Please see pdf, and please have a two page paper on the 2-3 alternatives that the company should do follow the requirements below (no outside sources needed): 

√ Generate several possible solutions (at least 2-3 substantive options) 

√ Identifying pros and cons for each option

√ Application of course theories and terminology (not just stated)

√ Each option helps to solve the problem/problems that are identified

√ Logical consistency

√ Solutions are grounded in reality and the context

generate realistic and relevant alternatives that address the problem(s). Support your reasoning with course material. Weigh the pros & cons and identify the outcome/result of the solution or intervention. How & why will the alternatives fix the problem(s)? Are some solutions interrelated? Are some more viable in the short vs. long term?


V. Padmanabhan wrote this case solely to provide material for class discussion. The author does not intend to illustrate effective or ineffective handling of a managerial situation. The author may have disguised certain names and other identifying information to protect confidentiality. Richard Ivey School of Business Foundation prohibits any form of reproduction, storage or transmission without its written permission. Reproduction of this material is not covered under authorization by any reproduction rights organization. To order copies or request permission to reproduce materials, contact Ivey Publishing, Richard Ivey School of Business Foundation,

Steve Fernandez, the HR manager of FIS Consulting Services, returned to his office exhausted after a day-long discussion with the vice president of human resources and the head of the project operation. The extended meeting addressed an incident that had taken place in an off-shore project team at a client in the United States. The company’s reputation was badly damaged by the incident and urgent measures were required to save the project team. Fernandez believed the project team members possessed substantial individual technical expertise but lacked the skills to perform together successfully. Fernandez wanted to identify the mistakes made and enact safeguards to prevent future incidents of this nature. FIS Consulting Services was a business process outsourcing company located in Noida, India, specializing in consulting and financial advisory to clients across the globe. The company also assisted clients in enterprise application implementation. It offered onsite and offsite services based on the client’s requirements. Under managers’ leadership, client service teams provided consulting and other services based on the client’s needs. Nirmal Sara was a 28-year-old junior content developer at FIS Consulting Services, tasked with preparing and designing training modules for ERP implementation per client requirements. Prior to joining FIS Consulting Services, she worked at a digital publishing company for four years. This experience and expertise helped her land a position at FIS. TRAINING MATERIAL PREPARATION AND JOB DESIGN The company treated the development of ERP training materials for a client as support tasks for the major ERP implementation project. To complete these supportive tasks, a team would be formed with an experienced executive as team leader. While most of the tasks were done online, select clients required team members to relocate onsite to complete and implement the training materials effectively. A team typically spent a minimum of two months to one year to complete an assignment. A team was comprised of anywhere between two members to a maximum of twenty-five. The onsite team was selected based on communication skills, writing and documentation capabilities. The selection process entailed identifying employees based on their specific skill sets and experience matching the

Page 2 9B12C019 project requirements were then forwarded to the client and finally confirmed during an interview with the client team. Training materials usually involved designing course curriculum and a course outline, and then modules for the clients. The training material focused on varied areas like HRM, finance or other general management modules. A typical project team included a project manager, a team leader, senior developers and junior developers. The team members’ promotion, pay hike and future prospects for off-shore projects depended upon the appraisal and feedback provided by the project manager. There were three levels in an appraisal — (a) below expectations (b) met expectations and (c) exceeded expectations. Each individual wished to “exceed expectations” to increase their prospects and growth within the company. THE TEAM In the project’s first phase, Sara and Shri Shalini were selected and sent to a client in New Jersey. They both reported to Pete Philly, a FIS’ North American project manager. It was Sara’s fourth project and third off-shore assignment with North American clients. She was primarily selected based on an evaluation of her previous performance in both offshore and onshore projects. Sara was also evaluated based on her approach towards her team leaders, peers and clients, and most importantly, her ability to meet deadlines. She always “exceeded expectations” and once was quoted as “an important asset for the team” on her performance evaluation feedback from a previous project manager. Philly was known to be polite and an expert in designing training materials. He had vast experience in handling and executing huge projects for FIS. According to Shalini,

Regarding organizing his work for the current project, Philly seemed very lax for unknown reasons. He always took a week to reply to our emails. There were occasions where I had to remind him about important emails requiring his immediate attention. Once, Philly mentioned in a meeting that he always had around 200 unread emails at any given point. His lackadaisical approach affected the team a lot; consequently, our course materials went unchecked to the clients. Approvals were delayed, creating frustration among team members. The project team worked late hours in the office and struggled to meet deadlines. There were instances when Philly refused to take important calls from clients, claiming he was neck deep in work. He also failed to make calls he had promised to make. Philly’s approach toward each project started irritating the client team; they would often take the initiative to walk up to his desk for a discussion.

ABOUT THE TEAM After two months, a few more members from India joined the team, increasing its membership to 15. Sara and Shalini were the most junior members overall, but in terms of onsite visits, this was their third deputation. For the rest of the team members, this was their first onsite experience. The entire team stayed at a hotel and each member had a separate room. As some of the earliest arrivals, Sara and Shalini provided the initial orientation and briefing about the clients’ place and the work status to their team. The team was assigned with designing different courses, training material and preparation.

Page 3 9B12C019 tasks. Different team members performed each component of these tasks; these components would later require alignment and integration to complete the final module. A week after the team’s arrival, they began forming groups inside the team. A few members had worked together in a previous organization; they always moved among themselves and were reluctant to involve the other members. They preferred to be together during tea breaks or lunch breaks. These members almost always kept the office pick-up van waiting, refusing to step into it until their companions joined them. Even the team leader, Sai Rishi, was reluctant to get along with other members outside his own group. In meetings conducted by Philly, team members commonly framed their suggestions as group oriented. Members who voiced their opinions or gave suggestions often stated, “We have decided” or “We have worked-out” to identify their own small groups. These groups provided suggestions without consulting or briefing the rest of team members prior to the meeting. Often, debates during these meetings ended acrimoniously with every member promoting their own agenda. According to Sara,

It got to the point where people started refusing to share resources and critical information. In one instance, I was seeking information regarding a deadline. A senior team member named Abey Sidharth, a close companion of Rishi, refused to share this information with me. When I requested the resources, he bluntly refused to share, stating that it took him two days to gather those documents. He believed I should spend the same amount of time looking for it. He also advised to return to him, if I failed to find them. I was disappointed, when I saw Sidharth sharing the same documents with one of his group members. Shalini and I told Philly about this particular incident. We stressed that information sharing had to be addressed at the next meeting. We also suggested that a common folder be created so team members people could openly share documents.

According to Lia Aarthi, another team member,

For me, it took days to find which team members had a connection with my training material and course work. We were working like individuals and mini-groups within a team. The team members did not realize this project required integrating each individual’s work into a cohesive whole; they were stuck in a rivalry mindset. A few members were even reluctant to reveal the details about their own work. Our work was like a difficult puzzle. Every morning, there were debates and arguments due to confusion in the integration issues, chaotic situations resembling a fish-market. Throughout this project, we worked with misunderstandings, clashes and disagreements.

ABOUT RISHI — THE TEAM LEADER It was a common sight to see Rishi running behind Philly, gifting him books and memorabilia on any ordinary day. Rishi regularly requested Philly to join him for lunch or tea. For Rishi, the current project was significant for his promotion, pay hike and future in off-shore projects. He always complied with whatever Philly said and rarely offered opinions or counter suggestions to Philly’s own statements. In some instances, Rishi took advantage of Philly’s delayed decisions and started working on most of Philly’s tasks. Philly then began relying on Rishi even for minor decisions regarding the project.

Page 4 9B12C019 SARA’S ENCOUNTERS Rishi and his group often gossiped about the rest of team members in the hotel’s lobby. One evening while Sara was in the lobby waiting for Shalini, she happened to overhear Rishi discussing Philly with others. Rishi claimed Philly had lost his concentration and looked depressed due to his upcoming divorce. Rishi claimed Philly was relying on him to complete his tasks. In another instance, Aarthi heard Rishi state Sara was not competent or talented enough to prepare course curriculum. When told about this incident, Sara was taken aback — Rishi had never shown any obvious discontent with her work. Annoyed with his comments, Sara felt Rishi should have discussed the issue with her rather than talking about it behind her back. However, Sara chose to ignore this and concentrate on her work. Rishi derived pleasure from making junior team members feel inferior about their own knowledge and skills. He tried to intimidate Sara, but her assertive replies and non-submissive approach began bothering him. After the incident with Rishi, Sara noticed gradual changes in Philly’s behaviour towards her, who had previously treated her politely. He began snubbing her and politely mocked her suggestions and opinions in meetings. In one instance, Philly asked Sara, specifically, to submit a course deliverable the day before her normal deadline. Sara completed the task as he asked, but to her surprise, Philly stated in the next meeting that Sara had failed to submit her work on time. Philly mentioned that he did not want anyone to delay deadlines like Sara did. Sara retaliated immediately, mentioning the date and time of the deadline met, including the email’s details. These events began to disturb Sara; she felt that Philly was cornering her for no obvious reason. She even got confirmation from other trusted teammates about a noticeable change in Philly’s behaviour toward her. Following this confrontation with Philly, Sara found deadline dates had suddenly been advanced. Sara reported Philly’s biased behaviour to Rishi, expecting him to help her as a team leader. Instead of discussing this with Philly, Rishi suggested Sara avoid creating any more problems and meet the new deadlines as Philly expected. SARA’S RETURN TO INDIA Both Sara and Shalini returned to India after the completion of their eight-month onsite posting. In India, they had to provide the final shape of the training materials, based on the client’s interactions in New Jersey. There were three levels in the preparation of the training material — first, second and final draft. The first draft contained comprehensive coverage of essential course materials, prepared based on the interaction with the client. This first draft often contained a few blank pages, spaces and grammatical errors, which would require further formatting and editing. Blank pages and spaces were normally filled after receiving clarifications from the client through video conferences. Once these were completed, the second draft would be sent to the team leader, Rishi, for review. After his review and suggestions, a final draft would be prepared and sent to Philly for a final review. After the final review, the course would be delivered to the training leader on the client’s side. After Sara’s return to India, she finished her first draft and sent a copy to Rishi, highlighting the points to be discussed further with the clients. The next day, Sara received a call from Philly to tell Sara her training material was very poor, including formatting errors and blank pages. He also mentioned the client was very disappointed with her course design. Sara tried to explain this was the first draft; she still had pending online meetings with the client to provide further clarifications. Sara also asked Philly why the

Page 5 9B12C019 course went to the client when it was only to be sent after the final draft was reviewed, following protocol. Philly hung up. That evening Sara received a call from her teammate, Aarthi, who was still at the client’s place. She mentioned Rishi had presented Sara’s draft to Philly and the client, showing common errors often committed during a first draft. Rishi had assured them he would immediately rectify these errors. Sara was shocked and could not understand why Rishi would point out these initial mistakes to the client. She felt Rishi had not only put her career at stake, but also the company’s reputation. Sara rushed to report this issue to the company’s HR manager, Fernandez. Following her report, Rishi was asked to explain his understanding of the incident. Meanwhile, the unhappy client reported the confusion and shabby work to the lead client service manager of the U.S. division, and also contacted Roy, the Indian division head. As a measure to contain the situation, Rishi was immediately called back to India and replaced with another experienced senior team leader. Philly was given a reprimand, but retained until the project was completed. Fernandez contemplated this issue, hoping the new team leader would resolve the crisis, allowing the team to complete the project finally. He also understood this incident had severely damaged the company’s image — a careful effort would be required to undo the damage. Fernandez could not understand how a mature group of people could create so much conflict among themselves while working toward a common goal. He understood that the project’s success did not solely depend upon the technical expertise of team members and that something beyond that was needed.

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Distinguish performance improvement gaps.


This assignment is intended to help you learn to do the following:

  • Distinguish performance improvement gaps.
  • Summarize process improvement concepts, principles, and strategies in a healthcare organization. (III.A.4.ii)
  • Critique performance management concepts, principles, and strategies in a healthcare organization. (III.A.4.i)
  • Recommend a performance improvement implementation plan and strategies.


This assignment represents Part 2 of a two-part project that you will complete for your ePortfolio. As you work on this assignment, you will be developing the following Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Management Education (CAHME) competencies:

III.A.4 Critical Thinking, Analysis, & Problem Solving

  1. Performance Management
  2. Process Management

Action Items

  1. Complete Exercise 7: Improving a Performance Gap in my Organization (p. 301) in your textbook. (attached below) 
  2. Prepare your assignment for submission:
    • Follow all applicable APA Guidelines Links to an external site. regarding in-text citations, list of cited references, and document formatting for this paper. Failure to properly cite and reference sources constitutes plagiarism.
    • Write 3-4 pages paper. The title page and reference list are not included in the page count for this paper.
    • Proofread your assignment carefully. Improper English grammar, sentence structure, punctuation, or spelling will result in significant point deductions. 
  3. Submit your assignment. Your work will automatically be checked by Turnitin.

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The Impact of Teamwork on Employee Performance in Strategic Management and the Performance Improvement Department of Abu Dhabi Police, UAE

The Impact of Teamwork on Employee Performance in Strategic Management and the Performance Improvement Department of Abu Dhabi Police, UAE


The structures in the community are organized around the government, business, and non-profit organizations. The three sectors in any economy must correlate and work together for the welfare of the society. However, the environment today is changing and there is considerable concern about the effectiveness of the non-profitable organizations, which may lack the capacity and technical expertise to keep up with the change and there by contribute to an enriched and healthy quality of life. According to Sporeen & Holloway (2004), many non-profit making organizations are fragile and they are responsible for many responsibilities in the society. Many at times, they fail to meet their responsibilities because their financial and other resources are limited. As the environment changes, the demand for the community based services increases, more new needs are identified than there were before as new paradigms for exchange and interactions are identified. The organizations operating a non-profit are challenged by devising new modes of dealing with the specific challenges that come with the changing environment. According to Graen, (2003), the organizations can overcome these challenges if they formulate new corporate strategies to manage their employees, the strategies should involve all employees in the organizations. This calls for teamwork and capacity building.

The Impact of Teamwork on Employee Performance in Strategic Management and the Performance Improvement Department of Abu Dhabi Police, UAE

Critchley, Edwards and Fallon (2007) notes that the activities of organization are becoming complex daily with the advance in technology and there is need for participation of more than one individual. Many big organizations both profitable and non-profit making are increasing their training and teamwork activities in order to boost their performance. Many obstacles to teamwork have to be overcome for success and effective performance. Such obstacles emerge from the environment and the advancing technology. Also include are the conflicts among employees and the strategy formulation in organizations. Teamwork enables organization to overcome these obstacles through consultation and sharing of ideas. For success, the team participants must possess some skills and abilities that can enable them to perform their duties pertaining to the tasks of the group. Where such skills and abilities are limited, organizations have to train the employees and impart in them the specific needed skills. Teamwork is important to the organization because it helps the organization improve its performance through cooperation and participation.

Strategic management is another important aspect of the management that contributes to effective teamwork. Without proper strategies, the team will lack important tasks to execute hence the lag in the performance of the whole organization. Strategic management should treat teamwork as an independent strategy in ADP and therefore strengthen teamwork in all departments for the effective performance of the individual employees and the whole organization. This will involve strategic planning on how to improve teamwork in ADP through training and increased communication and interpersonal skills.

This study is important because it undertakes to study the effectiveness of teamwork as a strategy to increase the performance of employees in the Abu Dhabi Police as a nonprofit making organization. The study begins by the introduction, which highlights the aims and objectives of the study as well as the background to the study problem. It proceeds to the review of previous literatures on teamwork and performance, methodology, data analysis and findings and discussions of the study. The study ends by providing recommendation to ADP for effectiveness of teamwork for its employees and the whole organization.

Table of Contents

Chapter One. 6

1.0 Introduction. 6

1.1 Research objectives. 7

1.2 Research Questions. 8

1.3 Study hypothesis. 8

1.4 Significance of the study. 8

1.5 Study justification. 9

1.6 Strategic Management & performance improvement Department in ADP. 9

1.6.1 ADP Mission and Vision. 10

1.6.2 The Strategic context. 10

1.6.3 Security Awareness. 11

1.6.4 Innovation Strategies. 12

1.7 Thesis structure. 12

1.8 Definitions. 13

Chapter Two. 15

2.0 Teamwork and employee performance in nonprofit making organizations. 15

2.1Chapter overview.. 15

2.2 Basics of teamwork. 15

2.2.1 Developing teamwork. 18

2.2.2 Components of good teamwork. 19

2.3 Strategic management. 21

2.3.1 The five facets of strategic management. 22

2.3.2 Strategic planning and Strategic Management. 24

2.4 Teamwork as a Strategy for management. 25

2.4.1 The role of management. 26

2.5 Teamwork and autonomy. 26

2.6 Teamwork and job satisfaction. 27

2.7 Teamwork and performance. 28

2.8 Negative consequences of team work on performance. 30

2.9 Chapter summary. 31

Chapter Three. 33

3.0 Methodology. 33

3.1 Approach. 33

3.2 Research methods. 34

3.2.1 Quantitative approach vs. qualitative approach. 34

3.3 Strategy of research. 35

3.4 Data collection methods. 36

3.4.1 Population and sample Selection. 37

3.4.2 Design of questionnaire. 37

3.5 Data Analysis. 38

3.6 Reliability and validity. 39

Chapter Four. 40

4.0 Data Analysis. 40

4.1 Questionnaires and interviews. 40

4.2 Hypothesis testing. 42

4.3 Data analysis. 44

4.3.1 Good employee relations. 44

4.3.2 Teamwork and employee autonomy. 45

4.3.3 Impact of teamwork on the learning environment. 46

4.3.4 Teamwork and job satisfaction. 47

4.3.5 Negative consequences of teamwork. 49

4.3.6 Teamwork and organizational environment. 50

4.3.7 Teamwork and performance. 51

4.3.8 Teamwork and strategic management. 53

Chapter Five. 55

5.0 Conclusion. 55

5.1 Overview.. 55

5.2 Conclusion of the study based on objectives. 55

Chapter Six. 59

6.0 Recommendations. 59

7.0 References. 63

Chapter 1 – Introduction


The Abu Dhabi Police (ADP) is amongst the most challenged organizations in UAE. The police are also one of the most diverse forces where effectiveness, focus, and objective orientation are essential. Based on this, the Strategic management and Performance improvement (SM&PI) Department in ADP considers that the employees should have the capability as well as confidence to deal with critical issues that characterize their work. Most important, performance is crucial because any sloppiness could have adverse consequences on the community as a whole (Grant, 2004). The kind of work that police officers do requires them to work together in groups for them to be successful. Teamwork is so critical that in some cases it determines survival of the organization.

Teamwork in the organization has great significance for more than one reason. Organizations that have embraced this concept have reported increased problem solving, employee autonomy and increased performance in work production stimulating new growth. When managed well, this group project approach has increased input by improving employee morale. Teamwork is said to have benefits, which can make a positive impact in the organization. Changes in today’s business world have made teamwork a reality in organizations, as knowledge sharing is crucial for success. Employees, managers, as well as executives have to share information. In addition, because of the complexity of operations as well as proliferation of knowledge in various fields, it is essential for employees at all levels to have the opportunity work as teams and learn from each other for them to generate innovative solutions to organizational, efficiency and operational issues (Wilson, 2008).

Performance has to focus on team performance as it allows corporation more than competition. The performance of any organization is dependent on employees and how they work. This is in turn dependents on whether there is an organizational culture that promotes a high work performance culture particularly within the top and line management through teamwork. To understand the role of teamwork on employee performance, a case study will be conducted in which the researcher will assess the impact of teamwork on employee performance in the SM&PI department of ADP. Semi-structured interviews and unstructured questionnaires will be used to collect data, which will be analyzed using thematic analysis. The findings will be validated using multiple perspectives.

1.1 Research objectives

This study is not aimed at asserting the already written and existing literature on the impact of teamwork on employee performance in strategic management in non-profit-making organizations. Neither does it intent to set a new way that is right but it investigates the extent to teamwork affects positively the performance of employees in non-profit making organizations, especially the Abu Dhabi Police. The goal of the study is to establish the impact of teamwork on the Employees Performance in Strategic Management and Performance Improvement Department in Abu Dhabi Police in the UAE. In order to fulfill this goal, the study seeks to fulfill the following specific objectives of the study.

Objective 1 – To identify the kind of support and guidance that is required by teams from the organization’s management for effective team performance;

Objective 2 – To evaluate team effectiveness in terms of team autonomy, job satisfaction and performance.

Objective 3 – To identify the benefits of teamwork as well as problems suffered by teams as far as performance is concerned within the Strategic management department In ADP.

1.2 Research Questions

The objectives and the goal of the study will be attained is the study answers the following research questions:

  1. What are the components of teamwork that are relevant in non-profit organizations such as ADP and specifically the strategic management department in the organization? How does it encourage teamwork as a strategy for employee performance in the strategic department in ADP?
  2. Determine the link between teamwork as a strategic policy of the strategic department in ADP given the fact that it is a non-profit making organization.
  3. Establish the effectiveness of teamwork on employee autonomy, job satisfaction and the performance of the employees in the strategic department in ADP.

1.3 Study hypothesis

This study is about the impact of teamwork as a strategic management tool in non-profit making organization on the performance of employees. The study seeks to fulfill the hypothesis that teamwork as a strategic management tool affects positively the performance of employees in non-profit making organizations such as the police (Adobor, & Daneshfar, 2006). The vital issues that this dissertation will consider will be centered on the impact of teamwork as a strategy in management to be employed by non-profit making organizations in order to improve employee performance. This will involve the analysis of teamwork as a strategy used in management in Abu Dhabi Police and its impacts on the performance of employees in the organization.

1.4 Significance of the study

This study is important because it examines the impacts of The Impact of Teamwork on the Employees Performance in Strategic Management and Performance Improvement Department in Abu Dhabi Police in the UAE. Many non-profit making organizations usually operate with or without teamwork. However, the organizations know little of the importance of teamwork on the performance of employees in non-profit making organizations. As a form of strategic management, teamwork is an important strategy to use and apply in today’s modern flexible workforce because it can enable the organization improve the performance of the employees hence the overall performance of the organization. This study makes it clear as to why many profitable organizations encourage teamwork and why it is important for non-profit making organizations to emulate their profit making organization to achieve more.

1.5 Study justification

This study seeks to use a case study as one of its methods in studying the study phenomena. The case study undertaken by the researcher is the Abu Dhabi Police as a non-profit making organization. This study is important to the organizations since it enables the organization understand the importance of teamwork as a strategy for strategic management and improving the performance of employees in non-profit making organizations such as the ADP. The research will help the strategic department in ADP to know the basic strategic management principles regarding teamwork and the employees’ performance.

1.6 Strategic Management & performance improvement Department in ADP

Abu Dhabi Police was established in January 1957 late H.H. Shaikh Shakhbut Bin Sultan Al Nahayan , who was the first president of the State of Abu Dhabi and the elder brother of late H.H. Shaikh Zayed Bin Sultan Al Nahayan, the establisher of the United Arab Emirates. Shaikh Shakhbut aim was to build a strong dependent government that provides security and peace to the country. ADP was formulated with very humble techniques (Strategic Plans, 2010). The very beginning duties were to watch and guard some areas like Ruler’s Palace, markets, banks and the boats coming from other countries. There were two police officers assigned to each location. There were at that time around 80 police officers. Coast Guards Unit in ADP was established in 1960 and in 1962; the first batch of Patrols was established. The first Police Music Band was set in 1963. These are the main steps in the establishment dates of ADP.


1.6.1 ADP Mission and Vision

Abu Dhabi Police mission is to work in a cooperative environment to provide a safe and secured society, contains no crimes or other types of law breaking. The society we are seeking is stable and insures to keep the public’s rights. Its vision is to set up a professional and effective police staff whose main goal is to keep the community safe and free if crimes and to spread confidence among people. They are also seeking to build an efficient organization, concerned with motivating and training. It supports learning and new technologies (Strategic Plans, 2010).  

The ADP has policies that are set up on finding problems in local policing and solving it. In fact, their policies are based on problem solving strategy, in order to continuously improve performance and quality service to achieve their main goal, which is insuring safety and security for community and diminish the crimes. Local policing is supporting decision-making and resources allocating, whereas Headquarters departments and sections are sustaining local policing through dedicated services and consultation. In addition, it emphasizes on community services through the improvement of their strategies, policies, and strategy’s standards and supervises the outcomes and performance progress.

1.6.2 The Strategic context

In order to emphasize cooperation strategy, Abu Dhabi Police has established a service for reporting accidents and crimes occurrence. They had published their telephone numbers to make it easier for the people to find it. People can even report on missing things or people via Internet or newspaper. They have an advanced web site that enables citizens to interact with the police. Through this step, they are emphasizing people to cooperate with them and to trust them. Abu Dhabi Police also includes traffic and vehicle licensing. They are responsible for granting driving licenses and checking the state of the vehicles and its safety quality. Moreover, they provide instant help in case of car accidents or car break down, as there are many police patrols all over the city streets. A person can perform lot of services online, like registering new vehicle, apply for a new driving license or a replacement for a lost one, renewing the licenses, inquire about the fines or any other information, and pay the fines. Furthermore, they made special section for recruitment and applying for jobs. ADP has supplied toll free numbers for reporting or providing suggestions, in addition to the Call Back Service. They are well known to the Follow up System used.

1.6.3 Security Awareness

After implementing new strategies and the amazing changes applied to the ADP management, the new approach focuses on involving the community with their processes. This style will develop security awareness among the people and therefore will encourage them to participate with the police to fight crimes and preventing them. With the assistance of the local community, the police’s duties become easier to perform since this cooperation aids them in dealing with the community and understand their needs and problems (Strategic Plans, 2010). Therefore, the police will be more capable of facing crimes and validating secured community. Continuous communication between ADP and his or her local community supports security awareness among the society and calls the attention that security is every person’s responsibility.

1.6.4 Innovation Strategies

ADP has realized that in order to apply a good change strategy, the computer, and technology systems should be improved. Applying new techniques to the Police departments is essential to help in investigation services and problem solving. That is why they asked the aid of other developed police systems worldwide, like the British systems. ADP has installed advanced databases to keep their data organized and well managed to keep track of the data and the ease of getting them. Through researches, it has been found that a very famous innovation in police management field was the Compstat system, which is the computer comparison statistics that was applied in the New York City in the 1990s by former Commissioner William Bratton. Compstat is an interesting model of applying new techniques to the police systems. In order to realize its innovation strategies, the ADP receives technical tools and systems like uniform Criminal Information System, The Eye Scan System, The closed televised surveillance system, The Patrol Mechanical Information System and Mechanical Alarm System. Despite the employment of these important strategies, there is dire need for cooperation among the many employees of the organizations for effectiveness of the organization in achieving its set objectives. Therefore, the one important strategy missing is the management strategy to promote teamwork and cooperation among employees.

1.7 Thesis structure

Chapter 1 introduction; this chapter introduces the research by giving the objectives of the study after establishing the background of the Strategic Management & performance improvement Department in ADP. 

Chapter 2 Literature review; this chapter reviews the past literature concerning the teamwork, strategic management, and employee performance in non-profit making organizations. Both theoretical and empirical literature will be reviewed with findings on the study topic being provided.

 Chapter 3 Research methodology; this chapter outlines the various methodologies that the study employs in collecting data and the analysis of the collected data. The study design, methodology, qualitative and sampling techniques are highlighted in addition to the validity, reliability, and limitations of the study.

 Chapter 4 this chapter analyzes the data collected on the impact of teamwork as a strategy employed in strategic management on the performance of employees in non-profit making organizations. The responses to the questionnaire and interview questions are analyzed and discussed in this chapter. In addition, the findings regarding the performance of the employees in relation to teamwork are discussed.

Chapter 5 Conclusion; this is the last chapter of the study that concludes the research by making conclusions regarding the fulfillment of specific objectives of the study based on the findings of the study.

Chapter Six recommendations; the recommendations based on the findings of the research are related to strategies on how to improve the performance of employees basing on the application of teamwork to ADP. Moreover, recommendations on further research are provided and conclusion given basing on the findings of the study.

1.8 Definitions

Teamwork: according to Jenner, Foote and Zhao (2010), several people have defined teamwork differently. However, though the views slightly differ, the organization of work using teamwork can be defined as a wide range of possibilities such as quality work, cross-functional teams, self-managing teams, or virtual teams. Many employers usually provide autonomy together with teamwork. A distinctive feature of teamwork is the successive work actions to assemble different parts of the product. In places where the aim is to improve the process of production, teamwork is more of complexity, increase in communication and integrative work. However, for the purposes of this study, a team will be used to mean Group(s) of employees who have at least some collective tasks and where the team members are authorized to regulate mutually the execution of these collective tasks’ (Critchley, Edwards & Fallon, 2007).

Strategic management: according to Graen (2003), strategic management refers to the process by which the decision making organ of an organization envisions the future of the organization and they develop the necessary procedures and operations to achieve that anticipated future.

Chapter 2 – Teamwork and employee performance in nonprofit making organizations

2.1Chapter overview

Both profit and non-profit making organizations are finding teamwork very important in their operations and especially in employee performance and the overall performance of the organizations. Many organizations that have established the culture of teamwork do operate with high quality, speed and are more economical in their operations. According to Aichouni (2005), man is unable to live on his efforts alone and he therefore requires the help of a fellow man. Consequently, teamwork in many organizations is as important as the mutual interactions of man. A secure and friendly work environment is not a condition within itself for forming progressive teamwork. Politeness and respect are the first conditions for successful advancement of the team. However, they do not characterize teamwork (Thamhain, 2008). The important values of teamwork are communication, conflict resolution, and cooperation among employees.

2.2 Basics of teamwork

Wilson, (2008) define a team as a group of people carrying out work collectively. Success in the work done is achieved if a good team is chosen. In course of executing duty, the individual members of a group that forms a team should have a common goal towards success. The qualities of a good team are capable, intelligent, communicative individual with a clear understanding of the problem at hand would like to cooperate  in order to solve the problem as a team. The team should achieve the intended goal as a team and not as individual members of the team. According to Levy (2005), this is the right path to success. There is a connection between teamwork and looking for ideas such as problems and conflict solving ideas. These factors are interconnected and dependent on each other and therefore cannot be separated. In this regard, communication and cooperation are common and present everywhere. These can be depicted in figure 1 below.

Ideas in the teamwork: every member in the team is important. Ideas in the teamwork involve the collection of ideas from the team members in order to achieve the group goal. Ideas can be collected in the team through brainstorming sessions where participants state their ideas as they are noted down. 

Teamwork and conflict resolution: teamwork is an effective means of solving conflicts in an organization. The conflict or problem at hand can be subjected to the views of the participants whose solutions to the problem differ. Conflicts are many and may arise from the steps towards achieving of the given a group goal or the members in the team can disagree on the goal itself. According to Russell (2005), there is no necessity of the team to solve the problems to be performed by a group of individuals. However, the synchronization of individuals, mutual adaptation and co-operation are necessary for solving problems. In addition, the main goal of teamwork is to solve problems. The diversity of the group members means that there are many different opinions concerning the solutions to the problems as the individuals. In order to arrive at the best solution, the team settles of the optimal solution to the problem at hand (Hesselbein & Shinseki, 2004).

According to Leedy and Ormrod (2005), conflicts regarding the given solution to the problem are important because it enable the team to come up with a better solution. A never-ending circle in the diagram means that whenever the group is trying to solve the problem, other problems come up.

Fog 1

Source: Rupar, B & Rupar, M (n.d), Importance of teamwork for non-profit organizations

For an optimal solution to be reached, the group should let go the conflicts and arrive at optimal solution to the problem.

Solving problems: this involves ideas that can solve a problem. The solution on the problem is obtained from the ideas obtained from the participants. For the success of teamwork, mutual-cooperation and communication among team members is very important. For participants to adjust, they need to communicate and cooperate. Schroeder & Lombardo (2004), argues that without communication and mutual cooperation, teamwork is unsuccessful. The communication used in teamwork can be either verbal or non-verbal. Through teamwork, the management of an organization can establish the goals of the organization regarding specific aspects with the help of teamwork. Graen (2003) add that effective teamwork can be achieved through motivation of the participants. Successful teamwork leads to quality work and better organizational operations with increased success at all levels of the organization (Linden, 2002).

2.2.1 Developing teamwork

Many organizations have adopted teamwork in their operations making it to be very valuable. According to Critchley, Edwards and Fallon (2007), teamwork is used in both profit as well as non-profit organizations. The failure of some companies to employed teamwork in their daily operations can be attributed to fear and mistrust of employees during the implementation of new methods of work in the organization. Teamwork is developed through five phases as indicated below.

Team development

Source: Rupar & Rupar, (n.d) Importance of teamwork for non-profit organizations

The first phase involves the formation of a group through the introduction f new members. The new members get to know each other about the problem at hand that united them. According to Boaden and Leaviss (2000), many ideas are put forth in this phase, in which based on adapting in the following phase must be adjusted. Consensus and the voice of the majority must be adhered to in the third phase. The participants must realize the common goal and therefore the idea for their membership. The third phase is the most demanding and the most important. As the realization phase approaches, the participants realize that they need to arrive at an optimal solution to the problem. King (2004) notes that the participants must be careful while negotiating the optimal solution so that they do not lose the support of other members because they will be of importance in the last phase of assuming responsibilities. According to Flick, et al. (2004), the working team should be maintained as a team for success and attainment of the necessary goals. Therefore, successful development of a team means a continuous process.

According to Creswell (2007), teamwork is essential to the success of any organization. Productive teamwork can energize the entire strategic department in ADP while the negative effects of teamwork can cripple the department hence entire organization. An organization can succeed if it knows how to select the right team that can work effectively well through cooperation and teamwork. Michalisin, Karau, and Tangpong (2004) adds that knowing how to select the right members of a team is important because no matter how hard a group might work together, without the right people on the job, the team will fail. Teamwork is important for every member of the team including the team leaders and individual members.

2.2.2 Components of good teamwork for organizational culture Positive corporate culture

Every organization that looks forward to recruiting long-term effective team members should have a positive corporate culture that is open and invigorating. The members of a team can thrive well in an environment of creative work and challenges. According to Rouse & Boff (2005), destructive organizational climate that is characterized by high turnover, distrust, negative attitudes, and negative attitudes usually lead to high employee turnover in such organizations or they make their employees products of destructive organizational culture. Despite being the responsibility of every group member in the organization, the positive corporate culture should come from top management of the department down to the small groups of individuals in the organization.  

It is the responsibility of the management to apply teamwork as part of the strategic management in the organization. According to Creswell (2007), a management can foster good corporate culture in several ways such as ensuring that the team has clear expectations, provisions of authority to team members on execution of decisions as required and supporting and backing up the decisions made by the team members. Recognition

This is an important part of the success of a team. The team members usually search for recognition. Delarue and De Prins (2004) argue that the department of strategic management should positively recognize the members of the various teams in the department. Positive recognition entails recognizing outstanding performance, continued performance, and improved performance. Positive feedback

The results of a team are measured against the feedback received. Therefore, without feedback, the team is unable to measure the results of its efforts. With no feedback, confusion will characterize the activities of a team and make them miss their expectations as they produce so many disappointments. The growth of a team depends on the frequency of feedback concerning the performance of the team. According to U.S. Army (2010), feedback should be provided on a regular basis. In addition to the above, there is also the provision of opportunities for employees.

2.3 Strategic management

Strategic management was first used in the 1970s to mean the strategic planners or strategic programs of an organization. However, as time passed on, the business environment changed forcing the strategic management also to change. In the 1990s, the strategic plan and strategic management of an organization were much different from before. Strategic management is the process by which an organization through its management drafts, implements and evaluates cross-functional decisions that enable the organization to achieve its long-term objectives. It entails the process of specifying the mission, its vision, objectives, and the development of the various strategies to achieve the objectives of the organization. In addition to that, policies and plans to achieve that are designed to achieve the specified firm objectives (Thompson, & Thompson, 2009). Also included in the strategic management process are the implementation process and the evaluation of the success of the strategies used. The evaluation on the performance of the organization usually involves the use of tools like a balanced scored card and benchmarking. In this case, the evaluation process analyzes the financial records of the strategic department and the strategies used. After successful evaluation, the department will know whether to change its strategies, mission, and objectives or not (Thompson, & Thompson, 2009).

According to Levi (2007), strategic planning is a prelude of strategic management and it follows that for strategic planning to be effective, it must be followed by deployment and implementation of the plan and the evaluation of the action plan. Strategic management is a system’s approach to identifying and making the necessary changes while measuring the performance of an organization towards the attainment of the desired goal. Strategic management goes beyond the development of the strategic plan. It involves the deployment and the implementation of the strategic plan of an organization (Jenner, Foote & Zhao, 2010). Deployment means the completion of the strategic plan and making it known to every member of the organization. The implementation of the strategic plan involves the resourcing the plan and putting it to action as well as managing the actions. The monitoring and evaluation of the plan involves tracking down the implementation of the plan and assessing how well the department is changing due to the implemented plan and using the information obtained to update the plan while avoiding deviations from the normal (Russell & Ryan, 2009).

2.3.1 The five facets of strategic management

Strategic management is comprised of five facets that include goal setting, analysis, strategy implementation, and strategy monitoring. These facets are the basic elements of the strategic management and when they are applied, they distinguish strategic management from less comprehensive approaches such as operational management or long term planning.

Source: Scribner, S 2010, Introduction to strategic management

Goal setting: this element of strategic management enables the department to articulate its vision. Through its execution, the department can identify what needs to be accomplished, define the objectives of the department in the short term and in the long term, and relate the objectives to what is to be done in the strategic department. It this section the department also provides its mission statement summarizing its purpose and goals.

Analysis: this guides the department to collect and consider information it fully understands. The analysis part can enable the ADP to assess its external environment and internal environment and identify its weaknesses, strengths, opportunities and threats that the department faces as it tries to meet its goals. Through such an analysis, the department can opt to capitalize on its strengths and available opportunities in the environment to meet its goals and objectives.

Strategy formation: according to Ruiz and Bianey (2004), the department can determine and develop a strategy by reflecting and prioritizing options. After its development, the department needs to make the right decisions and review the analysis as it reviews also the issues to be addressed while prioritizing them in terms of urgency and magnitude. The results obtained should help the department to design an alternative strategy while addressing key strategy issues.

Strategy implementation: for the implementation of the strategy, there is need of the department to assemble the required resources and apply them in the implementation process. The plan that is carefully chosen should be put into practice. Moreover, the necessary commitment should also be used as the strategic department taps into excess capacity or build new capacity and seek to achieve better and higher results as per the goals (Valle & Witt, 2001).

Strategy monitoring: this allows the strategic department to check the progress made towards attaining the goals set while assessing whether any changes in the environment necessitate alterations to the strategy. Plans and actions should be modified to adjust the strategy to the impacts of the changes in the environment. When monitoring is effective, the strategic department is able to react and anticipate. According to Pfaff and Huddeleston (2003), monitoring provides feedback to management for the analysis, strategy design, and implementation they conducted.

2.3.2 Strategic planning and Strategic Management

According to Daniels & Macdonald (2005), strategic planning and strategic management are a set of tools used by the management. They constitute a mindset of, an approach to look at the internal and external changes in an organization that can help the strategic department to achieve its goals and objectives. The use of planning and management tools strategically involves thinking essentially, mental framework and analytic tools. Strategic management requires the management have strategic mentality for success. Daniels & Macdonald (2005) adds that strategic mentality has four main elements that include:

Strategic approach is future oriented. It considers environmental change. The use of this approach enables managers to focus on a specific period in future, thus have going concern. The strategic focus has also an external emphasis. According to Cruz et al. (2009), there are several components found in the external environment that strategic approach takes into account such a politics, technology, economics and social aspects. Strategic thinking by management considers that these components are important while making business decisions. Politics for example determines the policies to be implemented, economics the organization’s level; of resources to be employed in projects while social factors can determine the benefactors of the products of the organization. Managers consider these external factors while making strategies to meet long term and short-term goals of the strategic department (Leedy & Ormrod, 2005).

Strategic approach also concentrates on assuring good fit between the environment and the strategic department while attempting to anticipate the required and assure continued fit. Lastly, the strategic approach is a continuous process that recognizes the need to be open to the changing goals of the department based on the changing factors in the business environment. The process requires monitoring and frequent reviews for feedback on progress.

2.4 Teamwork as a Strategy for management

Strategic management focuses on the both short term and long-term objectives of an organization. Following the future forecast of the position of an organization, the management can formulate goals for the organization. The goals and objectives set will also lead to formulation of specific strategies to achieve the objectives. The management formulates the strategies while the employees implements the strategies formulated by the organization. According to Lavon (2005), the employees also monitor and evaluate the strategies while making the necessary adjustments in case of a change in the working environment.

According to Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill  (2007), the effectiveness of the strategies of the strategic department depends on the employees of the organization. The success of the strategies formulated of the organization will depend on the teamwork exhibited by the employees while executing the various tasks related to the objectives of the strategic management department in ADP. Boaden and Leaviss (2000) notes that the employees working as a team would lead to the success of the organization. Teamwork will give employees morale and motivation to work and achieves the given strategies. Moreover, Rouse & Boff (2005) adds that through teamwork, the employees’ conflicts accompanying the workplace and the issues standing in the way of objective achievement can be effectively solved without difficulties. As Lavon (2005) argued, the labor force today is divers and flexible. The diversity and flexibility of the employees is exploited by big organizations. The employees are involved in decision-making discussions with the management. This is usually made possible through brainstorming sessions where the employees discuss the issues facing them and the organization, hence coming out with perfect solutions to problems and issues. This is only possible with teamwork.

Bacon and Blyton (2006) argue that the success of teamwork in an organization also depends on the organizational culture created by the management. The organizational culture of interpersonal communication and training encourages sharing amongst employees. Such a culture encourages teamwork as compared to conservative cultures where employees are not encouraged to share their experiences and skills. Jenner, Foote and Zhao (2010), warn that for the department to succeed, it must also take teamwork important strategies that can enable it achieve its formulated strategies. When teamwork is taken as a strategy in itself, the strategic department is able to set up mechanisms of cultivating teamwork. It can also set aside resources for training on important teamwork skills.

2.4.1 The role of management

The senior leaders of the strategic department are charged with strategic management of improving teamwork in the organization. Strategic management should be continuous in the strategic department and not only for a period in time. Moreover, the organization’s management should always think strategically as they constantly change the culture of the organization. The leaders of the strategic department are to facilitate, coach and be consensus builders as well as consultants regarding the strategic planning and strategic management. Transformational leadership, which is described by Jennings (2002, p. 79). as the superior leadership performance that occurs “when leaders broaden and elevate the interests of their employees, when they generate awareness and acceptance of the purposes and mission of the group, and when they stir their employees to look beyond their own self interest for the good of the group.”

2.5 Teamwork and autonomy

There is a relationship between teamwork and autonomy of employees in non-governmental organizations. According to Salas, Gpoodwin & Burke, (2008), teamwork increases the level of autonomy of employees in making decisions about their work. Team autonomy is understood as the possibility of the group to participate in the decision-making process in relation to tasks, working methods, organization of working time and assessing the quality of their own work. Various types of teamwork generally differentiate according to the autonomy of individual members within the team and the autonomy of the team as a whole, including its participation in the decision-making process within the strategic management department in ADP. Working in a team is closely associated with an environment typified by the possibility to learn new things and perform complex tasks. Team workers are more likely to learn new things in their work than those not working in teams are.

2.6 Teamwork and job satisfaction

Teamwork involves the involvement of workers working in a team and as a group. Working as a team has its own challenges and benefits. Employees experience all these. However, Donovan, (2004) note that there is a relationship between teamwork and job satisfaction. If teams work well, have a common goal, are autonomous in their decision-making, and have responsibility and support, teamwork becomes a valuable experience for the workers involved. ‘Working in a team empowers people and helps them develop autonomy, which is a source of profound job satisfaction and reduces stress.’ (Hayes, 2005, p. 172). Therefore, Working in a team contributes to job satisfaction. According to this model, two classes of factors influence job satisfaction. The first class of factors leading to job satisfaction corresponds to the employee’s need to further his or her qualifications and career and, by extension, to develop his or her personality.

The second category of factors that influence job satisfaction form the basis on which the first factors are formed and compromises working conditions in a broad sense while encompassing the wages of employees, the management styles employed and the organization. The initial class of factors is often denoted as motivators or satisfactory while the second class of factors is the dissatisfactory. Thus, they are often referred to as the factors serving to prevent dissatisfaction, but with little influence on positive attitudes to work. Satisfaction is important for team and employee performance. If teamwork increases employee’s job satisfaction, then the productivity of the employee will improve (Salas, Gpoodwin & Burke, 2008).

2.7 Teamwork and performance

Teamwork is important in every person’s daily lives, though of particular importance if the relevance of the teamwork to businesses and organizations. Many activities of any organization are becoming complex daily due to advanced technology and it therefore calls for teamwork. Not all work employee teams produce good results (Lavon, 2005). Teamwork helps employees to overcome the many obstacles of coordination, role ambiguity, personal conflicts, and free riders among many other problems in an organization. According to Pfaff and Huddleston (2003), there is need for teamwork in all types of organizations including non-profit making organizations. Non-profit making organizations should form groups for teamwork. The teams should be taught how to improve their performance through improved skills. In addition, through teamwork, employees obtain the necessary skills for better individual performance. Chen et al., 2004; Ellis et al., 2005; Lavon, 2005) argue that the skills of a team do not have to be innate. It is possible for team participants to learn the knowledge, skills and abilities necessary for working adequately in a team (Fröbel & Marchington, 2005).

There are enough reasons for adoption of teamwork in non-profit making organizations especially regarding performance. According to Gill & Johnson (2006), organizations that have embraced teamwork have recorded increased performance in productivity at work, issues, and problem solving at work and stimulation of new growth in the organization. Group work can increased the morale of employees in the strategic department and make work even harder while affecting the output of the organization positively. Thompson and Thompson (2009) notes that many companies use the self-directed format of teamwork to perform better. In this format, the group leader is either assigned by the management or elected by the members. The leader must be effective for performance and completion of the project at hand.

The success of a team will also depend o the abilities that the individual members have in relation to working in a team. The important skills and abilities for successful group work are ability to a team player and posses the skills and knowledge necessary to complete the assigns tasks. The completion of a task earlier should enable individual members of a team help other teams finish. This calls for a team spirit in the entire workforce of an organization. Where these attributes lack, teamwork flounders and the management must now engage training for the employees to gain the necessary skills and abilities. Despite these few issues, teamwork works perfectly for all types of organizations.

Despite the importance of teamwork in relation to performance, Daniels & Macdonald (2005) admits that it is not easy to teach individuals on how to work in a team. This is because teaching individuals to work in a team goes beyond the limits of any traditionally based training as it involves the training of only the skills that can facilitate teamwork and the internal working of individuals. Teaching teamwork to individuals therefore involves innovative didactic techniques similar to techniques of experimental learning. For delivery of the required results in relation to performance of a team, there is need to specific skills necessary for working in a team (Walburg, 2006). Where such skills are deficient, the employees should be trained on how they can perform better as a team and therefore enable the department meet its set strategic objectives. In particular, Bacon and Blyton (2006) propose the teaching of the self-management team and the interpersonal team skills. These important skills enhance communication and interpersonal relationship in teams while enhancing teamwork and performance. The self-management team skills enable a team to manage its own activities and resources while working within the limits of the organization’s duties (Letts, Ryan & Grossman, 1999).

2.8 Negative consequences of teamwork on performance

Despite all the positive importance of teamwork, there are possible negative impacts that can affect the team, employees, their performance, and the organization’s overall performance. This can include the possibility of an increased pace of work and the resulting higher workload and greater risk of health problems. However, the effects lie in the higher demand for performance and corresponding extended responsibilities and autonomy in work teams. The high demand of work with no scope of control for teams and decision making on how the high demand can be met can lead to employees experiencing high levels of stress and work pressure. The experts are divided into two groups with the first group advocating for teamwork for positive impacts in organizations on employees such as reducing the rate of work injuries, fewer absences from work and increased work productivity.

The other group advises against the use of teamwork in organizations arguing that teamwork may have detrimental effects on workers by increasing work-related health problems and the risk of occupational hazards’ (Askenazy, 2001; Brenner, Fairris and Ruser, 2004). The pace of work in the department can be increased though job rotation and greater responsibility of employees for quality of the services offered. The rotation of employees o their jobs  and rapid organizational changes that are facilitated by production processes that are flexible can reduce the chances of workers to improve their safety through work routines and learning on the job. According to Donovan (2004), the introduction of new forms of work organization, including teamwork, led to an increased workload and an increase in time pressure caused by a staff shortage and technical problems. The study further note that the introduction of teamwork in organizations is followed by intensified work.

The high intensity of work can cause problems to the strategic department if the enlarged job is not accompanied by a great possibility for control over one’s work. According to Salas, Gpoodwin & Burke, (2008), there is a conflict between the practices in organizations that lead to high performance of employees and work life balance policies. Working as a team in groups plays a larger role in high work demands. People who work in teams think about their work in their free time often than those not working in groups. Therefore, teamwork is not very good for employees’ social life. Basing on these findings, it is important that the strategic department analyses the effects of teamwork both to the strategic department and to the individual employees before adopting teamwork as a strategy for achieving organizational goals.

2.9 Chapter summary

Teamwork is important in every sector in an organization. Teamwork can enable all types of organizations (both profit and non-profit making) to increase their performance. Through teamwork, employees of non-profit making organizations and the strategic management department can gain morale to work hard and better yielding better performance for the team, the department and the organization. Teamwork can be adopted as a strategy in non-profit making organization to increase the performance of the individual employees and the organization. Effective teamwork should be cultivated in such strategic department through better organizational culture that encourages cooperation and participation. In non-profit organizations without teamwork, employees can be trained to obtain the necessary interpersonal skills for teamwork. It is important that all organizations encourage teamwork because employees cannot work alone in the environment that is full of obstacles and issues. The next chapter will discuss the methodology undertaken by this study.

Chapter 3 – Methodology

3.1 Approach

This research will take a deductive approach that will entail the researcher working from a known hypothesis that teamwork affects positively the employee performance in the strategic management department in ADP. Thus, the study takes a top down approach as compared to the inductive approach that takes an up down strategy. This is illustrated by the figure below.

Fig 3.1

To realize the use deductive approach, quantitative tools of collective and analyzing data like questionnaires and interviews were used. Quantitative tools were preferred as compared to qualitative tools because they enable the researcher to come up with facts like a hypothesis that teamwork can improve the performance of employees in the strategic department of ADP and thereafter testing and confirming the hypothesis. This is unlike qualitative tools that first come up with an abstract idea that is followed by creation of theories and concepts about the idea. Lastly, data in quantitative research is hard and reliable as compared with qualitative research where data that is just rich and deep (Quinn, 2002). 

In addition to the above, this study takes a positivism kind of philosophy towards the impact of teamwork o employee performance in strategic management department in ADP. A positivism approach will make us understand more the impact of teamwork on not only employees but also overall organization.

3.2 Research methods

3.2.1 Quantitative approach vs. qualitative approach

There are two ways to approach any study, either, qualitative or quantitative. However, a study can combine the two approaches by employing both qualitative and quantitative methods. The distinction between these two methods arises in how data is collected, treated, and analyzed.

A study that is quantitative usually makes an emphasis on transforming the data quantities and the models of statistics for purposes of measuring and analyzing data. The research topics in which researchers use this method have clear idea of what they look or search for and tools like questionnaires are used to collect data. Quantitative approach has its focus on the preciseness of data that is seen in terms of measuring data. Quantitative approach to a research involves using statistical data analyses to obtain information about the study simply because the approach is based on measuring the quantity or amount.

On the contrary, a qualitative approach to research makes the researcher to switch his focus to gaining a better understanding of the problem of the research by giving detailed information about the main theme of the study topic. The major goal of a qualitative study is to have a complete and detailed description of the study phenomenon by applying reasoning. Qualitative research involves the use of interviews and observations to collect data and there are no formal measurements involved. Qualitative approach makes the researcher understand the phenomenon under study and be in a position to describe the whole situation as it is. The approach consists of descriptions, quotes, observations, and excerpts from books and other documents (Quinn, p. 2002, p. 308).

This study would like the researcher and the reader to gain a better understanding the adoption of teamwork as a management strategy in the strategic department of ADP. The study will provide a detailed explanation of teamwork, its use, and application in the strategic department of ADP. In order to measure the impacts and importance of teamwork on employee performance and the performance of non-profit making organizations, a quantitative approach to research will applied by the study. This will involve gathering information about teamwork and the performance of individual employees in the strategic management department, the performance of the department and the performance of the whole ADP organization. This approach allows the researcher to use statistical data to analyze the impact of Teamwork on employee performance in the strategic department in ADP.

3.3 Strategy of research

This study would get to the deeper understanding and knowledge of the impacts of teamwork on employee performance in the strategic management department of ADP. The study also involves investigating the teamwork as a strategy for human resource management in non-profit making organizations.

A case study is a strategy for the research that involves the researcher collecting and making an analysis of data from a given case. In this study, the researcher will use the strategic management department in ADP as the case study for teamwork and employee performance. A case study is relevant as well as useful to the study in all situations that will give rise to different but relevant interpretations to the topic of study. This study only analyzes one mom-profit making strategic department (ADP) as a case for study although there can be many cases. According to Yin (2003, p. 78), a case is a study that is empirical in nature and seeks to investigate the unclear phenomenon. This study will employ an embedded single case study that gives an attention to a single case study for analysis. There could be more chances of comparing several cases but due to time constraints, the researcher will study the impact of teamwork on employee performance in strategic management strategy in ADP (Jankowicz, 2005, p. 234).

A survey is another design that the research uses. A survey is good for this study because it can be administered from any location and large sample are feasible with many questions being asked about the impact of teamwork on employee performance in Strategic department in ADP. In addition to that, the use of surveys makes the researcher employ standard questions that result in uniform definitions and responses from the respondents.

3.4 Data collection methods

It is important for the researcher to choose relevant data collection methods for the study because they will help him in successful completion of the study. The method that is selected by the researcher will determine how data is collected in the course of research. The various methods of collecting data will vary depending on the approach that the study is using. This study will employ interviews and questionnaires to collects data (Mcneill & Chapman, 2005).

There are also primary and secondary methods of collecting data. Primary are the methods that collect data for the first time while secondary methods are those where the researcher uses data collected by other people. According to Quinn (2002, p. 10), secondary data collection methods refer to the ability of the researcher to carry out an analysis of the data that other researchers have already prepared. This research will use both primary and secondary methods to collect data for the study. The primary sources of data will come from the questionnaires and interviews conducted by the researcher. The secondary sources will include a review of both published and unpublished literature related to the suitability of teamwork for employee performance in non-profit organizations. Primary sources will include the review of the findings from the interviews and responses from respondents from the strategic management department department in ADP (Jain, 2006, p. 376).

3.4.1 Population and sample Selection

The population of the study will comprise of the various people in charge of strategic management department in ADP. It is important that all members of the study population be studied to ascertain the findings of the study. However, due to constraints experienced by the researcher during the study, only 30% of the study population will be studied. Mcneill, and Chapman, (2005, p. 226) argues that the process of sampling involves selecting elements from the study population so that by carrying a study of the sample and having an understanding of the properties of the characteristics of the subjects of the sample, it will be possible to generalize the properties to specific elements in the population.

Sampling techniques that can be used in any research are many and the researcher can choose depending on the goals and objectives of the study. The use of these sampling techniques allows a researcher to choose the sample population from a subset of a large population rather than the whole population reducing the cost of the study. Concerning this study, Stratified random sampling was chosen because it is a probability method that gives every member of the population equal chance of being selected as a sample.

3.4.2 Design of questionnaire

The questions that are commonly used in surveys and questionnaires are usually open ended, closed-ended questions and likert scales. Open ended questions do not always give answers that a respondent can choose from but allow participants to answer freely. On the other hand, closed ended questions provide answers for the respondent to choose from. Likert scale questions requests respondents to respond to the question along a given continuum from the given responses. The questionnaire and questions for interviews that were used in this study, contained question that had the above three structures. The development of the questionnaire considered questions that will give rise to information that is relevant to the importance of teamwork on employee performance in non-profit making organizations.

3.5 Data Analysis

Responses to the interviews and questionnaires will be analyzed using thematic analysis. This tool is considered to be highly inductive, as themes are not imposed on data by the researcher but rather emerge from the data itself. In this method, data from different people is compared and contrasted, similarities and differences identified in a process that continues until the researcher is satisfied that no more new issues or themes are arising (Flick, et al. 2004). Thematic analysis was chosen because it allows rich, in-depth, and detailed meaning to be derived from the collected data. It involves coding of data according to the emerging themes (Mcneill & Chapman, 2005). Thematic analysis analyses the descriptions line by line, allowing rich in-depth data to be derived from the responses (Russell & Gery, 2009). This tool categorizes the findings and conclusions from various sources according to the emerging themes, making it possible to identify similarities in the meanings and explanations from the various respondents. The researcher is also able to highlight the main issues emerging from the responses. Line by line analysis allows the researcher to highlight matching patterns in the text from the different responses allowing quantification of data (Salkind, 2008).

3.6 Reliability and validity

The performance of any research tool is usually measured in terms of reliability, validity and sensitivity as well as specificity. These concepts will also be applied in this study by the researcher to ascertain the reliability of the study. According to Waliman (2005), reliability is the ability by which a study is able to produce results that are consistent and stable over a given period of time and given similar circumstances (Waliman, 2005). Various types of validities exist that include internal validity and external validity. Internal validity relates to the correlation between items when measured on a scale. Whenever a study provides the same results after the application of two different measures, the outcome is said to be equivalent.

Validity is the extent to which a given instrument is designed to measure. The validity of a study can vary in different samples used. In one situation, a study can be valid while in other scenarios, it may not. The validity of a study is measured by what the study claims to and the availability of logical errors in the conclusions drawn from the study. According to Crotty (2003), internal validity is the extent to which it is possible to make independent reference from the findings of a study especially if the independent variable influences the dependent variable. On the other hand, external validity is the general application of the findings of a study to other settings.

The measurement of the theoretical construct of a study is measured using construct validity while convergent validity makes comparison between the scores that are obtained from different instruments that are used in the study. Unlike convergent validity, divergent validity compares the instruments used in the study that measure concepts that are opposite. Given the above validity and reliability, the study is valid ad reliable for use by any person or strategic department (Waliman, 2005)

Chapter 4 – Data Analysis

4.1 Questionnaires and interviews

This part analyzes the responses from the questions that were used in the questionnaires and interviews. The researcher used these two methods to gather data about the suitability of teamwork as a strategic human resource management tool that can be employed in the strategic human resource management department in ADP. These were used to improve employee performance and the performance of the strategic management department as a nonprofit making organization. To achieve the objectives of the study, the reliability, and validity of data collected was measured. The strategic management department in ADP has six sections with a total population of about 5oo employees. Four managers at the top position of the strategic management department lead the employees in the department. By use of stratified sampling, the researcher selected thirty percent of the employees in the department including the four managers leading the department. The four managers are influential in the strategic management department and are mostly involved in decision making in the strategic department in ADP  (Dimmock, 1998). However, a lot of care was taken to ensure that there was proper representation to avoid bias. The researcher interviewed the four managers and ten more employees while the rest of the respondents were sent questionnaires to fill through the research assistants in the field. The researcher did the distribution of the questionnaires to his representatives on the ground to ensure that the research is completed in time (Heart, et al., 2001). Therefore, only 14 interviews were conducted with the rest of the 136 respondents filling the questionnaires and returning them to the respondent.

Out of the 136 questionnaires that were distributed to the respondents, only 118 were returned to the researcher. When added to the 14 interviews conducted by the researcher, it sums up to 132 responses, which represent 88%. The questionnaires that were used had both open-ended questions and likert scale questions. All questions were analyzed except those questions that were poorly or wrongly answered. All responses from all types of questions will be analyzed beginning with responses from likert scale questions. The eight likert-scale questions were rated using a likert scale of 1-5. The analysis that was done was based on the objectives of the study.

Q1How would you rate the level of your organization’s teamwork?4328    232715       136
Q2Do you cooperate with or do your colleagues cooperate with you while on duty? To what extent?5218222025       136
Q3In order to encourage teamwork and cooperation, there is need for communication. How do you rate the level of communication within ADP? Are you able to directly communicate to your boss in case of difficulty or any other issue in the organization?2737361917       136
Q4How would you rate the degree of resource commitment in relation to the development and encouragement of teamwork in ADP?2418193342       136
Q5What was the role of formulating teamwork strategy and methods of Strategic management in relation to employee performance?4537231516       136
Q6Please rate the importance of teamwork on employee performance4148201611       136
Q7On a scale of 1 to 5 where 1 represents ‘extremely satisfied’ and 4 represents ‘extremely dissatisfied’ How would you rate your level of overall satisfaction with teamwork and cooperation within ADP?2023462720       136
Q8How likely are you to recommend teamwork strategy as a strategic management strategy to a friendly non-profit making organization in another industry? Do you think the chances are?4148201512       136

4.2 Hypothesis testing

This research was conducted on the basis that the adoption of teamwork in the strategic management department of ADP will affect positively the performance of the employees in the department and the ADP as a nonprofit making organization. This hypothesis can be tested using the response to the questions asked in the questionnaire and interviews conducted by the researcher (Gorelick, Milton & April, 2004). The means of the values for each response was obtained from the rating that corresponded to that of the likert scale. The mean weights (were ranging from 1-5) were multiplied to give rise to percentages. The weighted averages were used to test the study hypothesis that the adoption of teamwork in the department of strategic human resource management in ADP would transform the performance of the department positively. This is illustrated below.

Q1How would you rate the level of your organization’s teamwork?34%20%16%19%11%2.9
Q2Do you cooperate with or do your colleagues cooperate with you while on duty? To what extent?38%13%16%15%18%         2.8
Q3In order to encourage teamwork and cooperation, there is need for communication. How do you rate the level of communication within ADP? Are you able to directly communicate to your boss in case of difficulty or any other issue in the organization?19%28%14%12%27%         3.0   
Q4How would you rate the degree of resource commitment in relation to the development and encouragement of teamwork in ADP?18%13%14%24%31%         2.9         
Q5What was the role of formulating teamwork strategy and methods of Strategic management in relation to employee performance?33%27%17%11%12%      3.1  
Q6Please rate the importance of teamwork on employee performance.30%35%15%12%8%      3.0   
Q7On a scale of 1 to 5 where 1 represents ‘extremely satisfied’ and 4 represents ‘extremely dissatisfied’ How would you rate your level of overall satisfaction with teamwork and cooperation within ADP?15%17%34%19%15%       2.8 
Q8How likely are you to recommend teamwork strategy as a strategic management strategy to a friendly non-profit making organization in another industry? Do you think the chances are?30%35%15%11%9% 

The discussion of the findings of this study will be conducted in the next section.

4.3 Data analysis

This section analyses the data collected from the respondents of the using both questionnaire and interviews. The analysis is done thematically.

4.3.1 Good employee relations

This question requested respondents to indicate whether there are good employee relations in strategic management department with full mutual respect and cooperation among employees and managers. Many respondents indicated that there were good employee relations in the organization. The employee relationship enjoyed was because of better communication and sharing in the department. This has encouraged sharing and consultation, while increasing the learning environment in the department. The end result if teamwork. The few respondents who argued that the employee relations were not goods was because the sectors they worked did not involve much consultations and therefore less teamwork. Moreover, they noted that teamwork increases the pace of work leading to higher workload with less autonomy on how the work is to be performed. Thus, the discussion on how work is to be performed is limited reducing the employee relations.

4.3.2 Teamwork and employee autonomy

This part of the study concerns the incidence of teamwork on employee autonomy. The questions inquired whether teamwork increases the autonomy of employees in decision making concerning their work. According to De Vita and Fleming (2001), team autonomy is the possibility of a team to participate in the decision-making process in relation to their work, methods of work, work time organization (Schedules) and assessment of work done quality. However, this study focused on the autonomy of the individual rather than that of the team. Various types of teamwork generally differentiate according to the autonomy of individual members within the team and the autonomy of the team as a whole, including its participation in the decision-making process within the strategic department in ADP ’s organizational structure (Dackert, Lööv & Mårtensson, 2004).

Lean production emphasizes on the advantages of running production with the lowest possible level of inventories, very low defects and limited vertical integration. The respondents indicated that the teams could be homogenously composed, as different jobs do not require extensive formal training and employees can be exchanged relatively easily. Teams can also be organized in relation to socio-technical principles such as an autonomous group. A socio-technical team is a group of employees with 4-20 persons, responsible for a complete part of the production process and entitled to take certain decisions autonomously (Gorelick, Milton & April, 2004). The respondents pointed out that they decided the roles and responsibilities to suit the task and individual needs.

The respondents noted that they are able to choose their tasks depending on the team they are placed. The different teams perform different functions and it is the reason as to the ability to choose tasks depending in the team. Therefore, the use of teamwork increases autonomy in the employee decisions concerning the work. Though the impact of teamwork on autonomy is positive, Flin and Maran (2004) argues that the autonomy of the team or work group may conflict with the autonomy of the individual worker. The control of quality, planning, and the delegation of responsibilities does not automatically increase the autonomy of employees. The organization of a team can lead to increased workload while intensifying the work without the control of employees over their work (Stanton, 2005).

4.3.3 Impact of teamwork on the learning environment

According to Pedler et al (1989), a learning organization is an organization that ‘facilitates and promotes the education of all its members and systematically transforms itself. It has always been assumed that teamwork creates an environment for shared responsibility, knowledge, and both continuous professional and personal development of employees. The learning environment aided by teamwork was measured by the question, Over the past 12 months, have you undergone training paid for or provided by your employer to improve your skills or not? Does your main paid job involve, or not, learning new things? The analysis of data from the respondents confirmed that working in a team is associated with an environment typified by the possibility to learn new things and perform complex tasks.

Basing on the above figure, the employees who work in a team are more likely to learn new things than those working as individuals on their own. This was confirmed at the level of both the managers of ADP and the employees in the Strategic management department in ADP. The above figure also shows that the management is 13% points more likely to learn new things at work than those not working in teams. Similarly, in the employees, the difference between team workers learning new things and non-team workers learning new things reaches 15 percentage points (‘Teamwork,’ 2007.)

4.3.4 Teamwork and job satisfaction

This section seeks to clarify the relationship between teamwork and job satisfaction as found out from the study. It examines whether workers are satisfied with a team-based way of working, the association between overall job satisfaction and teamwork, and whether teamwork increases overall job satisfaction. As noted in the literature review, teamwork theorists have a belief that working together as a team with a common goal, autonomy in their decision-making and responsibility and support makes teamwork becomes a valuable experience for the workers involved. The hypothesis tested is that working in a team increases job satisfaction. The question asked to test this hypothesis is that On a scale of 1 to 5 where 1 represents ‘extremely satisfied’ and 4 represents ‘extremely dissatisfied’ How would you rate your level of overall satisfaction with teamwork and cooperation within ADP?

According to Kapucu, Maria-Elena and Krause (2007), for employees to be satisfied with the job they perform, there must be two factors that are fully fulfilled. They are the satisfactory and the dissatisfactory. All these are described in the literature review. The job satisfaction min this study is with regard to dissatisfactory. The figure below shows the satisfaction of work and the working conditions.

34% of the respondents pointed out that they were satisfied with their jobs with the dissatisfied group forming 49% of the study outcome. The satisfied respondents pointed out that it is through teamwork that they were able to get motivated on performing of their duties. In addition, they indicated that teamwork helps them learn new skills pertaining their jobs as well as being able to consult when facing difficulties in performing their tasks. This has made work not only easier but also enjoyable. Contrary, those who indicated that they were not satisfied by their work were mainly employees of the department who worked as individuals and not in any team. The usually worked on their own with no or little consultation (Scroggs, 2000). This makes their work harder because it is not easy to consult or even talk to their managers for help due to bureaucracy.

The satisfaction measured in this study was in terms of the work itself, the relations between employees and their managers, the salaries and promotions options. Many employees pointed out that the channels to promotions are high if the work of employees is satisfactory. The salary is in accordance with the job group of the employee while there are bonuses and appreciations for exemplary work done by an employee.

4.3.5 Negative consequences of teamwork

These section discuses the findings on the challenges of teamwork as experienced by employees in the department of strategic management in ADP. Teamwork increases increase the pace at which employees are to work. The consequence is that the workload on employees is increased. Other problems are higher demands on performance and corresponding extended responsibilities and autonomy in teams. The increased demand on teams does not allow the team participants to have a scope of control and decision making on how work should be done in order to meet the high demands. The outcome of this is increased stress and work related pressure (Cullingworth, 2001, Martocchio & Frink, 1994).

These findings are in accordance with the findings in a case study conducted in Austria in 1994 in which new forms of organization was introduced. The findings from the case study were that the introduction of new forms of work organization, including teamwork, could lead to an increased workload and an increase in time pressure caused by a staff shortage and technical problems (Sala, Druskat & Mount, 2006). Despite the challenges pointed out by the respondents, mainly employees, the management maintained that the distribution of work tasks between members of a team does not contribute to the subjective feeling that there is insufficient time to do the work, nor does it help to improve this situation (Rupar & Rupar, n.d). This is responsible for the 11% of the respondents in the figure below.

4.3.6 Teamwork and organizational environment

It is not easy for teamwork to exist alone. It must be accompanied by other values and culture of the organization. The encouragement of teamwork in an organization requires adequate communication. In this regard, the study sought to find out the level of communication in Strategic department in ADP. The respondents responded by noting that while strategic management department encourages dialogue, there are some sectors that communication is not common. In such sectors, the level of teamwork is minimal as compared to other areas in the department. Consequently, the sectors whose employees do work as a team do not have improved employee performance. This can be shown in the figure below where 27% respondents pointed out that they were not satisfied with the level of communication in the department since their sectors were not working as a team. This is a small margin as compared to the 73% of respondents who indicated that they were satisfied with the level of communication and teamwork in the department.

The department has a wornderful culture that encourrges teamwork. The managers pointed out that teamwork is encourages through appreciations, promotions, training programs and jpob rotation.

4.3.7 Teamwork and performance

This section sought to find out the impact of teamwork on employee performance hence the performance of employees. The performance of employees is measured in terms of the work done and completed by an employee satisfactorily. In addition, the performance of non-profit organizations is measured in financial performance of the organizations and effective service delivery to the public. ADP is a non-profit organization that provides services to the community. The performance of employees in the strategic management department is measured by the effective service delivery both top the public ad to fellow employees in the entire organization.   

Respondents noted that the teamwork is effective on their performance. Their managers who noted that teamwork encourages employees to work together as a team acknowledged their responses. The discouraged employees are encouraged by their colleagues while consultation and learning in teams enables those who do not know how to perform group tasks perfect on their skills. In addition, conflicts are resolved without many problems. The result is improved employees performance in terms of service delivery to the public and to the whole ADP organization. The managers of the strategic management department in the strategic department pointed out that the improvement in the performance of employees in the department significantly affected the delivery of services of the organization to the public (Anheier, 2000). Since the department realized that teamwork improves the employee performance, they influenced other departments in ADP to adopt teamwork in order to improve service delivery. This has significantly improved the services delivery of ADP as noted by the managers.

The figure above indicates that only 20% of the respondents indicated that their performance had not improved due to teamwork. It should however be known that the respondents were working in sub-sectors if the department in which employees work individually and they therefore did not realize the importance of teamwork.

4.3.8 Teamwork and strategic management

The study analyzed the importance of teamwork as a strategic management strategy in the strategic management department in ADP on employee performance. Strategic management department is charged with making strategic decisions regarding the performance of the ADP as a non-profit making organization. The department makes strategic decisions for the organization. The study sought to find out the importance of teamwork as one of the strategies to be employed by the department by asking the overall satisfaction with teamwork and whether other departments in the organization and other non-profit organizations should employ it as well.

The respondents were quick to acknowledge the importance of teamwork to the service delivery of the strategic management department and the ADP. Only 20% o the respondents did not acknowledge the importance of teamwork as a strategy to be adopted in the department and organization in order to improve employee performance. They attributed their refusal to the challenges that come with teamwork like increased work, work related stress and reduced autonomy. Moreover, most of the most of those respondents who refused were form sectors in the departments where teamwork was not practiced. The rest of the respondents indicated the importance of teamwork to their performance in terms of service delivery, the department, and the organization.

Chapter 5 – Conclusion

5.1 Overview

This study has reviewed the literature on the importance of teamwork as an important strategy to be employed in the strategic management department in ADP. Teamwork involves grouping employees and assigning them specific tasks. The effect is improved quality of output, though there are some few negative consequences such as increased work pace, workload, and pressure to meet deadlines. However, the major objective of improving employee performance is already met. This chapter provides a conclusion of the findings of the study and the conclusion.

5.2 Conclusion of the study based on objectives

5.2.1 Objective 1

Teamwork, as an important instrument of new forms of work organization, is essentially a specific organizational measure that may display many different features in all organizations including non-profit organizations. The incidence of teamwork as recorded by the subjective reporting of employees and managers in strategic management department in ADP can be predicted. One factor indicating the incidence of teamwork is the historical context of the introduction of new forms of work organization. The organization of teamwork is particularly characteristic for the service sector especially in non-profit making organizations that provide services to the public such as the ADP. Teamwork is also dominant in many large organizations with many employees (Thamhain, 2008).

According to most experts, teamwork should contribute to a better quality of working life for employees, as well as improving not only their productivity, but also the productivity if the organization. Employee autonomy is considered an important attribute of the quality of work. However, the results of this study identify decisive findings in this regard. Data analysis did reveal a clear-cut positive correlation between the presence of teamwork and increased autonomy. The responses from the respondents of the study indicated that the employees in the strategic management who were working in teams were able to choose their own working methods to accomplish the tasks assigned. It is clear that the level of teamwork in the department directly influences the degree of employee autonomy. It could be presumed that team workers will be more autonomous workers due to their higher concentration on their professions like accountants, senior officials and managers (Hvenegaard, Jessen & Hasle, 2003). The analysis of data shows that employees in most subsectors in the strategic department display greater autonomy though there are some employees still in the department that do not show any autonomy since there is no teamwork.

5.2.2 Objective 2

An examination of the data reveals that, in the case of the opportunity for choosing work methods and pace of work, team workers in the strategic department of ADP have a significantly higher autonomy than employees choose in the same department not working as a team. The possibility of learning new things in one’s job also improves the quality of working life and therefore the quality of output. In this case, it can be stated categorically that teamwork contributes to employees’ personal and professional growth. In the Strategic department in ADP under study, team workers have a greater chance of learning new things and taking part in training paid for by the employer than employees not working in teams have. Teamwork is thus clearly positive in this respect and contributes to the learning environment in an organization. The learning received by employees in turn contributes the quality of work done and the employee performance.

Satisfaction with working conditions is another indicator of the quality of working life. Team workers display greater satisfaction than employees not working in teams do in the strategic department in ADP. Employees not working in teams are not satisfied. Besides positive impacts on the individual’s working life, such as a more developed learning environment, teamwork also has positive aspects. The need to boost productivity and performance, which is usually the primary objective of any organization when introducing new forms of work organization, often demands increased pace of work and greater work intensity. Working in a team generally means a higher pace of work and working to tight deadlines in the Strategic department. Most respondents argued that increased work intensity and work pressure have a negative impact on employees’ health and private social life. In conclusion, the findings from the study point out that teamwork can take the form of improved employee performance and organizational performance since quality products are manufactured.

5.2.3 Objective 3

The increased pace of work, work increased autonomy teamwork affects the quality of output for individual employees positively. The employees will deliver services effectively to the public and the ADP organization. Increased employee quality also improves the performance of the strategic department and the ADP organization. The strategic department acts as a good practice for teamwork with greater autonomy for employees, better access to training and learning new things pertaining the work (Sewell, 2005). In addition, employees in the strategic department in ADP were more satisfied with their work as they worked as a team as well as working conditions. These factors also contribute to improved employee efficiency in non-profit making organization like the ADP and specifically to the strategic department in the organization. Despite the positive impacts of teamwork on employees, many respondents indicated that teamwork affected their social and private life negatively as well as their health. This is because of increased pace of work and workload that comes with stress to meet deadlines in the delivery of services. However, the management emphasizes that teamwork is effective in improving the performance of employees and should be adopted in other departments of ADP, despite the negative effects on employees as pointed above.

Chapter 6 – Recommendations

This study has been evaluating the success of teamwork on the improvement of employee performance in the strategic management department in ADP. The study has established that teamwork is important and it affects the performance of employees positively. The performance of employees is positively affected because of the learning environment created by teamwork. Employees are able to increase their skills and ability to perform tasks. The increased skills can increase the quality of work performed by the employees. In addition, teamwork increases the pace of work thus making employee to do more work leading to increased output. Despite the increased level of quality work performed by employees, there are negative effects such as increased workload and work related pressure resulting from pressure to meet deadlines. This section provides the following recommend in additions to the strategic management department in ADP on how it can effectively improve on the effects of teamwork on the performance of employees. The following recommendations are good to be implemented.

6.1 Recommendation 1

The strategic management department is in the ADP organization, which mainly provides services to the public. The department requires improving its service provision to the public. This can be achieved through teamwork in the organization. Therefore, this study proposes the improvement of teamwork in the strategic department in ADP and thereafter the adoption of teamwork to the ADP organization to improve the employee performance and organization’s performance in service delivery. The strategic department should advise the management in ADP to employ the teamwork as a strategy to improve the performance of employees.

6.2 Recommendation 2

Teamwork as employed in the department of strategic management is effective in improving employee performance through the increase of pace of work in teams and the learning environment. However, it has some negative effects that respondents complained of including increased workload and work related stress resulting from increased pace of work, work, and pressure to meet deadlines. To reduce the pressure on meeting deadlines, the management should include training sessions to increase learning and modes of performing the various tasks. With experience, the employees will get used to working in a team yet performing well.

6.3 Recommendation 3

Few respondents indicated that teamwork was not improving their performance. Many of the respondents were not working as a team since there was little consultation. This study recommends that the management of the strategic department ensure that teamwork is employed in all sectors of the department for effective outcome.

To improve the outcome of teamwork and eliminate the negative comments, the management in the strategic department should initiate the reward system to the exemplary teams. Recognition of efforts will not only motivate the team participants, but it will also create a sense of competitiveness in the department making every member active. The overall effect is the improved performance of the employees and the department. Though the organization is a non-profit making organization, there should be some funds set aside specifically to motivate the employees in various teams in the strategic department in ADP (Jessen & Hvenegaard, 2000). 6.4 Recommendation 4

Communications is very important in the success of teamwork. The organization culture in the ADP and specifically the strategic management department should encourage communication among managers and employees. Communication will enhance the learning environment while strengthening the relations between employees and the management. Effective communication encourages consultations as a crisis and problem solving. In addition, employees will actively participate in brainstorming debates that will yield to better strategic decisions in the department and in the ADPO organization.

6.5 Recommendation 5

In addition to brainstorming debates, effective communication in the organization will ensure that the management obtains the feedback on every issue in the department and in the organization on service delivery. The availability of feedback will enable the management to know the level of satisfaction with service delivery and therefore develop the necessary strategies to improve where they have failed (Benton, 2005).

6.6 Recommendation 6

The outstanding members of teams in the department should be provided with new opportunities in the department or in the organization. This is done in order to keep the most effective team members. This can be through undertaking long terms planning of the employees’ future career plans. Each individual employee should be shown how their career goals could help the department and the organization (ADP) in the achievement of its long-term goals. Moreover, the management should create an organizational environment that is rich in creativity, openness, and energy.

6.7 Conclusion

These recommendations will no doubt steer the increased and improved performance of the strategic department in ADP and the overall performance of the organization in service delivery.


















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The Growth of a Company, WIDGET, Inc.’s 3 year performance,

The Growth of a Company, WIDGET, Inc.’s 3 year performance,


            Raising capital, whether for startup or expansion, remains the most critical endeavor that a business can undertake. Evaluating WIDGET, Inc.’s 3 year performance, it is evident that it has and qualifies for multiple ways of raising finance for its business operations. Despite the company’s excellent performance in terms of sales, its cash flow needs and strategy to expand makes external financing mandatory. Besides the company’s external financial needs is quite immense, to the tune of $950,000. It is imperative to note that the ultimate choice will have a profound effect on our short and long term success since different sources offer varying advantages and disadvantages. Before reaching a decision, the company considered multiple options including issuing of bonds, common stock, common stock and preferred stock, or to issue a mixture of debt and equity in an IPO. It also considered doing a private offering or obtaining loans from financial institutions which were ready to work with us.  


The first option considered by the company is whether to issue bonds which is a means by which companies raise money from investor to finance their business activities. In return for the investors’ money, companies issue bonds promising to pay the investor interest, and also pay back the invested amount at a certain date. The second option was to issue a mixture of debt and equity in an IPO which would involve either issuing equity to public investors or becoming public by issuing debt. Critical considerations indicated that the option would involve a series of reporting requirements, dealing with multiple security holders, observable security prices and an ultimately improved access to existing financial markets (Fabozzi 135).  

The other option was to finance its operations by issuing common stock, a viable option since WIDGET is generally in a good financial health. The option would involve liaising with investment banks to help it issue and sell new shares at existing preset prices. The company also considered issuing preferred stock which would place buyers of shares to have special status in case it runs into financial trouble. After evaluating the various pros and cons of common and preferred stock, the company also considered doing a private offering to interested investors. WIDGET, Inc. also considered getting loans to meet the additional financial requirement which would require repayment within specified time periods with interest. 


            After considering the multiple available options, the company settled on issuing bonds to finance its expansion options. The company does not want to go public, hence bonds are a preferred choice to stock since the former represents a creditor’s claim on a corporation while the latter, an ownership claim. Since the company has an elaborate 7 year expansion plan, bond is preferred since it is a more predictable option since all bonds issued will specify the promised cash flows and the principal. The bonds also have generally lower interest rates comparative to other sources of lending such as loans besides bonds being considered as tax-deductible business expense (Fabozzi 135).  Although the sum needed is massive, the company also has the option of targeting both institutional and retail investors thereby expanding its borrowing capacity although some investors may doubt our ability to meet interest obligations due to the shorter period in existence.

            Since the company has reviewed its financials and made a decision that corporate bonds is the right choice, it has to select an underwriter, the investment bank which will in conjunction with the organization determine when the bonds will mature, bond prices and interest rates. The company will thereafter consult other underwriters before writing and submitting a registration statement to relevant authorities which will specify all participants including the issuer WIDGET, Inc, the lead manager and other underwriters. Following registration, the final bond prices will be set before a marketing campaign launched and the bonds finally deposited and distributed to be sold. 

Work Cited

Fabozzi, J. Frank. Institutional Investment Management: Equity and Bond Portfolio

Strategies and Applications, Epub Edition. John Wiley & Sons Inc, 2009.




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The effects of workplace diversity on performance management system in the United Arab Emirates

The effects of workplace diversity on performance management system in the United Arab Emirates 




Workplace diversity is one of the challenges that most organizations’ human resource professionals face, in effectively managing its employees’ performance (Christian, Moffitt, and Porter, 2006) . New ideas have evolved concerning the performance management of diverse cultural environment within organizations. The modern work force (unlike the earlier workforce) is very varied in terms of composition due to changes in demographic factors like economic globalization and immigration (Ibid, 2006). This study aims at exploring the effects of workplace diversity on performance management of multinational organizations operating in UAE. The study will take into account the different definitions of diversity as defined in modern literature, and investigate the challenges encountered by the multinational corporations in the UAE, in their efforts to effectively control and manage their diverse human resources. This research will take a descriptive approach in investigating the relationship between workplace diversity and performance management among multinational organizations operating in UAE, using semi-structured interviews and self-administered questionnaire. This study hopes  to contribute to the existing body of literature relating to performance management and workplace diversity, and hopefully give suggestions to organizations on how to effectively manage the performance of its diverse workforce.



Past studies that have attempted to explore the connection between workplace diversity and performance management (e.g. Cox & Blake 2010; Van Knippenberg & Schippers, 2007) have argued that workplace diversity determines organizational effectiveness, has an impact on the organization’s ability to attract and retain qualified human resources, has an impact on organizational innovation and creativity among other issues.

As Christian, Moffitt, and Porter (2006:14) quote it, “Workplace diversity is one of the central elements that are common, ongoing in modern management and organizational performance”. New ideas have evolved concerning the performance management of diverse cultural environment within organizations. This concept has been characterized by challenges, especially how to effectively manage these diversities within the working environment. Workplace diversity phenomenon has captured corporate world’s attention given the fact that it is often characterized by socio-political and human resource administration’s patronage.


Research Problem

Majority of the big companies operating in the UAE employ a workforce that comprises of UAE nationals and expats from around the world, characterized by mixed age groups, gender, and race, which presents a challenge to the human resource management domain. For this reason, multinational organizations devote much of their resources to diversity training as a way of increasing the productive capacity of the organization through embracing workplace diversity (Guzzo, & Dickson, 2006). Therefore, this study will attempt to answer the central question:  What are the effects of workplace diversity on performance management systems of multinational organizations operating in the United Arab Emirates?


This research will also be guided by the following sub-questions:

  • What fundamental changes are required in an organization operating in the UAE’s performance management system in order to take advantage of diversity in the workplace?
  • What are the possible disadvantages of employing a diverse workforce?


Research Interest

The study is very interesting because various past studies have demonstrated and showed that workplace diversity has a multifaceted effect on organization’s functions and processes. For instance, Steel and König (2006) note that harnessing employee motivation and empowerment are essential elements of ensuring effective management and improved performance in employee productivity, and achieving these aspects of workplace dynamics can be a great challenge to the manager in several ways, specifically, with consideration to the more culturally diverse nature of the modern workforce. The aspect of globalization and the spirit of global village have integrally played a major part in defining many aspects of modern organization management, yet they are relatively young. Workplace diversity in the United Arab Emirates has grown relatively fast in over a short period of time. Many companies have been very creative in introducing human resource policies to cater to its diverse workforce. Having worked and lived in the Middle East now for the past 7 years, I have seen and experienced so many HR practices from different companies that promote diversity in the workplace, while others maintain a one size fits all HR policies to its diverse workforce. Therefore, it is worth investigating how these realities interplay to influence human resource management practices of multinational organizations in the UAE.


Theoretical Framework

The underlying literature on the performance management within workplace diversity mainly entails two major bodies of work that focuses on the advancement of the conceptual frameworks for comprehension of diversity and its corresponding effects on the organizational behavior and performance. Workplace diversity is normally depicted as a more multifaceted, controversial and corresponding political portents (Roberson, 2013). It is normally conceptualized from numerous perceptions. Wang and King (2009) states that the concept of diversity ought to be constrained to particular cultural categories, namely race and gender. Diversity is mainly based on the race, ethnicity and corresponding gender that cannot be comprehended within the similar men in line with the diversity of the governmental functions, capabilities and cognitive locations (Wang and King, 2009). Moreover, the main issues that pertain to diversity are contemporary because of discernment and the segregation of the cultural groups from old-fashioned organizations (Konrad, 2006). 

Karsten (2006), explains that empirical assistance for the prevailing assumption stipulates that all existing dimensions pertaining to diversity results to negative impacts thus confirming the emphasis of the social categorization, which depicts the resemblances and dissimilarities that lead to the classifications  thereby favoring individual’s in-group  to the harm of the out-group social.

Underlying empirical evidences, notwithstanding the controversy of the positive association amidst workplace diversity and organizational performance, pertains to the evidence for managing workplace diversity possessing antagonistic implications (Konrad, 2006). Assessment of the effect of diversity upon businesses raise question concerning the presence of any connection amidst workplace diversity and occupational performance. The underlying business benefits of the workplace diversity have been extensively contested because of the apprehended idea (Karsten, 2006). 

Demographic factors such as immigration coupled with economic factors especially globalization, have played a major part in influencing organizational policies of multinationals operating within UAE. As United Arab Emirates has grown into an important economic hub in the Middle East region and in the world, immigration of workers has played a major role in bringing in people from various regions of the world to work in the multinational organizations that have increased their presence in the Gulf nation. Simons and Rowland (2011) conducted a study to investigate how diversity in multinational organizations impact the performance of  its workforce in the Emirates, and note that one of the greatest challenges is the lack of clear distinction between functional and non-functional types of diversity. The authors further point out that functional diversity within the multinational organizations in the UAE has led to increased effective functional or employee innovation (Ibid, 2011). 

Research Methodology

The study will offer an explanation of the type of data to be included in the study. It will define the research population and desired study sample. In addition, methods of data collection, analysis, and sampling techniques will be discussed in details.

The study will adopt a qualitative research design to achieve the intended research objectives. In addition, it will adopt a case study approach by focusing on HSBC Bank in United Arab Emirates. Semi-structured interviews will be used to achieve the data collection objective. Under this research design, data and relevant information will be collected using semi-structured interview administered to carefully selected managers of HSBC Bank in UAE (Jehn, &Bezrukova, 2004).


The participants for this study will be drawn from HSBC Bank, which is a multinational banking institution operating in United Arabs Emirates. The participants will be workers and managers of these selected multinational corporations. A total of twenty participants will interviewed in the semi-structured interview, and will be randomly selected. The sample selection process will depend on the population size, cost, degree of precision, sample media, and homogeneity (Van Knippenberg, &Schippers, 2011). The random sampling method will be preferred because it gives equal opportunity to all the participants to form the final sample for the study (Khan, 2011). Secondly, random sampling will be desirable given the fact that it is economical.

This study will rely on both primary and secondary data. Secondary data that entail already made available information pertaining to the subject of the study will be collected from secondary journals, books, company websites, internet, newspapers, among other secondary data sources that are perceived as reliable and credible (Stergaard, Timmermans, &Kristinsson, 2011). Primary data on the other hand will be collected through self-administered questionnaires and interviews schedules. This method of data collection is preferred over the rest since it aids in the provision of primary data that are more effective and reliable for the study (Khan, 2011).


Since this study is qualitative and quantitative, inferential and descriptive statistics will be used to analyze the collective data. Qualitative data collected in the study will specifically be analyzed using grounded theory methods. Open coding will be used to categorize and name the data, while selected code will be used to develop a more generalized framework to the study (Schneider, &Northcraft, 2009). Quantitative data on the other hand will be analyzed using SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences) version 21 (Pitts, et al. 2010). The relationship will be presented using regression, correlation, and measures of central tendency. Besides, the data collected through self-administered questionnaires, and the results of the interview schedules will be classified on the basis of common attributes and then tallied to obtain statistical frequencies. The data will be presented using tables, graphs, and charts. The research hypotheses will be tested using a regression model between the dependent and independent variable and also using t-statistics to determine the acceptance or rejection rule (Khan, 2011).

Informed consent and privacy measures

Data collection will be performed through face to face means and therefore bringing in the issue of face to face contact with the respondents. For this reason, assurances will be made to ensure that the identity of the individuals are not revealed, since the names and other demographic aspects of the respondents will be based on general limits,  such as age groups. Similarly, the responses to the questionnaire will be used for academic purposes and for this survey only. The responses to the questions will also be based on the perceptions of the individuals and not a representation of the views and reality at the HSBC Bank. As a result, any assertions based on this study should be considered under the existing parameters in order to validate their reliability. When carrying out any type of research study, the researcher has to take into account the ethical matters concerning the study’s participants and their rights. For this proposed research study, the researcher shall take the indispensable precautions to guarantee that participants’ rights are not violated. As it is always a standard for most scientific undertakings of the nature similar to the proposed project, the researcher shall obtain informed consent from all participants before proceeding with the study. A consent form will be made part of every data gathering instrument used and such as surveys and interviews or questionnaires; parental consent will not be applicable because all the respondents expected to take part in the study shall be sampled for age above 18 years. The principle rationale of the consent form will be to clearly describe the objective and benefits of the research being carried out. The form will make it clear to the participants that by giving consent; the respondents will be volunteering to be part of the research study, although they will also be informed that they may terminate their contribution at any time based on any grounds without consequence. In addition, the participant-approval forms will inform the participants concerning their discretion and privacy, risks and merits of the research study, and whom to get in touch with for answers to enquiries regarding the research undertaking and participants’ rights. For the above highlighted reasons, the following shall be vividly stressed throughout the study:

  • This research ensures anonymity of respondents by asking them not to give personal details. They are free to ignore any question they think can compromise on this
  • The data will be kept under safe conditions so that it can be protected as much as possible
  • All respondents will be of the age of consent
  • Respondents can withdraw from the research at any time of their choice

Based on these understandings, the following consemnt form is formulated for the purpose of the study data collection process:

Dear participant, I am a Masters student undertaking a study to investigate The effects of workplace diversity on performance management system in the United Arab Emirates and I have chosen your organization for the purpose of fulfilling data collection exercise. This study is essential for me to accomplish my education and academic aspirations and therefore your participation is highly appreciated. I take this early opportunity to assure you that your participation in the data collection exercise is absolutely voluntary and you can opt out of it at any stage of the exercise without giving reason or notice. I also guarantee that the information collected from the study will be treated with utmost confidentiality and will only be used for academic purposes. no personal information will be collected. Thank you for your participation.




There are a number of conceptual obstacles relating to this proposed study. One of my concerns is the size and access to my sample, which may not a representative of all the multinational organizations operating in the UAE. In addition to that, limited time is also one of the obstacles I have now, as I am pressured to finish my MBA program before the first quarter of 2015, which is the deadline for me to complete the program. Another important practical and empirical obstacle that I can identify is validating the data and the skills that I need acquire/learn in a fairly short time for the data analysis.


The self-administered questionnaire may be advantageous in that they sometimes provide privacy to encourage more honest responses. However, there might be some issues of accuracy and truthfulness associated with the use of self-administered questionnaire, which have been discussed in past studies. Since I will be sending the self-administered questionnaire to my contacts on linked & emails, where I do not have any means to know whether it was the intended person or not who completed the questionnaire, is definitely an area of concern for me. To address these issues, I intend to select people that I know quite well, and get referrals from friends and family of people who are willing to participate in the survey. Additionally, in order to generate more truthful answers, I also intend to construct similar questions that are repeated at different places in the questionnaire or that indirect and follow-up questions be used where required. Furthermore, questions in the survey can also be wrongly understood or interpreted by the respondent. It is proposed to use proven questions on the performance management, employment equity and senses constructs, which have been used in previous studies to avoid language and interpretation issues. Similar to past studies, I also intend to carry out a pilot survey to verify the correct understanding of the questions and layout of the questionnaire prior to the actual distribution of questionnaires.


Another possible issue is the potential bias introduced by the use of non-probability sampling methods such as convenience sampling. Secondary and primary data sampling are proposed to address the ethics of research as far as possible. It is to be noted that a low response rate for a probability sample can also add bias to the data since the sample no longer represents the target population.


I have created a timescale for this study which will guide & remind me on what to complete between now and until February 2015. 


I intend to conduct my study in accordance to the code of ethics in academic research. A non-disclosure of identity agreement will be distributed to all participants of the study. I will also ensure that I will not distort or influence the answers of participants in the interview or survey at any time.


In spite of that many possible obstacles of this study, I am still positive that, since my topic, I believe, is a well-researched area, it should help me in gaining adequate information for the research, and be able to produce a study that may still add to the existing body of literature on workplace diversity and performance management.



Current demographic and economic trends around the world have contributed to a very diverse workforce in the United Arab Emirates and the resulting workplace diversity has without doubt affected many management processes of the multinational organizations operating in the country. Among these processes, performance management is very vital. Understanding the relationship between workplace diversity and performance management has the potential to reform the multinational organizations in ways that will allow the human resource domain to get workplace diversity to work to the advantage of the business. The significance of workplace diversity in determining many aspects such as the organization’s ability to attract and retain qualified human resources, organizational innovation and creativity among other issues provides strong philosophical support and justification for the study.


Timescale research planning


August – October 2014Write my dissertation proposal/one to one session w/ dissertation tutor on blackboard/ one to one session with tutor arranged by Stafford Dubai
01-15 November 2014Literature review/Gather references/Note taking
16-25 November 2014Design and creation of interview questions and self-administered questionnaire
26-31 November 2014Send out invitation/book appointment for interview /Pilot test questionnaire and interview
01-15 December 2014Amend interview questions/questionnaire/Send out invitation/Book appointment for interview and get confirmation from respondents/ Send out & self-administered questionnaire
16-23 December 2014Collection of questionnaire results/ Interview people who confirmed their participation/Re-send some more questionnaire if necessary/
23-30 December 2014Collection of additional results/Work with results and start writing the dissertation paper
01-30 January 2015Write dissertation paper
01-15 February 2015Write dissertation paper
16-28 February 2015Submission of dissertation paper





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Christian, J., Porter, L. W. & Moffitt, G. (2006). Workplace diversity and group relations: An 

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Considerations.Human Resource Development Review, 4 (2), 219-245.


Jehn, K. A., &Bezrukova, K. (2004). A field study of group diversity, Workgroup context, and 

Performance.Journal of Organizational Behaviour, 25 (6), 703-729.


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Appendix: Interview Questions for Workplace Diversity and Performance Management Implementation in United Arab Emirates

1. Kindly indicate your Age bracket

  1. 18 – 25                        2. 26 –  35                    

3. 36 – 45                          4. 46 – 55                                5. 56 and above

2. Your gender

  1. Male                            2. Female

3. Do you test your assumptions about workplace prior to acting on them?

  1. Yes
  2. No

4. Do you believe there is only one right way of doing things, or that there are a number of valid ways that accomplish the same goal?

  1. Yes
  2. No

5. If yes in 4 above, do you convey that to staff? 

  1. Yes
  2. No

6. Rate your relationships with each staff member you supervise based on the scale below and based on their cultural background

1. Extremely Honest

2. Very Honest

3. Honest

4. Somewhat Honest

5. Not Honest At All

7. Are you comfortable with each of the staff members you supervise?

  1. Yes
  2. No

8.  Do you know what motivates them, what their goals are, how they like to be recognized?

9. What role do you play in ensuring the organization embraces values of a diverse workforce?

10. What are some of the skills you need to achieve the role above?


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in this essay you will provide an overview of the kpi management system key performance indicators

modern america examined 2October 13, 2020Biology is the study of life and so we are all directly involved in its issues.October 13, 2020In this essay, you will provide an overview of the KPI Management System(Key Performance Indicators)and describe the characteristics of the users of the information system.  You will then focus the bulk of your essay on analyzing the features and usage of the information system, as well as the impact of the information system on the organization or individuals who use the information system.  Detailed guidance on what to include in each of these sections is provided in the template that is attached to this assignment. Do you need a similar assignment done for you from scratch? We have qualified writers to help you. We assure you an A+ quality paper that is free from plagiarism. Order now for an Amazing Discount!Use Discount Code “Newclient” for a 15% Discount!NB: We do not resell papers. Upon ordering, we do an original paper exclusively for you. The post in this essay you will provide an overview of the kpi management system key performance indicators appeared first on The Nursing Hub.  “Is this question part of your assignment? We Can Help!”

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Identify and discuss 2 or 3 major insights from Keller (chapters 5-8) as applied to
employee performance management and appraisal processes

Write a 6 page paper that applies, reflects, and synthesizes the following questions:

1. Identify and discuss 2 or 3 major insights from Keller (chapters 5-8) as applied to
employee performance management and appraisal processes (Valentine chapter 10).

2. Identify and discuss 2 or 3 major insights from Hardy (chapters 3-4) as applied to
employee training and career development processes (Valentine chapters 8-9).

3. Employer branding is a key means by which contemporary organizations implement a
strategic approach to HR.  What are 2 or 3 key differentiators of a branded approach to
employee recruitment and employee selection (Valentine chapters 6-7)?

4. Consider your current or most recent employer organization.  Delineate 2 or 3 strategic
HR recommendations for improving the employee recruitment, employee selection, or
the employee performance management and appraisal processes (Valentine chapters 6-7,

Required Sources
You must use the course texts as well as articles from scholarly and practitioner journals. Be sure
to use current APA format, and include in-text citations for the following sources:
 At least 2 citations from Valentine (2020).
 At least 2 citations from Hardy (1990).
 At least 2 citations from Keller (2012).
 At least 2 citations from related scholarly journals (e.g. Human Resource Development 

Quarterly, Human Resource Development Review, Human Resource Management
Journal, Journal of Applied Psychology, Journal of Strategic Human Resource
Management, Journal of Biblical Integration in Business, Christian Scholars Review), 

 At least 1 citation from a related trade/practitioner publication (e.g. Harvard Business
Review, HR Magazine, T&D Magazine, Business Week, Wall Street Journal).  

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Review the performance dashboard for a health care organization, as well as relevant local, state, and federal laws and policies. Then, write a report for senior leaders in the organization that communicates your analysis and evaluation of the current state of organizational performance, including a recommended metric to target for improvement.

Review the performance dashboard for a health care organization, as well as relevant local, state, and federal laws and policies. Then, write a report for senior leaders in the organization that communicates your analysis and evaluation of the current state of organizational performance, including a recommended metric to target for improvement.IntroductionNote: Each assessment in this course builds on the work you completed in the previous assessment. Therefore, you must complete the assessments in this course in the order in which they are presented.In the era of health care reform, many of the laws and policies set by government at the local, state, and federal levels have specific performance benchmarks related to care delivery outcomes that organizations must achieve. It is critical for organizational success that the interprofessional care team is able to understand reports and dashboards that display the metrics related to performance and compliance benchmarks.Maintaining standards and promoting quality in modern health care are crucial, not only for the care of patients, but also for the continuing success and financial viability of health care organizations. In the era of health care reform, health care leaders must understand what quality care entails and how quality in health care connects to the standards set by relevant federal, state, and local laws and policies. An understanding of relevant benchmarks that result from these laws and policies, and how they relate to quality care and regulatory standards, is also vitally important.Health care is a dynamic, complex, and heavily regulated industry. For this reason, you will be expected to constantly scan the external environment for emerging laws, new regulations, and changing industry standards. You may discover that as new policies are enacted into law, ambiguity in interpretation of various facets of the law may occur. Sometimes, new laws conflict with preexisting laws and regulations, or unexpected implementation issues arise, which may warrant further clarification from lawmakers. Adding partisan politics and social media to the mix can further complicate understanding of the process and buy in from stakeholders.How many health care laws can you name that affect your practice in your current or future workplace? How do they impact your daily work? How many regulatory agencies oversee the types of services your health care organization provides? Which regulatory agencies apply to your workplace setting? Are you familiar with the process of complying with those agencies in order to maintain certification? You might be overwhelmed as you consider these broad questions.Demonstration of ProficiencyBy successfully completing this assessment, you will demonstrate your proficiency in the following course competencies and assessment criteria:Competency 1: Analyze the effects of health care policies, laws, and regulations on organizations, interprofessional teams, and personal practice.Analyze challenges that meeting prescribed benchmarks can pose for a heath care organization or an interprofessional team.Competency 3: Lead the development and implementation of ethical and culturally sensitive policies that improve health outcomes for individuals, organizations, and populations.Advocate for ethical action in addressing a benchmark underperformance, directed toward an appropriate group of stakeholders.Competency 4: Evaluate relevant indicators of performance, such as benchmarks, research, and best practices, for health care policies and law for patients, organizations, and populations.Evaluate dashboard metrics with regard to benchmarks set by local, state, or federal health care policies or laws.Evaluate a benchmark underperformance in a heath care organization or an interprofessional team that has the potential for greatly improving overall quality or performance.Competency 6: Apply various methods of communicating with policy makers, stakeholders, colleagues, and patients to ensure that communication in a given situation is professional, clear, efficient, and effective.Communicate evaluation and analysis in a professional and effective manner, writing content clearly and logically, with correct use of grammar, punctuation, and spelling.Integrate relevant sources to support arguments, correctly formatting citations and references using current APA style.PreparationFor this assessment, you may choose one of the following three options for a performance dashboard to use as the basis for your benchmark evaluation.Option 1: Dashboard and Health Care Benchmark Evaluation SimulationYou may use the data presented in the Dashboard and Health Care Benchmark Evaluation media piece as the basis for your assessment submission.If you decide to use the simulation dashboard for your evaluation, review the dashboard, as well as  relevant local, state, and federal laws and policies. Consider the metrics within the dashboard that are falling short of the prescribed benchmarks.Option 2: Actual Dashboard From a Professional Practice SettingIf you choose an actual dashboard from a professional practice setting for your evaluation, be sure to add a brief description of the organization and setting that includes:The size of the facility that the dashboard is reporting on.The specific type of care delivery.The population diversity and ethnicity demographics.The socioeconomic level of the population served by the organization.Note: Ensure that your data is Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) compliant. Do not use any easily identifiable organization or patient information.Option 3: Hypothetical Dashboard Based on a Professional Practice SettingIf you have a sophisticated understanding of dashboards that are relevant to your own practice, you may also construct a hypothetical dashboard for your evaluation, based on that setting. Your hypothetical dashboard must present at least four different metrics, at least two of which must be underperforming the relevant benchmark set forth by a federal, state, or local laws or policies. In addition, be sure to add a brief description of the organization and setting that includes:The size of the facility that the dashboard is reporting on.The specific type of care delivery.The population diversity and ethnicity demographics.The socioeconomic level of the population served by the organization.Note: Ensure that your data is HIPAA compliant. Do not use any easily identifiable organization or patient information.InstructionsStructure your report in such a way that it would be easy for a colleague or supervisor to locate the information they need. Be sure to cite relevant local, state, or federal health care laws or policies when evaluating metric performance against prescribed benchmarks. Cite an additional 2–4 credible sources to support your analysis and evaluation of the challenges in meeting the benchmarks, the potential for performance improvement, and your advocacy for ethical action.You may wish to review the Dashboard Benchmark Evaluation Example [DOC] for additional support in planning and developing your submission for this assessment.Note: The tasks outlined below correspond to grading criteria in the scoring guide.In your report, be sure to:Evaluate dashboard metrics against the benchmarks set by local, state, or federal health care laws or policies.Which metrics are below the mandated benchmarks in the organization? Evaluate weaknesses within the entire set of benchmarks.What are the local, state, or federal health care laws or policies that set these benchmarks?Analyze challenges that meeting prescribed benchmarks can pose for the organization or for an interprofessional team.What are the specific challenges or opportunities that the organization or interprofessional team might have in meeting the benchmarks? For example, consider:The strategic direction of the organization.The organization’s mission.Available resources:Staffing.Operational and capital funding.Physical space.Support services (any ancillary department that supports a specific care unit in the organization, such as a pharmacy, cleaning services, and dietary services).Cultural diversity in the organization.Cultural diversity in the community.Organizational processes and procedures.How might these challenges be contributing to benchmark underperformance?Evaluate a benchmark underperformance in the organization or interprofessional team that has the potential for greatly improving overall quality or performance.Which metric is underperforming its benchmark by the greatest degree?Which benchmark underperformance is the most widespread throughout the organization or interprofessional team?Which benchmark affects the greatest number of patients?Which benchmark affects the greatest number of staff?How does this underperformance affect the community the organization serves?Where is the greatest opportunity for improvement in the overall quality or performance of the organization or interpersonal team—and ultimately in patient outcomes?Advocate for ethical action in addressing the benchmark underperformance that has the potential for greatly improving overall quality or performance.At which group of stakeholders should your advocacy be directed? Which group could be expected to take the appropriate action to improve the benchmark metric?What are some ethical actions that the stakeholder group could take that support improved benchmark performance?Why should the stakeholder group take action?Communicate your findings and recommendations in a professional and effective manner.Ensure that your report is well organized and easy to read.Write clearly and logically, using correct grammar, punctuation, and mechanics.Integrate relevant sources to support your arguments, correctly formatting source citations and references using current APA style.Did you cite relevant local, state, or federal health care laws or policies when discussing the mandated benchmarks?Did you cite an additional 2–4 credible sources to support your analysis, evaluation, and advocacy?Additional RequirementsStructure: Include a reference page.Length: 2–5 pages should be sufficient for presenting a thorough and concise evaluation, not including any pages for presenting your data and your reference page.References: Cite 2-4 current scholarly or professional resources.Format: Use APA style for references and citations.You may wish to refer to the following APA resources to help with your structure, formatting, and style:APA Style and Format.APA Paper Tutorial.APA Paper Template.Font: Times New Roman font, 12 point, double-spaced for narrative portions only.Grading Rubric:1)  Evaluate dashboard metrics with regard to benchmarks set by local, state, or federal health care policies or laws.Passing Grade:  Evaluates dashboard metrics with regard to benchmarks set by local, state, or federal health care policies or laws, and identifies knowledge gaps, unknowns, missing information, unanswered questions, or areas of uncertainty (where further information could improve the evaluation).2)  Analyze challenges that meeting prescribed benchmarks can pose for a heath care organization or an interprofessional team.Passing Grade:  Analyzes challenges that meeting prescribed benchmarks can pose for a heath care organization or an interprofessional team, and identifies assumptions on which the analysis is based.3)  Evaluate a benchmark underperformance in a heath care organization or an interprofessional team that has the potential for greatly improving overall quality or performance.Passing Grade:  Evaluates a benchmark underperformance in a heath care organization or an interprofessional team that has the potential for greatly improving overall quality or performance; defends reasoning for selecting this benchmark over another with similar potential for improvement.4)  Advocate for ethical action in addressing a benchmark underperformance, directed toward an appropriate group of stakeholders.Passing Grade:  Advocates for ethical action in addressing a benchmark underperformance, directed toward an appropriate group of stakeholders, and recommends criteria for evaluating the effectiveness of the recommended action.5)  Communicate evaluation and analysis in a professional and effective manner, writing content clearly and logically with correct use of grammar, punctuation, and spelling.Passing Grade:  The evaluation and analysis are professional, effective, and insightful; the content is clear, logical, and persuasive; grammar, punctuation, and spelling are without errors.6)  Integrate relevant sources to support arguments, correctly formatting citations and references using current APA style.Passing Grade:  Integrates relevant sources to support arguments, correctly formatting citations and references using current APA style. Citations are free from all errors.

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Determine potential barriers to communication, how these barriers may impact group and work team performance, and two (2) recommendations for addressing them.

Assignment 3: Leadership, Teambuilding, and Communication


Due Week 8 and worth 250 points


Use the Internet or the Strayer Library to research a company for which you would like to work (or your

current company if you are already employed).

Write a six to eight (6-8) page paper in which you:


  1. Examine traditional, contemporary, and emerging leadership theories and interpersonal forms of power. Create a profile of the ideal leader for the company you researched in which you describe the most appropriate leadership characteristics in terms of leadership style and interpersonal forms of power; and how these characteristics impact organizational performance.
  1. Based on your research, analyze the organizational stressors (e.g., task demands, role demands, physical demands, and interpersonal demands) to determine their likely impact on organizational performance as well as how those stressors could be addressed.
  1. Analyze critical elements for effective group and work team performance to determine the steps you would take to develop an effective team or work group within the company you researched.
  1. Identify potential sources of conflict within the group or work team. Evaluate the five (5) conflict management styles (e.g., competing, collaborating, compromising, avoiding, accommodating) and explain which style of conflict management is most appropriate for the potential sources of conflict described above.
  1. Determine potential barriers to communication, how these barriers may impact group and work team performance, and two (2) recommendations for addressing them.
  1. Use at least three (3) quality references. Note: Wikipedia and other Websites do not quality as

academic resources.

Your assignment must follow these formatting requirements:

Be typed, double spaced, using Times New Roman font (size 12), with one-inch margins on all ·

sides; references must follow APA or school-specific format. Check with your professor for any

additional instructions.

Include a cover page containing the title of the assignment, the student’s name, the professor’s ·

name, the course title, and the date. The cover page and the reference page are not included in

the required page length.

The specific course learning outcomes associated with this assignment are:

Analyze the issues related to workplace stress, including responses, consequences, and ·

preventative management of stress.

Analyze the communication process within organizations through traditional communication ·

methods and technology.

Evaluate the critical elements of groups and works teams, including group behavior, ·

development, and decision making.

Examine traditional, contemporary, and emerging leadership theories and their related impact on ·

organizational performance.

Analyze the causes of conflict, consequences, and resolutions to group conflict within ·


Use technology and information resources to research issues in organizational behavior and ·


Write clearly and concisely about organizational behavior using proper writing mechanics.·

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The performance management at the starbucks commerce essay essay

Mr. Schultz with few investors bought Starbucks in the twelvemonth 1987. In 1992 Starbucks decided to travel public to accomplish rapid enlargement. The consequences of doing the company populace were great ; it helped raise $ 25 million and took the growing rate at 40 % to 60. Stratbucks had launched around 5000 mercantile establishments by twelvemonth 2000. Averages of three new shops were being opened each twenty-four hours. At this clip 20 million clients were being served by Starbucks. As the company had gone public gross revenues and net incomes climbed at a rate of 45 to 55 % .

As the company expanded place of Chairman of board was retained by MR. Schultz while MR. Orin Smith became the CEO. Department of research and development was introduced. Versimo espresso machines and drive troughs were introduced in order to increase operations efficiency. Post of CEO was taken over by Mr. Jim Donald in the twelvemonth 2005. Huge addition in gross revenues was experienced in his epoch as the scope of merchandises was increased by him. Oven warmed breakfast sandwich, films and books were added. The features of Starbucks are as follows:

Features of Starbucks

1: Puting functional ends to accomplish strategic aims

Knowing the differentiation between corporate scheme and concern scheme is really important in order to react to the inquiries mentioned above.

Corporate scheme

Issues related to the market in which the market wants to vie or would vie in future are dealt with corporate scheme. The chief concern of the scheme is mission, purpose and on the whole grade of the administration.

Business Scheme

Schemes associated to doing a concern prosper in a specific market are known as Business scheme. An surrogate name for concern scheme can be Competitive scheme. The chief aim behind the scheme is to be in a state of affairs where administration has competitory advantage over its resistance in the market by cost leading or distinction.

Integration, Acquisition and Mergers related benefits achieved by Starbucks

Benefits attained by utilizing perpendicular Integration ( backward or forward integrating ) scheme were:

As a consequence of direct contact with the targeted market, important environmental cognition of market is gathered. This enables to do early accommodations to avoid loss.

Higher net incomes can accomplish as they are being a purchaser and provider. Sp some subdivision of this value can be delivered to clients.

Need for much more capital to come in the market will increase the entry barriers for possible resistances as a consequence of perpendicular integrating.

Impact of decentalisation, separate net income units on Starbucks

Diversified concern units will hold less cooperation between each others.

Transaction cost might non be saved as divisional printing units have to accomplish minimal net income % set by corporate direction to stay in the Starbucks.

Duty of their divisional concern is non being taken by higher direction volitionally.

Tax in consequence of stock transportation by cyberspace is being saved.

Business and corporate ends would miss alliance.

nucleus competences can non increase for different concerns

Available tools and techniques to put squad public presentation aims

Motivation is most of import thing. Motivation can be categorized as a procedure which develops a desire that people have to work good and accomplish the ends. In order to hold increased and changeless high public presentation from a worker, it is of import to maintain the work force motivated as it is the chief facet of public presentation. Motivation can be in fiscal or non fiscal signifiers, it is of import to use different theories and figure out which works out the best.

In Abraham Maslow ‘s theory, he has divided human needs into five types. He so further developed it into a heirchy of demands pyramid, in which demands are aligned in order. Harmonizing to him all the five human desires have to be fulfilled, to continue or hike stimulus levels.. Following image shows hierarchy of the demands:

Till twelvemonth 2000 which was Mr. Schultz epoch, he managed to go to all the demands lined up in hierarchy. Evidences are provided in the chart below:

Beginning: ( Suhomlinova, 2008 )

Maslow ‘s theory was truely adopted by Mr. Schultz in his epoch. He managed to keep high degrees of occupation satisfaction degree with consistence among the spouses. This is proved by 70 % staff turnover, which was a consequence of really satisfied spouses. Whereas at the same clip other nutrient industries were sing 300 % staff turnover.

After Mr. Schultz period divergences from Maslow ‘s theory was observed. Orion Smith denied paying for the overtime, he besides neglected wellness and safety as hurts related to work were non paid for. Partner ‘s liberty was reduced in the operations by the debut of espresso machines. Job complexness got worse when later Mr. Donald debut of oven warmed sandwiches resulted in small stimulation and occupation contentment degrees. Latham and Locke ‘s theories about puting ends indicates that if ends are set sagely, it can hike up the motive degrees taking to higher degrees of occupation satisfaction and public presentation. Set ends must be SMART ( specific, mensurable, come-at-able, realistic and clip based ) . Every member of the administration should hold with the ends set up and should work toward accomplishing it. Before 2000 under Mr. Schultz leading administrations purpose was to arise a 3rd topographic point if all the spouses agreed on it and was acceptable to them. After 2000 with the alteration of leading the ends besides changed. The end was to open as many mercantile establishments as possible. The spouses were non told of the new ends and schemes which were chiefly made to hike up the rapid enlargement. All the ends and policy devising was done at the top and spouses were incognizant of it. Traveling at a rapid growing rate it seemed unrealistic to keep client experience. Harmonizing to anticipation theory of Vroom the work force will set frontward excess attempt and difficult work when they are cognizant that their difficult work will be praised and rewarded. Expectancy theory is most effectual when an tremendous organisational alteration is originating e.g. in this instance when espresso machines were installed this theory can be applied to acquire coveted consequences as some people will non experience comfy to work with machines as they enjoy making all the stairss of java devising in a relax gait while speaking to clients at the same clip.

Equity theory Tells us that the employees judge the equity of the distribution of wagess by comparing it to the other colleagues wagess. If the employee doing the trapping gets to the decision that he is under rewarded, it may ensue in low motivational and public presentation degrees. Frustration can besides originate if the employee is being under rewarded. Increasing figure of administrations were understanding the importance of maintaining the work force happy for staff keeping and better public presentation. The occupation complexness was increasing with the spread outing figure of shops, gross revenues and merchandises. Due to the increased load the spouses started to experience that the organisation is non caring for them, in fact twenty-four hours by twenty-four hours the load of work was increasing and they had to work really hard to acquire wagess.

The Value of Team Performance Tools to Measure Future Team Performance

In 1980 Hackman and Oldham defined 5 characteristics of a good occupation design ; they defined the 5 features as accomplishment discrepancy, trial individuality, undertaking significance, liberty and feedback. Skill assortment was reduced by the installing of espresso machines as the measure which involved java devising, now were different due to machines input. Machines have the massive on the manner people perform their occupations, machines bring standardization and people start depending upon them. The component of people accomplishment was reduced which starbucks was originally hired on with the debut of espresso machines and turning sum of work burden. Socialisation and emotional facet was losing with the new policies there is no clip to talk to clients or co-workers. Usually spouses took aid from each other, when there was a work burden, presently machines can set up with it. Machines do non hold any emotions associated to them, people think that they are commanding the machines but in world they are being controlled by machines as they have to work harmonizing to the machines and get by up with its velocity. Previously their spouses were entirely acknowledged by the complimentary feedback from clients as they were involved in the stairss of doing java. Now the grasp is divided as machine is involved and people think at times that major portion of the occupation is performed by the machine.

All the treatment above is about contradicting Hackman and Oldman ‘s theory therefore, ensuing is low occupation satisfaction

To do the experience uplifting for the client ‘s these are the chief 3 cogwheels of Starbuck ‘s stigmatization scheme.

Under the leading of Mr.Dnonald and Mr.Smith clearly all the constituents mentioned above were losing strength. Reduced personalisation and really small clip to pass on and socialize with the clients was the consequence of espresso machines. The atmosphere criterions were being destroyed by the development of thrust through as fewer soft chairs and rug, as a consequence of this service is besides dropping because 80 % of Starbucks java is consumed outside shops. In today ‘s market it ‘s really important to created competitory advantage, this can be achieved so merchandise differliation composed to competitions. This is of import as many subsidies are present in market this distinction will do their merchandise sell over others.

At really early phases Starbucks adopted the relationship selling attack. Under the leading of Mr.Schultz. Today under the leading of Mr.Donald and Mr.Smith Starbuck is practising the doctrine of early nineteenth century. The trade name is being ruined by this policy as scheme of horizontal variegation is being used for growing. Early nineteenth century related production construct is being followed when the imaginativeness of administrations was that as they produce choice merchandise ‘s at low-cost rates the clients will favor them. in the mid 1920 ‘s the merchandising construct came in, harmonizing to which gross revenues marks were to be achieved by aggressive publicity. In the early 1950 ‘s the selling construct besides came in. The construct stated to fabricate goods harmonizing to the demand and gustatory sensation of client. In 1990 ‘s the relationship selling epoch started. This construct was that apart from bring forthing merchandises harmonizing to the. Customers likely and demand, it was besides of import to keep long term relation with it ‘s satisfied client.

The factors discussed above reference that the starbucks was traveling rearward in the universe of selling after 2000.This is shown by the diagram, illustrated above.

Starbucks unique and rich civilization is the ground behind its success. A batch of regard is given to its employees naming them “ spouses ” and utilizing chief executive officer as a replacement of CEO. The accomplishments of the spouse is appreciated by the administration in the signifier of norms “ Warm respect ” , “ Mug ” , “ Bravo ” and “ sprit of starbucks ” . To accomplish client satisfaction Starbucks feel that it is of import to fulfilling their staff.Work force assortment create environment for a batch of fresh thoughts and civilization of different kind together, which makes starbucks a desirable topographic point to work. Apart from fulfilling its staff and clients sratbucks besides serve the community. This is done through their corporate societal duty group which donated $ 36.1 Million hard currency and merchandise ‘s sratbucks besides volunteered 383,000 hours to assist out the community.The alone civilization of starbucks helped them to keep the satisfaction of employees which resulted in low staff turnover and the contentment of a staff were transferred to the clients.

By the early twelvemonth 2000 the regulations and schemes of starbucks started to alter as it was believed the starbucks astonishing civilization is burdensome alternatively of competitory advantage. as stated in the instance study the company had stopped paying for the overtime, less attention for the staff and hurts related to work were non being paid for.After Mr.Schultz leading spouses were non consulted about the new strategic determination like, thrust through, offering sandwiches ‘ or the design alterations made to suit more clients. Reduced authorization and deficiency of entrepreneurial spirit was the consequence of these policies of the spouses.

Spouses make labour brotherhood was fired by the Starbucks. This indicates that the starbucks spouses ca n’t acquire to the upper degree direction. They need brotherhood because of the unhappiness.Making more shops and accomplishing higher gross revenues become the purpose of the higher direction.The spouses had a feeling that it was non starbucks who was giving up the benefits, but the instance was that they had to work really hard to acquire them.Starbucks faced jobs like lower client satisfaction, less staff satisfaction, decrease in gross revenues and portion value as a consequence of divergence from their civilization.

2: Team public presentation marks towards aims.

To accomplish objective a few marks are recommended of the rating of the organisation:


It analysed that after Mr.Schultz epoch which ended at the start of 2000 the focal point of the organisation deviated from people to other issues.Starbucks preferred merchandises, addition in efficiency through machines and growing of the organisation over the people.


Transformational leading is required to work out the issues mentioned above in the analysis. Importance of leading should be recognised by Starbucks and the fact that direction is non the replacing for leading. From the above survey we can reason that Starbucks is wholly incognizant with the advantages of transformational leading. A good illustration can be Mr.Schultz. starbuks needs to acquire in leading preparation programmes. They could utilize their ain leading narrative for a better apprehension. As their narrative references different impacts, under different leadings.


The civilization of Starbucks is really rich but after 2000 their dimensions, schemes, purposes changed. Harmonizing to market research study 53 % to 61 % believes that Starbucks is all about doing money. While 48 % to 55 % people have believing that Starbucks is all about opening new shops. Its spouses besides feel that the employees are non being cared for. All the negative ideas about Starbucks need to be changed.


Starbuks needs to actuate its work force. As from the survey above we have noticed that employees do non hold any say. They should be made portion of the determination devising process. , their work shall be appreciated by verbal agencies every bit good as financially at times. A new occupation design needs to be in topographic point which involves less usage of machines. Boost in entrepreneurship spirit and authorization can be achieved if supported and participated leading is introduced.

Merchandise and Competitive Advantage, Vision, Atmosphere and Peoples

Making merchandise distinction on existent merchandise is really hard. Competitive avantages can be created through the manner to concentrate on service and environment. Environment can be improved by doing siting more comfy by installing of music systems, roper lighting, rugs, heating systems and comfy seats. Job satisfaction is really of import to keep, as a satisfied work force will do clients satisfied. This can be achieved by believing of new ways to cut down occupation emphasis. One manner can be by cut downing the usage of espresso machines.

3: Monitoring of actions and activities to elate squad public presentation

Dividing the undertaking into groups or sections and developing coordination between these sections of the organisation to accomplish organisational ends is called Organizational construction. A good construction sets clearly defined governments and responsibilities. It besides develops and increases coordination. As a consequence it eases monitoring of different activities of the administration. Enhanced effectivity and effectivity in operations of the organisation is a consequence of this.

Organizational construction can be made in three ways ; by grouping different activities of the organisation:

Functional Structure ( grouping by undertaking )

Divisional Structure ( grouping by end product )

Matrix Structure ( grouping by undertaking and end product at the same time )

Starbucks has some functional sections but apart from that it does non hold any formal organisational construction as there is no informations written in the instance survey nor on the web site. These sections are finance, gross revenues, corporate societal duty, production, research and development and human resources.

The administration construction shows deficiency of connexion, sequence and coordination between different sections which is observed in the instance survey. From this sort of functional grouping Starbucks achieved in-depth functional cognition as it is stated in the instance survey “ We tend to be great on mensurating things, at roll uping market informations ” ( Suhomlinova, 2008 ) but overall organisational end is enduring due to miss of coordination and answerability. Starbucks grouping besides impeding the effectual determination doing procedure of the organisation as it is stated that “ we are non really disciplined when it comes to utilizing this information to drive determination devising ” ( Suhomlinova, 2008 ) . Poor answerability no clear responsibly is besides observed as market research noticed that Starbucks is losing merchandise distinction and clients satisfaction rates are worsening through their determinations like making convenience by increasing no of shops and drive-throughs but no 1 was looking at the “ large image ” and old executives were faulting soft economic system for hapless public presentation ( Suhomlinova, 2008 ) . During rapid enlargement they followed Max Weber Classical attack which led to bureaucratism. They moved their focal point from people to mechanistic organisation as Mr. Schultz said that he desire to switch Starbucks focal point from bureaucratism to people by giving them more preparation and tools to establish new merchandises and present new constructs in shop designs ( Suhomlinova, 2008 ) . All of the above fortunes are making jobs like critical clients satisfaction consequences decrease in staff morale and cannibalization of bing shops.

In regard to Starbuck bureaucratism means function section are executing their undertakings without coordination, espresso machines increased standardization which made spouses occupation drilling, formalisation and centralised authorization to do determination. In general bureaucratism consequence in higher public presentation for big size organisations but in Starbucks bureaucratism became a factor or low public presentation because bureaucratism is effectual in standardized operational activities and Starbucks clients want individualized java with non-standardized emotional salutation.

Value Chain and coordination with pulling activity map

Activities related to production are divided into secondary and primary activities by Michael E. Porter value concatenation. Making and presenting the merchandises is associated with primary activities. Supporting and service activities are related to back up the primary actives to bring forth merchandise or services efficaciously and expeditiously ( Johnson, 2008: p.110 ) .

Starbucks diversified merchandise portfolio and geographical distances are making hurdlings to to the full use the kernel of valley concatenation. Mr. Middelhoff asked the whole group to increase and portion communicating and resources for synergism without pulling an activity map that where the coordination is required. Michael E. Porter ‘s value concatenation is shown in the undermentioned diagram.

4. Use act uponing and carrying accomplishments to the active and political relations of personal dealingss.

Starbucks needs to develop a selling section as it has expanded to such a big graduated table. To develop a selling section integrating of its 3 bing section market research group, class group and selling group is needed which is show in the image and follow relationship selling attack.

Organizational Chart for Starbucks

In order to get the better of the troubles mentioned in the analysis an organisation chart is shown supra. In planing Starbucks construction all types of grouping methods are considered to maximize synergisms. To increase communicating horizontal and perpendicular constructions are used at different degrees. Horizontal construction is used at bottom degree direction, which includes state director, country director, Store Manager and so gross revenues. Vertical communicating is used in functional sections. To grok clients, enhance efficiency and effectivity selling determinations, through internal integrating of three bing groups selling section is brought in to determine. As all the sections will be at head office, it will better coordination and communicating between functional sections. In consequence this will better and further strategic determination doing procedure. Implementing the above recommended chat will ensue in decentralized and clear duties at all direction degrees. This will assist the administration cut down bureaucratism.


The survey has tried to research Starbucks within four larning results as specified above and has found that Starbucks has a alone religious civilization created by a transformational leader Mr. Schultz. This instance tells us that how leaders and organisations can alter trade good into civilization by holding strong belief on people and by making ethical civilization. Power and devotedness of people can alter a simple merchandise and little company to immense transnational company. Critical analysis of different theories in organisation behavior faculty non merely helps in understanding the organisation but besides provide a footing to better them in different environments. Most of the companies now yearss are seeking to increase public presentation of the organisations by encompassing engineering but this instance analyze give us a different point of position a more natural attack to work out different jobs of the organisations. Different theories developed with the transition of clip but to understand organisation public presentation its best to understand and use all to acquire multiple position of the organisation behavior.

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