of a simple greed nut Post Colonial Criticism

Chapter 2: Culture

2.1: Religious

            The development of postcolonial theory mostly informs Post colonialism in relation to the study of religion. Postcolonial theory is diverse in its content and methodological approach. The basis of the vast content is availability of a wide range of literary works that primarily attempt to dissect post colonialism in connection to the study of religion. Scholars have further initiated different methods or methodological approaches to enhance understanding of the effect of religion in the postcolonial era (Bloom & Sheila 2009). Religion played a critical part by bringing together individuals from different socio, economic, and cultural backgrounds. The major concern among religious leaders and believers is identification of the colonialist construction of knowledge that Edward Said commonly referred to as orientalism. The body of knowledge used by the colonialists was critical in justifying and maintaining the subordination of colonized groups. Despite the growth of religious beliefs and doctrines across all religious denominations and groups, a number of practices of the postcolonial era featured prominently with many people supporting and shunning religious doctrines and values in equal measure (Bloom & Sheila 2009). 

            The postcolonial theory has categorically challenged the colonialist assumptions of regarding religion as rooted in Judeo-Christian. This has given rise to new understanding of religious responses to the Empire. Most postcolonial theorists have evaluated the effect of these formulations as far as religious ideologies and institutions are concerned. Categories such as religion and sacred have particularly been of great concern including the process of identifying responses of the colonial rule in the form of nationalism. Of a greater challenge has a largely been the democratic society because different restrictions or boundaries that previously governed religion in the post colonialism (Bloom & Sheila 2009). Democratic societies tend to allow religious groups and denominations to exercise their rights fully even when some of their newfound practices go against the ethics and moral benchmarks of the society. In particular, many theorists are greatly concerned about the impending repercussions when societies fully exercise their democratic rights. Such developments amid process to make the society and religious institutions become more liberal and dynamic, justify why religious freedom is far from reality. Post colonialism is essentially a period that comes after the end of colonialism. To understand the events and challenges that ensued during this period, it is important that theorists acknowledge the fact that it marked the end of one era before ushering in a different era or period (Bloom & Sheila 2009). 

            The end of particular period and the process of ushering in another might be a difficult development, which in many cases could go beyond logical grasp. However, the process of segregating societies using their religious, cultural, or even political entities has overshadowed the postcolonial epoch. However, the ultimate goal of post colonialism, which is to combat the residual effects of colonialism on cultures, has never changed. Similarly, religious groups have braved the controversies surrounding their doctrine and stood firm in their quest to accomplish social and religious tranquility. Different societies have no option but to embrace the emerging trends that characterized religious groups in the wake of post colonialism. As part of societal cultures, religion plays important part to ensure cohesion and harmony among diverse communities and groups. This, religion would seek to achieve, despite a clear ideological, cultural, and political differences between societies. All religious groups and denominations have made commendable steps toward realizing their fundamental ambitions and goals to bring people from diverse backgrounds together. During the transition period from the colonial era to liberal and democratic age, different societies have experienced assorted challenges. Such challenges emanate because of either internal or external factors. Religions have the mandate to protect their reputation as well as reputation of the believers. Hence, most of these religious groups would avoid sideshows at all cost (Sheila 2006).                                       

2. 1 Culture of Religion

            According to Kalman, culture is the way people live. He further asserts that culture refers to the arts and expressions of people’s commonsensical accomplishments viewed collectively (Kalman 4). Culture is the traits of a given group of individuals, described by language, arts, music, cuisine, religion and social habits and conceptualized in terms of understandings and meanings. It is the means of life of a given group of individuals or a society and it entails blueprints of beliefs, thoughts, customs, rituals, traditions, language, behaviors literature, music and art. It is the shared blueprints of feeling, adaptation and beliefs, which individuals carry in their brainpower. It is a well thought-out group of habits, concepts conditioned reaction shared by different people in a given society. Religion just like culture contains systematic values, behaviors, beliefs attained by individuals as member of certain society. The blueprints are systematic given that their expressions are habitual in expression and occurrences shared by a group’s member. However, within all religions, there lacks homogeneity and as result, there are disparities of meanings and principals interpretations. From an anthropological approach, religion refers to beliefs systems in supernatural forces where rituals and symbols make life evocative.

2.1.1 Culture of Religion

            Religious people can be cosmopolitan in the casual sense of term and in the more robust ethical view that they are devoted in enhancing dignity, human rights and emancipatory politics past their faith communities. In this regard, cosmopolitan who refers to being familiar and at ease with divergent cultures and religion are compatible. International celebrities, the precepts of a given religion and the ever-rising transnational faith communities are principal vector of engagement with the world beyond their nations. However, cosmopolitanisms countersigned by certain faiths are complete ways of supporting for a religion’s putative universality as opposed to an endeavor to support substantive involvement with religious disparities.

             Christianity can logically affirm that it has been a broad-based faith since the reign of Apostle Paul and his preaching to non-Jews about Christian universalism. Apostle Paul in his preaching claimed that their people were no longer female and male, free or slaves but were one body in Christ Jesus (Neuman 144). According to Neuman, Appiah, an author, identifies radical globalized religious movements as definitive paradigms of counter-cosmopolitanism. Appiah used counter-cosmopolitanism to denote both technophilic and transnational temperament of radical globalized religious movements, and to stress their adherence to universal truth visions that antithetical to robust pluralism he celebrates (Neuman 144). 

            With respect to Pamuk’s novel, the most significant limits of the contemporary world system are not political or territorial but religious. Any cosmopolitanism area must provide a model of universalism and inclusivity that both reckons and recognizes with the substantive disparities that isolate different secular and religious experience. Religion is mechanism of representations, which introduce pervasive, powerful and enduring motivations in human beings through formulation of ideas of a common order of existence. Symbols can be objects, pictures, events, actions, relationships or any other thing that conveys meanings to people. Religious representations conduct a different function and they influence human beings that there is a straight link amid their ethos and their worldview. Religious symbols inform people regarding their ways of life and how to live in a particular way given that the world is one of the certain ways.. 

            Pamuk reflects the tension between the profane and the sacred in the illusion to two texts that are identified as being beyond depiction, that is the sacred word from Quran and the secular text of the novel. The literary text is therefore conflated with a consecrated one. To strengthen the creative aspect of the secular-centered form, Orhan delineates an absent text (the secret book commissioned by Sultan) in the plot that in turn becomes the drive of the formal experimentation. My Name is Red entwines modern and pre-modern, sacred and secular, and text and image. Pamuk conceives the absent text as a narrative space with potential change in literary modernity that is both structural aspect and plot element of the novel. Pamuk challenges the republican assurance that Ottoman is merely a signifier for the pre-modern through revising the criticized Ottoman cultural perspective as being an early modern cosmopolitan one. 

            In the novel, My Name is Red, Pamuk depicts Islam as a culture, but foreign to the novel. However the novel while depicting Islamic culture is a background and an entertaining collection of fragments. The novel is the greatest invention of the Western culture. However, the author goes further to examine the known Islamic distrust of the European liberal arts. This is evidenced by the first objections of Italian portrait painters by Ottoman. According to Almond, Islam often view Pamuk’s work as the antithesis of innovative self-expression (Almond 127).My Name is Red is narrated against the milieu of historical and cultural Islam

2.2 Culture of Arts

            Art is linked to all aspects of human life. Art is something that human beings do in numerous and great ways for great reasons. The more one learns regarding a background of any piece of art, the more it appears linked to the entire meaning of life of people who formed and utilized it. This makes artwork more interesting, alive and more pleasing. The study of art as an anthropological study requires considering art as a factor of culture and using the theories and techniques that anthropologists use to study other aspects of culture. Culture in the anthropological sense means more than the arts. People understand cultures as the sum of all shared and learned behavior of people, how they make their living, produce things, utilize language and other symbolic forms and organize their societies. 

            Culture is the characteristically human means of survival. Every society holds a more or less consistent way of life otherwise known as culture. Art historians and anthropologists are currently going into the field to understand how artists form art and utilize it in different cultures. These people come back with records of the arts thereby enriching the comprehension of people through published works and other types of exhibits. From this perspective, artists make art and utilize it in social situations where some of these situations are exciting and lively. There are close links between forms of art and almost all other factors of human life.

            In the novel My Name Is Red, the Ottoman cultural chronicles is a foundation of literary reimagination that becomes commentary on the modern world. To stress on this synchronic aspect, the novel by Pamuk uses two narrative devices. In one of these devices, Pamuk makes his 16th Century characters conscious of the present-day-read or observer while, on the other hand, he situates modern autobiographical component into the historical novel. For instance, the self-description of Shekure, named after Pamuk real mother, early in the book, “ with one eye on the life within the book and one eye on the life outside, I, too, long to speak with you who are observing me from who knows which distant time and place” (Pamuk 43). The story is told by numerous first-person narrators who are conscious of themselves as well as the observer or the reader. The literary inversion of modern and pre-modern period offers a synchronic impact that confirms the revaluation of secular values.

            Pamuk’s literary reimaging of the Ottoman legacy is founded on the novels set in the premature modern cosmopolitan Istanbul contexts that highlight the procedure of textual production. The types of cultural history emanating from the Ottoman archive become a commentary on the foundation of reconfiguring literary modernity and assessing of the secular modern. In the novel, My Name is Red; Orhan novelization of miniature elucidation changes this pictorial medium into an intertextual model of literary form. The novel form  its roots on combined genres that include mystic romance, autobiography, murder-mystery, allegories of the contemporary Middle Eastern nation-state, Quaranic-style parables and philosophy of Islamic image and text. The conflation of image and text runs in the novel where subject matters such as time, style and signature reappear as the representational perspective fluctuates amid the profane first-person and the sacred omniscience of the divine

            . Chapter 3: Historical Chronology

            The chronology covers places and events that were either significant in the history of Islamic art or in the legends and folktales. The Islamic art describes the art created specifically in the service of the Muslim faith and also the art and architecture historically produced in the lands ruled by the Muslims. Apart from Muslims themselves producing the Islamic art, selected Muslim artists also contributed to manufacturing such arts mainly produced by Muslim patrons. The goal of post-colonial theorists is to clear space for multiple voices. Dominant ideologies had previously silenced the multiple voices. The theorists intended to give every individual, scholars and non-scholars, the opportunity a place and opportunity to air their voice without discrimination. The changing trends that characterize societies especially the cultural and social beliefs and values have overshadowed such efforts. A section of the humanity believes they are better off and at an advantage than others are (Sheila 2006).

            Despite the glaring challenges, postcolonial theorists are determined to clear the air to allow every person equal chance to participate irrespective of the sexual orientation, political views, or cultural backgrounds. They attempt to clear the previously silenced voices within the field of academia. The book Orientalism by Edward Said provides a clear and comprehensible picture of the techniques or ways social scientists employ to stem their disregard of those they actually study. Instead, they rely largely on the intellectual superiority of themselves and their peers. Although many scholars are of the opinion that Orientalists disparage views and ideas of those they actually study, the tendency to rely on their own intellectual property as well as those of their peers illustrate their capacity to deliver detailed and comprehensible materials (Sheila 2006).

            The Islamic Art is not only a religion but also a way of life. Islamic religion and art brings together Muslims from different parts of the universe that acknowledge and appreciate their religion. Islamic art characterize a range of activities mainly bin the building of mosques and important monuments associated with Islam. Apparently, the cost of making these artifacts would depend on the materials used and the purpose of the art. The religion fostered the development of distinctive culture considering its unique artistic language that features in the art as well as architecture throughout the Muslim world. The lands that Muslims had newly conquered had their own pre-existing artistic traditions. Apparently, artists who worked under Sasanian or Byzantine patronage continued to work in their own indigenous styles. However, they worked mainly satisfy the needs of Muslim patrons. The first Islamic art would rely on the earlier techniques, styles, and forms that reflects the blending of Iranian and classical decorative themes and motifs. The most expensive pieces of art mainly decorated to suit the interests of Muslim leaders (Sheila 2006). 

            Religious monuments erected under the Umayyad patronage had clearly defined meaning as well as functions. The Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem shows the amalgam of Byzantine, Sasanian, and Greco-Roman elements. These symbols and artistic materials attempt to demonstrate the fundamental doctrines and beliefs of Muslims. Despite the raging debate as to whether the arts are universally applicable, it is clear that Islamic art have a lot of semblance around the world. The Domes of the Rock of Jerusalem have characteristics that indicate majority of similarities and limited differences. Islamic architecture has gained popularity in the recent past with many temples also exhibiting the design. The Islamic art mainly emerged from Muslim faith and nascent Islamic state. The rampant spread of Islamic culture and beliefs across the globe has been the main reason, which has led to the increase in the number of architectural buildings that exhibit Islamic art. Modern temples and mosques are awash with the ancient art of Muslims. In addition, a number of buildings that believers of Islamic religion have constructed have immensely borrowed ideas of Muslim art. In essence, the dome has features prominently in most of the modern buildings (Bloom, p. 12). 

            Many scholars considers Umayyad caliphate (661-750) as one of the most formative periods of Islamic art. Despite the challenges that Muslim countries have faced in the past few decades, it is clear that most of the art and architectural designs used in the modern constructions have immensely borrowed their ideas from the ancient practices. The art gives the building an attractive and striking appearance that distinguishes it from the rest of constructions. Different scholars and theorists of the postcolonial era attest to the rampant increase in application of Muslim art in different places across the globe. However, the escalating cases of violence and civil wars pitting Muslim countries mainly in the Middle East have greatly hampered the growth of the architectural designs in countries within the Asian continent and beyond. Classification of Muslim art is also an essential aspect that theorists seek to focus. The class to which given art fall under would primarily depend on factors such as the origin, duration of existence, purpose, or even popularity. Societies have varied opinions about application and relevance of particular form of art. Another method that is widely applicable in the classification of Islamic art is according to dynasty that reigned by the time that particular piece of art was produced.  This kind of periodiozation always follows the general precepts of the Muslim history (Bloom, p. 12). Despite the several instances characterized by other unique classifications, Islamic Art has emerged to be one of the most outstanding and dependable form of culture and belief relevant to many societies around the world. The art has also characterized the building and success of a range of dynasties across the universe. Some of the outstanding dynasties include the Umayyad and Abbasid. The two dynasties governed an immense, enormous, and unified Islamic states worldwide. Majority of dynasties are found in the Middle East where the Islamic religion traces its origin before gaining ground in other states and countries worldwide. Some of the regional though equally powerful dynasties include Safavids, Mughals, and Ottomans. These dynasties have thrived in respective periods and areas of location due to the imminent reinforcement, architectural, and Islamic design in general. With the geographic spread and long history, Islamic art and architecture has been subject to a wide range of regional and national styles as well as influences within the various periods of its development (Bloom, p. 12).

Islamic Arts

Islamic art has been in existence for quite a while and the perception derived from the work of art in the Muslim society describes how much devotion there is in religion. The Islamic art reflects the cultural values that are in existence within the Islamic community. To express how much the Muslims view their spiritual realism art has been in practice for several decades. The history of Islamic arts dates back to around the seventh century when they started with the use of visual arts. At that time, there were people living in areas where inhabitants were under the rule of culturally Islamic individuals (Behrens, p. 26). The range in which the Islamic society extends happens on a rate that one can hardly define the art. 

Islamic arts cover wide ranges of land that are different personnel for more than one thousand four hundred years. Islamic art is evident in a diverse aspect in that there are buildings that have the Islamic architectural structure. These buildings design is majorly on the Islamic concept making them stand out from the rest of the building of the present day. Constructions from most ancient times tend to project the Islamic artistic features from the old days. Apart from architecture, other materials project the Islamic art such as textile. Clothing design by the use of Islamic art is something that prospers for quite a while (Bloom, p. 12). Most Muslims’ recognition is through there textile work which posses a unique work of art. Using the Islamic art in there textile is as a way to easily distinguish them from other individuals and embrace there cultural values. 

Calligraphies development has been an additional way in which the Islamic art promotion has been taking place in most Muslim societies. There are popular works of art precisely with the Islamic art concept like the panel by a famous artist in the late eighteenth century up to the early nineteenth century by the name Mustafa Rakim. Calligraphies have been commonly in use to print messages from the Quran and create decorations in buildings available in most Islamic communities (Behrens, p. 26). The origin of Islamic art is traceable from a number of sources such as the Romans as well as the Early Christian art. Additional areas that the Islamic art could have originated from include the influence by Sassanian.

The Islamic art is also popular through ceramics used commonly in house decorations such as tiles that have the designs developed through Islamic art. In the present day, there are houses that have tiles that portray the Islamic art and they are apparently becoming pricy. The advantages of having ceramics that have the Islamic art design are that they are applicable to people who are from various cultural backgrounds. There are carpets and rugs that are also promote the use of Islamic art and are marketable through a diverse global perspective. People have developed an irresistible attraction to these materials that have the Islamic art and with time, they are gaining popularity on different regions from around the world (Bloom, p. 12). Glasses are other pieces of material that have the influence of Islamic art and have been on demand. Application of Islamic art on material such as glass and metal has been in existence for several decades promoting the sales of glass materials. Metals have also proved a success in the application of Islamic art since it boosts the sales and demand.















Work Cited

Almond, Ian. The new Orientalists: Postmodern presentations of Islam from Foucault to  Baudrillard. New York: I.B.Tauris, Aug 15, 2007.

Ashcroft, Bill, Ahluwalia, Pal. Edward Said. London: Routledge, Oct 17, 2008.

Bugeja, N. (2012). Postcolonial memoir in the Middle East: Rethinking the luminal in Mashriqi   writing. New York: Routledge, Nov 27, 2012.

Kalman, Bobbie. (2009). What is culture?. New York: Crabtree Publishing Company.

Said, Edward Wadie. Power, politics and culture: Interviews with Edward W. Said. Texas:           Bloomsbury Publishing, Mar 1, 2005.

Tmlinson, John. Cultural imperialism: A critical introduction: New York: Continuum      International Publishing Group, 1991.



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