The infant mortality is the expression of the statistical rate of infant deaths in the first year of birth in relation to the 1000 live births in a given area. Diabetes is the presence of excess or high level of sugar in the blood system..
Here is a copy of response from chair to last iteration, with last effort below the chair comments. I want the entire prospectus rewritten professionally, and halfway acceptable:Date : Tue, Oct 23, 2012 08:26 PM CDT
From : Michael Schwab <Michael.Schwab@waldenu.edu>
To : Herbert Jamieson <firstname.lastname@example.org>
I have reviewed your latest draft of the prospectus and appreciate the work
you have done to improve the line of logic. However, it’s clear to me that you
need more help with your writing, especially in constructing your argument
around these various concepts – regions of longevity, health of centenarians,
reasons for longevity and the role of diet. Clarity here is essential in
establishing the nature of the problem and the gap in the literature.
We have four options here, and I’d like you to consider them all.
First, please ask for an appointment with a Walden librarian, and get some
coaching on using databases to research a topic.
Second, go the Writing Center and ask for help with the logic in your
prospectus, starting with the first two paragraphs of your latest draft.
Third, consider hiring a writing tutor. There are some excellent ones
connected to the Writing Center, and they could save you a lot of trouble.
Lastly, I strongly encourage you to attend a Dissertation Intensive, where you
can receive extended in-depth help with all aspects of writing a dissertation.
I want to see you succeed, and believe that these additional aides could help
you do that.
Michael Schwab, Dr. P.H.
School of Health Sciences
REWRITE FROM SCRATCH. Put approval button on the next attempt. You guys are becoming less professional!This is totally unacceptable!
Prospectus October 23
New Prospectus, October 22, 2012
This study will seek to interview existent centenarians in an effort to find out the secret behind their long lives. Interviewing of these centenarians will primarily be in the areas that have the reputation of people with low disabilities. It is imperative to point out that these are the same areas that have a similar low level of frailty. One factor to this reasoning is the increase in Western diets which are known for their contributions towards chronic ailments. In the recent past, most areas have done away with the indigenous foods and replaced them with these new arrivals. According to some studies, areas with the most centenarians do not have any frailty or disability at all. This has prompted researchers like Thomas Perls to conclude that the reason behind their long lives lies behind the lack of this disability (NIH 2006). The problem lies in that it is almost impossible to determine whether these indigenous foods have anything to do with the centenarians and their exceptional survival since there is little information regarding these diets. In fact, the existent knowledge on these diets is disappearing fast. Therefore, it is still unclear as to whether the traditional dietary patterns have any contribution to the long survival of the centenarians (Robine & Saito 2003).
Background of the problem
In the recent past, Western diets have overwhelmed the traditional diets in most areas that were using the latter. Research indicates that majority if the population that depends on the western diets is much prone to diseases and frailties than those with the traditional diets. This can be generalized to represent the wholesome health of these individuals and not just the disabilities. In a period spanning the last three generations, there has been a significant trend in the course of the degenerative diseases. This is also noticeable in these areas of longevity and exceptional
survival. The effects of this transition have been profound with more cases of infant mortality and cardiovascular diseases (Arakawa et al 2005). This has also seen an increase in the reported cases of cancer screening, diabetes and HIV/AIDS (DeMeester et al 2010). These areas with the nutrition transition also have the presence of other risk factors that could easily shorten the exceptional survival. These include lack of exercise and increased smoking that leads to obesity. Therefore, it is a combination of the Western diets, smoking and a negative perception towards exercise that leads to an increase in the degenerative diseases and thus shorter lives.
The effect of food on health is clearly evident in the types of risks that people face in their lives. Majority of the western diets are well known for their chemicals and cholesterol that could lead to high risks of acquiring some diseases. A characteristic amongst centenarians is that they do not have cases of heart diseases and diabetes. It is also clear that these centenarians do not have cases of obesity (DeMeester et al 2010). The region famed for majority of the centenarians is in the Asian continent, specifically in Japan (Freeman et al 2010). However, subsequent research on the area showed that there could have been flaws in this earlier assumption. As much as nutrition is a factor that can be attributed to this long existence, most centenarians do not attribute their long lives to it. In fact, most centenarians are of the belief that positive attitudes and close links to families could be their secret to long survival and not necessarily the nutrition and genetics link (Freeman et al 2010).
Centenarians experience long lives and exceptional health characteristics by the essence of their nutrition (Zeng, 2010). By definition, Centenarian refers to an individual who lives up to or above one hundred years of age. This study seeks to address the problem of premature mortality because of degenerative disease with reference to the Centenarians. The study also seeks to address the explanation of healthy Centenarians, which have been elusive, and mystery to the research literature (Luczywek et al, 2007).
Research studies have highlighted that issue of exceptional health and longevity has undergone gradual transformation nutritionally (Newnham, 2009). This transformation has been evident in the six areas of exceptional health (infant mortality, cancer screening and management, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, HIV infections/AIDS, and immunizations) to a more westernized diet (Richmond et al, 2011). The infant mortality is the expression of the statistical rate of infant deaths in the first year of birth in relation to the 1000 live births in a given area. Diabetes is the presence of excess or high level of sugar in the blood system. Cancer screening and management is the attempt to detect cancer and apply appropriate measures in dealing with the problem. Cardiovascular disease is an infection that affects the functionality of the heart and the blood system. Immunization refers to the act of preventing the occurrence of an infection through the administration of a vaccine. The main effect of this transformation is evident in the development of clinical biomarkers of degenerative disease. Over 2-3 generations, there has been a shift in diet and rising degenerative disease in these areas. This is because of adoption of nutritional system of the short-lived counterparts and practice of other common activities such as minimal exercising and smoking (Cress et al, 2010).
The problem statement is to establish the existence of Centenarians in the six areas (Sardinia, Okinawa, Japan, Guanacaste Peninsula, Costa Rica, Bima Yao, and Nicoya, Costa Rica). This would be in relation to the type of diet they feed on hence the prolonged existence.
The purpose statement is to offer accurate answers to the research questions and research problems derived from the study.
Significance of the Study
Achieving the purpose of the study is significant to nutrition, gerontology, and public health fields, as it would answer purposely why public health has deteriorated with the nutritional transformation to a westernized diet across the globe. It would not perform this purpose, but it might aid our understanding of what centenarians have consumed in their lives, and to what degree that diet was a result of their prolonged existence (Yagi et al, 2012).
Qualitative Research design
The study will apply the administration of questionnaires and interview activities to a sample of Centenarians. The research will seek to unveil what the Centenarians consume, dietary history, and the contribution of the dietary on longevity and exceptional health. The research design will also focus on the absence of degenerative diseases and presence of improved public health (Willcox et al, 2010).
The study would focus on prominent areas that portray enormous numbers of Centenarians. These areas include the island called Sardinia, Okinawa, Japan, and the Guanacaste Peninsula Costa Rica concentrated in the area around Nicoya, Costa Rica.
The study would seek to answer the following question. What diet do centenarians eat? In order to effective answer the question, the study would adopt the use of the sub-questions below.
1. To what do centenarians in Costa Rica attribute their long life?
2. What do these centenarians eat now?
3. What kinds of seasonal fluctuations in diet were there over the decades?
4. What were the agricultural patterns in which their diet was embedded?
5. What social changes have caused a change in diet over the last fifty years?
6. Which foods do you they consider healthiest?
7. What specific traditional diets lead to the greatest longevity?
8. Do the centenarians consume processed food at any point of their lives? If yes, indicate why?
9. What is the proportion of fruits, vegetables and ethno-botanicals in the diet of centenarians?
10. What is the appropriate food composition of a diet according to the centenarian?
The study would adopt the need of the conceptual framework with the ability to view explanation of the findings. This is the act of applying theoretical lens to offer extensive view of the study in an objective way. The conceptual framework would aid the essence of communicating the results of the study to the viewers or other researchers. Conceptual framework is also crucial in illustration why research is executed in the form of choice. In this study, the conceptual framework would offer accurate explanation of the methodologies and research questions towards the achievement of results.
Assumptions and Limitations
The assumptions of the study indicate that centenarians are exceptionally healthy and live long because of that diet, lifestyle, social networks, local environmental factors, and genetic predispositions (McDonald et al, 2009). The study will assume that the overriding factor in relation to the exceptional health and long lives by the Centenarians is the diet. The health of human beings is determined by what is consumed. This offers ideal assumption towards execution of the study. Local environment also plays a critical role in the exceptionally healthy Centenarians. The level of adaptability to the environment is vital to the health of an individual hence the assumption by the study (Michels et al, 2003).
Limitations may include other factors causing exceptional longevity that may not include nutrient consumption patterns. Such factors might include evasion of smoking habits, execution of daily physical exercises, and genetic properties. The study will note examine these features effectively thus minimization of the ability of the experiment to generalize the findings. The other limitation in relation to this research is the size of the population. Future Centenarians would voluntarily engage in the study thus minimization of the sample size.
Some of the indigenous fruits and vegetables do not exist in the western diet. High utilization of fiber particularly from cereals results into a noteworthy mortality decrease in individuals. Fiber in beans, fruits, nuts, whole grains and vegetables lessens LDL cholesterol levels, guarantees optimal glucose levels in the blood system and eases bowel movements (Chung et al, 2010). Consumption of large amounts of vegetables and fruits leads to fulfillment, and one benefits from the fiber. Equally, processed food and fried junk food predisposes one to obesity. Obesity surpasses smoking in accelerating the aging process.
The fruit and vegetables are nutrient dense and low caloric always associated by a caloric limitation diet. The foods are low in the constitution of glycerin. Hydration has the capacity to consist of water that is heavy in calcium hydroxide and/or other minerals. The area in Guanacaste Peninsula in Costa Rica has extremely high calcium hydroxide content in a region where many centenarians live, because of the local limestone. However, an exceptionally healthy area in northern Sardinia possesses a granite base, without limestone. This environmental factor cannot be explained. The individuals experiencing exceptional longevity records high percentage rates to exist within these areas (Popkin, 2003).
Arakawa, M., Miyake, Y., & Taira, K. (2005). Hypertension and stroke in centenarians,
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Chung Shil, K., Mee Sook, L., Se In, O., & Sang Chul, P. (2010). Discovery of Novel Sources of Vitamin B12 in Traditional Korean Foods from Nutritional Surveys of Centenarians. Current Gerontology & Geratrics Research, 1-11. doi:10.1155/2010/374897
Cress, M., Gondo, Y., Davey, A., Anderson, S., Seock-Ho, K., & Poon, L. W. (2010). Assessing Physical Performance in Centenarians: Norms and an Extended Scale from the Georgia Centenarian Study. Current Gerontology & Geratrics Research, 1-6. doi:10.1155/2010/310610
DeMeester, F., Zibadi, S., & Watson, R. R. (2010). Modern dietary fat intakes in disease promotion. Totowa, N.J: Humana.
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Luczywek, E. E., Gabryelewicz, T. T., Barczak, A. A., Religa, D. D., Pfeffer, A. A., Styczynska, M. M., & … Barcikowska, M. M. (2007). Neurocognition of centenarians: neuropsychological study of élite centenarians. International Journal Of Geriatric Psychiatry, 22(10), 1004-1008. doi:10.1002/gps.1780
MacDonald, M., Martin, P., Margrett, J., & Poon, L. (2009). Correspondence of perceptions about centenarians’ mental health. Aging & Mental Health, 13(6), 827-837. doi:10.1080/13607860902918249
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National Institute of Health. (2006, October). Secrets to a Longer, Healthier Life. Retrieved from http://newsinhealth.nih.gov/pdf/NIHNIH%20October2006.pdf
Newnham, d. (2009). Outside ln. Nursing Standard, 23(33), 24-25.
Pinquart, M. (2003). Differences in caregivers and non-caregivers in psychological health of physical health: a meta-analysis. Psychology and Aging, 18, 250 – 267.
Popkin, B. M. (2003). Patterns and trends in food portion sizes, 1977 – 1998. JAMA, 289(4), 450– 453.
Shimonaka, Y. (1996). Personality, longevity, and successful aging among Tokyo Metropolitan
Richmond, R. L., Law, J., & Kay-Lambkin, F. (2011). Physical, Mental, and Cognitive Function in a Convenience Sample of Centenarians in Australia. Journal Of The American Geriatrics Society, 59(6), 1080-1086. doi:10.1111/j.1532-5415.2011.03404.x
Robine, J., & Saito, Y. (2003). Survival Beyond Age 100: The Case of Japan. Population & Development Review, 29(s1), 208-228.
Roughead, E., Kalisch, L., Ramsay, E., Ryan, P., & Gilbert, A. (2010). Use of health services and medicines amongst Australian war veterans: a comparison of young elderly, near centenarians and centenarians. BMC Geriatrics, 1083.
Tyrovolas, S., Tountas, Y., Polychronopoulos, E., & Panagiotakos, D. B. (2011). The Implications Of Nutrition Services Within The Health Care System On The Quality Of Life And Longevity, In Developed Countries: A Re-Analysis Of 38 Studies. Central European Journal Of Public Health, 19(1), 13-19.
Willcox, D., Willcox, B. J., & Poon, L. W. (2010). Centenarian Studies: Important Contributors to Our Understanding of the Aging Process and Longevity. Current Gerontology & Geratrics Research, 1-6. doi:10.1155/2010/484529
Yagi, T., Kosakai, A., Ito, D., Okada, Y., Akamatsu, W., Nihei, Y., & … Suzuki, N. (2012). Establishment of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells from Centenarians for Neurodegenerative Disease Research. Plos ONE, 7(7), 1-7. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0041572
Zeng, Y. (2010). Resilience significantly contributes to exceptional longevity. Current gerontology and geriatrics research
The infant mortality is the expression of the statistical rate of infant deaths in the first year of birth in relation to the 1000 live births in a given area. Diabetes is the presence of excess or high level of sugar in the blood system.