MACRO Term Paper

• Our banks are oversold  

Banks are oversold if their performance is soaring. This is to say they have the following characteristics: The banks have excess capital and reserves; the banking sector is a flush with liquidity, reserves and capital. This makes the banks the most capable of paying a high dividend yield. Another factor that contributes the overselling is that fact that the banks anticipate a high gain in the next quarters. The banks are operating at low prices to earnings multiples. They also take into account the possibilities of low expectations in terms of earnings. The banks are also experiencing improved fundamentals and earnings per share growth project. The banks are attracting value investors due to their oversold natures, the banks are better posed in the markets. This is based on the fact that the banks have a positive performance projection. This leads to the reversion of the general mean. This is based on the premise that prices will finally appreciate towards the mean (Ragan &Lipsey, 2011).

• Old rules versus new rules with respect to bank leveraging.

There are a number of rules intended to govern bank leveraging, however, these rules vary depending on the prevailing market conditions. Lahart, (2007), states that the old rules were developed to create an economic boom in major world economies; however, the new rules are geared at maintaining a stable banking system to cushion banks from the risks that are increasingly building up in the finical market.

• Given the Euro crisis and European bank leveraging, does this inspire confidence in the Euro?

In the short run; yes, in the long run; no

• Does this inspire confidence in the marginal European economies: Greece, Italy, Spain, Portugal, Ireland and now France?

This does inspire confidence in the marginal European economies in the short run, however, this is not sustainable and in the long run, the marginal European economies would have difficulties as the euro crisis ease. The banks leveraging would involve certain measures to ensure stable gearing.

The housing market in the US is leveraged. Explain the part that tax deductibility and recourse loans play.

According to Manny, (2007), when the interest rates rise and the housing prices fall, everyone would easily get access to a good home. However, the property owners would have problems paying back their mortgage loans, leading to overselling as the property owners start to panic

• What are the results of the US not requiring any down payments concerning housing purchases?

This is one way of subprime lending, as it involves the provision of loan to those with limited capacity to payback to have an economic bubble.  The effect of this will be an economic crisis as refinancing then mortgages will not be easy. As housing is also on of the leading industries, it will lead to trade deficit and cause panic in the financial system (Levenson, 2006).

• Explain subprime lending.

Subprime lending is the concept that involve advancing loan to borrowers who are likely to experience difficulties paying back the loan, these people do not meet the requirement set by banks, so the loans advanced to them attract high interest rates due to the risk factors involved.  This concept was widespread in the early 90s as there was a general belief that subprime borrowers could be managed.

Compare the affordability of home ownership with subsequent delinquencies and foreclosures between Canada and the US.

There is likely to be a remarkable increase in the level of delinquencies and foreclosures in the US than in Canada due to the expiry of the easy initial terms. There also likely to be an increase in the economic crisis in Canada as the wealth of the consumers in the market would be drained, with less protection of the banks by the government (Laperriere, 2006).

Comment on Osama’s plan to reduce mortgage interest and property taxes. Does it appear viable?

While president Obama is interested in ensuring that the citizens of America have access to affordable housing there are a number of factors that should be considered. For example, Ragan &Lipsey, (2011), argues that when the mortgage interest’s rates are reduced, the home owners can save lots of money per year by only refinancing at lower interest rates. On the other hand, many of the home owners may not be qualified t for the refinancing scheme organized by Mr. Obama. However, it is important to note that while most of the owners may not be eligible for the reduced mortgage taxes. This may be attributed to the recent fall in property prices leaving them with very little in terms of equity. On the other hand, the lenders are not likely to approve refinancing for those home owners who have very low equity. These cuts out the home have poor credit rating. This is also true for those who have been paying back their loans (Ragan & Lipsey, 2011).

The plans are not viable as many people would not be able to meet the requirements for eligibility into these programs


Ragan and Lipsey, (2011). Economics, 13th Canadian Edition. Pearson Canada Inc.

Lahart J. (2007). “Egg Cracks Differ In Housing, Finance Shells“. (Wall Street Journal).

Krugman, P. (2009). The Return of Depression Economics and the Crisis of 2008. W.W. Norton Company Limited

Manny F. (2007). “Study Finds Disparities in Mortgages by Race“. New York Time

Levenson, E. (2006). “Lowering the Boom? Speculators Gone Mild“. NY Sage.

Laperriere, A. (2006). “Housing Bubble Trouble: Have we been living beyond our means?”. The Weekly Standard

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Personal Reaction Paper

Personal Reaction Paper

Seated person at wood table, holding pencil and writing on lined paper page in open notebook

Personal Reaction Paper

Submit an 8-10-page paper (page count does not include title and reference pages) written in 7th edition APA format discussing concepts gleaned from reading Chapters 1 – 4 of the text. Select topics that interest you from the text, expound on them, and express how you conceptualize what the author(s) have written. The information and content of the paper should be derived from the required textbook. The textbook is the primary source of information, but you may use additional research resources. Topics selected should be obtained from the text and not from outside sources. Please refer to the APA resources provided in the class or visit the Amberton library for APA resources. The paper must not exceed 10 pages. A text with the correct edition is a requirement in the course. 

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Reflection Paper on Global Administration Laws

Reflection Paper on Global Administration Laws

National administrative laws are variant from one country to another. However, some elements are discernible, especially concerning accountability and transparency in decision-making, such as in requirements of open procedures, consultation, and notice. Also, they consolidate basic principles of rationality and fairness and review mechanisms as characteristic of judicial nature. Based on the above similarities from one country’s administrative law to another, there is a similarity in their function ability within global administrative structures, as seen below.[1]

Kingsbury, Krisch, Stewart, and Weiner, espouses on the emergence of administrative laws in various areas of global governance.[2] Some examples in which administrative laws have been applied in global governance in global governance are seen in the United Nation’s response to hesitant engagement of domestic or national courts in the review of sanctions as posed in the Security Council. Also, the postulates of administrative laws have been applied in various procedures as implemented by various bodies such as the OECD or the Basle Committee.[3] Similarly, administrative laws have been utilized in the assessment of domestic administrative decisions and procedures by international panels such as in the context of WTO, the World Trade Organization.

Nevertheless, the emergence of the above patterns whilst not yet coherent, some principles and mechanisms as discussed above operate in some areas only, and not in others, as a result explaining for their wide divergence. However, there is a widespread commitment to both transparency, reasoned decision, review, and transparency in global governance in relation to principles that protect crucial information, negotiating efficiency, as well as commercial confidentiality. Mutual learning and exchanges amongst scholars and practitioners in various fields are trying to compound these administrative laws towards a global administrative law.

 Thus, from the above, global administrative laws can be thought of as espouses encompassing practices, principles, and legal mechanisms that support the social understanding that promote and affect accountability in of global administrative bodies by ensuring that they meet consultative, legal, rational, participative, and transparent standards as alluded by national administrative laws.[4] These general practices dictate how global administrative bodies, including national governmental agencies, informal inter-governmental networks, intergovernmental institutions, hybrid private entities, and national government act in relation to pursuing these global norms.[5] Hence, general principles are the baselines with which global administrative laws operate.

Examples of international bodies involved in global governance are the U.N security, the World Bank, and the forest stewardship council. In the pursuit of global governance, the bodies are pursuant to the general principles such as rationality, pursuance of fairness and transparency. This can be discerned in their functions which are:

  • The United Nations Security Council – regulation of the movement of money, food, and arms in areas that have been sanctioned, as well as listing individuals who have been suspected in engaging in terrorist activities.
  • The World Bank – supervising developing countries in implementing and adopting detailed external standards for matters such as the structure of insurance markets.
  • The Forest Stewardship Council’s development of criteria utilized in sustainable use of forests.[6]


Kingsbury, Benedict, Nico Krisch, Richard B Stewart, and Jonathan B. Weiner. “Global Governance as Administration: National and Transnational Approaches to Global Administrative Law.” Law and Contemporary Problems 64.4 (2005): 1-14. Web. 22 Nov. 2019. <10.2307/27592105>.

Works Cited

Kingsbury, Benedict, Nico Krisch, Richard B. Stewart, and Jonathan B. Weiner. “Global Governance as Administration: National and Transnational Approaches to Global Administrative Law.” Law and Contemporary Problems 64.4 (2005): 1-14. Web. 22 Nov. 2019. <10.2307/27592105>.

[1] Kingsbury, Benedict, Nico Krisch, Richard B Stewart, and Jonathan B. Weiner. “Global Governance as Administration: National and Transnational Approaches to Global Administrative Law.” Law and Contemporary Problems 64.4 (2005): 1-14.

[2] Ibid, 4.

[3] Ibid, 4.

[4] Ibid, 5.

[5] Ibid, 5.

[6] Ibid, 1.

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Affirmative Action – Opinion Paper Economics

Affirmative Action – Opinion Paper Economics 


            The current U.S health reform legislation contains affirmative action in which health care and insurance should be made accessible and available to all people, and especially the minority groups. The support for the policy is based on the observation that the U.S is plagued with large health disparities that are related to socioeconomic circumstances such as race, ethnicity, age, employment status, and education among others. The current affirmative action for the health care industry is meant to give a chance to the minority groups to access quality and affordable health care, and thus close the gap of unequal health care in the population.  The affirmative action also requires that students from ethnic minority groups are given a chance to study and graduate in medical school.  This is a remarkable action to take but it should be known that to achieve this goal, the country spends a lot of money, at the risk of losing competency in health provision. 

            Affirmative action should not be applied to health business because in the long term it will lead to further deterioration of health care.   First, affirmative action in health care is very costly and with time, there will be no adequate funds to support the policy, leading to worse health disparities. Second, affirmative action emphasizes more on recruiting health professionals based on their cultural background rather than their competency.  In cases where less-competent people are recruited, the quality of health care will reduce ultimately.  Third, affirmative action shows a misplacement of government priorities and divides the nation’s sense of unity, and instead promotes inequality. Fourth, affirmative action increases government’s control on personal social matters, and this can be equated to infringement of individuals’ rights to choice, privacy and freedom.

High Cost and Tax Burden

            Affirmative action on health care is very costly and increases taxation burden to the tax payer and with time, there will be no adequate funds to support the universal health care system (Conover, p.8).  Instead, the cost and affordability of health care will increase and further lead to inaccessibility of health care to the minority groups.  The current health care law requires that everyone-employed and non-employed, insured and non-insured, old and young, among other cohorts should access not only affordable care but should be quality as well. The positive side of the new health law is that it increases the number of Americans with health insurance coverage (Tanner, p. 4). However, to make this happen, the federal requires a lot of money to fund the universal health care system and this definitely means that there will be an extra burden to the tax payer.   Conover (p. 8) analyzes the claim that the current health care law proposes affordable health care to all the Americans and finds that it is more costly than estimated.  Conover (p. 8) argues that the materialization of all the costs of the Patient Protection and Affordable Act results to a $550 billion, and this is more than half the $3. 85 estimated bill’s cost. Consequently, the total excess taxation burden would amount to over $1.5 trillion which equals a $10.31 per dollar of deficit reduction.  To cater for this deficit, Congress may decide to finance the expenditure through borrowing than raising the current taxes.  However, this will further increase the total burden associated with the tax. On the other hand, the Congressional Budget Office (CBO) admits that the health care reform has a huge impact on the federal budget and that the current costs are just estimates yet to be proven (Elmendorf, p. 2).   However, through the legislation, the Congressional Budget office and the Joint Committee of Taxation assert that the Tricare Affirmation Act will not have a significant impact on the federal budget (CBO, p. 1) and that there will be less commitment of federal budget to health care after the first 10 year initiation period (CBO, p. 2).  However, as much as the CBO and JTC argue that the health legislation will reduce future federal budget deficits, this estimate is in law as written and the budgetary impact can be different when implementation occurs (Elmendorf, p. 15). Congress seems to commit scarce tax resources without fully accounting for the costs and benefits of the health legislation, especially when it concerns the heavy taxation burden (Conover, p. 9; Tanner, p. 19). As a result of the looming budgetary deficit, millions of Americans will still be uninsured by 2019, the taxation burden will increase, and American employees and businesses will face higher premiums for medical cover (Tanner, pp. 15-22).

Affirmative action vs. Competency

            Affirmative action emphasizes more on recruiting health professionals based on their cultural background rather than their competency (Cannon, p. 37).  Other than the Patient Protection and Affordable Act of 2010 the new health care law requires that health settings and schools engage in recruiting medical students from minority groups. The legislation promises grants and contracts to medical schools and training hospitals that have a higher diversity of racial make up.  Moreover, these institutions are required to recruit students on the basis of racial preference.  On the positive side, having a higher number of physicians from minority groups will assist in solving problems of language and cultural barriers between physician and patient this is a remarkable action that will lead to provision of better care for the  minority groups (Barton, p. 321).  However, this is an uninformed decision as far as the Civil Rights Commission is concerned.  Barton (p. 325) argues that studies by the Civil Rights Commission show that health disparities in minority groups is not as a result of lack of physicians in these groups. Moreover, encouraging the recruitment of doctors on basis of race is unconstitutional and promotes nationwide inequality.  Ability and competency should be used in physician recruitment as opposed to racial background. Reverse discrimination is a poor strategy for addressing racial disadvantages.

Misplaced Government Priorities and national Divide

            Affirmative action shows a misplacement of government priorities and divides the nation’s sense of unity, and instead promotes inequality (Cannon, p. 36).  Tanner (p. 7) argues that the government should have considered cutting the health costs and expanding the coverage of health provision rather than emphasizing on cultural competency in health provision and receiving. 

            The government has taken upon itself the responsibility to take care of the personal needs of people through funding for their health matters, and  this is an advantage especially for people from low socioeconomic backgrounds who could not afford quality health care through primary physicians.  Richardson (p. 335) analyzes the expenses that the Massachusetts State incurs in federal provision of health fund.  The Massachusetts health care initiative that includes supplemental payment to hospital and Medicaid for unfunded care increased from $ 1.04 billion to $ 1.86 billion between 2006 and 2009 and the federal government continues to pay for expenses that relate to unpaid funds.  Richardson (p. 336) observes that in Massachusetts alone the federal government spends 33 percent more per person on health care than the national average and the state’s annual   health care initiative is expected to increase by $409 million in 2010, even after the federal government compensates half the expenditure.  The results are even higher when the other states are included. The affirmative health action on the other hand, therefore seems to be a liability whereby the government spends more and creates less (Crane, p. 2).  Definitely, this will further lead to a handicapped economy.  Probably, the government’s priority should have been to focus on employment and education.  With most of the Americans, including the minorities, being educated and employed, most people will be able to afford their own health care and the government could have directed these health care funds to other notable projects of better economic impact. 

            On the positive side, the affirmative action is meant to bring some sort of national unity through social cohesion by using the single payer health plan (Barton p. 317).  Barton (p. 317) argues that an affirmative action on health will end Jim Crow practices, eliminate subtle segregation forms and ensure nondiscriminatory treatment in integrated settings.  However, this social cohesion effort is not viewed as such.  Fulwood (p.1) argues that the government’s perspective of assisting the racial minorities has been interpreted as crippling the White Americans.  This may not true but one thing is clear, the gap between the racial majority and minority will continue to widen as a result of the affirmative action.

Personal Responsibility vs. Government Responsibility

            Affirmative action increases government’s control on personal social matters and this can be equated to infringement of individuals’ rights to choice, privacy and freedom (Crane, p. 2; Cannon, p. 36; Hoffman, p.8).  The health care legislation makes it mandatory for everyone to have a health insurance cover and also for business to provide health benefits to all its workers failure at which fines are charged (Cannon, p. 37; Richardson, p. 336). Additionally, Richardson (p. 335) reports that a number of Americans in the Massachusetts State (one of the states in which most people signed for the mandatory health insurance) signed up for health insurance not because of the mandate to insure their health, but because the insurance was heavily subsidized and free. Crane (p. 2) questions whether it is the president’s responsibility to mandate health on individuals.  Social aspects like health are better left to individual decisions rather than being made a national matter. 


            Affirmative action policy should be refuted for health care provision.  Other than bearing high costs for the government and tax burden to the tax payers, it further disintegrates national unity and promotes inequality.  Worse, the policy   shows that the government hampers with important economic priorities such as provision of quality education and employment which will assist in minimizing the necessity of affirmative action.  Students aspiring to be doctors should prove their qualification through exercising ability and competency skills as opposed to their racial background. 





















Works Cited

Barton, David Smith. Racial and ethnic health disparities and the unfinished Civil Rights  Agenda, Health Affairs, vol. 24(2): 317-324. Accessed November 9, 2010, from   

Cannon, Michael. U.S. Healthcare: What hath Obama wrought? Diplomat Magazine, 2010,          May: pp 36-37. Accessed from     obama-wrought.pdf

CBO. Cost estimate: H.R. 4887 Tricare Affirmation Act, CBO. 2010, March 24, p.1.        Retrieved November, from

CBO. Comparison of projected enrollment in Medicare advantage plans and subsidies for             extra benefits not covered by Medicare under current law and under reconciliation         legislation…as passed by senate, CBO, 2010, March 19, pp 1-3. Retrieved November             9, 2010, from

Crane, Edward. Obamacare: Medical Malpractice. Cato Policy Report, 2009, June: p.2

Conover, Christopher. Congress should account for the excess burden of taxation. CATO  Policy Analysis no. 669, 2010, October 13: pp 1-12. Accessed November 9, 2010          from

Elmendorf, Douglas. The effects of health reform on the federal budget. Presentation to the          World Health Care congress, CBO. 2010, April 12, pp. 1-15. Retrieved November 9,       2010, from  10.pdf

Fulwood III Sam. Release: Race and beyond: Obama should speak up. Center for American         Progress, 2010, July 27. Accessed November 9, 2010 from         tml


Hoffman, A. Oil and water: Mixing individual mandates, fragmented markets and             health  reform. American Journal of Law & Medicine, 2010, vol. 36(1): 7-77.

Richardson, Craig. Mandatory health insurance: lessons from the Massachusetts. Cato      Journal, 2009, vol. 29(2): 335-351. Accessed November 9, 2010 from


Tanner, Michael. Bad medicine: A guide to the real costs and consequences of the new     Health Care law. CATO.



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research paper hotel reservations and what laws apply

“Hotel reservations and what laws apply” and research what laws apply to the hotel reservation operations. The student must not just list the laws, but must outline what laws apply and provide an analysis of the specific laws to the operations.
No more than 10 pages double spaced, but no less than 7 pages. If the paper is not at least 7 full pages, a passing grade will not be received. The font size must be 12 pt. Times New Roman or Courier New. I need to be able to read it to grade it.
Please do not use endnotes, footnotes or a reference page for your citations to your authority for your facts and legal arguments. Such pages will not count towards the 7-10 page length requirement.
You may use cases and statutes referred to in the text as a starting point of your research. A research paper that relies mostly on cases and statutes referred to in the text will not receive a passing grade. You may use statutes and regulations from the web. As an example, if you want to research the Americans with Disabilities Act, you may want to look at
If you want to research food safety you may want to take a look at or similar sites that have regulations and statutes available. A full legal library can be found on line at the Law Library of Congress at
You can access several cases, statutes and rules as well as articles on various legal topics by using the online University Library. If you go to the online University Library–right land lower corner of Beachboard for our class you will note the University Library. From there, go to “Find Articles”. From there go to”lexis Web by Lexis / Nexis”. Under the tab you will see several tabs for federal and California statutes and cases as well as be able to research specific topics. May I suggest that you start researching or accumulating the law applicable to your topic early on as finding the law for some of you may not be easy.
Citation to the Law:
For cases, please provide the name of the parties and then the cite where the case can be found; i.e.; Thomas v Harrison, 21 US 451 (2012): Thomas and Harrison are the parties, the case can be found in book 21 of the United States Reporter at page 451 and was decided in 2012. For statutes, just use the citation that is provided in the code. The same for any regulations that you cite to, such as the ADA. I expect that for each “fact” or “argument” that you provide in your paper that you should cite to the legal authority that supports the fact or argument. The papers that provide facts and arguments without providing the citation to the legal authority will not receive a very high grade. I need to know where you obtained your facts and arguments.
A total of 40 points are available. What I am looking for is not an exhausted research of a specific area of the law. What I want to see is your recognizing the legal issues involved in a specific area of hospitality management and your ability to analyze the law to the operations. Further, your discussion of the law and the application of the law to your subject. I also want your recommendations on the law as applied to hospitality operations for the suggested topic of your choice. As an example, if your topic is room reservations and the law applied, you may discuss how to make reservations more enforceable if necessary in a court of law.
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financial management paper

Use the company Coca Cola and its stock

Imagine that you are a financial manager researching investments for your client. Use google to research the stock of any U.S. publicly traded company (Coca Cola) that you may consider as an investment opportunity for your client. Your investment should align with your client’s investment goals. (Note: Please ensure that you are able to find enough information about this company in order to complete this assignment. You will create an appendix, in which you will insert related information.)

The assignment covers the following topics:

  • Rationale for choosing the company in which to invest
  • Ratio analysis
  • Stock price analysis
  • Recommendations

Refer to the following resources to assist with completing your assignment:

Stock Selection

  • Forbes – “Six Rules to Follow When Picking Stocks”
  • CNN Money – “Stocks: Investing in stocks”
  • The Motley Fool – “13 Steps to Investing Foolishly”
  • Seeking Alpha – “The Graham And Dodd Method For Valuing Stocks”
  • Investopedia – “Guide to Stock-Picking Strategies”
  • Seeking Alpha – “Get Your Smart Beta Here! Dividend Growth Stocks As ‘Strategic Beta’ Investments”

Market and Company Information

  • U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission – “Market Structure”
  • Yahoo! Finance
  • Mergent Online (Note: This resource is also available through the Strayer Learning Resource Center.)
  • Seeking Alpha (Note: Also available through the Android or iTunes App store.)
  • Morningstar (Note: You can create a no-cost Basic Access account.)
  • Research Hub, located in the left menu of your course in Blackboard.

Write a ten to fifteen (10-15) page paper in which you:

  1. Provide a rationale for the stock that you selected, indicating the significant economic, financial, and other factors that led you to consider this stock.
  2. Suggest the primary reasons why the selected stock is a suitable investment for your client. Include a description of your client’s profile.
  3. Select any five (5) financial ratios that you have learned about in the text. Analyze the past three (3) years of the selected financial ratios for the company; you may obtain this information from the company’s financial statements. Determine the company’s financial health. (Note: Suggested ratios include, but are not limited to, current ratio, quick ratio, earnings per share, and price earnings ratio.)
  4. Based on your financial review, determine the risk level of the stock from your investor’s point of view. Indicate key strategies that you may use in order to minimize these perceived risks.
  5. Provide your recommendations of this stock as an investment opportunity. Support your rationale with resources, such as peer-reviewed articles, material from the Strayer Learning Resource Center, and reviews by market analysts.
  6. Use at least five (5) quality academic resources in this assignment. Note: Wikipedia and other similar websites do not qualify as academic resources.

Your assignment must follow these formatting requirements:

  • Be typed, double spaced, using Times New Roman font (size 12), with one-inch margins on all sides; citations and references must follow APA or school-specific format. Check with your professor for any additional instructions.
  • Include a cover page containing the title of the assignment, the student’s name, the professor’s name, the course title, and the date. The cover page and the reference page are not included in the required assignment page length.

The specific course learning outcomes associated with this assignment are:

  • Critique financial management strategies that support business operations in various market environments.
  • Analyze financial statements for key ratios, cash flow positions, and taxation effects.
  • Review fixed income strategies using time value of money concept, bond valuation methods, and interest rate calculations.
  • Estimate the risk and return on financial investments.
  • Apply financial management options to corporate finance.
  • Determine the cost of capital and how to maximize returns.
  • Formulate cash flow analysis for capital projects including project risks and returns.
  • Evaluate how corporate valuation and forecasting affect financial management.
  • Analyze how capital structure decision-making practices impact financial management.
  • Use technology and information resources to research issues in financial management.
  • Write clearly and concisely about financial management using proper writing mechanics.



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write a 350 to 525 word paper that discusses the principles of communication presented in the scenario 2

Write a 350- to 525-word paper that discusses the principles of communication presented in the scenario.

Describe verbal and nonverbal cues from the scenario.
Based on the description of each group member, speculate as to how well this group will collaborate.
How can verbal and nonverbal communication be perceived as defensive?

How can this affect relationships in the work place?

Cite at least 1 peer-reviewed, scholarly, or similar reference.
Format your assignment according to APA guidelines.
Read the scenario provided
Communication Scenario
A group of colleagues is meeting to discuss how to market a health care product. Prior to the in-person meeting, several ideas were developed and shared via email with the group. The group was asked to review the ideas and bring their thoughts and feedback to the meeting.
The email sent out to the group is provided below:
Dear Colleagues,
As you know, we are in the final stages of launching a new product. We are now seeking ways to market the product to the public. I have received a few ideas and wanted to share them with the group prior to our face-to-face meeting.

Ice cream social to familiarize the product with staff and internal partners
Short video describing the product and how the public should use it
Social media campaign to increase knowledge of the product
Commercial introducing the product
Sharing information about the product via word of mouth

As you can see, we have some good ideas to kick off our meeting, but we need to develop a great marketing plan. Please come prepared to discuss these and any additional ideas you may have. Looking forward to our meeting.
In-Person Meeting:
A week later, the group meets to discuss their ideas and feedback. The group consists of the following people:

Gail is the meeting organizer and the group lead on the project. She is very detail-oriented as well as focused and communicates effectively.
Larry is the least attentive of the group and less vocal. He wants to get the work done with minimal discussion.
Robert is very opinionated but has trouble communicating effectively and uses body language quite often.
Melissa is quiet, shy, and has amazing ideas but often has difficulty expressing herself.

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FINANCE410 Orange Coast Bahrain Current Economic Trends Term Paper

Term Paper: An Investor’s Guide to Measuring Risk

Country: Bahrain

Sample paper attached


Whether you are a portfolio manager investing internationally in stocks and bonds or working for a business seeking to develop a multinational presence through foreign direct investment or greater diversification of revenue sources, business decision making in the 21st century requires an understanding of the risks associated with deploying funds abroad. In this project, you will assess international risk by choosing a particular country to follow throughout the quarter and developing a dossier on that country. Your dossier will include an assessment of the macroeconomic environment and policies related to exchange rates and capital flows, a discussion of institutional factors (legal, political, cultural, and social structures) that might influence decisions to invest capital in this country, and an assessment of how current news (that occurring over the next 10 weeks) affects your risk assessment. In choosing a country to study, you might consider one that, a priori, has some elevated level of risk for investors. If you need help thinking about this criterion, please see me in office hours or look ahead to Part IIA of the exercise and use the information on crises to help you select a country that has experienced financial and economic turmoil (although most do!). Please read all parts of this assignment for two reasons: (1) as described in part II, you will need to begin collecting any news articles that might change your assessment of risk and (2) you will need to manage your time wisely to meet the deadlines.

Part I: Assessing the Macroeconomic Environment (Due October 3th)

(40% of paper’s grade)

(Upload via Blackboard)

A. Data Collection and Interpretation

Go to the OECD’s World Economic Data base:

Choose your country from the database and proceed to select the indicators described in the next sentence by for the period 2005 – 2019 as well as future projections (some may go through 2023 or 2024). Find, or in some cases, tabulate the percentage change in real GDP, the inflation rate, the output gap, the unemployment rate, the structural budget deficit or surplus as a percent of GDP, and the current account balance as a percent of GDP. To help you interpret the data, which you will write about below, create bar diagrams or time-series plots of these measures, and include them at the back of your dossier (refer to them in the text by providing each figure with a number, i.e. Figure 1).

In section I of your dossier, entitled “Current Economic Trends,” describe the trends – past, present, and (plausible) future – of these key variables. What do you observe in the data? Are the measures rising or falling? Based on your understanding of macroeconomics, what do these suggest to you about the fiscal health of the country, the growth prospects, etc. Make sure to provide some analysis along these lines based on the indicators you have chosen. If any data were missing for your particular country, make sure to include a footnote indicating this.

Now visit Oanda’s website and use their currency graphing tool at or FRED at

to plot the exchange rate vis-à-vis the dollar for the last two years and add this picture to your dossier (take a screen shot or make a pdf of this and import it into your report as a figure attached to the back of the paper). Make a judgment as to whether this currency is fixed (peg or band) or floating based on what you observe. Do you detect any trend relative to the dollar? Now play around with longer periods. Do you see any trends? If so, create another plot and describe it. Has the degree of fixity changed over longer time periods? Now visit the IMF’s website and locate the latest classification (2013) of the de facto exchange regimes in all countries around the world. Does your regime assessment agree with theirs for the period in which you plotted the most recent data? Discuss. If your country is listed in the Big Mac Index, what does it tell you about whether your currency is under or overvalued in the long run? Label this section of your discussion “Exchange Rate Dynamics.”

See what you can find out about the major imports and exports of this economy by going to the homepage of the International Trade Center and selecting your country: Make a bar graph showing the shares (percentages) of the 10 leading imports and exports for this economy. Are there any changes in the global prices of the goods in which they export or import that might affect your assessment of risk? Based on these data, describe what kinds of shocks to trade might hurt this country’s current account? Can you find out anything about trends in tariff rates or other forms of non-tariff protection? You may have to dig more broadly online for this, and perhaps visit the website of the WTO (World Trade Organization). Is your country a member of WTO? Using other data available on this site for FDI (foreign direct investment), calculate the share of FDI as a percent of GDP (where the correct nominal GDP data will come from the IMF website you visited earlier). What are the major categories of FDI for this country? Write a description of the trends in FDI. Can you find out any information about short-term capital flows? Are they denominated in foreign or domestic currency? How big are they relative to the size of all capital flows, FDI, or GDP? Label this discussion “Balance of Payments.”

Finally, discuss how you might improve your ability to assess risk for this country based on this information. That is, is there anything else the assignment could have asked to allow you to understand whether this would be a risky country in which to transact?

B. Assessment

After collecting this information and writing up your results, submit your paper to Blackboard by the due date mentioned above. Once all papers are submitted, you will be assigned a classmate for peer assessment. Your job is now to analyze the report and assess its strengths and weaknesses, following a rubric. Please make general comments about where the analysis needs clarification or correction. After you have examined your peer’s dossier, write a paragraph describing (1) what you learned from reading it and (2) what you feel you would like more information in order to form a judgment about risk (this will help your peer with part 2). Finally, if you feel there are any, describe any trends or make any relevant observations that were not spotted by the author.

Part II: Institutions and Political Risk

(60% of paper’s grade)

(Uploaded via Blackboard)

As we will discuss in class, foreign exchange traders try to forecast the exchange rate. In this project, we are, in part, exploring how this is done. We are also learning how markets assess country-specific risk and use it to price assets, like bonds issued by governments (i.e., sovereign bonds) and corporations.


Thus far, we have focused on developing an overview of the macroeconomic environment to think about “fundamentals.” Changes in GDP, interest rates, and inflation rates are key components of many bond traders and FX traders’ forecasts. In this section, we begin to explore other factors, some of which create an “environment” for investment; that is, they help foreign investors understand how difficult it is to set up a company or carry out portfolio investment. Included in the investment environment are political factors, such as governmental stability, protection of property rights, corruption, etc. Factors that influence this “political risk” or “country-specific risk” can vary enormously across countries and over time, and thus account for much of the cross-country variation we see in interest rates by borrowers in different countries. In this part of your dossier, you will gather information about some of the most widely tracked political and institutional factors.

A. Historical Information

We begin with an exploration of a country’s borrowing history. The past can give us insight into how credible political regimes are in keeping their promises. We would like to learn whether a country has experienced any severe crises, be they domestic-debt crises, sovereign-debt crises, high-inflation episodes, or banking crises. Use the text and data tables found in Reinhart and Rogoff, (especially tables 3-7, 9, 11-13 A2, and A3) as a starting point to identify crisis episodes:

You can also visit their database:

Create a data table (if there are multiple crises), listing the chronology and types of crises and discuss how the episodes might influence investors’ decisions to invest. If the crisis episodes for your country are discussed therein, then include some insights (citing references appropriately). If not, then use the web to find out more about the particular episodes now that you have identified the dates. Please use the following questions to help you write up this part of your risk assessment:

  1. Has the monetary policy of the country been run in a credible fashion? That is, do they print too much money; do politicians fire their central bankers often or are they insulated from this?
  2. Has the fiscal policy been carried out in a sustainable fashion?
  3. Are there any characteristics, institutional or otherwise, that seem to make this country crisis prone or more “immune” to crises?
  4. What is the history of repayment of debt? What do you think the likelihood of reneging on a promise to pay is in the future?

B. Quality of Institutions

We next consider the institutional environment of conducting business or investing in a country. Use the World Bank’s “doing business survey” found at:

  1. What variables make up these rankings? How are they determined? You will need to look at the methodology link to answer this?
  2. How would investors use them to assess risk?
  3. How does your country perform? Does it score high in some areas and low in others?
  4. Have its values changed recently?
  5. What do you take away from this if you were assessing risk?

Now examine the World Bank’s Governance Indicators data set listed here (click on Excel download for rankings file).

  1. How are the rankings determined? You may need to read some about the methodology to adequately carry this out. (Please consult the referenced working paper on the website.)
  2. There are six measures (rule of law, voice and accountability, etc.) Plot these six measures on a single graph since 2000 and describe any trends you see for your country. How stable are they?
  3. What do you think these variables tell us about a country and investor risk? Explain why or why not they contribute to an environment that contributes to long-term investment in a country.
  4. How might changes in current geopolitics influence some of these rankings, if any?

C. Contemporary Affairs

From now, until the last week of class, collect news articles that tell us about the current political and economic environment of the country. Summarize your findings and relate them to risk assessment, drawing on the following questions to frame your thinking:

  1. What are the main factors presently affecting the outlook of this country? What does the news tell you about the political situation, the economic situation, etc.?
  2. Has the political regime changed recently? Does it change frequently? How would these changes affect investor sentiment?
  3. Are there any global changes in politics or economics that are particularly important for us to understand the environment for risk.
  4. Make sure to provide proper citations in your references list or in footnotes.

III. Overall Assessment

(Included as part of Part II’s 60%)

Based on your understanding of the history, institutions, macroeconomic environment, and recent news of your country, form an assessment of how exchange rates and country risk on foreign-denominated debt issued by this country will move in the near future. Support your analysis with the information you have obtained in Parts 1 & 2 of this project. That is, you should use this section to pull together the main “drivers” of risk based on your understanding. You ought to leave yourself sufficient time to do so by developing Section II information in advance of the last two weeks of the class.

In your final document or dossier, make sure to include your original macro assessment. This should be updated to take into account any feedback you received from your peer review. All parts of your final analysis should be labeled appropriately so what you turn in is easy to follow.


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news reflection paper 6 – Essay Writers

Specify the source information (title, author, newspaper or news magazine, date of publication) for your news article and summarize the content of the article;
Specify at least two fields of psychology that your article content falls into and explain why it relates to these fields. In your explanation, be sure to describe the focus of your two selected fields in general and use specific content from the new article to illustrate the connection.
Explain in detail how your news event connects to at least THREE distinct course concepts, theories, or research findings (you must use your textbook for these connections). Be sure that you make your connections to specific—rather than more general—course concepts. For example, conditioning is a general concept, operant conditioning is more specific, and negative reinforcement is even more specific. The more specific you make your course concept connections, the better. Also be sure to provide the page number from the text for the course concepts you use in your paper.
Explain why the topic you selected is interesting to you and important in general.

(Reflection guidelines attached on PDF)
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Grantham Three Major National Labor Laws: Are These Necessary? Paper

There are three major national Labor Laws. Compare and contrast each one, in order to identify the major factors associated to each law. Are these laws necessary? Please explain.

The requirements below must be met for your paper to be accepted and graded:

  • Write between 700 – 1,000 words using Microsoft Word in APA style, see example below.
  • Use font size 12 and 1” margins.
  • Include cover page and reference page.
  • At least 80% of your paper must be original content/writing.
  • No more than 20% of your content/information may come from references.
  • Use at least three references from outside the course material, one reference must be from EBSCOhost. Text book, lectures, and other materials in the course may be used, but are not counted toward the three reference requirement.
  • Cite all reference material (data, dates, graphs, quotes, paraphrased words, values, etc.) in the paper and list on a reference page in APA style.

References must come from sources such as, scholarly journals found in EBSCOhost, CNN, online newspapers such as, The Wall Street Journal, government websites, etc. Sources such as, Wikis, Yahoo Answers, eHow, blogs, etc. are not acceptable for academic writing.

A detailed explanation of how to cite a source using APA can be found here (link).

Download an example here.

Grading Criteria AssignmentsMaximum Points
Meets or exceeds established assignment criteria20
Demonstrates an understanding of lesson concepts30
Clearly presents well-reasoned ideas and concepts30
Uses proper mechanics, punctuation, sentence structure, spelling and APA format.20


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