Literature Review of Genocide in Rwanda: Leadership, ethics and organizational failure in a post-colonial context

During mid-1994, more than 800,000 Tutsi and a moderate number of Hutus were killed in the Rwandan genocide (Long, Grant, Mills, Gaudet & Warren, 2009, p271). The international community failed to prevent and end the genocide. This happened not because they had no ability to do so, but they lacked better organizational structures and a good process of decision making. Also, the reason why the genocide spread at a faster pace was due to failure of organizations such as the United Nations, which is one of the largest organizations in the world. The Rwandan experiences during the year 1994 are occurrences that are beyond the approach of organizational analysis. Such occurrences are inappropriate to apply to the current organizational and structural analysis. Surprisingly, the genocide had, not only well organized structures, but also depended on militia, the Rwandan government and the police force. The genocide spread fast because of organizational failure. The aspect of organizational failure is blamed on the United Nations, which was reluctant and also unwilling to end the genocide, despite its troops in the nation which Romeo Dallaire led.  The case of genocide in Rwanda depicts organizational issues such as leadership, ethics and organizational structure

After the Rwandan genocide, the commander of the United Nations Assistance Mission for Rwanda (UNAMIR) Romeo Dallaire blamed himself for poor leadership skills. The case study highlights how Dallaire confessed of his poor leadership skills because he did not succeed in convincing the United Nations as well as the Department of Peacekeeping Operations (DPKO) of the seriousness of the situation in Rwanda. However, from his grief, Romeo blamed the United Nations for its ill manner in tackling the Rwandan genocide. Romeo Dallaire also stated that, even though he had good military training as well as basic humanitarian and political skills, the United Nations rules and regulations were too strict that he could not make use of his militia skills (Long, Grant, Mills, Gaudet & Warren, 2009, p275). In addition, his troops, which he was supposed to command, were commanded by their nations. As such, Dallaire’s hands were tied since his troops sometimes openly refused to adhere to his command, if their nations of origin felt that it was not necessary. According to Romeo’s recommendations, the United Nations organizational structure needs to undergo a renaissance. It is only through a renaissance that the organization would not be restricted to its bureaucrats, secretariat and administration and instead, include the member countries. However, it will be important for the member countries to rethink their roles and also commit to renewing their purpose.  Failure to implement such measures, Romeo Dallaire believes that humanity will perish while the United Nations remains irrelevant (Weiss, 2013, p23).

After the post-colonial period, other organizations were formed. For example, the Organization of Africa Union (OAU), currently known as the Africa union (AU) also failed in its mission to prevent the genocide. With all the equipments and resources that the organization had in place, it failed miserably. The fact is that some of its key leaders collaborated with the conflicting parties. This was a demonstration of unethical behavior in leadership.  There were no common goals in decision making. Also, during this time, other world superpowers such as the USA demonstrated poor leadership skills by advising the United Nations to withdraw from Rwanda since they didn’t have any national interests in the country. The nation ignored its political responsibility and allowed hundreds of Rwandese to perish. By doing so, the United States seemed to have been in support of the Tutsi interests.  This was once again unethical.

The United Nations had poor leadership. This made the decision making process almost impossible. Leaders of the organization were not serious with what was happening in Rwanda. The mode of decision making (rational/unitary), which focused on hierarchical authority was so slow that a lot of time was taken during the process (Heffernan, 2014, p18). Also, a lot of people were involved in the decision making process. When Romeo Dallaire was asked to assess the situation in Rwanda and make a report to the United Nations, the report had four options. Although the first two options were the best for the Rwandan situation, the United Nations, after a long time of decision making process concluded that Romeo Dallaire had no option, but to adopt option three. Also, he was reminded that it could take three months or more for the deployment decision to get through. Despite the urgency of the situation in Rwanda, the UN sent 2,500 troops. The slow decision making process can also be blamed for the failure in preventing and ending the Rwandan genocide. Dallaire’s report passed through many hands before it was agreed upon. The report was passed from the DPKO leadership to the UN secretary general, then to the Security Council and then voted out. This shows that there was group decision making (Pettinger, 2010, p12), and this was not important, especially in times of emergency like what was happening in Rwanda.  If the Rwandese Patriotic Front (RPF) had not flown to New York to lobby the UN to speed up the process, then the situation in Rwanda could have worsened.

During the decision making process, there are different decisional roles. One of the roles is resource allocation (Barnett, 2014, p9). Resources are very important if any organizational projects are to be implemented.  This was not so during the Rwandan genocide situation. Although Dallaire returned to Rwanda with the enthusiasm to monitor the fragile peace, one of the challenges he encountered was the lack of resources. The united nations, together with the supporting nations such as Bangladesh, France and Belgium did not offer enough resources to the troops in Rwanda. Most importantly, after his arrival in Rwanda, the situation was worsened by what happened in Burundi.  The United Nations failed to supply more troops. Dallaire was also forced to return his Mercedes and live like any other soldier. Food was also limited, and they were forced to share the little they had. They also lacked serviced vehicles, machinery, equipment and lodgings. This was a frustration among the soldiers. This could have led to their demoralization in ensuring peace in Rwanda.

The government system of Rwanda had poor organizational structures. The government did not ensure equality between the Tutsi and Hutu after independence. The Tutsi enjoyed the country’s wealth under the expense of the Hutu. They also had a higher status in the country. Although the Belgium colony brought about this ethnic diversity, it should have been abolished after independence (Bellamy Alex & Paul, Williams, 2010, p14). It can be said that poor governance was a reason for the genocide even after the Arusha accords. The government could have had departments ensuring that all Rwandese attended equally. As such, the Hutu could never have thought of warring against the Tutsi.  During the time of the genocide, the conflicting parties were the Tutsi and Hutu. This indicated that the government had poor leadership and was unethical as the leadership was based on tribal grounds. Organizational leadership focuses on equality and respect for all.

Coordination is one of the major aspects of leadership. In order for decisions to be implemented, those involved should have a common goal. The United Nations troops led by Dallaire, despite the challenges they were facing were working well to ensure peace. Dallaire was in charge of both military and political operations until Jacques-Roger Booh-Booh arrived, took charge of the political aspects, and acted as the overall head of the mission (Jacobson, 2012, p8).  Booh-Booh and his staff had an absurd work ethic and political approach. There was no coordination between Dallaire, Booh-Booh and the chief administration officer who allocated more resources to the civilians and ignored the staff. This was unethical, and the United Nations overlooked Dallaire’s attempt to have him rejected. Also, after there were several killings in the demilitarized zone, Dallaire recommended to Booh-Booh about the search and seize of the weapons that were used. Surprisingly, Booh-Booh refused the request, arguing that it would damage the peace process, and the UN troops would be seen as if taking action only against the government. Also, Booh-Booh frustrated Dallaire’s report to DPKO in which he had requested for phase two troops and logistical support. From this, it can be understood that, although UN officials in Rwanda were sent for the same purpose, they had different ideas, and there was no coordination to achieve a common goal. This led to UN failure to prevent and end the genocide.

It can be concluded that, although Dallaire is blamed for the genocide in Rwanda. The United Nations is the one to blame. It lacked good leadership and decision making process. Its organizational structure was also a failure. The government of Rwanda and its organizational structure is also to blame. For any project to be fully and well implemented, good leadership, organizational structure and good ethics are important.


Barnett, M. 2014. “The United Nations Security Council in Rwanda,” International Decision-Making in the Age of Genocide. Washington, DC: Geroge Washington University.

Bellamy, Alex J. & Paul D. Williams, (eds). 2010. Understanding Peacekeeping, 2nd Ed, Cambridge: Polity Press.

Heffernan, M. 2014. Topic: Decision Making. Melbourne: RMIT University. Www.

Jacobson, T. W. 2012.  U.N. Peacekeeping: Few Successes, Many Failures, Inherent Flaws. Washington, DC: International Diplomacy & Public Policy Center, LLC.

Long, B. S., Grant, J.,  Mills, A. J.,  Gaudet, E. R. & Warren, A. 2009.  Genocide in Rwanda: Leadership, Ethics, and Organizational “Failure” in a Postcolonial Context. Published in Raufflet and Mills (eds.), The Dark Side: Critical Cases in the Downside of Business. Sheffield: Greenleaf Publishing, pp. 268-289.

Pettinger, R. 2010, Organizational Behavior: Performance management in practice. Routledge, London. Chapter 20.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     

Weiss, T. G. 2013. What’s Wrong with the United Nations and How to Fix it.  Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, pp288.

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Understanding organizational behaviour is vital to accomplishing this.

175 words..

As a healthcare manager, you will create an environment where employees feel valued. Understanding organizational behaviour is vital to accomplishing this.

*Why is organizational behavior important in health care today? Provide an example.

*What has been your experience with organizational behaviour?

Discussion#1 (A.M.)  100words

Organizational behavior is important in healthcare today because it is a behavioral science that helps to assess the group dynamics to improve the outcomes. Organizational behavior helps managers develop a skill set that helps to understand and lead their group. It also helps to acknowledge challenges and find ways to minimize those and/or navigate those issues to increase the team’s productivity. I have had both positive and negative experiences with organization behavior in healthcare. In former positions, I have had managers who did not communicate well with employees, straying us from accomplishing goals. Which set the team back, taking us longer to recover. I have also had an experience within a team that worked well together, who could voice opinions and have conversations that resulted in productivity. The manager for this role that I was in did very well in assessing his team and navigating through challenges. This made the team feel heard and want to work harder to help achieve our goals. Organization behavior plays a very important part in the healthcare role.

Discussion#2 (K.A.) 100words

Organizational behavior is important today is to help ensure patient safety, and ethical behavior between different healthcare professionals. It also helps with patient center approaches to care and to increase patient satisfaction. With better knowledge on how to make sure there isn’t high stress and employee overturn an organization can run smooth and successfully. To ensure a good organization behavior approach, a leader in each department should communicate great with others to provide a calm and smooth-running work environment. Keeping each department updated on if there are any delays or problems that may cause delays in the waiting time. Patients like to be updated instead of being kept in the dark. This will help with patient satisfaction.

My experience with organization behavior is when I work as the manager and I have to delegate to the leader or head of each team that have there different services skills. I managed a Spa and had to make sure that I had enough people to schedule for the day. I like having a leader for the therapists and one for the estheticians because I did offer an open line of communication but some where a little hesitant or too shy to come and talk. This worked out tremendously with getting feedback. This also helped when working in teams and with others if I wasn’t there. I knew that there was structure when I was away from the store. I was usually always working even when I was off because I wanted the staff to know I was there no matter what. This kept the spa running smoothly so we could work on our goal to get more clients to visit the store.

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Organizational Culture and Workplace Behaviour

Organizational Culture and Workplace Behaviour

An organization’s culture explains how one is expected to behave within an organization to shape the perception of employees, their understanding, and behaviors.  Throughout the history of most organizations, organizational culture has played a vital role in influencing decisions by the members and the way members accept or reject the initiated decisions.  Significantly, culture exhibited in an organization determines its next point of action and the relationship needed within the premise to revamp output. According to Di Stefano, Scrima & Parry, E. (2019), behaviors in an organization are the most potent determinants for real change.  However, organizational culture is usually plagued with essential dysfunctional dynamics that have stemmed from various dysfunctional personalities that evaluate the environment. Therefore, to work efficiently and effectively within the dispensations of one’s culture, it is essential for one to adequately understand it to make his or her workplace safer and accommodative. Organizational culture has a significant impact on the behavior of employees within the workplace. This paper focuses on examining the experience of delivering and designing a specific change that organizational culture has had for the growth and development of companies. It also captures the importance of understanding corporate culture for the transformation of workplace behaviours.

The most significant issue to collegiate organizations is creating a robust organizational culture. The culture should purposely aim to boost employees’ correlations in working together effectively and cohesively for transformational organisational changes. However, to ensure that these organizational cultures are credible and able to address different issues about the organisation’s success, it is necessary to explore all associated problems. Similarly, the workplace should be sound, and all assumptions built to deal with any form of jeopardy that might be realized (Di Stefano, Scrima & Parry, 2019).  In most cases, the culture exhibited by managers and the employees within an organization determines workplace behaviour. Leadership and management have been regarded as an essential part of the organization regardless of the position and progress of the organization outlined within a firm’s missions, visions, and objectives. Failure of these integral parts to work towards a common goes usual renders the company passive. Similarly, in power dispensation and distribution, the chronological approach must be introduced to allow each member to work within his or her might. As a result, through the continuous application, it makes the organization stable and coherent in its services. 

According to Idowu (2017), understanding organizational culture and its influence on workplace behaviors. Three major dimensions of corporate culture must be evaluated in determining the impact of such rationales in determining the intended outcome. For instance, the symbolic reminders that are based on visible artifacts, a mindset that is associated with shared beliefs and attitudes, and the keystone behaviors that are related to recurring acts with an organization.  These behaviors remarkably act as the most potent determinants that can be used to fathom real change.  Similarly, exposing workers to certain current cultural situations within an organization not only allows them to boost their potentiality but also ensures that all operations being carried out in the organization are towards a common goal (Such & Mutrie, 2017). However, studies also show that understanding the organizational culture of any organization is based on its nature of mission statement. The statement portrays the characteristics of the organization and acts as the baseline for interpreting the goals and strategies of an group. They also provide a starting point, through which organizations can create their cultural artifacts to communicate their values on a deep-rooted and personal level,

The nature of leadership exhibited in an organization also determines the workplace place. The body involves stakeholders and individuals who display authority in a way that internalizes and reinforces values of the premise (Idowu,    2017). Leaders must remain open to feedbacks while the organizations are making changes to react to future explorations. The efforts require the flexibility to the needs of the institutions while adhering to the terms of values. Leaders must also have a clear strategy in the types of restructuring and personal changes that are needed to create the environment. The collaboration between leaders and other individuals in the organization helps in validating the workplace behaviors. For instance, it is from the leaders that concrete plans can be initiated, especially those that aim at shaping the entire organization. The interaction and socialization n with the newcomers in an organization, which is usually done in stages, evaluate the relationship among employees. Anticipatory socialization, change, and integration determine the needed changes that accompany can make without interfering with other valuable components. As a result, it is worth noting that leadership in an organization determines the behaviors within the workplace.

Moreover, change organizational culture is an extremely gradual process. It must be done in stages to meet the required threshold with an organization. The stages determine the concepts needed for operations are within the mission statement of the organization. Although several variables, such as extreme resistance, may affect the efforts that are being invited to make the workplace accommodative.  The behavior in the workplace also determines the coherency through which various actions are done.  For example, a change in organizational culture requires the alignment of policies and structures, active participation, and consistent communication. According to Cross & Carbery (2016), the concepts analyze how members of an organization use the available resources to ensure the safety of their working environment.  Workplace behaviors also show how different ideas and issues have been put together for a common goal. In every organization, the way they conduct their services and reach their customers acts as the link between them and their goals. It shows how work is being done on such premises, and the possible outcome is expected (Cross & Carbery, 2016).  Research shows that organizations with a specific cultural catalyst, such as informal emotional approaches in influencing behavior, have had significant changes.  However, working with specific current cultural conditions has adequately provided companies with natural advantages to shape up their working environments.

An influential organizational culture is a common denominator in most successful organizations. All have a higher position based on cultural priorities, and the values do not only focus on individuals but also on the organization and their goals. Most leaders in these companies live their cultures always and employ other methods to communicate their identities to prospective new hires and employees. It is also commonly maintained that workplace behavior is associated with mental shifts within an organization. This is why, in most cases, leaders with organizations usually try to change their mindsets by communicating their values and ensuring that they are followed.  Trying to change organizational culture is always hectic and requires proper evaluation of all issues that are measurable within the premise. Some good examples of change in behavior that has been evident in most organizations reveal that behavior that is seen among members of the company originates from the interpersonal relationships exhibited in the institution. 

Conversely, a productive organizational culture has a significant impact on the organization and its leadership. High turnover, disengaged employees, low profits, and poor customer relations are examples of the adverse effects of culture within an organization. Similarly, acquisition and merger are fraught with issues associated with learning. According to Sinha, Priyadarshi & Kumar (2016), all organizational cultures that have worked well may have dysfunctional cultures after the acquisition.  Research shows that the failure of an organization depends on how cultural problems can be done to create a favorable condition—redefining and blending the cultures as well as reconciling the differences that existed between them while building a common platform for its future. Culture can also ensure an informal control mechanism, shared understanding between employees, and an uncommon sense of identification within an organization. Employees whose work has sharply defined cultures can justify their behaviors at work due to correlations between their behavior and culture.  The company leaders play an integral role in sustaining and reshaping organizational cultures. Failure of executives to fit into an organization’s culture may make them entirely or fail due to their poor behavior. Overall, organization culture is a nebulous factor and is usually an undefined aspect in an organization that manifests itself to determine the practice in the workplace. 


Cross, D. C., & Carbery, D. R. (Eds.). (2016). Organizational Behaviour: Introducing Organizational Behaviour; Michelle Hammond; 2. Personality; Jill Pearson; 3. Perception; Jennifer Hennessey; 4. Work-Related Attitudes and Values; Ultan Sherman; 5. Motivation and Stress in the Workplace; Collette Darcy; 6. Emotions and the Workplace; Deirdre O’Shea; 7. Groups and Teams in the Workplace; Christine Cross and Caroline Murphy; 8. Leadership; Ronan Carbery; 9. Power, Politics, and Conflict at Work; Christine Cross and Lorraine Ryan; 10. Communication in... Palgrave Macmillan.

Di Stefano, G., Scrima, F., & Parry, E. (2019). The effect of organizational culture on deviant behaviors in the workplace. The International Journal of Human Resource Management30(17), 2482-2503.

Idowu, O. E. (2017). Understanding organizational culture and organizational performance: Are they two sides of the same coin. Journal of Management Research9(1), 12-21.

Sinha, S., Priyadarshi, P., & Kumar, P. (2016). Organizational culture, innovative behavior, and work-related attitude. Journal of Workplace Learning.

Such, E. & Mutrie, N. (2017). Using organizational cultural theory to understand workplace interventions to reduce sedentary time. International Journal of Health Promotion and Education55(1), 18-29.

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Organizational Developments of China National Petroleum

Title: Organizational Developments of China National Petroleum

Thesis: China National Petroleum Company is one of the most abundant gases and Oil Corporation in China as well as one of the largest integrated energy groups with an exceptional organizational developmental process that serves as the measures of its operations and theoretical frameworks as well as its current position.

  1. Introduction

Since China National Petroleum Company (CNPC) obtained the fourth position in the 2017 Fortune Global, it has adversely improved its operations and culture inculcation.

Organizational culture is alive and adversely evident in the China National Petroleum Company.  In the corporate structure, it determines the roles of each member.  In operations, it validates the company’s efforts and issues related to future expansions and viability.

 Today the success of the Company is based on the nature of its culture. China National Petroleum Company is increasingly involved in the development of oil in other countries. So organizational culture has a lot to do with the success and failure of the company;

  1. Thesis Statement: China National Petroleum Company is one of the most abundant gases and Oil Corporation in China as well as one of the largest integrated energy groups with an exceptional organizational developmental process that serves as the measures of its operations and theoretical frameworks as well as its current position.
  2. Preview: Proper consideration is essential to validate the rationales behind organizational culture and its impacts on the company. 
  3. (Transitions: “The paper will begin by discussing the history of China National Petroleum Company.”
  4. Body

As opposed to the Chinese Petroleum Corporation that was formed following the 1949 communist revolution, China National Petroleum Company is as early as the Communist Government of China itself.

  1. China National Petroleum Company Development History
  2. The company started its international operations in 1993.
  3. The SAPET of the CNPC subsidiary was signed in Talara Province Basin in 1997.
  4. In 1998, CNPC was restructured by the government by:
  5. Downstream principle of the oil
  6. Upwards principle of the oil
  7. In 2006, the company sold approximately seventy-percent of its shares to PetroChina.
  8. Later it was listed as an exceptional A-Share during the Shanghai Stock Exchange.
  9. In 2012, the Kunlun Bank and the CNPC was sanctioned due to financial relationship with;
  10. The Quds Force
  11. The Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps
  12. In 2013, China National Petroleum Company and signed a deal worth $4.2 billion.
  13. Mozambique offshore natural block of gas.
  14. In 2014 the China National Petroleum Company subsidiary head was recalled.
  15. Replacement of the company’s top representative announcement in Canada was made.
  16. In 2017, China National Petroleum Company was ranked the Fourth during the Fortune Global 500.
  17. China National Petroleum Company Corporate Structure
  18. The government of China owns CNPC through PetroChina
  19. PetroChina was created in 1999
  20. Most assets and liabilities of PetroChina to CNPC are related to production and hydrocarbon exploration.
  21. CNPC and PetroChina, through a joint venture, developed an oversea asset.
  22. CNPC has a memorandum of understanding mainly with UOP Llc
  23. China National Petroleum Company Operations
  24. CNPC has approximately 3.7 billion reserve oil barrels and produces billions of cubic meters of natural gas.
  25. Since 2007, the company has had thirty international production and exploration projects and operations in;
  26. Iran
  27. Along with the Sinopec ensured the development of Iranian oil.
  28. Obtained 200 million dollars deal with Iranians
  29. Send approximately 2,500 barrels (400 m3) daily
  30. Iraq
  31. Signed a contract with the country to hold modest oil  barrels
  32. Obtained tax kickbacks to boost its operations
  33. Oman
  34. Signed trade agreement contract
  35. Reduced level of taxes and explorations
  36. Azerbaijan
  37. Myanmar
  38. Indonesia
  39. Sudan
  40. Thailand
  41. Peru
  42. Venezuela
  43. China National Petroleum Company conducts its projects through the Great Wall Drilling Company (GWDC).
  44. Separation from enterprise and government and the efficiency of production in CNPC
  45. Sinopec and CNPC changed through business reforms and reorganization for an autonomous management
  46. the creation and management never existed
  47. Government slimming down and structural reforms improve administrative structures of the company plans.
  48. It is capitalizing its strength in and capabilities in offshore explorations and drillings, among other related activities.
  49. Formation of vertically integrated Company
  50. Improved the economies of scale and competitiveness across its major operational strategies
  51. Formation of Sinopec and CNPC through redistribution of assets and minimizing liabilities for enhanced services.
  52. China National Petroleum Company focuses on natural gas and oil development
  53. Simplification of the operational strata for management and multi-layered production.
  54. Business Strategies and Overseas Activities
  55. Demonstrated increased diversity in operations such as E and D projects.
  56. Overseas project development by CNPC in Alberta North Twing Oil of Canada.
  57. Investments of approximately 15.6 billion yuan in the Middle East, Africa, South America, and Central Asia. 
  58. Production of billion tons of crude oil and other valuable resources to boost taxes
  59. Participation with other companies in various projects to reduce expenses and maximize costs.
  60. Conclusion

Summary Remark: In the end, organizational development of China National Petroleum Company can be traced back through various stages of interaction that the company involves in and some of the intrinsic activities and operations with which it engages in. Similarly, based on multiple strategic markets and various interactions with other countries around the world, China allowed the CNPC to adequately transgress across borders and ensure that the quality of oil and natural gases that it gives to them is according to the prescribed demands. Interestingly, most of the operations that were initiated were based on specific correlations that are used to make the entire development process concrete and coherent, as stipulated in its missions and visions.  The whole China National Petroleum Company was based on the formation of vertical strategies to meet the high demands of its esteemed customers.

Concluding remarks: China National Petroleum Company is one of the best oil companies in the world. As of 2017, it had been ranked for by the Global Fortune 500 for its credible success in the provision of quality oil. However, with its stable leadership, exceptional organizational culture, and operations, which are geared towards achieving higher profits, it was able to meet some of its valuable goals. Addressing the organizational development of the company, the Chinese government explored various approaches that were capable of revisiting and ensuring that it remains the best across the countries. The initiation of multiple contracts, ethical leadership, reduced taxes, and proper command allowed the company to enjoy its growth and development.  However, through the introduction of various market strategies in overseas countries, CNPC management to earn a lot of money for its expansion and creation of valuable projects.  

  1. References

Huo, R., & Duan, K. B. (2014). Conditions of shale gas accumulation and exploration practices in China. In Advanced Materials Research (Vol. 978, pp. 161-164). Trans Tech Publications Ltd.

Shi, L., Yingcao, Z. H. O. U., Liu, W., Xiaoqiang, Z. H. A. I., Wang, Y., Wang, K., & Boqi, Z. H. O. U. (2019). U.S. Patent No. 10,408,042. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.

Wang, H. (2016). Corporate social responsibility of companies in China oil sector: a case study of China national petroleum company (Master’s thesis).

Yuan, J. D. (2010). China’s role in establishing and building the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO). Journal of Contemporary China19(67), 855-869.

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Organizational Change

Organizational Change

Although universal elements define the organizational change that suggest each as unique, the ambitions, values, perceptions, and ethics organizations adopt represent some of the most significant sources of uniqueness. Even within the same industry, firms differ in how they define, shape up, and approach their goals. Combined with the uniqueness that exists in identifying and approaching success, the different ethics, ambitions, perceptions, and values of organizations present a unique challenge in light of change management in organizations. One of its simplest definitions presents change management as the sum of investments designed to identify revolution, prepare and support organizations, teams, and individuals in addressing organizational change. Change management investments are different from one organization to another. The unique nature of organizations, even those which exists in a similar industrial setting, presents unique challenges in change management. There is hardly a one-size-fits-all change management suite. Excellence in change management not only demands that the unique elements about organizations be adequately understood and analyzed but also matched to the best change management investment in both the short and the long terms (Basu, 2017, p. 15).

 Apart from being of the most popular global brands, Toyota is rich grounds in light of business and organizational-based research and related activities. The company has set up operations in the Middle East in countries ranging from Saudi Arabia, UAE, Iran, Iraq, and Kuwait to Bahrain, Qatar, Oman, Jordan, Yemen, Lebanon, and Syria (Goksoy, 2016, p. 104). In March of 2016, the company began investing in an extensive organizational change that would see the company change its structure and functionality from a product-based structure to a function-based structure. The entire organizational change was aimed at installing and developing a new management structure; one that would aim at creating a product-based organization as opposed to a function-based one to streamline and improve work processes across the company. This would affect all the 14 distributors across the Middle East region. 

The new management structure adopted by Toyota would see the company shifts its orientation from being region based towards the various product classes. This shift would be mainly guided by the reviews from how the company makes decisions and works. According to Toyota’s regional president, the structural change to be instituted might fail to be the ultimate solution required by the company, but it presents a myriad of opportunities to the company and its operations in the Middle East (Cameron & Green, 2015, p. 89). For instance, the organizational change would not only provide the company with grounds through it would make better vehicles, but also strengthen and grow the company’s workforce across the region. The ability of the structural change to fail or work rested squarely on the Toyota workforce across the region.

Traditionally, Toyota has had an organizational culture that invests in and supports continuous improvement and innovation in the company’s endeavours. Today, the organization is guided by four central values; teamwork, quality, continuous improvement birthed from constant learning, and secrecy (Osono, 2018). There is hardly a region or business area Toyota has invested in that is not run through teamwork. The organization is designed to exist as a learning organization; one where the firm and the people therein are developed through constant learning. Quality is at the heart of the organizational culture; the constant need to ensure high-quality automobiles are provided for the different markets it serves. A considerably high degree of secrecy is presented in Toyota’s organizational culture. These elements of the company’s culture have been responsible for the continuous growth over time. The constant learning culture in the company has not only acted as grounds through which innovation has been maintained over time, but has also improved the problem-solving capabilities of the company while ensuring quality is continuously improved. The secrecy element of the organizational culture has reduced the organization’s flexibility and has had adverse effects with regards to rapid problem-solving.

One of the most noticeable organizational changes taking place at Toyota is aimed at ensuring the short and mid-term product development and strategy are assigned to new seven in-house and product-based companies. This will be achieved by creating five new companies and renaming two existing companies. The five companies include Toyota Compact Car Company, Innovative R&D and Engineering Company, Lexus International Company, CV Company, and Mid-size Vehicle Company (Osono, 2018). The two renamed companies are Connected Company and Power Train Company. The organizational changes will also see the creation of a new research centre as well as having the corporate strategy division take up with long and mid-term strategic planning functions. Finally, the divisions within the company which do not fit to a specific group as well as other undefined groups will be forced to transform aimed at supporting the functioning of business units in management areas ranging from cost and profit to administration and human resource within the in-house companies.

There will also be management changes presented in the organizational change. One of the executive vice-presidents in Toyota Middle East will be forced to resign. There will be a simultaneous promotion of one of the managing officer promotions to a senior managing officer (Deans & Kroeger, 2015, p. 183). Two executive vice presidents will take up positions of chief financial officer and chief officer with regards to the Frontier Research Center. Another two vice presidents will be chief officer and chief competitive officer governing the research division.

Conclusively, it is evident to note that the new changes in Toyota Middle East will not only institute organizational changes but will also bring about changes in light of the management of the 14 distributors across the Middle East region. Apart from setting the company on a path to achieve its production and sales targets for 2016, the changes were also aimed at ensuring the company simplifies its work processes and addresses long-standing quality issues. The organizational change in the company are also designed to provide the company deals with one of its long-term goals; to consolidate the production and production of small cars. The company is set to recalibrate its focus on emerging markets, especially India through these organizational changes.


Basu, S. (2017). Corporate purpose: Why it matters more than strategy. New York, NY: Taylor & Francis.

Cameron, E., & Green, M. (2015). Making sense of change management: A complete guide to the models, tools and techniques of organizational change. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.

Deans, G. K., & Kroeger, F. (2015). Stretch!: How great companies grow in good times and bad. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.

Goksoy, A. (2016). Organizational change management strategies in modern business. Hershey, PA: IGI Global.

Osono, E. (2018). Extreme Toyota: Radical contradictions that drive success at the world’s best manufacturer. Prince Frederick, MD: Recorded Books.

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Organizational Behavior – first Bi term

Organizational Behavior – first Bi term

Activity #4 – Article Critique Assignment

In this assignment, you are to critically read and evaluate a scholarly article’s strengths, weaknesses, and contributions to the study field. Learning how to critique a journal article has several benefits, including preparing you for publishing in the future and keeping you current on the literature in your field of study. The practical application is developing the ability to look at research within your organization and industry with a knowledgeable, critical eye.

Organizational Behavior – first Bi term

The University of the Cumberlands (UC) Library subscribes to many journals and provides you access to appropriate collections to support this assignment. Using the UC Library, locate and review the following peer-reviewed articles:

· Dysvik, A & Kuvaas, B. (2013). Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation as predictors of work effort: The moderating role of achievement goals.  British Journal of Social Psychology,  52(3), 412–430.

· Aydogmus, Metin Camgoz, S., Ergeneli, A., & Tayfur Ekmekci, O. (2018). Perceptions of transformational leadership and job satisfaction: The roles of personality traits and psychological empowerment.  Journal of Management & Organization,  24(1), 81–107.

· Fitzsimmons, Callan, V. J., & Paulsen, N. (2014). Gender disparity in the C-suite: Do male and female CEOs differ in how they reached the top?  The Leadership Quarterly,  25(2), 245–266.  

· Flocco, Canterino, F., & Cagliano, R. (2021). Leading innovation through employees’ participation: Plural leadership in employee-driven innovation practices.  Leadership (London, England),  17(5), 499–518.

· Kuenzi, Mayer, D. M., & Greenbaum, R. L. (2020). Creating an ethical organizational environment: The relationship between ethical leadership, ethical organizational climate, and unethical behavior.  Personnel Psychology,  73(1), 43–71.

· de Reuver, Van de Voorde, K., & Kilroy, S. (2021). When do bundles of high performance work systems reduce employee absenteeism? The moderating role of workload.  International Journal of Human Resource Management,  32(13), 2889–2909.

Following your review, choose one article from this list; critically evaluate the article’s strengths, weaknesses, and contribution to the study field using the outline below as a guide:

 Cover page

· The cover page will include:

· Articles Title and Author (s)

· Name of Journal (s)

· Date of publication

· Your name

Executive Summary

· Summarize the significant aspects of the entire article, including:


· The overall purpose and general area of study of the article.

· The specific problem being addressed in the study.

· The main findings of the article.

Literature Review

· Briefly summarize the overall themes presented in the Literature Review.


· Was the literature review applicable to the study, current and thorough?

· Were there gaps in the literature review?

Data Analysis


· Identify the methodology used: qualitative, quantitative, mixed? Was the chosen methodology appropriate for the study? Why or why not?

· Did the data analysis prove or disprove the research questions? Explain.


· In this section, you will address the following:

· Describe the article’s relevance to the field of knowledge.

· Outline the strengths and weaknesses of the article. Be specific.

· Based on the article, what future research do you think needs to be accomplished in this area?

· What are your key points and takeaways after analyzing the article?

Proper APA in-text citation must be used. The review is to be word-processed double spaced, not less than two pages, and no more than five pages in length. Paper length does not include the cover page, abstract, or references page(s)

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The Impact Of Positive Organizational Behavior In The Workplace

The Impact Of Positive Organizational Behavior In The Workplace


            The comprehension of organizational behavior has been an integral part of the success or wellbeing of any business. It is often defined as any behavior that results from the culture and structure of the organization. For quite a long time, the value of positive organizational behavior had been relegated to the periphery. However, recent times have seen renewed interest in the significance of positivity as a key focus area for research, theory building, as well as application in organizational behavior and psychology. Positive Organizational Behavior (POB) was envisaged by Fred Luthans in early 2000s. Luthans, together with his colleagues, acknowledged that a large number of organizational researchers had concentrated on negative elements of the workplace and ignored the positive ones such as psychological capabilities and strengths of the employee (Luthans et al, 2005). Luthans and colleagues examined self-efficacy, optimism, hope and resiliency as the psychological capabilities that result in positive organizational behavior. However, questions emerge as to the impact that positive organizational behavior (POB) in the workplace has on the performance and productivity of individuals (Luthans et al, 2005). Volumes of literature have been written on this front, trying to explain the impact of POB on productivity and performance in the workplace. These works of literature will be examined, and their findings outlined to answer the question.

Positive Organizational behavior is manifested in various ways including sharing knowledge, good mannerisms and communication, consideration of obstacles as challenges, being empowered and working independently, maintenance of excellent interpersonal relationship among workers, exhibition of enthusiasm and initiative, as well as concentrating on intangible benefits alongside tangible ones (Luthans et al, 2005). In addition, it would involve exhibition of integrity and ethics in the workplace among other things (Seligman & Csikszentmihalyi, 2000).

Scholars have acknowledged that a positive organizational behavior promotes a culture of openness and learning that allows individual employees to keep abreast and be updated on their skills and expertise, awareness, as well broaden their experience (Isen, 2003). Positive organizational behavior dictates that employers and their employees disseminate information, as well as share knowledge informally and informally with each other (Luthans et al, 2005). Scholars note that employees in such an environment would apply their brains to pondering and thinking above board and beyond the limits (Luthans et al, 2005). There is the cultivation of the culture of challenging every other assumption irrespective of the rank while respecting the variations in opinion, something that results in the emergence of new ideas (Wright, 2003). In this environment, the employees would communicate openly, freely and sincerely with each other, thereby providing for positive reinforcement. POB is a deviation from the common one-upmanship as it involves a situation where competition revolves around the addition to an individual’s intellectual base (Isen, 2003). The employees in such an environment look at obstacles as challenges that should be overcome and, therefore, become risk takers and innovators (Wright, 2003). In instances where they fail, the employees look at setbacks and failures as opportunities for learning and becoming better people than they were. It goes without saying that an individual’s reaction and perspective of failure determines how he handles it in the future, as well as the steps taken to avert their occurrence in the future (Luthans, 2003). Scholars note that the employees in such environments would react to failure and setbacks by examining the predisposing factors for its occurrence and trying to come up with strategies that would avert the possibility of their occurrence in the future, rather than resorting in witch-hunting and vendetta (Luthans, 2003).  Researchers note that such an environment is synchronized with the knowledge-based economy of today, where intellectual capital and knowledge brought by human resources in an enterprise or organization are the fundamental drivers that propel the organization to higher heights of glory (Wright, 2003).

In addition, positive organizational behavior (POB) is known to set the standards for reinforcing actions where employees follow these standards voluntarily without cajoling and prompting (Wright, 2003). This underlines the fact that positive organizational behavior is manifested or exhibited via proactive behavior, where employees face challenges head-on, have the big picture in mind when taking, acting or making something, and take the appropriate action or remedy at the appropriate time (Wright & Cropanzano, 2004). This environment, therefore, allows employees to plan ahead, identify areas from which problems may potentially emanate from and nip them in the bud instead of reacting to situations and attempting to solve them after they happen (Luthans & Youssef, 2007). It is worth noting that, employees who have proactive behavior offer the organization the much needed energy and vitality with which they surge ahead and are propelled to greater heights of glory (Luthans et al, 2006). Needless to say, such organizations that are known to encourage employees to undertake proactive behavior have efficient and seamless systems that go beyond the restrictions or limitations of bureaucracy, and leads to better support and service to customers (Luthans & Youssef, 2007). This behavior then sets the standards for the reinforcing actions, which the employees follow voluntarily without pressurization or prompting. Scholars have underlined the fact that employees would only exhibit proactive behavior when they are empowered. They are able to make decisions on their feet without following the restrictions that come with bureaucracy (Zhao & Seibert, 2006). It is worth noting that bureaucracy is often limiting and may reduce customer satisfaction in the services of the organization, something that may reduce the profitability and overall sustainability of the organization (Wright & Cropanzano, 2004). This is what happened to the Southwest Airlines, which allows its employees irrespective of their rank in the organization to make decisions rather than stick to bureaucracy and procedures set in the organization and shift the work to their supervisors (Luthans & Youssef, 2007). This reduces the backlog and allows for higher efficiency, which result in better performance and profitability (Wright & Cropanzano, 2004).

Moreover, positive organizational behavior ensures that every stakeholder in the workplace is provided with his or her due, thereby safeguarding equity in the workplace. It is also known to enhance organizational justice where good initiative and performance attracts rewards while disruptive and unbecoming behavior attracts punishment (Seligman & Csikszentmihalyi, 2000). Positive organizational behavior allows for inculcation of a sense of fairness and consistency in every employee, thereby allowing for internal equity (Luthans & Youssef, 2007).  For example, in instances where a decision has to be made, the decision maker would ensure that the decision satisfies various filters including fairness to all the stakeholders, legality, and the effects of the decision on the decision maker’s conscience (Seligman & Csikszentmihalyi, 2000). Managers who apply the filter in making decisions, for instance, pertaining to layoffs may realize that eliminating employees is only a temporary solution to a symptom of an underlying problem (Luthans et al, 2006). In essence, he would apply positive organizational behavior and face the challenge by identifying other avenues or techniques of eliminating the problem, as well as seek other opportunities in the modified scenario (Seligman & Csikszentmihalyi, 2000).

Scholars note that the positive workplace experience and relationship fostered by the positive organizational behavior has a bearing on the quality of services offered to clients, and, therefore, customer satisfaction (Luthans et al, 2006). It is worth noting that satisfied employees carry out their duties and tasks with enhanced commitment, motivation and vigor, resulting in happier customers. Scholars note that customers have the capacity to point out dissatisfied employees thanks to the lackadaisical attitude that they exhibit (Vancouver et al, 2002).

Positive organizational behavior allows for incorporation of ethics, which ensures that every stakeholder gets his or her due (Wright, 2003). Organizations that are made up of individuals with inadequate regard for ethics and ethical considerations often have too much inequality (Isen, 2003). This, in turn, results in the breakdown of communication, bureaucratic hurdles, and one-upmanship techniques in which the customer is not prioritized (Vancouver et al, 2002). In such instances, no one would be willing to take responsibility for any action, which results in a dysfunctional organization (Luthans & Youssef, 2007). It goes without saying that positive organizational behavior ensures that employees inculcate superior performance and enhances deliverance of results, thereby allowing for the modification of organizations into learning environments that are built on internal fairness and equity for all the stakeholders (Vancouver et al, 2002). The learning environment would allow for personal growth of employees, something that ensures that they give their best and safeguards the flexibility of the organization (Luthans et al, 2006).

On the same note, positive organizational behavior allows for the development of certain traits such as group support, respect, encouragement and trust, as well as constructive feedback. This mainly takes place via the effects of the positive social influences that establish a can-do attitude that results in psychological arousal (Seligman & Csikszentmihalyi, 2000). Scholars note that the psychological arousal promotes the growth of positive emotions, as well as cognitions that can enlarge or broaden an individual’s range of potential actions. They would also assist in the establishment of physical, intellectual, psychological and social influences that have been directly associated with productive work (Zhao & Seibert, 2006). In essence, the establishment of positive organizational behavior promotes the establishment of a supportive organizational culture that enhances productivity of individuals.

In conclusion, there has been increased interest in positive organizational behavior, in the recent times. However, questions emerge as to how it impacts on the workplace and the overall productivity or performance of individuals in the organization. Research shows that positive organizational behavior allows for the growth of ethics in the organization, which ensures that every stakeholder gets what is due to him or her (Luthans et al, 2005). In addition, it fosters the growth of certain traits such as group support, respect, encouragement and trust, as well as constructive feedback, all of which have a bearing on productivity of the workers (Zhao & Seibert, 2006). On the same note, scholars have acknowledged that a positive organizational behavior promotes a culture of openness and learning that allows individual employees to keep abreast and be updated on their skills and expertise, awareness, as well broaden their experience. Positive organizational behavior (POB) has also been seen to set the standards for reinforcing actions where employees follow these standards voluntarily without cajoling and prompting (Wright & Cropanzano, 2004). This underlines the fact that positive organizational behavior is manifested or exhibited via proactive behavior, where employees face challenges head-on, have the big picture in mind when taking, acting or making something, and take the appropriate action at the appropriate time (Vancouver et al, 2002). It goes without saying that positive organizational behavior allows for the establishment of conducive environment for growth of employees and the enhancement of the organization’s profitability, thanks to enhanced employee performance (Luthans & Youssef, 2007).

I acknowledge that the research done by the authors of the literary works consulted may be limited in terms of data or even the methods that they used. However, it is worth noting that they are authored by experts and scholars in the fields of management, in which case they have authority in the respective fields.


Author’s summary

As much as there may be loopholes in the research done, I agree with the research findings, and the conclusions reached. I have always acknowledged that the productivity of the workers is directly tied to the environment within which they work, as well as the how well they are allowed to own the organization. It goes without saying that positive allows employees to have the initiative and satisfaction in their work, thereby allowing for enhanced productivity.



Zhao, H., & Seibert, S. E. (2006). The big five personality dimensions and entrepreneurial status: A meta-analytical review. Journal of Applied Psychology, 91: 259-271.

Luthans, F., Avolio, B. J., Walumbwa, F. O., & Li, W. (2005). The psychological capital of Chinese workers: Exploring the relationship with performance. Management and Organization Review, 1, 249–271.

Luthans, F & Youssef, C.M (2007). Emerging Positive Organizational Behavior. Journal of Management 33:3. pp. 321-349;

Wright, T. A., & Cropanzano, R. (2004). The role of psychological well-being in job performance. Organizational Dynamics, 33: 338-351

Seligman, M. E. P., & Csikszentmihalyi, M. (2000). Positive psychology. American Psychologist, 55, 5–15.

Vancouver, J., Thompson, C., Tischner, E., & Putka, D. (2002). Two studies examining the negative effect of self-efficacy on performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87: 506-516. 

Wright, T. A (2003). Positive organizational behavior: an idea whose time has truly come. Journal of Organizational Behavior 24, 437–442 (2003) 

Luthans, F. (2003). Positive organizational behavior: implications for leadership and HR development and motivation. In “Motivation and work behavior” (pp. 178–195). New York: McGraw-Hill/Irwin.

Luthans, F., Avey, J. B., Avolio, B. J., Norman, S. M., & Combs, G. M. (2006). Psychological capital development: Toward a micro-intervention. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 27, 387–393.

Isen, A. M. (2003). Positive affect as a source of human strength. In “A psychology of human strengths: Fundamental questions and future directions for a positive psychology”. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.



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answer 5 writing question about organizational communication

Each answer should be a 100–150 words essay. MLA style. (Turnitin Report Required)1. Please provide some examples of communication channels (ie. email, meetings, face to face) and what are the advantages and disadvantages of each approach.2.Explain the importance of communication in your workplace. ( I am currently a college student, my workplace is every class I take, you can just discuss the importance of communication in study in this question) 3.In Chapter 3, Frederick Taylor addressed “scientific management” how can you apply his theory to enhance communication in the workplace? ( I will attach the textbook below, the ch3 is on page 70, and the “Scientific management”is on page 73)4. Explain how the chain of command in an organization can impact the level of effective communication5.In your experience, what is the best approach to communication in your own view Can you provide some examples of how you were able to enhance communication either on a personal or professional level.
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Columbia Southern Organizational Forms Used in Forming Business Discussion

Each question must be 75 words in length.

1. Discuss three main organizational forms used in forming a business.

2. Explain what a firm’s goal is from both a shareholder and stakeholder approach.

3. Discuss savers’ and investors’ role in financial markets.

4. Explain the idea behind why investors respond to a risk-return tradeoff based on expected returns.

5. Describe three questions that studying finance addresses.


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apanps5100 applied analytics in organizational context 2

For this assignment, you will demonstrate your developing understanding of analytics that might be used within a marketing analytics function. Remember: each of the frameworks that you are learning in this course is just one lens in an organization. That means you will also need to think about how this data lives at the intersection of the marketing department and the finance department.
Below, imagine you are an analyst at Fresh Direct and as a result of your terrific work in the past, both the Chief Financial Officer (CFO) and Chief Operating Officer (COO) of the organization need you to help them with separate, but related projects. Each person has asked you to author a one-page memo (two memos, so two pages total) to answer the question they have using your new skills with customer segmentation. You will also need to submit a third brief response (300 words) to the CEO.
In addition to what will be covered in the live session, please review this material as well (Links to an external site.).
FreshDirect is an online-only grocery home delivery service. Begin this assignment by reading this brief outline of the services and background provided by FreshDirect. This presentation also contains some important information about how FreshDirect classifies its loyal customers that might be helpful for this assignment.
FreshDirect Background Information (attachment 1)
Then, consider this dataset. For this assignment, you are given a complete set of data with descriptions (a true luxury!). After you have reviewed this data, consider the questions from the CFO and COO. Recall that you will need to submit a one-page memo to each. A third question question from the CEO follows.

Question from CFO: Our sales our down and we need to make more money! I am willing to invest in marketing campaigns with a couple of targeted customer populations, but am not sure how many customer segments and/or which customer segments I should select to provide the best chance at increasing our sales. Which customer segments should we select and why?
Question from the COO: We have a limited number of deliveries that we can make each day and I would like to understand where we should be focusing our efforts by better understanding our customers. For example, if there are certain areas in our delivery zone where a lot of our customers are located, perhaps we could come up with new delivery techniques to increase our capacity for deliveries in those zones without a lot of investment. Can you help me better understand how our customers are segmented geographically so that we can better utilize our delivery infrastructure?
Finally, the CEO has heard that you are doing some great work and would like a summary of the analytics you are putting together for the CFO and COO. Please provide in 300 words a brief summary of your analysis and key findings for the CEO.

This assignment is assessed based on your ability to describe the analytics that are used to understand the customer journey and sales funnel. This includes considering and justifying how your market segmentation should be considered and how marketing effectiveness can be assessed. You will also be assessed based on the clarity and brevity of your work. You should submit three memos that are appropriately written for the audience and that demonstrate your ability to communicate about analytics to others inside of the organization. Lastly, remember that this is not a frameworks course; though you are welcome to practice analytical techniques on this data, you are not required to as part of this assignment and you will not need to in order to answer the questions above.
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