Reflection Paper on Global Administration Laws

Reflection Paper on Global Administration Laws

National administrative laws are variant from one country to another. However, some elements are discernible, especially concerning accountability and transparency in decision-making, such as in requirements of open procedures, consultation, and notice. Also, they consolidate basic principles of rationality and fairness and review mechanisms as characteristic of judicial nature. Based on the above similarities from one country’s administrative law to another, there is a similarity in their function ability within global administrative structures, as seen below.[1]

Kingsbury, Krisch, Stewart, and Weiner, espouses on the emergence of administrative laws in various areas of global governance.[2] Some examples in which administrative laws have been applied in global governance in global governance are seen in the United Nation’s response to hesitant engagement of domestic or national courts in the review of sanctions as posed in the Security Council. Also, the postulates of administrative laws have been applied in various procedures as implemented by various bodies such as the OECD or the Basle Committee.[3] Similarly, administrative laws have been utilized in the assessment of domestic administrative decisions and procedures by international panels such as in the context of WTO, the World Trade Organization.

Nevertheless, the emergence of the above patterns whilst not yet coherent, some principles and mechanisms as discussed above operate in some areas only, and not in others, as a result explaining for their wide divergence. However, there is a widespread commitment to both transparency, reasoned decision, review, and transparency in global governance in relation to principles that protect crucial information, negotiating efficiency, as well as commercial confidentiality. Mutual learning and exchanges amongst scholars and practitioners in various fields are trying to compound these administrative laws towards a global administrative law.

 Thus, from the above, global administrative laws can be thought of as espouses encompassing practices, principles, and legal mechanisms that support the social understanding that promote and affect accountability in of global administrative bodies by ensuring that they meet consultative, legal, rational, participative, and transparent standards as alluded by national administrative laws.[4] These general practices dictate how global administrative bodies, including national governmental agencies, informal inter-governmental networks, intergovernmental institutions, hybrid private entities, and national government act in relation to pursuing these global norms.[5] Hence, general principles are the baselines with which global administrative laws operate.

Examples of international bodies involved in global governance are the U.N security, the World Bank, and the forest stewardship council. In the pursuit of global governance, the bodies are pursuant to the general principles such as rationality, pursuance of fairness and transparency. This can be discerned in their functions which are:

  • The United Nations Security Council – regulation of the movement of money, food, and arms in areas that have been sanctioned, as well as listing individuals who have been suspected in engaging in terrorist activities.
  • The World Bank – supervising developing countries in implementing and adopting detailed external standards for matters such as the structure of insurance markets.
  • The Forest Stewardship Council’s development of criteria utilized in sustainable use of forests.[6]


Kingsbury, Benedict, Nico Krisch, Richard B Stewart, and Jonathan B. Weiner. “Global Governance as Administration: National and Transnational Approaches to Global Administrative Law.” Law and Contemporary Problems 64.4 (2005): 1-14. Web. 22 Nov. 2019. <10.2307/27592105>.

Works Cited

Kingsbury, Benedict, Nico Krisch, Richard B. Stewart, and Jonathan B. Weiner. “Global Governance as Administration: National and Transnational Approaches to Global Administrative Law.” Law and Contemporary Problems 64.4 (2005): 1-14. Web. 22 Nov. 2019. <10.2307/27592105>.

[1] Kingsbury, Benedict, Nico Krisch, Richard B Stewart, and Jonathan B. Weiner. “Global Governance as Administration: National and Transnational Approaches to Global Administrative Law.” Law and Contemporary Problems 64.4 (2005): 1-14.

[2] Ibid, 4.

[3] Ibid, 4.

[4] Ibid, 5.

[5] Ibid, 5.

[6] Ibid, 1.

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Morality is More Important than Laws

Also, why is most of the citation in the last sentence of the paragraph-which comprises the paragraph’s conclusion?

Morality is More Important than Laws

This paper presents an argumentative essay that justifies the concept of morality as being superior to established laws. In our postmodern societies, moralities as well as laws are considered to be unrelated fields. In human engagement, however, legal ethics denotes the professionalism of honesty and fairness as exhibited by lawyers, it should be understood that this, has nothing to do with the rightness or wrongness of particular laws in context. The latter is a consequence related to the loss of logic concerning man and the exclusion of the idea of natural justice. This aspect violates the ordered set of human rights and leaves an individual vulnerable to unfair regulations and totalitarian forms of governance. Many people thought systems have been altered to dwell on shallow thinking about truth and what need to be done; they don’t willfully act unless they are guided to find sense in the wrongness and rightness of an act (Hooker page number).

The term moral is applied to mean an aspect of being in regards to human existence as well as consciousness. Therefore human beings are endowed with moral capabilities when confronted with alternatives based on moral evaluations and interpretation. Further, morality is a subset of philosophy which denotes the universal principles that guide man. If a person continuously labors in doing what makes him feel good, happy and he likes it and can comfortably survive with it, then it is rightful for him to subscribe to that. The basis of morality is informed by moral codes which enable persons to live harmoniously without conflicting interests. On the hand, according to (Greasley page number) laws are used to denote a set of rules which informs human act, they are in managerial constructs and regulate human behavior for a morally as well as socially coexistence. Laws are binding and all citizens of given nations must obey them if when they don’t like them. Unlike morality, laws have pronounced consequences which the actor may face when found liable of violating them.

According to ancient thinkers (who), the argument between morals and laws can be addressed in varying facets. Immanuel Kant believes that, individuals’ morals are informed by experiences and they are resolute in one’s life through self-rule (Hooker page number). Therefore, for proper understanding of the arguments presented herein, the hedoism and Aristotle model based on actions and principles that maximize self interest and concern of others will be applied.

Ardently, it is poised that human behaviors are informed by cultures they are or were raised in. this notwithstanding, people have the ability to choose between a wrong and a good act depending on what informs their culture. The values which are propagated in a cultural setting, they become innate to an individual and in their process of growth, they believe in them and act according to them. It should be further noted that individual set of morals are based on their values but informed by their culture. Kant postulates that good will is the ultimate good with no condition; this implies that a good feeling about act is moral to specific persons. Therefore, individual values inform their specific character with a quantum of universal happiness. Consequently, Aristotle holds that pleasure and contentment are the basic maxims for morals as well as values (Hooker page number). Value based choices are considered harmless as is the case of moral goodness of doing things in the right way.

It should be noted that if something is termed as legal, it may not be necessarily moral. For instance, if a person wants to procure an abortion, it is the right thing for him to do since it is legal, though this doesn’t mean that performing an act of abortion is the moral thing to do. This entirely depends on an individual’s established values and principles of whether the act is right or wrong. If a person is hedonist, he will foster an act that pleases them and promotes their self-efficacy. Conversely, according to (Greasley page number) things which we believe are legal they may not be moral. For example, someone may think that stealing is okay because their low moral values tells them so, does not justify the act. Though, the latter act brings happiness and satisfaction to them.

The principles of laws and ethics are contradicting, it is clear that morality as well as laws are based on free will, this is not an ultimate draw point as individuals free will is not wholly informed by their own opinion, but rather they are influenced by the cultures, institution and experiences they have had in their lives (Raz 148). Further, to illustrate this Aristotle indicates that individual values are motivated by self-interest and choices which avails them with freedom of good will. From these two stances, it is evident that morality is a factor of individual suggestions as well as values unlike the laws which are based on established systems that compel one to act in their accordance.

The Legality and Morality of Abortion

The questions of whether the acts of abortions are legally or morally justified have raised a lot of controversies among many scholars. According to the nature of rights, abortion as an act is legal and therefore, a woman has absolute choice to such a thing in no means whatsoever should be instituted with an attempt of restricting it. The argument here is, if something is legal, then it is considered moral and when it is legal and moral the society views it as an immoral act to oppose it. In this sense, morality is reduced to mere regulations. It is astonishing to note that a good number of people have baseless rights which they pluck on cosmic trees, but they cannot justify their stand on why they consider their choice (Greasley page number).

But what sort of a right is abortion right? Is it a transcendent right or just a right accorded by a government? It should be optimally noted that abortion is a human instituted law, and when they enact laws, they have the right and tendency of repealing them. A sound constitution cannot legalize acts of abortion, the concept of abortion came into existence when a counsel of few men came together and formed it in 1973 (Dyzenhaus et al. page number). Under all odds, it should be noted that the right to abortion is a man-made right and not morally godly justified. The sycophants who argue that abortion is legal do so thinking that it is immoral to alter the standing laws which govern a given institution. The laws accord us the right to act in particular way either wrong or right but still they can be changed depending on the pressing need of a people. An instance where there is presence of higher laws calls for complete subdual and it would be immoral to change mans established laws to violate the principles of higher rules. But again, do we have examples of higher laws that accord the termination of the life of the innocent unborn beings?

The confusion we are facing as a people of the postmodern world is our inclination to the so called society relativism, sometimes used interchangeably with normative ethics. Such codes are absolute to a given society but not necessarily acceptable to another society. This implies that what one society considers being right may be wrong to another society.  The objection posed towards the concept of abortion is informed by the heavenly rules which are above man instituted laws. The fact that a woman has a right to perform an act of abortion doesn’t justify her to perform the same act of abortion (Greasley page number). The fact that is legal does not make it moral. Other instances which can help us deduce the concept of legality and morality is the case of the apartheid as seen in South Africa, the move was legal but not moral. It should be understood from a humanistic perspective that the acts which were associated with the apartheid regime were a violation of the supreme human rights and needed to be abolished. The same case is associated with the issues of slavery during the early 1960s. These acts were motivated by individual interests of exploiting and meeting a certain objective. It should be made clear that people opposed the move though it was based on status quo, the argument was that, despite the fact status quo is legal does not make the acts of slavery moral.

Societies believes that the laws dictates what is right and wrong; such rules are based on the maxims that man’s made rules are absolute and that the institutions of justice are the only bodies which are above mans instituted laws. Therefore, the decisions made by such institutions are final and binding. This is wrong, and immoral, the philosophies behind such arguments are skewed and lame. For example during an interview, a woman was asked, when are you going to accept that abortion is a law of the land? She responded that, we may not appreciate it, but the law states so and that Americans women have the right to choose whether to perform or not to perform an act of abortion. The American women may be at liberty of doing what seem good to them, but that doesn’t make their actions morally acceptable (Hooker page number).

The Separations between Laws and Morality

 People should have established values on which they base their decisions when faced with the dilemma of deciding between the wrong and right.In our current world, people are ethical egoist as they put their personal interests before any other thing. As human being we are obliged to reason maturely and make sound choices with which we can comfortably live with. When is the concept of good used to inform decisions? Do we make choices to impress ourselves or to arrive at principle that are consistent with our values? When choices are not morally informed they can result to violence and conflict (Raz 150). Therefore, the concept of ethical egoist is lame and suffers from logical deficiency as it lacks the ideals of universalism.

When attempting ostensibly to draw clear lines between morality and legality, the most important part is consider how we should approach the elements presented in the question. Morality and law are just words which professor Hart refers to matters of establishing the interconnectedness between variables. Therefore, for this case, a law may be denoted as in line of morality and fairness (David et al page number). Further, some scholars’ argue that, the two concepts should be addressed independently as is, what is law? Without considering the aspects of normative theorist of ethics, but rather on the stance of societal view. The embodiment of legal positivism postulate that there is no connection between law and morality, that is, law as it is and law as it ought to be. The likelihood of similarity between the two terms may only occur on the quanta of coincidences and readily not through the decrees of legal fairness. It is evident that when two thoughts in the realm of positivist and native laws exist, the argument between the two terms comes to play.

The works of Thomas Hobbes constitutes a moment of stream in liberalism. He is considered as the true father of legal positivism. As is in the preliminary message of the politics by Aristotle, he commence by explaining nature and culminates with a polity, he puts into consideration that men do what they feel is right with the view of achieving a set mandate which is good. In general view, the rightfulness and wrongness of an act is informed by the will to understanding the motives in context. Aristotle indicates that matters of morality are irreducible and that morality entails a keen conceptualization of the ultimate guide that governs our practices and daily lives. He further recognizes that morality constitutes the elements of politics and as a result, he derided the sophists who acclaimed that the desired approach to politics is simply compiling the laws on ground and choosing the best format (Dyzenhaus et al. page number) This was with the view that the standards of judgments and the distinction between the right and wrong can surface. In governance, people are faced with the task of making laws which are binding to all.

To substantiate the above argument, keen attention should be given to moral systems, which implies that, there is a sense of ordered good derived from reason. A moral system entails elements of free choice and the aspects of acting in a right or wrong manner or against the established systems of justice (Hooker page number). If an individual lack a sense of duty towards the established values, then there is no point of justification of such a person being a friend. Again, when should the laws be disobeyed? Sometimes our acts of disobedient are cogent by sanctioned facts within agreed bodies. Sometimes they appear pernicious on one side and beneficial to the other side. For example, to incite people to form resistance affiliations may be determined by the view of utility which sometimes is beneficial as they are grounded on definite prospects of good.

The Philosophical View of Morality

The concept of ethics was long ago conceptualized by philosophers such as Aristotle, Socrates, Plato as well as stoics who had differing experiences on the approaches that attempted to explain the nature of man in light to morality. The inclusion of natural laws when delving on matters of harmonious human existence is of essence. In the current world, natural laws are focused on explaining the way in which morality is construed to justify the existence of legal bodies. In addition, Plato in his fundamentals of ethics, he presents binding morals that should be emulated. It is critical to understand a person sense of purpose as reflected in his nature of doing things. According to Plato, man as a social being ought to be knowledgeable and be in a position to meet the requirements of nature with a view to flourish and achieve his unending goals. On the other hand, Thomas Aquinas based his thoughts of natural laws and morality within the Christian theology foundation. According to him, human actions are derived from natural laws, though; in some instances the laws inform what is right and wrong but leave room for human desires. The laws are based on human reason and ethical consideration. For example, the question on war, in most instances is as a result of human action in violation of an ordered principle. It should be noted that human regulations should be compatible with the established principles even though such instances are not availed to us but through our actions and reason, we justify the existence of such laws.

Aspects of Laws which are not based on Morality

It is always argued that laws are immoral as they are not based on fairness and sometimes because of their counterproductive nature. Many laws governing people and bodies such as the Germans as well as those revolving around women were morally unjustified. As stated early, the apartheid case of South Africa, the laws which were applied on the people were morally skewed. They are not instituted to serve and protect human being rather they are meant to violate the ordered life of such people in question. For instance the laws which instituted to help people escape the challenges of poverty and starvations are violated and instead serve to worsen the situation and suffering a people (Raz 153).

Systems which have inadequate laws also have immoral implications. For instance laws concerning the procedure of obtaining evidence in courtrooms in most instances are not clear and as a result may lead to prosecution of innocent defendants. In my opinion, if one was to be charitable on legislators, he may be tempted to argue that they pass and foster laws which serve them the best (David, et al page number). Further, there is enough proof that law makers often legislate rules for political reasons informed by the urge of either winning or sustaining support from those the laws will favors.

The concept of moral as either being superior or inferior to the established laws lies in the realization that human actions are informed by varied factors. The good or bad side of action is circumstantial in most cases and therefore, the values of ethics and morality are sidelined. For a just society and for mutual coexistence, we must have rules that inform and regulate human action. This serves to bring order when addressing critical issues affecting the normal life of a people. In this case, we have laws which are instituted to meet certain interests of the people concerned and subjecting the rights of a majority at stake. Therefore, to this end, I believe that when we have morals in place which are informed by sound reason, the extend of human suffering will be reduced; as from a moral perspective, before one sets out on performing a given act, he/she will think of the consequences which will emerge from the same. According to the utilitarian principle, acts which bring maxim joy to a greater number of people should be pursued regardless of who is/are involved. Therefore, it is clear to state that with the above illustrations, morals are more important than laws.

Works Cited

Hooker, J.N. Kant and Cultural Relativism. Carnegie Mellon University. March 1996. Web. February 2, 2010

“No Necessary Connection Between Law And Morality Philosophy Essay.” 11 2018. All Answers Ltd. 04 2019

<>. (do away with this source please. Its not credible)

Dyzenhaus, David, et al. Law and Morality: Readings in Legal Philosophy. U of Toronto P, 2007.

Greasley, Kate. Arguments about Abortion: Personhood, Morality, and Law. Oxford UP, 2017.

Kramer, Matthew H. “On the Separability of Law and Morality.” Where Law and Morality Meet, 2008, pp. 223-246.

Joseph, Raz. “About Morality and the Nature of Law.” Law and Morality, 2017, pp. 141-155.

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Labor Laws

Labor Laws

So integral is the relationship between employing entities, the government, workers, and trade unions to the criminal justice system that it forms a unique branch of the law – labour laws. Statutory interpretation refers to the sum of investments by courts to interpret legislation and apply it effectively. Regulatory analysis is essential in labour laws as it not only highlights the loopholes that exist in light of the varied interpretations but also devices sound legal principles through which they can be interpreted (JUSTIA United States Law).

Thesis: Labor laws should not only govern the relationship between employers and employees while they are still in contract but also when their actions are not covered by their contractual relationship.


The argument for proposed inclusion of legal analysis in labour laws:

This move will ensure that all the parties covered under labour laws are provided with grounds to pursue their legal rights and the right to stand trial and account for an answer to their various responsibilities. This is important as it ensures employees and employers work towards establishing an environment where maximum productivity is assured in both the short and the long terms (JUSTIA United States Law).

Evidence 1: Whenever people under labour laws are provided with detailed information about their responsibilities, they improve their productivity and engage other parties in ways that will enhance the overall excellent functionality of a workplace environment (JUSTIA United States Law).

Evidence 2: Employing legal analysis in the interpretation of labour laws defines and details what is considered to be within the scope of employment and what is not. In light of this, employers and employees are able to effectively relate to each other while understanding their rights and privileges (JUSTIA United States Law).


 Instituting legal analyses in labour laws will require significant revisions of law as well as employing additional legal experts in organizations and institutions to interpret legal statutes and attend to arising matters (JUSTIA United States Law).

Evidence 1: Labor laws are very extensive and statutory analysis requires extensive and detailed breaking down of statutes. In order for the legislative analysis to function excellently, there is a need for additional manpower and investments in legal resources (JUSTIA United States Law).


A working environment where entities are informed about labour laws is profitable in more ways than one. In such a scenario, people are not only able to ensure continued productivity but also relate to each other effectively. Statutory analysis of labour laws will improve workplace relations and enhance responsible behaviour. It is therefore essential to institute legislative analysis of labour laws.

Works Cited

Atleson, James B. Values and Assumptions in American Labor Law. University of Massachusetts, 2014.

JUSTIA United States Law. “103 F.3d – Volume 103 of the Federal Reporter, 3rd Series.” 28 Nov. 2016.

<>. Accessed 4th December 2018.

Strecker, David E. Labor Law: A Basic Guide to the National Labor Relations Act. CRCP, 2016.

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Global laws & litigation,  BCI (Brain-Computer Interface) technology

Topic: Global laws & litigation,  BCI (Brain-Computer Interface) technology

1) Select a country or a region from the privacy laws around the world: Indicate which laws are present in this area and the level of maturity of these laws insofar as they pertain to privacy and the protection of people

2) Imagine that you are a lawyer working for a consumer protection organization in a selected country or region. BCI technology is being rolled out extensively in this country or region, and you are trying to use the existing laws to protect people from its risks. What arguments do you use?

3) Where are the gaps between existing regulation and this innovation?

APA Format, 600 words, Due Feb 20th

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The HIPAA Laws Being Ethical And Moral

The HIPAA Laws Being Ethical And Moral

The HIPAA laws provide protection to individual’s identifiable health information with the benefit of protecting public health. The Privacy Rule particularly permits disclosures exclusive of individual approval to public health authorities authorized by law to gather and obtain the information for the reason of preventing disease, disability or injury, including but not limited to public health observation, examination, and intrusion (Stephen, 2003).

Confidentiality- Privacy Rule

With the case of the wife asking the husband’s medical results, the physician cannot let out the results to her since the results are confidential. HIPAA laws Title II defines guidelines of maintain privacy of one’s identifiable health data. Confidentiality is crucial in ethics where third parties ask for information on medical data collected. In this case the physician should ask the third party (wife) to talk to the patient and agree about the information. In addition a disclosure must be signed by the patient declaring the rights of the third party to know about the results. The HIPAA Privacy Rule legalizes the disclosure and use of Protected Health information held by medical clearing (Stephen, 2003).

Telephone Etiquette

Health care telephone calls ignorance can be dangerous for the health care since the nurses, doctors and other medical administrative staff depends on the receptionist to create a welcoming and friendly front office for the patients. The receptionist is responsible for maintaining an effective environment where patients questions are answered, new patients are registered, appointments are scheduled and records updated. In cases where the receptionist is reluctant to pick calls, one should inform the office administration manager (OAM) to supervise and observe the behavior. Then the (OAM) should call the receptionist and remind her about her duties, and all the telephone etiquettes in a calm manner ask why she/he will not receive calls. Resolve the issue and give a warning of taking measures against it (Percival& Parker, 2009).

Medical error

When a client leaves the hospital without her medical results then definitely she will come back for them however, in cases where a medical error has occurred and a patient has been given the wrong results, then one should invite her to the hospital for another test to verify the results and give the accurate results. Explain you had two samples taken to the lab, one was either positive/valid and the other showed invalid. This time ensure there are no costs occur by the patient since it was a hospital error. Do not give her results at the shopping mall since privacy rule demands on privacy and professional ways to handle information. 

Confidential data

One should keep the information confidential about the neighbor. One can choose to help or to keep quiet depending on the relationship you have with the neighbor. If she is friendly, then try to be closer and help her without mentioning about her health unless she tells you about it. In case she confesses her diagnosis don’t tell her you saw the file at the practicum site since it might demoralize her to feel exposed and her information not secure (2013).


It is the patients right to Make decision regarding who should know and be involved in the procedure. Therefore respect the patient’s decision and wait for the next procedure that shall take place without any obligations from the patient. The practitioner should act in the interest of the patient Beneficence (Stephen, 2003).


Having a sick child, I would bring her to the healthcare for check up and she will be diagnosed with the medicine required for her sickness. Taking the medicine would be fraud therefore bringing her for treatment would be the right procedure like the other patients. Equality should be maintained among the staff as well as the patients (Percival& Parker, 2009)

Employees Etiquettes

Every employee has equal rights  of existence it the health care and therefore unless one is sick and has been given a sick off permit to exit early from work every other employee should exit the same time as the others. Since it is illegal to leave work early it is advisable to report this matter to the supervisor who should enquire why they go home early and warn them from leaving before time (Percival& Parker, 2009).


HIPAA laws should be observed and put into actions. Those that violate the laws should face the law and be answerable for violation.


Health, (2013). Protecting personal health information in research: understanding the HIPAA 

privacy rule (03-5388). Retrieved from website:

Stephen, B. U.S Department of Health and Human Services, (2003). HIPAA privacy rule and 

Public health guidance from CDC and the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved from U.S. Government Printing Office website:

Percival .T &Parker. J (2009). Medical Ethics. pp. 49–57 section 8 pg.52.

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explain the whistle blower program laws and employee protection

This is a graduate level paper.  Must be well thought, thorough, well researched, and well written.

Research Topic:

The employee whistle blowing program

  • Provide discussion and example where employee whistle-blowing is justified and an example
  • Provide discussion and example of where employee whistle-blowing it is not justified. 


APA 6th Edition  Format.

500 – 700 word (no more or no less).  Cover and reference page are not part of word count.

Use these headings in the paper

    • Introduction (Briefly explain the whistle blower program, laws, and employee protection)
    • Analytical Discussion
      • Justified Whistle Blowing Example (brief summary of example and solid reasoning why it was justified)
      • Unjustified Whistle Blowing Example beyond those required by the law? (brief summary of example and solid reasoning why it was unjustified)
    • Conclusion (wrap up research add a biblical reference to backup a Christian leaders responsibilities and actions towards the whistle blowing program.

Specific Details on the paper:

    • APA 6th Edition  Format.
    • 500 – 700 word (no more or no less).  Cover and reference page are not part of word count.
    • Must use References and Sources below
      • 1 Biblical source (NIV). 
        • Integrate biblical ideas from a Christian perspective on the point of your paper (do not tell a bible story)
      • 3 Scholarly Sources (with online perma link) (Books, reputable periodical business magazines) must be accessable
      • 2 scholarly Academic Journals (with online perma link) Peer to peer, periodical publications.  Must be accessible
      • Chapter 15  of Text Book.  Incorporate some of the major ideas from the chapter (attached in request…citation listed below)
        • Lawrence & Weber, 2014. Business & society: Stakeholders, ethics and public policy, Chapter 15
          • Incorporate major ideas from the chapter of the textbook in which the question was

Please be familiar with what constitutes as a scholarly source.   

  • Periodicals are things that are published on a regular basis with a fixed interval between the issues. Journals, magazines and newspapers are types of periodicals.
  • Most instructors at the college level require that the majority of the periodical articles you use in writing a research paper come from scholarly journals.
  • Scholarly Journals are also known as professional, peer reviewed or refereed journals. They contain articles that have been reviewed (refereed) by the author’s peers — usually the editor and one or more specialists in the individual field of research — before approval is given to publish.
  • The library’s periodicals are available in a variety of formats. Some are available only in paper form, while others must be accessed online or on microform. Some are available in more than one format.Characteristics of Scholarly Journals

     Although there is no clear-cut definition of a “scholarly journal,” the following guidelines give some clues to help you tell the difference between scholarly journals and other kinds of periodicals. If in doubt, ask your instructor or a librarian.

  • The articles often include an abstract (summary) of the article prior to the main text of the article.
  • Scholarly journals are often published by a specific professional organization.
  • Scholarly journals usually have a somber, serious appearance and often contain graphs or charts, but few glossy pictures or photographs.
  • Scholarly journals always cite their sources in the form of footnotes or bibliographies.
  • Articles published in scholarly journals report on original research or experiments (as opposed to news or opinion pieces based on someone else’s findings).
  • Articles published in scholarly journals are written by a scholar in a particular field of study or by someone who has done research in that field.
  • The author’s name will appear at the beginning or the end of the article.
  • The language of scholarly journals is technical and specialized because the articles are written for other scholars and not for the general public.
  • Scholarly journals often (but not always) have titles with words like “Quarterly,” “Journal,” “Review,” or “Proceedings.”
  • Scholarly journals are often published by universities or professional societies.
  • Scholarly journals are indexed mostly (but not only) in subject-specific databases. For example, the best place to find scholarly psychology-related journal articles is the PsycINFO database because it specializes in psychology-related literature. The best place to find scholarly nursing-related journal articles is the CINAHL database because it specializes in nursing-related literature.
  • If there is not a subject-specific database for your topic, try one of the general-purpose databases like EBSCOhost Academic Search Premiere or InfoTrac Academic ASAP.
  • If you want to find scholarly articles only, click the limiter that says “Peer Reviewed” or “Refereed” before you search (if the database you are using has such a limiter).

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Explain what the Jim Crow laws were.

The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks to structure the three thesis points. Your reading this week includes Chapters 17-20, and a summary of one of those chapters is due Friday, also. Be sure to practice quoting in MLA format by including direct quotes with attribution and a citation. See Purdue Wise Owl (link in Websites tab on left of Blackboard screen), for additional help if you need it. We are going to continue sentence combining using conjunctions and proper punctuation, and learn about denotation, conotation, and inferences. See RWACI for further definitions of each. Instructions: MLA I need a summary Due on January 25, 2016 I need a thesis due January 27, 2016



The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks READING GUIDE                                    Chapters 1-5


Prologue: The Woman in the Photograph


  1. The author uses several similes to describe cells. What simile does she use to describe


the way a cell looks? What simile does she use to explain the functions of the different


parts of a cell? What do these similes suggest about biology?


  1. What is mitosis? What beneficial biological processes involve mitosis?


  1. What simile does Donald Defler use to describe mitosis?


  1. What happens when there is a mistake during the process of mitosis?


  1. According to Defler, how important was the discovery of HeLa cells?


  1. As a high school student, Skloot began researching HeLa cells to find out more about


Henrietta Lacks. Examine pages 5 and 6 and write down each step that Skloot took to


begin her research.




Chapter One: The Exam


  1. How long did Henrietta wait between first telling her girlfriends that “something didn’t


feel right” and going to the doctor?


  1. Why does Sadie think Henrietta hesitated before seeing a doctor?


  1. What did Henrietta’s first doctor assume the source of the lump on Henrietta’s cervix


was? What stereotype or bias might this assumption be based upon?


  1. Why did David Lacks take Henrietta to the public wards at Johns Hopkins instead of a


closer hospital?


  1. Explain what the Jim Crow laws were.


  1. Who was Henrietta’s gynecologist?


  1. Review the notes on Henrietta’s medical history found on page 16. Based on the


objective details in her medical chart, what can you infer about Henrietta’s life and




  1. Based on her medical chart, how would you describe Henrietta’s feelings about




  1. What did Howard Jones find “interesting” about Henrietta’s medical history? What does


this finding suggest about Henrietta’s cancer?




Chapter Two: Clover


  1. Why did Henrietta end up being raised by her grandfather, Tommy Lacks?


  1. What are the connotations of the term “home-house”? What does this term suggest


about the values of the Lacks family?


  1. How was Day related to Henrietta?


  1. Skloot uses vivid imagery and details to describe Henrietta’s childhood in Clover.


Locate a passage that you found particularly effective or memorable, and explain why


you selected it.


  1. Describe the relationship between Crazy Joe and Henrietta.


  1. How old was Henrietta when she had her first child with Day?


  1. What was different about Henrietta’s second child, Elsie?


  1. Compare the medical terms describing Elsie’s condition with the terms used by


Henrietta’s friends and family. What are the connotations of the two sets of terms?


  1. How did Pearl Harbor change life in Turner Station?


  1. Contrast the working conditions of black workers and white workers at the Sparrows


Point Steel Mill.






Chapter Three: Diagnosis and Treatment


  1. How are different types of cancer categorized?


  1. Summarize Dr. TeLinde’s position in the debate over the treatment of cervical cancer.


  1. Explain how the development of the Pap smear improved the survival rate of women


diagnosed with cervical cancer.


  1. How did doctors justify using patients in public hospital wards as medical research


subjects without obtaining their consent or offering them financial compensation? Do


you agree or disagree with their reasoning? Explain your answer.


  1. How did TeLinde hope to prove that his hypothesis about cervical cancer was correct?


  1. What was George Gey’s position at Johns Hopkins?


  1. Explain what an immortal cell line is.


  1. Explain how TeLinde and Gey’s relationship led to Gey obtaining a tissue sample from


Henrietta’s tumor.


  1. Analyze the consent statement that Henrietta signed on page 31. Based on this


statement, do you believe TeLinde and Guy had the right to obtain a sample from her


cervix to use in their research?


  1. Do you think Henrietta would have given explicit consent to have a tissue sample used


in medical research if she had been asked? Do you think she would have understood


what was being asked of her? Explain your answers.


  1. Were cells taken only from black patients? Were black patients generally treated


differently from white patients in the early 1950s? Explain your answers.




Chapter Four: The Birth of HeLa


  1. Summarize the main obstacles Gey and his assistants faced in their effort to grow cells.


  1. Where did the name “HeLa” come from?


  1. Based on the descriptions of Gey found on pages 38–39, offer three adjectives that best


describe his personality.


  1. Explain how Gey’s roller-tube culturing technique works.


  1. What happened to the HeLa cells that Mary cultured?


  1. Gey chose to give away samples of HeLa to his colleagues almost immediately. Do you


think this was a good decision? Explain your answer.


  1. Once HeLa started growing, was Henrietta informed that her cells were being used in


Gey’s research?


  1. What is the implication of the author’s decision to use the term “birth” to describe the


initial growth of HeLa cells?




Chapter Five: “Blackness Be Spreadin All Inside”


  1. After her diagnosis and treatment, how did Henrietta behave? What can you infer


about her personality based on this behavior?


  1. According to Ethel’s cousins, why did she dislike Henrietta?


  1. What was Elsie’s early life like?


  1. Why did Henrietta and David (Day) Lacks decide to place Elsie in the Hospital for the


Negro Insane?


  1. What specific details let the reader know that sending Elsie away was difficult for




  1. Why do you think Henrietta initially chose not to tell people about her cancer


diagnosis? What does this decision suggest about Henrietta’s personality?


  1. What important information did Henrietta’s doctor fail to give her before starting her


cancer treatment? How did she react when this information was eventually shared with







Writing Assessment One:


20% of your Final Grade


Assignment/ Writing Prompt:




Although the right to privacy is not explicitly mentioned in the Constitution, the Supreme Court has established that it is inherently protected by the Constitution.  In a two-page typed essay, discuss three specific ways that the Lacks family’s right to privacy was violated.  Discuss the importance of the right to privacy.








Skloot begins the book with the following quote from Elie Wiesel: “We must not see any person as an abstraction. Instead, we must see in every person a universe with its own secrets, with its own treasures, with its own sources of anguish, and with some measure of triumph.”  In a two-page typed essay, discuss three ways that Henrietta lacks and the members of her family were treated inhumanely, as objects, not people with families and feelings, by doctors and other medical professionals.




Guidelines for Writing:



Cover stories or people that relate to your thesis. Do not get bogged down in covering all details or chapters in this book.




Write your paper in your own words. Do not rely on summaries, book reviews, online sources, or friends/classmates.




Use MLA formatting to set up your paper. (This includes having one-inch margins, reasonable type/font size, double-spaced lines, proper page numbers, in-text citations, etc.)




Revise your writing for clarity and conciseness. Avoid clarity issues that come from excessive wordiness, parallelism errors, mixed grammar errors, and modifier issues.




Introduce your textual references and quotations appropriately. Use effective signal words—such as asserts, believes, explains, contendsetc.—after the author’s name to set up a quote, summary, or paraphrase of the ideas in the book.




Use clear transitions. Always use transitional words—such as next, however, consequently, etc.—between each idea.




Check your grammar, spelling, and mechanics.




Make sure your paper is at least 2 pages in length and sticks to the writing prompt





Grading:          Refer to the attached grading rubric to see how your paper will be graded. (All DRE 098 students will be graded the s

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Research the juvenile justice laws or policies in your community or state and write a 500 -1050 word response to Peter’s parents.

Research the juvenile justice laws or policies in your community or state and write a 500 -1050 word response to Peter’s parents.

Read the scenario below and complete the assignment that follows.


17-year-old Peter broke into a home, stole approximately $10,000 worth of jewelry and electronics, and consumed a bottle of wine before he fled the scene in a stolen car. The police stopped Peter after noticing him swerving, speeding, and then slowing down on the interstate highway. During the stop, police saw the “loot” stashed in the back seat of Peter’s car and suspected he was involved in more than driving while intoxicated. Peter was properly arrested and booked on the charge of driving while intoxicated.

Research the juvenile justice laws or policies in your community or state and write a 500 -1050 word response to Peter’s parents.

The police believe Peter’s fingerprints will match those discovered at the burglary scene and are likely to charge him with burglary and larceny, as well as grand theft auto. Peter’s parents have been contacted and are debating whether he should retain counsel because they are struggling financially. To complicate matters, Peter fully admitted to the charges before his parents were contacted.

Since it is Peter’s first time in the juvenile justice system, neither he nor his parents know what to expect. What is likely to happen? Will Peter have to go to court or trial? If so, what can he expect in the court process?

Scenario adapted with permission from McGraw-Hill Instructor Resources for Bohm, R., & Haley, N. K. (2021). Introduction to criminal justice (10th ed.). McGraw-Hill Education.


Research the juvenile justice laws or policies in your community or state and write a 500 -1050 word response to Peter’s parents. Explain Peter’s process in applying criminal justice in your community or state.

Note: You may wish to use Figure 13.1, “The Formal Juvenile Justice Process,” on p. 542 of your textbook to guide your research.

Address the following in your paper:

Identify the city or state laws you are researching.

Describe one or more procedures police may use in processing Peter’s case and explain why you selected these procedures. Consider the following questions in your response:

What steps might the police take in their investigation?

Will Peter be charged with a crime(s)? If so, what crime(s) could Peter be charged with?

What options do all parties (Peter, his parents, and the police) have for intake, processing, and custody or release?

Identify one or more potential court proceedings Peter may face and explain why you selected these proceedings. Consider the following questions in your response:

What legal and financial rights can Peter and his family pursue?

Is Peter likely to go through informal or formal court proceedings? Explain your reasoning.

Describe court procedures if Peter’s case goes to trial. Include any details related to these procedures.

If Peter goes through a disposition hearing, what will that entail? Describe the type of justice the judge may administer.

Predict one potential post-court outcome. Explain the rationale for your prediction with relevant details. Address the following question in your response:

What would Peter be like after he exited the court system?

Cite 1 or 2 sources to support your assignment.

Format your assignment according to APA guidelines.

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Explain which laws apply and what the result of the case was or what you think the result should be.

Refer to the description of the Case Presentation Assignment and paste in your one-page summary here, or post a link to your video summary! Also include a link to the article or case.

You should pick a case or potential case which has to do with any of the topics covered in the course, summarize it, Explain which laws apply, and what the result of the case was or what you think the result should be.


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How are the initial relaxations of the laws against marijuana compromising the safety security and quality of life in American communities?

As tolerances grow for the personal possession and use of marijuana, there is a need for purposeful and well-grounded discussions on the impact the relaxation of criminal sanctions involving marijuana may have. Do laws prohibiting the growing, manufacturing, harvesting, processing, transporting, sale, distribution, possession and/or use of marijuana in any quantity reflect the socio-political values of the community; whether that community is a local town/city, a state, or the nation? Do these laws keep us safe? If prohibitions against marijuana are lifted, what’s next?

For the Final Project the student will compose a three-part position paper addressing the pros and cons of marijuana tolerance.

Part 1- How are the initial relaxations of the laws against marijuana an indication of a growing tolerance that should be fully adopted? All current restrictions against marijuana should be rescinded.
Part 2 – How are the initial relaxations of the laws against marijuana compromising the safety, security and “quality of life” in American communities? Prohibitions that have been modified should be re-enacted to their former restrictive level.
Part 3 – What impact will Part 1 and Part 2 have on the current prohibitions on other controlled dangerous substances (e.g., heroin, cocaine, meth-amphetamines, etc.)?
NOTE: This is not a position paper for the expression of your personal feelings regarding the topic. The paper should objective and identify legitimate and balancedarguments for all sides of the topic.


Cover page
Student’s name
Program title
Class title and number
Date of submission
A minimum of eight (8) narrative pages (maximum of 12 pages)
12 font, double spaces, 1 inch margins
APA formatted citations for quoted materials in the narrative
References Page(s)
Citations for all quoted (non-original) materials in APA format
Minimum 4 outside sources
The course materials must be cited and referenced in the body of the paper

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