Discuss the 2007-2008 financial crisis and its impact on the financial markets.

1. Discuss the 2007-2008 financial crisis and its impact on the financial markets. Who was impacted? What caused the crisis, and how can a future crisis be prevented? Explain.
Your response must be at least 200 words in length.

2. Assume you are starting a new business, such as a restaurant, barber shop, or spa, and discuss the information you would access and research to get the business started. For instance, would you look at the local Small Business Administration’s website for guidance on funding and setting up a new firm? What financial tools would be useful, and how would they assist you in the startup process? Explain.
Your response must be at least 200 words in length.

3. Your boss has asked you to assemble an informal outline/presentation on the risk-return tradeoff. In your own words, discuss the tradeoff. Does a risky investment always equal a big payoff and vice versa? What does it mean to be a risk-averse versus a risk-taker? What types of information must be considered regarding risk and return? Explain.
Your response must be at least 200 words in length.

4. What is finance? Briefly discuss how the study of finance is essential to business today. There are other areas of business, such as marketing, human resources, and management. How does finance impact them? In other words, can a business efficiently run without everyone having some knowledge of the field? Explain.
Your response must be at least 200 words in length.

Place this order or similar order and get an amazing discount. USE Discount code “GET20” for 20% discount

Order your Paper Now

Logic Of George Boole And Its Application To The Design Of Modern Computers

Logic Of George Boole And Its Application To The Design Of Modern Computers

Modern computers are now considered as one of the most important digital machines in our modern time. People use computers in many ways. In business, computers track inventories with bar codes and scanners, check customers’ credit status, and transfer funds electronically. Computers in automobiles regulate the flow of fuel, thereby increasing gas mileage. Computers also entertain, creating digitized sound on stereo systems or computer-animated features from a digitally encoded laser disc. Computer programs, or applications, exist to aid every level of education, from programs that teach simple addition or sentence construction to programs that teach advanced calculus.  But did you know that the design of modern computers originally came from the logician George Boole who developed the Boolean algebra?

Boolean algebra is a two-valued algebra system representing logical relationships and operations. Later, scientists and physicists like John von Neumann and Alan Turing used his algebra system to develop modern computers.

In the latter part of the study you will see the different people who used the Boolean algebra as their channel for the progress of digital computers.

                        Boole, George (1815-1864), British mathematician and logician, who developed Boolean algebra. He was born on November 2, 1815 in Lincolnshire, England.   Largely self-educated, in 1849 Boole was appointed professor of mathematics at Queen’s College (now University College) in Cork, Ireland. In 1854, in An Investigation of the Laws of Thought, Boole described an algebraic system that later became known as Boolean algebra. In Boolean algebra, logical propositions are denoted by symbols and can be acted on by abstract mathematical operators that correspond to the laws of logic. Boolean algebra is of prime importance to the study of pure mathematics and to the design of modern computers. He died on December 8, 1864 in Ballintemple, Country Cork, Ireland.

Microsoft® Encarta® Reference Library 2003. © 1993-2002 Microsoft Corporation.

                        Boolean Algebra is branch of mathematics having laws and properties similar to, but different from, those of ordinary high school algebra. Formally a Boolean algebra is a mathematical system consisting of a set of elements, which may be called B, together with two binary operations, which may be denoted by the symbols ⊕ and ⊗. These operations are defined on the set B and satisfy the following axioms:

1. ⊕ and ⊗ are both commutative operations. That is, for any elements x, y of the set B, it is true that x⊕Y = y⊕x and x⊗y = y⊗x.

2. Each of the operations ⊕ and ⊗ distributes over the other. That is, for any elements x, y, and z of the set B, it is true that x⊕ (y⊗z) = (x⊕y) ⊗ (x⊕z), and x⊗ (y⊕z) = (x⊗y) ⊕ (x⊗z).

3. There exists in the set B a distinct identity element for each of the operations ⊕ and ⊗. These elements are usually denoted by the symbols 0 and 1 such that 0 ≠ 1, and have the property that 0 ⊕x = x and 1 ⊗x = x for any element x in the set B.

4. For each element x in the set B there exists a distinct corresponding element called the complement of x, usually denoted by the symbol x’. With respect to the operations ⊕ and ⊗, the element x’ has the property that x⊕x’ = 1 and x ⊗x’ = 0.

A Boolean algebra may have other sets of axioms, all of which may be shown to be equivalent to those just given. The axioms given here are essentially those first published by the American mathematician Edward Huntington in Postulates for the Algebra of Logic (1904).

 The English mathematician George Boole gave the first treatment of the subject in 1854. It is possible to denote the operations ⊕ and ⊗ by any two symbols; +, ∨, and ◡ are sometimes used instead of Å, and ×, ^, ∩, ·, and O instead of ⊗.

As an example of a Boolean algebra, consider any set X and let P (X) stand for the collection of all possible subsets of the set X. P (X) is sometimes called the power set of the set X. P (X), together with ordinary set union (◡) and set intersection (∩), forms a Boolean algebra. In fact, every Boolean algebra may be represented as algebra of sets.

From the symmetry of the axioms with respect to the two operations and their respective identities, one is able to prove the so-called principle of duality. This principle asserts that any algebraic statement deducible from the axioms of Boolean algebra remains true if the operations ⊕ and ⊗and the identities 1 and 0 are interchanged throughout the statement. Of the many theorems that can be deduced from the axioms of a Boolean algebra, De Morgan’s laws, that (x⊕y)’ = x’⊗y’ and that (x⊗y)’ = x’⊕y’, are particularly noteworthy.

The elements that are contained in the set B of a Boolean algebra may be abstract objects, or concrete things such as numbers, propositions, sets, or electrical networks. In Boole’s original development, the elements of a Boolean algebra were a collection of propositions, or simple declarative sentences having the property that they were either

true or false but not both. The operations were essentially conjunction and disjunction, denoted by the symbols ^ and ∨ respectively. If x and y represent two propositions, then the expression x∨y (read x or y) would be true if and only if either x or y or both were true. The statement x ^ y (read x and y) would be true if and only if both x and y were true. In this type of Boolean algebra, the complement of an element or proposition is simply the negation of the statement.

A Boolean algebra of propositions and a Boolean algebra of sets are closely connected. For example, let p be the statement, “The ball is blue,” and let P be the set of all elements for which the statement p is true, that is, the set of all blue balls. P is called the truth set for the proposition p. Indeed, if P and Q are the truth sets for statements p and q, then the truth set for the statement p∨q is clearly P ◡ Q and for p ^ q the truth set is P ∩Q.

Boolean algebra has many practical applications in the physical sciences, in electric-circuit theory and particularly in the field of computers.

As an example of an application of Boolean algebra in electrical-circuit theory, let p and q denote two propositions, that is, declarative sentences that are either true or false but not both. If each of the propositions p and q is associated with a switch that will be closed if the proposition is true, and open if the proposition is false, then the statement

p ^ q may be represented by connecting the switches in series. The current will flow in this circuit if and only if both switches are closed, that is, if both p and q are true. Similarly, a circuit with switches connected in parallel can be used to represent the statement p∨q. In this case the current will flow if either p or q or both are true and the respective switches are closed. More complicated statements give rise to more complex switching circuits.

Microsoft® Encarta® Reference Library 2003. © 1993-2002 Microsoft Corporation.

            The objectives of the study aims to know the life of the logician George Boole. To recognize and appreciate the people who used the system of Boolean algebra and the help given by Boole’s logic to the design of modern computers.

            The importance of the study is to know whether the logic of George Boole has a great aid to the design of modern computers. To be thankful and grateful to the people that aided and contributed to the design of today’s computers.

This chapter includes the review of Related Literature about the study entitled The Logic of George Boole and its Application to the Design of Modern Computers.

            “How do computers do what they do?” and “How does a computer engineer design a computer?” A computer and similar complex machines is at the heart a system of circuits that perform logical and arithmetic operations. It was determined that the cheapest way to make such a machine was to start with the binary number system which could be effectively handled with Boolean algebra. The computer in front of you does its math and logical thinking using Boolean algebra. The Boolean algebra was used to design the switching circuits of the computer. The materials used to build the switching circuits are not important in this lecture. The logical design used to make the switching circuits work correctly is important in this lecture. By using Boolean algebra, the computer can do logical thinking very fast and very inexpensively thanks to the underlying semiconductor electronic circuitry.

In the future computers chips may be made of some material other than semiconductors, perhaps a biological material that is alive and has been genetically designed to do Boolean algebra. And so computers would be grown in laboratories. This

may lead to truly new life forms. I hope that thought doesn’t scare you, but motivates you to learn computer logic. But for now the computers we have today are still the marvels of technology. And even though you find computers of different flavors and capabilities, they all have a few things in common. One very important common thing among computers is that they process information using the rules of Boolean algebra.


This chapter includes the Presentation, Analysis and Interpretation of Data about the study.


George Boole           British logician and mathematician           1847   Boolean algebra

Konrad Zuse German Engineer    1930’s Z1 calculating machine

John Atanasoff         American Physicist  Late 1930’s   Design of the first digital computer

Clifford Berry American Physicist  Late 1930’s   Design of the first digital computer

Alan Turing   British mathematician         1930’s Recognized binary logic for the development in digital computers

Claude Shannon     American Mathematician    1940’s Recognized binary logic for the development in the digital computers

John von Neumann Hungarian-born Mathematician    1944 to 1945 Usage of the binary arithmetic system for storing programs in computer

B. Analysis and Interpretation of Data

            19th-century British logician and mathematician George Boole, who in 1847 invented a two-valued system of algebra that represented logical relationships and operations first proposed binary logic. German engineer Konrad Zuse used this system of algebra, called Boolean algebra, in the 1930s for his Z1 calculating machine. American physicist John Atanasoff and his graduate student Clifford Berry also used it in the design of the first digital computer in the late 1930s. During 1944 and 1945 Hungarian-born American mathematician John von Neumann suggested using the binary arithmetic system for storing programs in computers. In the 1930s and 1940s British mathematician Alan Turing and American mathematician Claude Shannon also recognized how binary logic was well suited to the development of digital computers.

This chapter includes the summary, conclusion and the recommendation of the study entitled the logic of George Boole and its application to the design of modern computers.

Today in our modern world, people use computers in making their researches and in storing important facts and information. It was made possible by the logic of George Boole, Boolean algebra and the mathematicians like John von Neumann and Claude Shannon. In the year 1847, British logician and mathematician George Boole invented a two-valued system of algebra called Boolean algebra. Then Konrad Zuse who independently developed “electromechanical” computers, in which a series of electrically controlled devices known as relay represented numbers, Z1 calculating machine used Boole’s concept. In late 1930’s, John Atanasoff, Clifford Berry and Alan Turing designed the first digital computer and introduced the concept of a theoretical computing device now known as Turing device, which was important in the development of the digital computer respectively. Claude Shannon who developed information theory, which is a theoretical study, however, it has had a profound impact on the design of practical data communication and storage systems, such as telephones and computers. During 1944 to 1945, Hungarian-born American mathematician, John von Neumann: who was also known for the design of high-speed electronic computers.

These people became a part and have a great part in the advancement in the design of digital computers. This only means that Boole affects all of our lives in this contemporary world together with the people who contributed in the design of modern computers

            Therefore I conclude that the concept of Boolean algebra by George Boole really helped in the development and progress in the design of digital computers. Through the people like Alan Turing and Konrad Zuse who aided and used Geroge Booles’ two-valued system of algebra in the advancement of computers that without them digital computers would be impossible. This connection of Boole with the design of computers means only that he affects all of our lives in the modern world because we are using the product of his logic in our every day lives.

            I would like to recommend that further studies should be conducted about Boolean algebra and how it works and used as a mathematical system primarily used in the design of computers. The life of George Boole and the people who used his logic should also be deeply studied.





Microsoft® Encarta® Reference Library 2003. © 1993-2002 Microsoft Corporation.

Place this order or similar order and get an amazing discount. USE Discount code “GET20” for 20% discount

Order your Paper Now

The concept of consumer behavior and its importance

The concept of consumer behavior and its importance


Consumer buying behavior is the study of processes that are involved when individuals or groups of people select, purchase and dispose of services, ideas or experiences to satisfy needs and desires (Avery,2011 p.4). A consumer in this case is any individual who purchases a good or a service from a provider. The process of a consumer making the decision to choose one brand over another is well influenced by a number of factors among them being the marketing mix.

Marketing mix is term that is used to represent the various strategies used by the marketers to make their product appealing to the consumer. It is often described as the four P’s which stand for product (or service), place, price and promotion (Arden, 2010 p.46). The first element in the four P’s marketing tool, product, represents what the consumer wants. It is simply the needs of the consumer. The second element is place. This refers to the most strategic location of the product so that it is accessible to the target consumer as much as possible. Examples of locations could be at a supermarket, online markets etc.The price of the product is also of paramount importance when market mix is concerned. It is very important to ensure that the cost of the product is affordable to the target market.These factors act as stimuli from marketing mix elements and influence the consumer buying behavior greatly. They are used to trigger the consumer buying process and an example of this is how various pricing promotions are often placed on products to ensure that the consumers are attracted to the product on affordability basis. Lastly, there are promotions. These involve passing across messages about the suitability of the product through various media among them television and radio adverts, billboards, brochures and pamphlets, the internet, etc depending on the nature of the consumer. It pays serious considerations on the best time and place to reach out to most of its target market.


Various attitudes and factors draw the consumer’s preference for a certain product. The Engel, Kollat and Blackwell models propose that the brands and products that are bought by consumers are usually a result of the decision making process. It is composed of five sequential decision-making process stages: problem recognition, information search, alternative evaluation, action and purchase decision and post purchase evaluation. (Arden, 2010 p.48). This discourse looks at how the marketing mix elements work together to influence consumer buying behavior with focus on the Heineken Brand as based by the Psychological factors, sociological factors, decision making theory as the chosen structure.


            Information processing refers to our brain identifies, analyzes and relays information from its raw form to make it into something meaningful that can be used for decision-making. Information processing can be attributed to thinking, which can refer to processing of any type of ideas or arrangements that have a direct correlation to an individual’s cognitive sub consciousness (Arden, 2010 p.32). Information processing forms the core fiber of our ability to comprehend, analyze and evaluate information as it is perceived by our senses. There are numerous ongoing studies that are aimed at establishing a concrete link between information processing as a result of mental imagery and perception, but just to get an idea of what we are talking about, it is important to know what we mean by imagery and perception. Mental imagery entails visualizing of images or events in one’s brain (Arden, 2010 p.34). Perception entails visualizing images and events based on external stimulus such as witnessed events or occurrences. Studies actually reveal that some cortical areas of the brain are involved in both imagery and perception (Belk, 2010 p.45). What is evident, though, is the fact that both imagery and perception play a significant role in memory and motivation. Different people perceive things differently and that is probably why their actions differ (Glynn, 2003 p.29).


Linking this to consumer behavior, attention is very critical in capturing the focal sense of an individual and directing their decision making process to purchase the product. According to the Cognitive processing model of consumer decision making, attention of consumers is mostly governed by the left-brain.According to Arden (2010), the left-brain’s function is to support recognition ability and attention focus. The Cognitive processing model of consumer decision making stipulates that the left brain is the region which is involved with capturing attention of the consumer (Blythe, 2008 p.14). This is usually mostly associated with visual recognition which most brands and companies have discovered is one of the most effective ways of capturing consumer attention.

Heineken have taken the role of visual recognition in capturing consumer attention very seriously as this is seen in a photo that depicts how the name of the brand adds to the product value and assists in capturing the attention of the consumer. Figure 1 shows how Heineken try to capture the consumer’s attention so they can validate how the product is good because it is of this brand. The cognitive processing model of consumer decision making associate’s the use of this form of visual recognition with the left-side of the brain(Johnson, 2010 p.15). The advertisement in Figure 1 has visual elements which are likely to stimulate attention by appealing to the region of the left side of the brain. By assisting in capturing of the consumers attention, its abilities extend to dialectical, expressive, digital, and logical analysis (APR, 1974). The left hemisphere is specialized in sequential analysis and processing. It analyses all information, including visual information (Arden, 2010 p.23). The left-side of the brain enables the advertisement to capture the attention of consumers. It is usually associated with pre-cognitive learning and the importance of capturing the consumer’s attention helps in the decision making products regarding a product (Glezerman&Balkoski, 1999 p.43). In the past, scientists believed that the frontal brain was responsible for the analysis of information before deciding to purchase a product but they found that most people who hesitate before purchasing a product problems had minor cases of left brain complications(Glynn, 2003 p.20). This has led to the cultural view that the left-brain is more important than the right brain.

Figure 1


Source Google Image: 2013

Consumer attention is very key in decision making. There have been studies in the in the field of consumer behavior and its influence in decision making which show the impact of this in product purchase. However, most advertisement strategies make some bad decisions in trying to capture the consumer’s attention. These decisions are influenced by stereotypes, optimism and extrapolation (Markin, 1969 p.33). These are the main common mistakes that advertisement teams engage in although they have full knowledge. Stereotyping to capture the consumer’s attention is explained from prejudices in advertisements as people like to engage in such opinionated activities (MA, 1964 p.37). These marketing strategies seek to capture the consumer’s attention and is present in many advertisements especially those which stereotype men and the ability of sex oriented innuendo to capture their attention. Figure 2 is a screenshot of such an advertisement.

Figure 2


Source: Google Images 2013


Blackwell in his foundation of the Blackwell’s Consumer Decision Process (CDP) Model asserts that perception is vital in the consumer decision making process.Perceptions plays a fundamental role in determining whether a consumer is going to purchase a certain product or not. The image portrayed by an advertisement or marketing strategy is fundamental in forming people’s perception because imagery and perception are linked.It is quite agreeable that mental imagery has a significant effect on perception and vice versa (Hoyer, 2008 p.16).In layperson terms, mental imagery can be referred to as imagination. In most cases, our Imagination does affect our general perception things in life (MA, 2001). For instance, the biblical hell capitalizes so much on imagination. No one has actually been to hell and back to explain how it really looks like. However, the brains ability to formulate images enables one to visualize how the place looks like and thus coming up with various descriptions, ultimately affecting how people perceive it. It is also correct to conclude that our imaginations do affect how we anticipate or perceive future events (Foxall, 2004 p.35). If a person happened to be bitten by a snake or witnessed the action on another person, they are most likely to see every slithering or crawling creature as a snake and take caution. The perception of future events seems to be reliant on the images we generate in our brains, to some extent. In the Heineken advertisement shown in Figure 3, the advertisement relies on selling the product by hoping consumers will perceive the association of Heineken with relaxation. The image of the bottle in a relaxed stature seeks to enable the consumer to perceive Heineken as a very good relaxation drink.

Figure 3


Source: Google Images 2013


Motivation is simply the driving force or that influence that leads one to perform an action, whether desirable or not, regardless of the positivity or negativity of the outcome(Haugtvedt, 2005 p.25).Marslow suggests that motivation is one of the key sociological and psychological drivers of consumer behavior and plays a key role in consumer decision making process. In fact, studies reveal that behaviorism and motivation are closely related in the sense that most individuals develop different consumer behaviors due to various forms of motivation(Haugtvedt, 2005 p.25). The theory of emotion and avoidance and approach motivation are some of the branches of the broad field of motivation that are brought forth by Maslow in his theory of Hierarchy of Needs using Means-End-Chain analysis. Maslow suggests that these two concepts of motivation help consumer s determine their exact needs.

Marslow suggests that approach and voidance are independent aspects of motivation are strong psychological drivers for consumer decision making, though research has suggests that the two can combine to achieve a common goal (Haugtvedt, 2005 p.37). In approach motivation, an individual does an action, such as buying a product, with the prospect that the result will be positive and instill happiness, joy or pleasure. The knowledge of the probable outcome motivates one to go ahead with the purchase. Avoidance motivation is what makes one to perform (or not perform) an action because with the prospect of the result being negative. If the outcome of making a purchase on a product is not pleasant or positive, avoidance motivation prevents one from going ahead with it (Johnson, 2010).

Pricing acts as one of the key motivators that may influence either action or avoidance motivation with regard to consumer behavior (SESP, 1965). This is why companies use adverts that point out the various differences between their products and the competition so that they can motivate consumers to purchase their product. An example is an example by Heineken shown in Figure 3 which was targeted at motivating consumers by the cheap price of the beer for only £. 29.99.

Figure 3


Source: Google Images 2013

Learning and Memory

Nair (2010) argues that learning and memory influence consumer repetitiveness, also known as consumer behaviorism. Consumer behavior influenced by recollection from memory or something that consumers have learnt revolves around the idea that development of certain behaviors in human being is reliant on conditioning. Conditioning can be either classical or operant. Classical conditioning in consumers involves putting a subject in an environment with stimulating factors and observing how the stimulus affects or contributes to his or her behavior. Operant conditioning in consumers involves exposing the subject to a consequential environment.Both of these types of conditioning are used as techniques in enabling consumers retrieve and store information relating to a specific product(Sharma, 2006 p.24). They also help cultivate learning and are key elements that build memory and recollection of a certain product in a consumer. Learning and memory can be developed or modified depending on a subject’s experiences in a consequential environment. 

Another technique used to enhance consumer learning and memory retention is performance objectives. These are also referred to as behavioral or instructional objectives which can help consumers recollect an idea or concept passed through the advertisement or marketing strategy. Performance objectives enables consumers to translate instructional goals into effective objectives. Sometimes goal statements may appear as objective statements. In such a case, the objectives are referred to as terminal(Bagozzi&Priester, 2002 p.30). When outlining instructional goals that will assist the consumer retain and recollect information learnt, a subordinate skill analysis is conducted to determine what the consumer needs to comprehend before implementation of any step in the goal. Subordinate skills are building blocks cum sub-skills that enable a learner to comprehend and implement a higher and more complex skill.

Majer (1997) proposed that a performance objective with regard to consumer behavior comprises of three principal components; a performance, criterion, and condition. Performance objective focuses on the consumer’s actions in demonstrating objective understanding. They can be both visible and invisible. The verb used can be used to differentiate visible and invisible actions. These actions can be broadly categorized into psychomotor, cognitive and affective(Bagozzi&Priester, 2002 p.32).

Condition outlines the background in which the performance is expected to take place. The component is closely related to the performance context, which describes the environment and facilities available for the consumer to accomplish a certain objective (Bagozzi&Priester, 2002 p.35). If a consumer is expected to purchase a web program, a clearly outlined condition would include vital components such as an HTML program and specifications. 

A criterion is a degree or standard used to evaluate a consumer’s performance. It also determines the level at which a consumer is expected to memorize or remember a certain product. A performance criterion is expected to be measurable(Bagozzi&Priester, 2002 p.35). Most criteria test the speed and accuracy of a consumer’s ability to remember or recollect certain concepts that they have learnt from the advertisement or marketing strategy.

Heineken uses a similar technique to help consumers encode, store and retrieve the informationabout their product. As seen if Figure 4, they use the concept of drunk driving to help and remind the consumer subconsciously about the dangers that may result from drunk driving while at the same time marketing their product. Memory is a powerful tool which can help determine whether a marketing strategy will be successful or not (Ad, 1972). With this in mind, the advertisement as shown in Figure 4 seeks to help consumers learn about a critical concern and issue in society and at the same time cognitively associate this leant information with the brand.

Figure 4





In conclusion, various factors have been brought forward with regard to how they influence consumer behavior. Blackwell proposes how motivation is one of these factors which can be used to influence consumers to make a purchase (Wanke, 2009 p.17). Perception is put forward as another factor which is influential as a psychological driver for consumer behavior. In most cases, after a consumer makes a choice, there is a high likelihood that he or she buys a product immediately. This is because once one has decide to buy an item, they have usually gone through the cognitive process of identifying how it will be beneficial to them and most consumers only await to pay and finish the transaction. In some cases however, a consumer can hesitate to make the purchase after making a choice on it.This usually means that they are second guessing either its quality, price or necessity.The factors suggested above can be used to help influence their behavior and convince them to make the purchase. This is usually a good cue for the marketer to step in and give them the extra push needed to convince them to make the purchase. The market should hint at the great importance or advantage of the product over similar products elsewhere. It is also good to mention the value of quality versus price and ensure both are reflected evenly so that the consumer sees that the product is indeed worth it and makes the purchase.















ACADEMY OF ADVERTISING. (1972). Journal of advertising. Athens, Ga. etc, Board of Directors, American Academy of Advertising, etc.].

AMA (2001). Journal of consumer behaviour. [London], Henry Stewart Publications.

ASSOCIATION FOR PUBLIC OPINION RESEARCH. (1974). The Journal of consumer research. Gainesville, FL, etc, Journal of Consumer Research, etc.].

AVERY, J. (2011). Consumer behavior: Human pursuit of happiness in the World of goods. Cincinnati, OH: Open Mentis.

BAGOZZI, R. P., GÜRHAN-CANLI, Z., & PRIESTER, J. R. (2002). The social psychology of consumer behaviour. Buckingham [u.a.], Open Univ. Press.

BELK, R. W. (2010). Research in consumer behavior: Vol. 12. Bingley: Emerald.

BLYTHE, J. (2008). Consumer behavior. London: Thomson Learning.

FOXALL, G. (2004). Consumer psychology in behavioural perspective. Washington, DC, Beard Books.

GLEZERMAN, T. B., & BALKOSKI, V. I. (1999). Language, thought, and the brain. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum.

GLYNN, I. (2003). An anatomy of thought: The origin and machinery of mind. Oxford [u.a.: Oxford University Press.

HAUGTVEDT, C. P., MACHLEIT, K. A., & YALCH, R. (2005). Online consumer psychology: understanding and influencing consumer behavior in the virtual world. Mahwah, N.J., Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

HOYER, W. D., & MACINNIS, D. J. (2008). Consumer behavior. Mason, OH, South-Western

JOHNSON, J. (2010). Approach Motivation and Avoidance Motivation.jeremynoeljohnson.com. Retrieved on 22nd May 2011 from http://www.jeremynoeljohnson.com/motivation/approach-motivation-and-avoidance-

MARKETING ASSOCIATION. (1964). Journal of marketing research. Chicago, American Marketing Association. http://pcift.chadwyck.com/pcift/search?source=bconfig.cfg&Action=SearchOrBrowse&SEARCH=Search&JID=b178&HISTLOGGING=NARDEN, J. B. (2010). Rewire your brain: Think your way to a better life. Hoboken, N.J: Wiley

MARKIN, R. J. (1969). The psychology of consumer behavior. Englewood Cliffs, N.J., Prentice Hall.

NAIR, R. (2010). Human Behavior Psychology.sooperarticles.com. Retrieved on 22nd May 2011 from http://www.sooperarticles.com/self-improvement-articles/human-behavior-psychology-81200.html

SHARMA, A. K. (2006). Consumer behaviour. New Delhi, India, Global Vision Pub. House.

SOCIETY OF EXPERIMENTAL SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY. (1965). Journal of experimental social psychology. New York [etc.], Elsevier [etc.].

WÄNKE, M. (2009). Social psychology of consumer behavior. New York, Psychology Press.

Place this order or similar order and get an amazing discount. USE Discount code “GET20” for 20% discount

Order your Paper Now

Abortion and its legal effect


The ordinary acceptance generally resolve the contentious issue of abortion that human dignity is a delicate matter that needs to involve various protection and cautionary measures across the human societies in the globe. However radical the secular interpretation of more delicate society issues such as human dignity may be, it is always put in checks by the basic pillars of social life with little compromise. Such social pillars that the modern society has entrusted its protection to include medicine, religion and law tenets that have established over the years as the custodians of the delicate interpretations.

Abortion and its legal effect

As such, interpretations of an issue as delicate as abortion have to be separately scrutinized by the social pillars to give direction on the applications or abandonment of its values. Arising from such interpretations therefore are medical, moral, legal and other splinter debates that persist for some time before an issue is completely resolved. However, for the magnitude of human dignity issues cuts deep into the actual existence of the human race, scrutiny and counter critiquing of the general opinion is faced with much resistance across the board. In this discourse, academic proof is consulted on the issues that must be considered before abortion is procured, despite the debate on its appropriateness in the public domain.     

Thesis statement: Studies have shown that women typically consider the legality, morality and emotional strain before they decide to abort an unwanted child.

Background Information

Abortion can generally be understood as the cessation of the life of an immature baby while still in its mother’s womb through deliberate human intervention. Traditionally, human dignity was considered as an important issue just as any other human life postulate in the modern world do. With the increase in secularization and cropping up of more liberal ideas that defy most of the traditional approach of human dignity, the topic on when life begins has become a debatable issue. Considerations of the ease with which women should procure abortion must be faced with the traditional interpretations of the same from a human dignity perspective, while the proponents of abortion also raise strong logical arguments in support of the same. According to Ankeny et al (2010), religion is particularly on the forefront to dispel any justification for abortion arising from secular intentions. Despite the strong opposition for abortion by religious principles, there is a level of leniency when the abortion is procured for the sake of the life of the mother who comes first in the pecking order of the saving from the danger during a medical emergency when both are in a grievous danger. Other considerations come into the forefront to keep the secular world from tampering with the human life from its origin. The logic behind medical provisions for or against abortion is perhaps the most admissible from both the secular and conservative wings of the debate due to the acceptance that the mother has the capability to bring forth life hence her protection on medical grounds translates to the protection of life.

Literature Review

Ankeny et al (2010) hold the opinion that religion plays a lot of role in shaping up the moralists’ perspective on the campaign against abortion. Similar positions are held by ethical researchers who include religion as a major source of ethical ground, particularly regarding the issue of abortion (Kornegay, 2011 and Gomberg, 1991). Audi (1997) also reckons that the perspective held by religion regarding its anti-abortion campaign could be proved from a number of arguments that the author highlights with clarity and authority.

In terms of law and its interpretation of abortion within the society, Medoff (2009) postulates that despite the general discord that exists in the public debate for and against abortion, governments have been seen as a tool that fuels the confusion. This is because on one hand, the government appears to prohibit abortion in a protectionist role while also facilitates its procurement through legal facilitation. In the discourse, the author involves the Supreme Court ruling in the USA as a major development that contributed to a change of stance by the government and the American society. Berry and Roh (2008) also contribute to the wavering position held by the government in several respects regarding abortion.

Emotional elements of the abortion topic are likewise represented in the discourse, with impact of emotion being felt as both a cause and a consequence of abortion in the society. Keys (2010), holds the opinion that abortion causes emotional distress that occasions untold suffering to women who procure abortion. Some positions are however raised to the effect that emotional distress is a mythical topic to women who procure an abortion.

Legality Issues on Abortion

In terms of the law as a custodian of human life and its dignity, there are general provisions in which the state abortion laws appear to considerably offer protection of human life with regard to unjustified abortion. There is a general observation that the state is the first object that the society can use to enforce protection against illegal abortions by way of facilitating restrictive laws (Medoff, 2009). According to the author, despite the recent feeling from among prolife campaigners that the state has been lenient with some of its protectionist machinery against abortion, there are deliberate intentions by the several governments to curb abortion. However, the legality abortion is a heated debate that has led to massive reactions from both ends of the debate, for instance in the USA since the legalization of abortion since 1973 by a Supreme Court ruling (Medoff, 2009, p224).

The general interpretation of the Supreme Court’s decision was to protect the American society from rigid legal provisions that fail to keep in touch with the circumstances behind the abortion. However, the precedent set by the ruling restricts abortion with the stage at which the mother has nurtured the abortion, if not on medical grounds. This implies that a trimester assessment of the pregnancy is considered for the legality test to be proved in an abortion case. The legality of the abortion is restricted in the USA as the pregnancy progresses. Due to the illegal arrangements for procurement of abortion in the country, state mechanisms are therefore heightened to reduce the ease with which the facilities and services can be accessed. One of such regulations is the policy on reduction of state funding for the abortion needs of the society to protect the society against illegal abortions (Berry and Roh, 2008).

International laws as generally guided by the principle of human rights enroll member states to follow a certain position of common interest across the member states. With regard to abortion rights for the mother as recognized by prominent international regulations, it is not clearly brought out in form of regulations since there is room for willingness of member states to accommodate their own set of sovereign resolutions on basic principles. Due to the weighty debate that abortion has faced across the states, legal provisions for international human rights agreements veer off the contentious issue altogether (Mehrgan, 2005).

 It is clear therefore that the government has been vocal in setting the ground from which women can make decisions regarding the ease with which they can procure an abortion. In light of the general willingness by the government to protect the life of the unborn baby, the legal provisions act as a hindrance for rampant abortions. However, the grounds on the government’s legal provision regarding abortion are usually contentious from a moralist’s and religious perspectives due to the loss of touch with their tenets. Some of the best morality, ethical and religious arguments against abortion include personification and ensoulment as discussed by Audi (1997). Legality of abortion has been overtaken by secular perspectives than the conservative perspective.

Morality Issues on Abortion

Moral lessons that abortion opponents claim from the practice have widely been criticized by the prolife campaigners flanked by moralists and religious believers as well. One of the general documented and accredited sources of such pro-abortion authority is contained in Hursthouse’s Virtue Ethics which dispels any connection of a moral status to the fetus and therefore possible metaphysics (Kornegay, 2011). According to the author’s proposition, the provisions contained in the virtues documentation is not only biased but inaccurate since there are all reasons to accord ontology and metaphysical features to the fetus from development biology. It gets interesting when such academic evidence is brought to light to dispel any position held by either side of the unending debate since only facts can resolve the matter for a mother deliberating on an abortion.

From the academic evidence raised by the author, it is clear that some of the human characteristics that accord human dignity to any human beings are enumerated in a fetus that abortionists could easily permit their position on. It becomes clearer that despite the insensitive secular position that many abortionists would qualify all cases of abortion with, there ought to be some level of consideration for healthy moral deliberations and debate regarding abortion (Audi, 1997). The author also motions issues of personhood that prolife campaigners use to justify the protection of the unborn baby due to human features that the unborn baby has.

According to Gomberg (1991), the debate on abortion can be resolved by approaching the morality issue from a nurturance perspective. The author diagnoses the morality debate to be occasioned by the selfish capitalist mindset that places materiality and secularism ahead of any other social force. In light of the position held by the author, it is true to a great extent that moral decadence as facilitated by the capitalist hence materialism mentality only places moral issues further from the reality of the system that it controls. The debate of nature against nurture comes into play when morality becomes seriously offended by an issue such as abortion, yet there is a considerable amount of its support from certain quarters of the society. While natural instincts provide that moral standards guide natural systems to protect the natural continuity on the human race, nurture forces dispel such tenets to the effect that human intelligence can prevail by formulation of logical conclusions to curve shortcuts around nature. A woman deliberating how moral an abortion is must follow guidance positions that are devoid of bias particularly from the materialist perspective and stick to legality as well as moral provisions of the debate (Audi, 1997).

Emotional Issues on Abortion

Many women find themselves caught up in the middle of the controversy on whether to procure abortion, considering all the above conflicting perspectives. While it is not admissible to apply violence on the unborn baby for the avoidance of the emotional stress anticipated by the mother, certain unwanted pregnancies are causes of stress and emotional distress (Audi, 1996). Many women would be compelled to procure an abortion to end the source of a major stressor in their lives, usually through illegal procedures. Despite the general presence of debate over the reasons why an abortion should be procured, there is agreement that many women suffer psychological disturbance through certain causes of pregnancies. For instance, a pregnancy occasioned by rape causes trauma in a woman making her chances of coming to terms with the rape ordeal almost unreachable.

General guidance usually involves getting rid of the pregnancy to increase chances of recovery from the trauma. According to Keys (2010), women empowerment to deal with the traumatic experience with both the abuse and the pregnancy is not only appropriate but an unalienable right. However, the author reckons that women who procure an abortion also find themselves caught up in the controversial debate on the legality, morality and religious appropriateness of the procedure, despite the weight of the stressing matter involved.

However, advancements in handling emergencies such as rape make emergency contraception a solution to avoid a pregnancy in the initial stages. It therefore beats logic for procuring an abortion in the late stages of a pregnancy on the account of such an emergency.  Emotional distress occasioned by procurement of an abortion is perhaps the most disturbing psychological impact that the procedure can cause on a woman. Despite the academic research on the contrary opinion to the effect that post abortion trauma does not exist, it actually does in several ways than thought (Stotland, 1992). Emotional impact is particularly strong for women who procure illegally abortion as well some who experience miscarriages. There are several ways to deal with such grieve or loss using therapy that handles loss and many cases, the damage may be irreversible if urgent measures are not taken to restore their state.


Debate shall continue on the legality, morality and existence of other emotional factors surrounding abortion. It is therefore important to keenly follow the developments on the public debate regarding abortion, which might offer some relieve on the same. Depending on the arguments on either side of the debate, it is still confusing for any woman to come out clear in support of her experience by taking a side since the debate is still undetermined.


Ankeny, R. A., Jordens, C. F., Kerridge, I. H. & Stephens, M. (2010) “Religious Perspectives on Abortion and a Secular Response,” Journal of Religion and Health, 49(4):513-535

Audi, R. (1997) “Preventing Abortion as a Test Case for the Justifiability of Violence,” The Journal of Ethics, 1(2):141-163

Berry, F. & Roh, J. (2008) “Modeling the Outcomes of State Abortion Funding Referenda: Morality or Redistributive Policy, or Both?” State Politics & Politics Quarterly, 8(1):66-87, 101-102

Gomberg, P. (1991) “Abortion and the Morality of Nurturance,” Canadian Journal of Philosophy, 21(4):513-524

Keys, J. (2010) “Running the Gauntlet: Women’s Use of Emotional Management Techniques in the Abortion Experience,” Symbolic Interactionism, 33(1):41-70

Kornegay, R. J. (2011) “Hursthouse’s Virtue Ethics and Abortion: Abortion Ethics without Metaphysics?” Ethical Theory and Moral Practice, 14(1):51-71

Medoff, M. H. (2009) “The Relationship between State Abortion Policies and Abortion Providers,” Gender Issues, 26(3-4):224-237

Mehrgan, A. H. (2005) “Abortion and Human Rights in the Outlook of International Laws,” Medical Journal of Reproduction and Infertility, 6(4):N/A

Stotland, N. L. (1992) “The Myth of the Abortion Trauma Syndrome,” JAMA, 268(15):2078-2079

Place this order or similar order and get an amazing discount. USE Discount code “GET20” for 20% discount

Order your Paper Now

A Detailed Analysis Of Tesco PLC In Regard To Its Operations

A Detailed Analysis Of Tesco PLC In Regard To Its Operations


Store Format. 2

Store Design. 3

Advertising/ Promotions. 4

Customer Segmentation. 6

Customer retention strategy. 8

Challenges and threats. 9

Changes that Tesco needs to make in order to remain successful in the future. 10

Conclusion. 12



Tesco PLC is an international food retailer with headquarters in United Kingdom. it has more than 2316 supermarkets, superstores and convenience stores located in 14 countries across Europe, Asia and North America (Telegraph media group (2011). it is the leading food retailer in the U.K. with 1,878 retail stores located through the country. It is currently the third largest retailer globally in terms of revenue earning after Wall-Mart and Carrefour and according to Nwagbara, (2011, p. 56), the second-largest in profit making after Wall-Mart. Tesco group of companies operates four store formats: Tesco Superstores, Tesco Extra, Tesco Metro, Tesco Express and One stop. Tesco has expanded all of its grocery stores to include non-food items such as books, software, electronics and music. It operates an e-commerce site with over 450,000 registered users in U.K.  One of the key drivers to success of this global supermarket chain is that it has an efficient Customer Relationship Management (CRM) system that many people envy, (Shajahan, 2006, p. 208). In order for it to best target its diverse customer base, Tesco divides the target market into various specific segments. Specifically, the target market for Tesco is divided into different groups of customers with distinct similar product or services requirements or needs. This paper provides a detailed analysis Tesco PLC in regard to its operations. The specific areas discussed in the paper are Tesco’s store format, store design, advertising and promotion strategies, customer segmentation, customer retention strategy and the current and future challenges and threats. Finally, the paper proposes various changes Tesco needs to make in order to remain successful in the future. 



Store Format

Tesco executes its marketing strategies through various formats. Most of the formats for Tesco have been there for many years and innovations and adjustments are introduced through formula development. The firm currently operates five types of formats, four of which are branded Tesco. These are Tesco Extra, Tesco Superstores, Tesco Metro, Tesco Express and One stop. Tesco Extras have a hypermarket format and are primarily located in Asia (Zentes et al, 2011, p. 181). These stores serve large and densely populated catchment areas such as city suburbs and they offer both food and non-food items 

Tesco Superstores mainly offer food but have a few non-food items with sub-brands (Zentes et al, 2011, p. 181). This format has two sub-brands namely; Tesco Supermarket and Tesco Compact. Tesco supermarkets take the format of a standard supermarket. Tesco Compact on the other hand is smaller than a supermarket and it mainly targets smaller communities. Tesco superstores mainly provide traditional grocery items as well as banking, insurance, telecommunication products, flowers, books, movies rentals and uniforms. Recently, the firm has expanded all of its grocery stores to include non-food items such as electronics, books, software and music (Zentes et al, 2011, p. 181).s. 

Tesco Metro is a city centre supermarket that targets walk in customers (Zentes et al, 2011, p. 181). The products offered in Tesco Metro are designed to target the needs of the local community. They sell a range of everyday products catering for increasing number of city dwellers and professional people looking to do important shopping near to their workplace.  Tesco express on the other hand takes a convenience store format. They focus mainly on the needs of the local residential neighbourhood, selling fresh and convenience foods. Some are located on Petrol forecourts and they offer gasoline as well (Zentes et al, 2011, p. 181). One Stop is also a convenience store formats resulting from Tesco acquisitions. One stop stores are similar but smaller than Tesco Express. Among the different formats, Tesco Express has been the most dynamic of all the brands in recent years with gigantic development off the brand in 2000 (Krafft & Mantrala 2010, p. 76) 

Store Design

Store design is central to the efforts for developing the image and establishing efficient retail operations. The objective is to design a layout that is easily and natural for shopping and that which enables a firm to display products and categories to be able to effectively influence customer purchasing behaviour and customer experience (Cant, 2005, p. 59). A superior store design should enhance a firm’s store image. Store image is the overall perception that the overall perception that the customer has of the store environment. Store layout should provide space and arrangement of the facilities according to the desired image objectives and it has to be supported by the merchandising. The store layout, design and visual merchandising reinforce the image, products and services of a firm. There are different design layouts that a firm can adopt to display its products such as the grid store layout, free-form layout and loop layout. 

According to Krafft and Mantrala (2010, p. 76), Tesco adopts a grid layout, which is a linear system of shelving where fixtures are arranged to form vertical and horizontal isles throughout the store. The fixtures are placed mostly at right angles. The Tesco’s largest stalls such as Meadowhall located in Sheffield stock a full range of products. Customers enjoy a full day of shopping with the stores having various vital facilities such as car packs, toilets, food halls and even changing facilities (Krafft & Mantrala, 2010, p. 77). Substantial city centre stores offer a wide range of products which are placed in different departments. On top of the products offered by the aforementioned stores, smaller stores located in suburban and small town locations store the core boots products (toiletry, Beauty and perfumes) and in many instances incorporate pharmacy. Tesco makes modifications in the standard layout in the different chain stores to conform to local requirements and customer needs in different locations. 

The common feature of the Tesco store design and layout which is evident amongst both the food and non-food items is the concept of experience space (Krafft & Mantrala, 2010, p. 77). Formula design for Tesco has moved beyond the traditional variables associated with the marketing mix to create stores in which the customer is more involved. Customers help in the value creation exercise by being part of the formula. Further, according to Krafft and Mantrala (2010, p. 77), the grid layout is quite methodical, efficient and convenient. It enhances better visibility of merchandise. It also enables customers to go directly to the merchandise where stores are arranged in self service formats. Further, this design is cost efficient and enables customer tracking process to be efficient and traffic control to be more effective. Lastly, it leads to easy maintenance of selling areas. One demerit with this design layout is that it forms a linear repetitive pattern which may not be very appealing to customers since it creates formal and monotonous environment. Customers may not like to spend much time. The secondary isles get less exposure compared to the primary ones (Plunkett, 2006, p. 133). 

Advertising/ Promotions

The most successful marketing campaign approach adopted by Tesco is the use of clubcard. Tesco club card is a membership scheme established by Tesco, which enables customers to save money on the shopping they make through providing them with price-off vouchers (Turner & Wilson, 2006, p. 958). The scheme offers customers with one point for every pound that they spend in any of the store of Tesco as well as the stores of their partner companies. When a customer accumulates 150 points, these are converted into vouchers which give the customer chance to save money on shopping. 

Tesco established relationships and partnerships with well established companies such as Beefeater is a group of restaurants, Powergen which specializes in supplying electricity and gas, Marriott Hotels, Avis car-hire, Johnson’s dry cleaners, Marriott Hotels, MFI and National Tyres among others (Turner & Wilson, 2006, p. 958). This link makes it possible for customers to earn points from shopping on any of these companies. Further, customers can earn points by shopping at any of the Tesco petrol stations and by online shopping to purchase available products such as books, electrical goods, music and flowers. Also, the customers can earn points by using Tesco mobile a home phone which is product of Tesco. Another way to earn points is by purchasing Tesco credit card and other Tesco financial products. Generally, this makes it easier for customers to accumulate the required 150 points and take advantage of the price-off vouchers. This single reason explains the fact that Tesco has managed to increase and maintain the interest of its customers to the scheme and to the products associated with the Tesco group of companies.  According to Turner and Wilson (2006, p. 958), many other retailers have in the past tried relationship marketing strategies and loyalty schemes similar to Tesco’s clubcard, but they hardly succeed. But Tesco’s clubcard has worked quite well and helped the firm to surpass its competitors in many aspects especially in the local market.

On top of the products displays in the many different stores, Tesco operates an e-commerce site (www.tesco.com) with over 850,000 registered users in the U.K. alone (Doyle, 2009, p. 105). In this site, Tesco displays the different items that are displayed in its different stores. Additional details and options are provided regarding modes and suitable time of delivery to their homes and payment methods. Customer registers for the service and can browse through the selected items from a range of more than 20,000 product lines. They are then are sent keys and other details over the internet to enable them to pay by credit card (Doyle, 2009, p. 105). Customers only pay a fixed charge of £5 for the delivery, which is included in their bill. The delivery service is available over quite a wide area in the vicinity of the store. The e-commerce division of this firm makes more than 250,000 home grocery deliveries every week in U.K. By delivering items in the right form and quantities as requested by customers, the e-commerce strategy adds existing customers’ loyalty for Tesco  (Kornum Bjerre, 2005, p. 66). Further, it attracts new customers and adds the probability for them to become loyal customers in the future. 

Customer Segmentation

Tesco targets consumers depending on different demographic variables such as sex, occupation, age, religion, level of education, and income characteristics of different segments of people, (Myers 2004, p. 1). This helps the firm to determine potential ability of each consumer to purchase their products. As noted earlier, the firm has designed different products and services for every member of a family through the use of different club cards. One of these is Tesco Kids Club which is designed to cater for the needs of children between the age of five and eight, (Humby, et al, 2008. P. 184). In this club, Tesco provides members with Disney Clubzone Magazine for kids. On top of that, the Tesco offers parents with a pack that has free information based on issues such as how the price-of vouchers can be used to purchase various products from the company and healthy eating habits and safety for children. 

Tesco Baby and Toddler Club on the other hand targets to provide the needs of pregnant people or people who have become parents recently (Humby, et al, 2008. P. 184). The members are offered with free magazines containing information from experts about safety tips for pregnancy and other childcare issues. They are also provided with free entries into prize draws and are allowed to park their cars near Tesco’s stores.  Tesco Healthy living Club focuses on middle and old aged customers who want to maintain a healthy lifestyle. Members here are provided with a free booklet on ‘40 Steps to a Healthier Life’ and regular magazines containing exercise, diet and health issues. Price-off coupons are also offered to the club members on food products such as organic food s and daily items. World of Wine Club provides the members who like to drink wine with information about the different wine available at Tesco stores and all over the world. As well, they are offered with price off coupons for shopping with Tesco. Tesco also it provides members of this club with information regarding the wine that goes with certain kinds of foods, (Humby, et al, 2008. P. 184). 

Apart from the above club cards, Tesco has in the past introduced cards to cater for specific needs of various groups of customers. For instance, in 1996, Tesco introduced a card for mothers and a student card suited to their needs. Later, Tesco came up with strategies to add value to its products and services. For example, in 1997, Tesco gave expectant mothers a priority to park outside the store and put in place personal assistants to help them, (Myers 2004, p. 1). As noted earlier, Tesco introduced online selling strategies where products are delivered at the customer’s door. This added convenience for customers who are unable to travel to the stores, such as disabled persons.

In summary, Tesco’s customer relationship management provides multidimensional customer segmentation and tailored communications. By 2009, the firm’s Clubcard was boosting more than 10 million active households in the local market and the number has been growing significantly (Rainer & Cegielski, 2009, p. 359). In 2009, the firm printed and mailed 4 million unique quarterly club mailings with coupons targeted towards very specific customer segments. The greatest advantage with the kind of customer segmentation adopted by Tesco is that it helps significantly increase total sales and to decrease overall operating costs both in short-term and in the long-term. within five years after Tesco adopted this move, total sales for the firm increased by 52% and they continue to grow at a higher rate than the industry average (Rainer & Cegielski, 2009, p. 359).

Customer retention strategy

In order for Tesco to retain customers, it aligns marketing materials and offers the various customer segments with their specific needs and wants. According to Bidgoli (2010, p. 486), Tesco is highly advanced and forward-thinking in the use of customer data and segmentation. As a result, the firm understands its market and customers almost to an individual level better than any of the competitors. The firm collects highly detailed data about its customers, purchases and behaviour with its customer’s loyalty card and matches this with external data (Gamble et al, 2006, p. 204). The club card loyalty program has been received well in UK and in fact a third of the households had card by 2010. The firm then uses the data collected from the scheme and the external data to create detailed customer profiles. 

With millions of customers and terabytes of data, one obstacle that the firm faced in the past was reduction of its data set to a form that the firm’s managers could use (Gamble et al, 2006, p. 204). To address this, the firm recently developed a way of classifying customers’ behaviour across seven characteristics. These include shopping habits, life stage, basket typology (what is in their shopping trolley) promotional promiscuity (do they purchase products only when they are displayed for sale), primary channel (do they shop on the store, shop online or both), profitability and finally, brand advocacy. 

According to Gamble et al, (2006, p. 204), Tesco then uses algorithms to analyse the deep and rich data they have collected on the customers to place customers in different segments such as price sensitive shoppers, convenience shoppers, and healthy shoppers among others. Then, the firm creates sub-segments within each primary segment. For instance, the healthy segment may be divided into healthy dieters and organic shoppers (Gamble et al, 2006, p. 204). 

The firm’s knowledge about customer segmentation is then applied in various ways. For example, using predictive analytics, the company creates customized loyalty card statements right down to the individual level using algorithms that analyse behaviour so as to predict what products customers are likely to purchase (Gamble et al, 2006, p. 204). It then creates customized card segments for each customer, with different offers tailored to that individual’s needs, likes and dislikes. The firm then sends out 4 million different loyalty statements meaning that only three or four people are getting the same offer. 

A good example of this is how Tesco caters to the high-income bracket. Tesco discovered through data analysis that about a quarter of its customers in the high income bracket are not doing all of their shopping at Tesco because it lacked enough high-end products to meet all their needs. Instead, customers often turned to one of Tesco’s competitors, Marks & Spencer. To deal with this, Tesco created a Tesco range offering differentiated high-end products to lure the big spending customers back to its stores (Gamble et al, 2006, p. 204). 


Challenges and threats 

One of the challenges of facing Tesco emerges from the constantly increasing costs of raw materials especially for non-food items (Ayling, 2011). This has made it difficult for the firm to keep the prices of their products lower than that of competitors, especially in the international market. Another challenge emanates from the ‘credit crunch’ that has hit the US and UK markets recently. Such economic factors are of great concern to this firm since they usually influence costs, prices, demand and profits. According to Cripps, (2011) the credit crunch has led into lower income available among consumers, decreasing effective demand for the company’s products and adversely affecting demand for high priced products. 

Tesco also faces threats from competitors. The huge numbers of giant competitors of this firm have as well adopted the online delivery services and also offline retail stores (Ayling, 2011). This means that the competition is likely to become stiffer in this area in the future. On top of this, Tesco faces a persistent threat of takeover in the local market from Wal-Mart, the current market leader globally. Further, the firm is constantly faced with export restrictions in some nations in which it has stores especially on some non-food products (Ayling, 2011). This reduces the advantage derived from the mix of different products, which is likely to result into reduced margin rate. Tesco also faces challenges brought about by legislative factors. For instance, the UK government policies for monopoly controls sometimes limit entry and expansion in the sector with controls such as restrictions on prices limited access to raw materials and licence requirements. There are restrictions on prices to operate a petrol station and grocery and a petrol station at the same time in UK (Cripps, 2011). As a result, product differentiation in different sectors becomes difficult. Another challenge for Tesco is that the local market is exhausted with limited chances for further growth and expansion (Ayling, 2011).

Changes that Tesco needs to make in order to remain successful in the future. 

There are several changes hat Tesco need to make in order to remain successful in its international and local retail markets in the future. The changes need to focus on maintaining competitive advantage in the areas where the firm has gained competitive edge. Competitive advantage refers to the set of unique features of a company and its products that are perceived by the target market as significant and superior to those of the competing firms (Heene, 2010, p. 127). Tesco can achieve this through offering of lower costs of its products relative to those of competitors, effective product differentiation, advances in technology and innovation of new areas for expansion. 

A firm that has cost competitive advantage can produce a product or a service at a lower cost that its competitors while maintaining satisfactory margins (Hall, 2008, p. 18). Tesco can manage to become a cost leader by obtaining inexpensive raw materials making services and products more efficient, designing product for ease of manufacture, avoiding marginal customers and controlling overhead costs. However, Tesco should apply this strategy to only in the short-term since is most likely going to fail if applied in the long-term. This is because other firms will eventually adopt similar strategy in order to reduce costs of their products as well. 

Product differentiation tends to offer a long lasing competitive advantage to firms (Hall, 2008, p. 19). Tesco can take advantage of product differentiation by introducing various brand names, making more reliable products and establishing good product image and services. Through continuous product and marketing innovations, and attention to quality and value, Tesco can in producing and offering differentiated products, create enduring competitive advantage and remain successful in the future. 

As technology advances, the behaviour or buying patterns of consumers change (Kornum Bjerre, 2005, p. 98). This will result into product areas requiring evaluation. Thus, there is need to ensure continuous analysis of changes in consumer buying patterns. Finally, since Tesco competitors have adopted the online delivery services, the firm needs to be more innovative and to seek more opportunities and expand in other areas (Ayling, 2011).


Tesco PLC has many unique features which have enabled it to outdo most of its competitors and to become a successful international brand. As noted in this discussion, Tesco operates five different formats namely: Tesco Extra, Tesco Superstore, Tesco Metro, Tesco Express and One stop. The formula adopted by Tesco leads to different contents in the different store formats, triggering different experiences to consumers. Further, Tesco adopts grid layout in its store design.  This layout increases involvement of customers with the content in stores and as well, adds experience to them. Tesco advertisements promotions through the use of club-card program and use of e-commerce has enabled the firm to increase its market and profit figures tremendously over time, making it a prime example of how product differentiation coupled with human touch can provide great experience to customers. The process of market segmentation has helped Tesco to ensure that prices, products, distribution, promotion and marketing mix are designed to meet the particular needs of the different customer groups. As well it has allowed this organization to focus on specific customer needs in the most effective and efficient way. The firm aligns marketing materials and offers the various customer segments with their specific needs and wants in order to retain customers. Tesco experiences numerous challenges in its operations both locally and internationally threatening its position in the global retail industry.  To maintain competitive edge, Tesco needs to implement various changes to the current operations as described in the above analysis. 



Ayling J., (2011), ‘In the money: Tesco faces clothing challenge,’ Accessed 7 February 2012

from, http://www.just-style.com/analysis/tesco-faces-clothing-challenge_id110886.aspx

Bidgoli, H., (2010), The Handbook of Technology Management: Supply Chain Management,

Marketing and Advertising, and Global Management, John Wiley and Sons, Londo

Cant, (2005), Introduction to Retailing, Juta and Company Ltd, Cape Town

Cripps, P., (2011), ‘Taking on Tesco: the credit crunch has created the ideal environment in

which Aldi can radically grow. But MD Paul Foley has set his sights still higher. So, can he challenge Tesco’s dominance in British retailing?’ The Free Library, Accessed 7 February 2012 from http://www.thefreelibrary.com/Taking on Tesco: the credit crunch has created the ideal environment…-a0181672585

Doyle, S., (2009), Information and communication technology: vocational A level, Nelson

Thornes, Cheltenham 

Gamble, P. R., Stone, M., Woodcock, N. & Foss, B., (2006), Up close & personal?:

customer relationship marketing @ work, Kogan Page Publishers, London

Hall, B. W., (2008), The new human capital strategy: improving the value of your most

important investment– year after year, AMACOM Div American Mgmt Assn, New York

Heene, A., (2010), Enhancing Competences for Competitive Advantage, Emerald Group

Publishing, Bingley 

Humby, C, Hunt, T. & Phillips, T., (2008), Scoring Points: How Tesco Continues to Win 

Customer Loyalty, Kogan Page Publishers, London

 Kornum, N. &  Bjerre, M., (2005), Grocery e-commerce: consumer behaviour and business

strategies, Edward Elgar Publishing, Massachusetts 

Krafft, M. & Mantrala, M. K., (2010), Retailing in the 21st Century: Current and Future

Trends, Springer, New York

Myers H., (2004), “Trends in the food retail sector across Europe”, European Retail Digest,

spring, Issue 41, pp.1-3

Nwagbara, U, (2011), “Managing Organizational Change: Leadership, Tesco, and Leahy’s

Resignation”, e-Journal of Organizational Learning and Leadership, Volume 9, No. 1, pp. 56-75

Plunkett, J. W., (2006), Plunkett’s Food Industry Almanac 2006 (E-Book), Plunkett

Research, Ltd., Mason

Rainer, R. K. & Cegielski, C. G., (2009), Introduction to Information Systems: Enabling and

Transforming Business, John Wiley and Sons, London

Shajahan, S., (2006), Relationship marketing: text & cases, Tata McGraw-Hill Education,

New Delhi

Telegraph media group, (2011), “Tesco profits rise as overseas growth offsets sluggish UK”,

viewed, 5, November, 2011 from, http://www.telegraph.co.uk/finance/newsbysector/retailandconsumer/8807739/Tesco-profits-rise-as-overseas-growth-offsets-sluggish-UK.html

Turner, J.J. & Wilson, K., (2006) ‘Grocery loyalty: Tesco Clubcard and its impact on loyalty’

British Food Journal, vol108, No. 11, pp. 958-964.

Zentes, J., Morschett, D. & Schramm-Klein, H., (2011), Strategic Retail Management: Text

and International Cases, Springer, Heidelberg 


Place this order or similar order and get an amazing discount. USE Discount code “GET20” for 20% discount

Order your Paper Now

Biology is the study of life and so we are all directly involved in its issues.

Biology is the study of life and so we are all directly involved in its issues. You cannot read a newspaper or watch television, without encountering the language, ideas, and impact of biological science, often requiring your decision-making skills. For example, you probably make daily decisions about your (and your family’s) health and lifestyle. How do you weigh and measure conflicting information? For example, is it safe to use antibiotics? When should antibiotics be used? What are stem cells and should we support research into their use? What are possible implications of the latest research on the human genome?Where can you access information? Many of us seek answers on the internet, but how do we know which websites offer reliable and valid information? This discussion gives us the opportunity to explore these questions and develop our research skills.Begin by choosing a website of interest to you, one that you think your classmates would appreciate. For example, the website of the National Migraine Association_(new window) offers educational information on diagnosis and possible treatment options. If you chose this website, you might discuss the information it provides and whether or not you agree with its characterization of migraines as a neurological disease. . WITH topgradeassignments.org AND GET AN AMAZING DISCOUNT!The post Biology is the study of life and so we are all directly involved in its issues. first appeared on topgradeassignments.org.Biology is the study of life and so we are all directly involved in its issues. was first posted on October 13, 2020 at 11:44 pm.©2019 “topgradeassignments.org”. Use of this feed is for personal non-commercial use only. If you are not reading this article in your feed reader, then the site is guilty of copyright infringement. Please contact me at admin@topgradeassignments.org  “Is this question part of your assignment? We Can Help!”

Place this order or similar order and get an amazing discount. USE Discount code “GET20” for 20% discount

Order your Paper Now

Describe the course of infection from contact with the pathogen to its exit from the host.


Describe the course of infection from contact with the pathogen to its exit from the host. 

  • Include your opinion on whether or not all Infections travel the same course
  • Provide an example to substantiate your opinion

Place this order or similar order and get an amazing discount. USE Discount code “GET20” for 20% discount

Order your Paper Now

What strategies would allow Coca-Cola to improve on its major weaknesses?

What strategies would allow Coca-Cola to improve on its major weaknesses?

 “Prepare ife and financial ratios for the coca-cola company. for the financial ratios make sure to use the coca-cola revenue statement and balance sheet. there are additional resources found in table 4-8, find as many coca-cola financial ratios as possible. record your sources. what strategies do you think would allow coca-cola to capitalize on its major strengths? what strategies would allow coca-cola to improve on its major weaknesses table 4-8 excellent websites to obtain strategic information (including financial ratios) on companies and industries online free resources. form 10k or annual report http://finance.yahoo.com www.hoovers.com http://globaledge.msu.edu/industries/ www.morningstar.com

What strategies would allow Coca-Cola to improve on its major weaknesses?

  • What strategies do you think would allow Coca-Cola to capitalize on its major strengths?
  • What strategies would allow Coca-Cola to improve on its major weaknesses?

Cite and reference the answers

TABLE 4-8 Excellent Websites to Obtain Strategic Information (Including Financial Ratios) on Companies and Industries

1. Online Free Resources. a. Form 10K or Annual Report b. http://finance.yahoo.com c. www.hoovers.com d. http://globaledge.msu.edu/industries/ e. www.morningstar.com

2. Online Subscription Resources (Likely Subscribed to by Your University Library) a. Mergent Online: www.mergentonline.com At this website, financial statements seem to be more complete than at other sites. You can also search for companies with the same SIC or NAICS code and then create a comparison financial ratio report. A number of different ratios can be used as comparison criteria to create a tailored report that can then be exported into a Microsoft Excel format. Alternatively, use the Competi-tors Tab in Mergent to build a list of companies and compare their ratios. Your college library likely subscribes to this service.

b. Factiva: http://new.dowjones.com/products/factiva/ At this website, first use the Companies & Markets tab to search for a company. Next, click “Reports” and choose the “Ratio Comparison Report” to get a company’s ratios compared to industry averages. Your college library likely subscribes to this service.

c. S&P NetAdvantage: http://www.standardandpoors.com/products-services/industry_surveys/en/us This website provides company and industry ratios and information in two sections of the da-tabase: (1) the CompStat Excel Analytics section of a particular company’s information page and (2) the S&P Industry Surveys.

d. OneSource: www.avention.com/OneSource This is a widely used source for financial ratio information. Search for a particular company and then click on the link for “Ratio Comparisons” on the left side of the company information page. The data in OneSource will compare your company against the industry, against the sector, and against the stock market as a whole.

e. Yahoo Industry Center: http://biz.yahoo.com/ic/ This is an excellent free resource that allows a user to browse industries by performance rank-ings, including return on equity, price-earnings ratio, market cap, price change, profit margin, price-to-book value, long-term debt, and more. 3. Hardcopy Reference Books for Financial Ratios in Most Libraries a. Robert Morris Associate’s Annual Statement Studies: An excellent source of financial ratio information.

b. Dun & Bradstreet’s Industry Norms & Key Business Ratios: An excellent source of financial ratio information.

Source: Based on a variety of sources.

meaningful to a company that takes only cash receipts. As indicated in Table 4-9, key financial ratios can be classified into the following five types: liquidity (how is the firm’s cash position), leverage (how is the firm’s debt position), activity (how efficient is the firm’s operations), profitability (how is the firm performing), and growth (is the firm meeting shareholders’ expectations).

Finance and Accounting Audit Checklist Strengths and weaknesses in finance and accounting commonly arise from answering the follow-ing types of questions: 1. Where is the firm financially strong and weak as indicated by financial ratio analysis? 2. Can the firm raise needed short-term capital? 3. Should the firm raise needed long-term capital through debt or equity? 4. Does the firm have sufficient working capital? 5. Are capital budgeting procedures effective? 6. Are dividend payout policies reasonable? 7. Does the firm have excellent relations with its investors and stockholders? 8. Are the firm’s financial managers experienced and well trained? 9. Is the firm’s debt situation excellent?

Place this order or similar order and get an amazing discount. USE Discount code “GET20” for 20% discount

Order your Paper Now

Describe that part of the brain and its purpose. 

Week 7 Assignment Instruction

Assignment 7 Template  Note: Please use this template to complete the Week 7 Assignment. All you need to do is write a paragraph within each box contained in the template to receive credit for this assignment. 



You have two friends who have been struggling with exams in their classes. They can’t figure out what they are doing wrong, so they approach you for advice. In talking with your friends, you learn:

· Both of them are studying in one big cram session the evening before the exam.  They’re just not motivated to put in more time.

· They primarily study by just rereading notes and the chapters.

· One of your friends is only 17 and she checks her phone about every 2 minutes for text messages or social media updates.

· Your other friend is returning to college after some time away and is 65 years old.  She finds it easy to recognize some information when asked a fill-in-the-blank question, but it is much harder if she has to define a vocabulary word or answer an essay.

The good news is that you are enrolled in a psychology class that can help both your friends improve their study habits and results on the exam.

As you prepare to help your friends, here are some specific topics to address.

1. From Chapter 1, what part of the brain is responsible for remembering the important information that will be on the exam?  Describe that part of the brain and its purpose.

1. As covered in Chapter 4, psychologists have determined that age can effect cognitive development and memory.

a. For your friend who is 17, how could you use what you have learned about moral development to explain why she may be checking her phone every 2 minutes for text messages and social media updates.   How could she expand her attention?

a. For your friend is age 65, and having a hard time with vocabulary, explain what may be happening that prevents her from doing well on this type of activity.  How could she improve?

3. In chapter 6, we learn about operant conditioning.  Describe operant conditioning in your own words.  Thinking of operant conditioning, how could you help your friend use rewards as motivation to study more often?

4. Using what we have learned in chapter 7, explain why your memory may not retain all the information learned in the cram session the night before the big exam.

c. How would cramming effect encoding?

d. How would cramming effect retrieval?

e. What is one technique that each friend could use to help improve memory and prepare for the exam?

5. It’s the night before the big exam.  You check on your friends and your younger friend is not doing well.  It turns out that things have turned out even worse.  Her boyfriend broke up with her, stole money from her bank account, and her grandmother passed away the week before.  You notice on her Facebook page that she posed, “Where can I find some rope?!?”

e. In chapter 5, you learn about suicide and what to do.  Based on that, what steps can you take to help your friend?  Be sure to include any resources that you could call to get advice.

· Note: I’ve also provided the Strayer University Writing Standards as a brief set of user-friendly guidelines that make it easier for you to learn the behaviors of appropriate writing (i.e. clear, professional, and ethical writing). This is meant to support the use of the template I provided at the top of the page.


Do you need a similar assignment done for you from scratch? We have qualified writers to help you. We assure you an A+ quality paper that is free from plagiarism. Order now for an Amazing Discount!
Use Discount Code “Newclient” for a 15% Discount!

NB: We do not resell papers. Upon ordering, we do an original paper exclusively for you.

The post Describe that part of the brain and its purpose.  appeared first on Top Premier Essays.

Place this order or similar order and get an amazing discount. USE Discount code “GET20” for 20% discount

Order your Paper Now

PSYC305 – Communication & Power – Its Use and Misuse Discussion Essay Assignment Papers

PSYC305 – Communication & Power – Its Use and Misuse Discussion Essay Assignment Papers


It has been said that communication controls, motivates, provides release, and facilitates decision-making. What happens in an organization when communication is limited? How does downward and upward communication affect the functions mentioned above?

PSYC305 – Communication & Power – Its Use and Misuse Discussion Essay Assignment Papers

Power – Its Use and Misuse

TS Eliot wrote, “Half of the harm that is done in this world is caused by people who have power and want to feel important. They do not mean to do harm… they are simply absorbed in the useless struggle to think well of themselves.” (Manning & Curtis , p. 167)


Please do Exercise 8-1, p. 169. What kind of power does your supervisor commonly use, and what has been the outcome of their behavior…on the employees, on the company?.

PSYC305 – Communication & Power – Its Use and Misuse Discussion Essay Assignment Papers

Team Assignment 1

Please read the page “Team Assignments Approach and Overview” located in the Files section of the Course Menu for an overview of approach and requirements for Team Assignments, and the following detailed instructions for Team Assignment 1 to be started in Week 1, and completed in Week 2.

As you know, to develop leadership skills, hands-on in this course, you are being put in virtual teams of 4. With your team members, you will complete 4 team assignments, one in each of weeks 2, 3, 5, and 6. You will do this by each team member having the opportunity to be the Leader in at least one of the Team Assignments (while others take on other specific roles that week).

Objectives of Team Assignment 1 (due Week 2)

  1. To become aware of your leadership qualities, where and how they were developed, areas that need development, and how you could start developing your leadership qualities; and
  2. In order to work together virtually, you will share information with your team about how and when you are available for communication with your team, and your leadership and course goals as stated in 1) above.

Tasks and deliverables for the team assignment of Weeks 1 and 2 – to be completed in week 2:

Instructions: Team Assignment 1 requires you to

  1. Get started in Week 1 to
    1. Individually, analyze your leadership strengths, and areas to develop and improve, based on the personal Leadership development and Course goals document (LDCG) in the Files section of the Course Menu,
    2. Indicate your program, experience with online courses, day and time availability, contact information (phone, chat, e-mail address), and time zones, etc… using the Communication Preferences (CP) document in the Files section of the Course Menu. PSYC305 – Communication & Power – Its Use and Misuse Discussion Essay Assignment Papers
    3. Communicate and share the above information in LDCG and CP documents, with your team members, by posting in Team Discussions.
  2. Continue in Week 2 to
    1. Share the above information with each other,
    2. As a team, using the above information, plan out team roles, such as leader, motivator, communicator, facilitator, etc…, for all team members, for all 4 team assignment weeks 2, 3, 5 and 6, as suggested in Team Roles document in the Files section of the Course Menu.
    3. Collate all team members’ Leadership Development and Course goals and Communication Preferences information with Team roles, in ONE Word document. You may create a table in Word, or an Excel worksheet to represent the information on Leadership and Course Goals (LDCG) summary and Communication Preferences (CP) summary, and submit with the Team Roles information, all in ONE Word document.

    Team assignment deliverable must be submitted in three places: at the end of the Team discussions by Team Leader, in the Files section of the Course Menu by the leader, and in your own Week 2 Team Assignment area by each team member. PSYC305 – Communication & Power – Its Use and Misuse Discussion Essay Assignment Papers

  3. To ensure productivity by each member of your team, a Team Leader and Member Report (TLMR), available in the Files section of the Course Menu, will be completed by each member of the team and posted by each member in the Team discussions between Friday and Saturday midnight, and in their own Team Assignment area along with their Team assignment deliverable/ product by Sunday 11:59pm.If the TLMR is not posted in Team discussions and own area by Sunday 11:59pm, up to 20% points may be deducted from the full points of the Team assignment. PSYC305 – Communication & Power – Its Use and Misuse Discussion Essay Assignment Papers

If the TLMR is not posted in Team discussions and own area by Sunday 11:59pm, up to 20% points may be deducted from the full points of the Team assignment.


In general, for the weekly Team Assignment, marks will be given on the following basis:

  1. Quality of Team deliverable/ product: 50%
  2. Creativity in Team deliverable/product: 10%
  3. Individual Participation: 40%

For Team Assignment 1 (due Week 2), 65 points will be awarded as follows:

  1. Quality of Team deliverable/ Product: 50%. 33/65
    1. Leadership Development and Course Goals summary for all team members (LDCG for all): 10
    2. Communication Preferences summary for all team members (CP for all): 10
    3. Team roles for all for all 4 Team assignment weeks: 13
  2. Creativity in Team deliverable/product: 10%. 6/65. PSYC305 – Communication & Power – Its Use and Misuse Discussion Essay Assignment Papers
  3. Individual Participation in Team discussions (at least 4 times fair contribution): 40%. 26/65

Submissions Due

In addition to the individual information (LDCG and CP), to be shared in Week 1 in Team Discussions by team members (see Instructions under Task and Deliverables above), team assignment deliverable/product (LDCG summary, CP summary, and Team Roles as ONE document) must be submitted in three places: at the end of the Team discussions by the Team Leader, in the Files section of the Course Menu by the leader, and in your own areas by each team member. PSYC305 – Communication & Power – Its Use and Misuse Discussion Essay Assignment Papers

Team assignment deliverable / product must be submitted as one submission for grades, the same final document by each member of the team, by the end of Week 2 (Sunday 11:59pm) in your own areas.

Team Leader and Member Report (TLMR), available in the Files section of the Course Menu, must be posted by each member in the Team discussions between Friday and Saturday 11:59pm, and in their own Team Assignment area along with their Team assignment deliverable/ product. PSYC305 – Communication & Power – Its Use and Misuse Discussion Essay Assignment Papers


Do you need a similar assignment done for you from scratch? We have qualified writers to help you. We assure you an A+ quality paper that is free from plagiarism. Order now for an Amazing Discount!
Use Discount Code “Newclient” for a 15% Discount!

NB: We do not resell papers. Upon ordering, we do an original paper exclusively for you.

The post PSYC305 – Communication & Power – Its Use and Misuse Discussion Essay Assignment Papers appeared first on Top Premier Essays.

Place this order or similar order and get an amazing discount. USE Discount code “GET20” for 20% discount

Order your Paper Now