Pearl texts and their surviving manuscripts are the rich heritage property of Middle English poetry. When a war is won, mention of important soldiers and Generals who contributed to the success of the war, if often mentioned and recorded. Similar is the case about the literature. The scholars who read, analyze, interpret and offer their criticism on ancient classics are often remembered by the .literary enthusiasts. So when one talks about the Pearl Manuscript, one remembers Sir Israel Gollancz. His views containing Pearl, Cleanness, Gawain and the Green Knight and Patience are original and noteworthy .His views have contributed much to shape the modern critical perspectives of this great text. The highlight of the poems of the Pearl Manuscripts is the timeless appeal and the inherent capacity to reach the inner realms of the human being with their latent spiritual strength.What makes Gollancz’s editorial achievement exclusive? It is so, because it is comprehensive and well-researched. Gollancz has taken into account all the important aspects of the Pearl Manuscript. His facsimile was reprinted three times since 1923, was reissued in 1971.For the later scholars Gollancz was the inspiration and the base. The audience for these poems is of two categories. The scholars engaged in study and further research on them, and the lay readers. Both owe a debt of gratitude for the enthusiasm and dedication with which Gollancz worked on Pearl Manuscripts.He kindled the interest of both categories in profound riches of the medieval English verse, for the period 1891 to 1940.But for Gollancz’s dedication, the task of going through the Pearl Manuscript in facsimile, would have been difficult. The original version of the Pearl texts and the authentic details of their codex are available at the Manuscript Room of the British Library.The other route to get it is costly and time-consuming—order copies of individual leaves from the Library’s Photographic Reproductions Office. “For these major achievements and for the many smaller contributions he made to resolving specific textual problems which vexed scholars of the Pearl poems, I believe the name of Sir Israel Gollancz must be placed alongside those of Sir Frederick Madden and Richard Morris on the list of founders of modern scholarship on the Pearl Manuscript’s poems.”(Reichardt…)Some examples of the poems are:“Hope 3e þat He heres not þat eres alle made?Hit may not be þat He is blynde þat bigged vche y3e.(Patience, 123-24)1” (Reichardt…..)The narrator of Patience recalls the Psalmist’s words: no one can escape the omniscience of God. Presently, this omniscience of God is related to the faculties of sight and hearing. You can not run away from the realities of life. You have to suffer or enjoy the consequences of your evil or good actions. There is no escape from it because you don’t have a secure place of escape away from the vision of God. Not even a leaf oscillates without His wish. The Creator sees all and hears all. The relationship between man and God is undeniable. All types of manifestations in the world are as per the will and command of God. Wherever we are and whatever we may do, our prime concern should be to exemplify and demonstrate the validity of the power of the Supreme Being.It is no use getting intoxicated by the intellectual achievements disregarding the reality of the Cosmic Supreme. “B?r?th is the Hebrew word which, in the Old Testament, is applied to ‘the three great covenants established by God at the three critical stages of the history of mankind: the creation, the reestablishment of mankind after the flood, and the birth of the Hebrew nation.’5 The centrality of covenant to the poems in this manuscript is manifest in the inclusion of the stories of both Noah and Abraham in Cleanness.”(www.marginalia…)What is a fully imagined devotional response? It is the beginning of the search within. Action without the motivated desire is possible through the sensory organs as seen in Pearl when the Dreamer approaches Christ. This means God can not be searched in the world outside. He can be realized in the innermost chambers of our heart and that too through a specific procedure. God is not sitting in the sky granting rewards and punishments.“Delyt me drof in y3e and ere,My manez mynde to maddyng malte;Quen I se3 my frely, I wolde be þere,By3onde þe water þa3 ho were walte.(Pearl, 1153-56)”(Reichrdt…..)Wise people say that a poet sees what the sun can not see! This statement highlights the strength of the power of the narrative imagery. The images created by the poet are as powerful as those seen with the eye, if not more. Spoken words can provide you with some understanding but they can not reveal the truth. The truth can only be experienced, through the inner eye. If one wishes to see and know God, one has to perceive the eternal Divinity within one’s true Self. For that the precondition is to ignite a passionate and inextinguishable thirst to see, know, and realize our eternal Father. Since the dawn of the Creation, the procedure to know God has been one and the same. One’s own inner self is the eternal witness to one’s actions.There is no escape from this position under any circumstances. To watch means to participate. This condition is also in tune with the legal process. A covenant would not be valid without the witness, which ipso facto means that the witness has the perfect understanding of the contract. The witness has truly educated himself as to the true implications of the action. The word education is derived from the root “edu”, which means to draw out. So what is to be drawn out? It is one’s inherently blocked flow of latent potential including wisdom and creativity that needs to be squeezed out. Here one can understand what Mass implies.It is the enactment of both the spiritual and legal aspects of the covenant. The bread and wine symbolize the body and blood of Christ. In the Sacrifice of the Mass the priest takes recourse to dual actions-affirmative and destructive. A comparison can be drawn here, between the positive and negative tendencies of an individual. He re-enacts Christ’s breaking of the bread at the Last Supper and his immolation in the Passion.The question is how to beat the negative tendencies and how to draw out the celestial flow of dormant potential in every individual. For that, the need is to dig a tunnel right up to one’s core personality. Such a tunneling effect is the outcome of establishing unity between all one’s personality layers while harmonizing each one of them with one’s core personality called Pure Consciousness or Soul, which is the actual reservoir of one’s total potential. The sum and substance of the Pearl Manuscript is to know and understand one’s inner world, which is the fountainhead of bliss, the communion with it paves the way for eternal happiness. Happiness and melancholy are the outcomes of one’s own positive and negative thoughts respectively.A spiritual flight is an ecstatic transcendental experience carried out by one’s soul. It involves the intermingling of one’s Soul with All-pervading eternal Consciousness. The deeper the Soul delves into the Infinite ocean of Universal Consciousness, the more it gets embellished with the spiritual pearls.This mystical transcendental experience is inexplicable, as it beyond all words, known languages and varied expressions. This is hurdle faced by greatest of the great poets. At this point, the power of poet’s imagery becomes powerless. For, this state can neither be defined nor confined and hence is inexpressible in terms of words and expressions. The best way to know it is through Self-Realization. Such a state is described by Poet Wordsworth in his poem ‘Daffodils’ as “the bliss of solitude.”Confessio Amantis (The Lover’s Confession) is a Middle-English poem by John Gower. It uses the confession made by an old lover to the Chaplin of Venus. The 33,000 lines poem is one of the great works of late 14th century English literature. The poet was an eminent writer, and belonged to a wealthy family. The contents of the poem again relate to vices and virtues, the sinner and the sinned, the different grades in the society, how the sinner can return to God, how he can obtain pardon by Jesus Christ, and his mother, the glorious Virgin. Probably it was written about 1376-1379.Confessio Amantis is addressed to King Henry IV.The subject dealt with has been called “In Praise of Peace.” In the conversation between the confessor and the penitent, seven deadly sins are discussed, by tales borrowed from other notable works, including the Bible. The transition from earthly love to higher plane of love is also elucidated. John Gower is no ordinary writer and “Confession Amantis, is by no means slender, and in some respects will stand comparison with Chaucer’s admittedly great gifts as a narrator.”(Catholic Encyclopedia…)ConclusionThe medieval poems have a charm of their own. That was the time the humanity was not affected by materialism, industrial and internet revolution. Rule of the heart prevailed, over the rule of the reason. The Kings and Queens dominated the political scene. Romanticism was part of the life of men in the high society. God and spirituality influenced every segment of the society and every aspect of human life. Human being feared the divine powers and prayed for peace and welfare. References Cited:Andrew, Malcolm, Waldron, Ronand; Book: Poems Of The Pearl Manuscript: Pearl, Cleanness, Patience Gawain and the Green Knight (UEP – Exeter Medieval Texts and Studies)Paperback: 380 pagesPublisher: University of Exeter Press; 3 edition (January 1, 2002)Language: EnglishISBN-10: 0859897265ISBN-13: 978-0859897266Reichardt, Paul F. Sir Israel Gollancz and the editorial history of the Pearlfindarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3708/is_199504/ai_n8729842/pg_11 – 33k – Cached – Similar pages, Retrieved on May 2, 2008Reading and Believing: Covenant in the Poems of the Pearl Manuscript Gower’s words..www.marginalia.co.uk/journal/06cambridge/bates.php – 37k – Cached – Similar pages,Retrieved on My 2,2008.CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: John Gower The “Confession Amantis” was translated into Portuguese by Robert Payn..www.newadvent.org/cathen/06685a.htm – 30k – Cached – Similar pages Retrieved on May 2, 2008The post Pearl texts and their surviving manuscripts are the rich heritage property of Middle English poetry. appeared first on Nursing Essay Tutors.Pearl texts and their surviving manuscripts are the rich heritage property of Middle English poetry. was first posted on October 12, 2020 at 9:24 am.©2019 “nursingassignmenttutor”. Use of this feed is for personal non-commercial use only. 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Poetry: Its Universal Appeal and Merits Essay.
Poetry was born out of the basic human desire to communicate meaning and feelings. The reading of poetry is a matter of both pleasure and enlightenment. It serves as one’s escape from life’s dullness, drudgery, and oppressive influences. Poetry appeals to our sense of beauty, thus giving us aesthetic pleasure. Thus, it is capable of evoking a range of different emotions; laughter, tears, sighs, nostalgia, etc. , in its audience. At the general and universal level, poetry recollects the actual experiences of mankind – joys, sorrows, misfortunes, love, hatred, etc.
It is hard usually to distinguish among these complex emotions. However, poetic interpretation helps us distil these complex emotions. When it comes to interpretation, a poem can be seen in many ways: simply as an aesthetic object, a work of art to look at and be entertained by, or a new way of looking at the ordinary things. Or we may consider the poem to be a ‘new experience’.
Poetry is all this and more. What I personally like about poetry is how it liberates the mind, opening my eyes to newer possibilities and meanings.
It gives a broadness and richness to my life, perceptions, and imagination. Its study and appreciation is important because it enlarges one’s vision of life and broadens one’s sympathies and spectrum. Initially, a poem may look hard to crack through, but I have learnt that understanding a poem is a matter of time, and it requires patience, a certain frame of mind, and perspective. As I continue to read and re-read it, different layers of meanings begin to unravel. Thus, there is something new to be discovered every time I read a poem: a new revelation, a new insight, a new appreciation.
I cannot help but awe and wonder how poets are able to convey the most extensive, in-depth meaning and images through the fewest words, and weave a web of the most intricate images and symbols. It is this brevity what makes poetry distinct from other genres of literature and forms of knowledge. It is not uncommon for students of Science to look down upon poetry or at least feel baffled by it. I, however, don’t share their sentiments. Poetry definitely stands out in terms of its merit when compared with Science and Prose.
It can be said that if prose is the language of reason, poetry is the language of emotions. Similarly, the imaginative and emotional appeal of poetry distinguishes it from Science. Science teaches us knowledge and appeals to our minds. The aim of both is the same i. e. , to arrive at truth. While Science derives from facts and owes nothing to the extra mundane forces; in contrast, poetry seeks to express truth in the most concrete and pictorial form possible – in the form of images or pictures in which meaning can be seen with the mind’s eye.
In Science and Mathematics, generality, abstraction, and impartiality are appreciated. But in poetry, particularity and novelty are marvelled at. Unlike Science, poetry operates in the sensory dimension, and thus acts as the third eye. A poet helps us see deeper into the truths of nature and life; and thus, poetry relies a lot on intuition and imagination. It teaches us the knowledge of the human heart, by appealing to our senses. However, in distinguishing poetry’s importance among other disciplines, we must understand that one cannot be substituted for the other.
We should remember that although the Romantic Movement was a reaction against Science and reason and propagated the need for emotional intensity, yet others like the Victorians sought for a compromise, a balanced approach. Indeed, poetry seeks to coexist in harmony with other disciplines. I understand that life is complex, and one needs to approach it from all realms of knowledge in order to understand it. Thus, a wholesome approach to life contains a balance between both faculties: the rational as well as the emotional.
One major criticism against poetry is that it is art for art’s sake. It is believed that poetry is divorced from real life and the poet is living in an ivory tower in isolation from real life. Some of this criticism is valid when it refers to the escapist form of poetry that it provides an escape to the reader by transporting him/her to an imaginary and seemingly perfect world. However, the appeal of this sort of poetry is momentary and very transient. The enduring form of poetry is one which talks about the universal issues and themes, relevant to all times.
This why Shakespeare and others’ poetry have endured the test of time and continue to be revered. When we read poems, we not only have our emotions aroused as the poems entrain us, but we also have a chance to have an insight into the poets’ perceptions. A poet doesn’t merely use the poem to express his philosophy. He, above all, wants to help us experience things in the way he has experienced them. Hence, we are able to connect with the poet and his vision and the larger microcosm of the universe through that vision.
We can also say that poetry is the result of divine inspiration, which doesn’t come easy and to just about every one. Therefore, a poet is a seer, and his method is insight, intuition, and a vision, which enables us to see what we may generally miss. A poet has a rich and vivid imagination; it travels far and wide and gathers exotic images, whether he is describing something farfetched or mundane. The poet chooses to describe the ordinary into the most extraordinary way. Poetry’s novelty lies in giving a new meaning to common place words, thus giving them new associations.
Let me elaborate my point of view through examples. For instance, a poet may see the sun sinking and the shadows growing larger. This might remind him of the passage of time and the approaching of death. This common place observance may give him an idea for a poem. As he puts pen to paper, the product of this process would become a poem. Through his unique ideas, experiences, and opinions to a common observance, he gives a fresh perception of the world around us, relates it to and make it part of a larger whole. Thus, the poem begins to have larger and universal implications.
Similarly, poetry lets us appreciate the beauty in woods on a snowy evening, and helps us resonate with the common sentiment of finding a moment of peace in an otherwise busy life. Likewise, a mathematician would tell you that one tablespoon equates to near about 25 grams, but only a poet like Eliot would use ‘coffee spoon’ as an appropriate device for measuring Prufrock’s life in his poem ‘The Love Song of J Alfred Prufrock’. While other disciplines inform us about facts; it’s only the poets who can seek the connection between two unlikely things and situations.
The poet thus makes connections between two unlikely things. For me, lyrical poetry is the most enjoyable form because of its intense emotional and richly imaginative appeal. Literature’s primary purpose is to give us pleasure, and poetry embodies this sentiment. It is a source of keen delight for me to read the lyrical poetry of Shelly, the sensuous ideas of Keats, the narrative poems of Coleridge and Byron, the sweet and musical verse of Tennyson, the Nature poetry of Wordsworth, and the melancholy mood of Mathew Arnold.
All this is a source of solace and peace, wonderment and bafflement. In a volume of poetry, there is something to be read daily, to suit the pensive mood and vexed mind. The technical elements in a poetic piece, like the syntax, meter, rhyme, rhythm, etc. , make its structure, but ultimately, the metaphors, the imagery, the depth and range of emotions, the expression, the novelty of the subject and the poet’s ingenuity are what give the poetic piece its appeal.
Wordsworth (as cited in Davie, 1972) has rightly said: “Poetry is the first and last of al knowledge – it is as immortal as the heart of man” (p. 9). Hence, one may argue that the best of the poetry is created out of life, belongs to life, and exists for life. A poet constantly ponders on ways to live and live well: in a beautiful and natural way, which happens to be my goal in life too. Work Cited Davie, D. (1973). Thomas Hardy and British poetry. Great Britain: Taylor & Francis.