The Causes of the World War I

The Causes of the World War I


For the past one century, the causes of the First World War remain controversy in mind of many people across the world. The war which took place from  August 1914 and concluded 1918, it left seventeen million people dead and twenty million injured. The war mainly focused European countries, which fought for power. The war was between two long-term rivals made up of two alliance of different states in Europe. Germany Italy and Austria-Hungary were on the one hand as a triple alliance; they fought against Triple Entente (Serbia, France Russia, and Great Britain).[1] The conflict raised after the death of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, which they believe to be organized by Serbian bandits. The conflict resulted in different countries in Europe to have differing views toward this matter. Many urges the war was caused by political conflict, economic conflict, and militarism.

The Causes of the World War I

The battle was mainly between imperialism and nationalism, which started after declining of Ottoman Empire in 1890. In 1900 Great Britain controlled over the half of the whole world, which made other countries such as Germany to be suspicious, Africa was the main target of European countries, which heighten their desire and conflicted to expand their territories in African countries. The causes of the First World War are not clearly established as the Second World War. Unlike the Second World War, there are many controversial statements on the causes of the First World War.[2] The tension of the war raised in the beginning of  20th century between Germany which was the main player of Triple Alliance and Great Britain the major player of Triple Entente.[3] Germany had a strong navy that instills fear to the Great Britain and France. Britain was forced into the battle after Germany backed Austria out of fear she may be attacked. Britain later joins hand with France and Russia with the aim of controlling Germany in all her borders.

It is not easy to erase the impact of the First World War all over the world. The grief and the repercussions of WW1 remain until today in the mind of many in the world. In the United Kingdom, the war is commemorated every year on 11 November where people are urged to be silent for the two minutes as the remembrance of the events that take place during the war. The group that was directly affected by the wrath of the war was the soldiers who sacrificed their lives to seek victory of their states. The lives of the soldiers who fought in the First World War were miserable and brutal. Many of them they there were forced to the battlefield by their masters without questioning. They left their homes for many months, they fought in harsh environments, and many of them succumbed as a result of the battle between their brutal enemies. They used poisonous weapons, which endangered their life more than their prospective enemies did. Soldiers were ordered to attack by their seniors and not supposed to retreat. The injured soldiers were given treatment, but if a soldier dies, there was no burial ceremony for them. Ten million soldiers died while still in battle, and their armies executed many of them because of cowardice. More than sixty million soldiers involved directly in the First World War, and it is the only war that soldiers had the most devastating experience of the war environment and technology.

Thesis Statement

The circumstances before and within the First World War is controversial which provides a significant interest to determine the fact surrounding the matter. Since 2014 up to date, the world is commemorating one hundred years after the First World War in the world. The current generation in the world mainly comprises the youths who are much interested in the issues that lead to an outbreak of the First World War. They are also a need for establishing the role played by different parties before and during the First World War. It is difficult to find the eye witness of the war in this 21st century, many of them died as a result of war and elderly, even if one is lucky to find one; many of them are on unstable mind due to mental degeneration. There are extensive ambiguity and confusion around various occasions that are happening all over the world related to the First World War.[4] Most of this occasion force people to follow the social norms that have been there for almost a century on expressing a moment of grief as a commemoration of the war. Many of those who follow such mainstream they never understand and cannot explain the reason behind their action. There is a need of enlightening the society as well as the scholars the cause and significance of the First World War as a measure of combating the situation that can lead to conflict and war in future.


Most of the information on the First World War is available in secondary sources such as books journals and articles among others. The research on the causes of the First World War will gather information mainly from the secondary sources as they contain discussions of various research of the First World War. Secondary sources are the sources written at a time before the research. They are vital when doing research on a topic in history since it deals with events that happened before the research. CSP library website will be used to search for books and journals needed as a source of information to support the thesis statement. CSP library website will be a reliable source of information at all time since it is easily accessible at any place so long as there is internet connectivity.

The research will be a qualitative research where views, opinion, and arguments of different writers of different books will be analyzed so as to come up with a tentative conclusion on to what led to the outbreak of the First World War in the world. It is better to go through all the relevant information on the First World War. It is better not to be subjective but to be objective and find out different meaning and significance of First World War as indicated by different authors. One need research tools such as notebook and a pen for noting down all relevant information as well as doing the close analysis. It is better to find out writer with contrasting views to come up with strong arguments that support the thesis statement. During the research, one needs to develop some of the research questions that acts as a guide to collecting the information needed to support the thesis statement.

Research Question

Research questions are set forward to fill the gap knowledge that exists. While doing the research on the causes of World War I, it is better to come up with the research questions that are relevant to the topic. The research questions for this research are;

  1. What were the reasons of World War One
  2. How was the life in the Battle Field during the first war?
  3. Why was the Battle Field a way to promote internationalism?
  4. What are some of the aspect of a successful Battle Field?
  5. How the soldiers survive during the First World One?
  6. How many people died in the Battlefield during the First world War?
  7. Who wins the first world One?


In the course of responding to the research questions of this study, one may come up with many conclusive answers that support the thesis statement. Such statements are like; the major reasons that lead to the world war one are imperialism and economic conflicts. The battle life during the First World War is quite contradicting because the war spread to various countries across the world each backing one side between the fighting rivals. Many people lost their properties during the First World War, and about 17million persons died as the result of this war.[5] Scholar fails to agree on who won the first world war, but many urges that Germany was the main loser of the war and victory group was the triple entente after receiving support from the United States after the Russian Revolution. Soldiers of World War I experienced the most devastating situation, and many were killed if they resisted following orders of their masters.   


Tarr, Russell. “WW1 battlefields as a way to promote internationalism: Some practical suggestions.” The International Schools Journal vol. 34, no. 1, 2014, 27-32.

Rein, Chris. “From ‘observation’ to ‘tactical reconnaissance:’ the development of American battlefield ISR in World War II.” Air Power History, vol. 63, no. 1, 2016, 32.

Isdale, William. “Are there moral reasons to remember the First World War?” Think vol. 14, no. 41, 2015, 89-97.

Chandler, Pat. “World War One Centenary 1914-1918.” School Librarian, 2013, 207.

Olds, Sharon. “The End of World War One.” The Massachusetts Review, vol. 20, no. 4, 1979, 666.

“Combat and the soldier’s experience in World War One.” The British Library. January 20, 2014. Accessed March 30, 2017.

[1] Russell Tarr, “WW1 battlefields as a way to promote internationalism: Some practical suggestions,” The International Schools Journal, vol. 34, no. 1, 2014, 27-32.

[2] Chris Rein, “From ‘observation’ to ‘tactical reconnaissance: The development of American battlefield ISR in World War II,” Air Power History, vol. 63, no. 1, 2016, 32.

[3] Pat Chandler, “World War One Centenary 1914-1918,” School Librarian, 2013, 207.

[4] William Isdale, “Are there moral reasons to remember the First World War?” Think vol. 14, no. 41, 2015, 89-97.

[5] Sharon Olds, “The End of World War One,” The Massachusetts Review, vol. 20, no. 4, 1979, 666.

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Pliny’s Natural History is one of the most classical Roman literatures that aptly depict the ancient knowledge and old scholarship on the nature. In this comprehensive encyclopedia, Pliny the Elder, a Roman Scholar, natural philosopher explores various forms of the natural world, ranging from the living to non-living components of nature, within the context of natural history. This work is to explore and evaluates Pliny’s propositions on lapis lazuli. It commences with a brief description of the authors work on the subject. It then explores the author’s background and the methodology of presenting his work, citing the position of his work on lapis lazuli in the wider contents of the author’s works during his lifetime. The last part of the substantive component evaluate the author’s work, especially in the basis of reviews and interpretation presented by other authorities that either reviews his work or provide more contemporary views on the same topic.

Description:  Pliny’s Views on Lapis lazuli

Pliny describes lapis luzuli with various attributes, with emphasis on the beauty it commands and the sacred features associated with the stone. He refers to Lapis luzuli as a beautiful color stone and asserts that it resembles the firmament sprinkled with stars. He describes the stone as being blue in color, of cause with the star-like strewn.[1] He names the lapis luzuli as Sapphire. For its shining nature and unique star-like shape, the Lapis luzuli serves as an epitome of beauty, magnificence and vastness of the sky, making some people to raise it to the level of a deity and have it worshiped. He also asserts the high value that the gemstone commands in civilization’s history, describing it as the most beloved among the civilized and the nobles. At some point, he describes the stone as “Cyanus, of dark blue color, which is sometimes combined with a gold-dust” [2]

Methodological Background

Pliny’s extensive background as a scholar, a philosopher and a naturalist is emphasized in dictionaries, encyclopedia and other reviews of the Pliny’s biography. Top distinguish him from the young Pliny, and he is often referred to as Pliny, the Elder. According to the Encyclopedia Britannica, Pliny, full name being  Gaius Plinius Secundus, was a Roman savant, philosopher and author of the celebrated encyclopedia on nature, Natural History.[3] It further report that he was born in the 23 AD and died on August 24, 79AD. It is acknowledged that the author’s work served as an authority to all scientific controversies  and matters  until the Middle Ages, when further discoveries were made, posing some challenges to the works contained in Pliny’s work.  Pliny, therefore, command’s academic authority ion scientific issues, and is considered among the pioneer scientists and naturalists.[4]  Outside his scientific works, he also held politically sensitive political positions in the Roman Empire, by serving as an army commander to the Roman army. It is perhaps, because of his political connectedness that his work survived mutilation, with Natural History being considered as one of the largest works of medieval literatures that survived the destruction of the Roman Empire and remains available to date.

Pliny’s scholarly works were not limited to nature as it is understood today. Rather, his work tended to cover what he considered to be falling within the scope of natural world, or the scope of nature, which some analysts have argued to be more expansive as to capture all ancient knowledge. However, his analysis of Lapis lazuli falls within the study of nature, as Lapis lazuli is a naturally occurring stone and therefore a product of nature.[5] His ability to link Lapis lazuli with other aspects of nature, and to show its value within his contemporaries is a clear manifestation of his engagement with the  topic, and refforts  to enable the readers understand the complexity of the stone. He even strives to make Lapis lazuli’s attribute to be outstanding by linking its sparkling colors to starts (product of nature) and gold (also a product of natures).


As a reputable scholar of his temporaries, a scientist focusing on nature and an astute researcher, Pliny’s work on natural topics  would certainly command significant amount of credibility.  High degree of reliability in his work, particularly the  Natural History,  in which Lapis luzuli is covered is reflected in the overwhelming stability enjoyed by the book for centuries after the book had been published. Among key issues in assessing the credibility of scholarly information is the credibility of the author, and as such where the work is published by an author of repute, such as Pliny’s work on nature, then the author’s work commands significant amount of credibility. The only way to challenge this would be to use an inconsistent finding of another authority, provided the other authority establishes the fact objectively. An alternative approach would be to explore methodological, factual or procedural flaws in the arguments and conclusions drawn.

Lapis has been accompanying people for the whole civilization history and has always been considered a sacred stone. Over a long historical period In the Mediterranean, it had not been made any distinction between Lapis and Sapphire (under the name of which all the blue stones were known). The final separation occurred in the middle of the XVIII century. A lot of geologists consider that in the Bible Pliny the Elder and Theophrastus named Sapphire  having in mind Lapis lazuli. It was one of the most beloved and highly valued gems in ancient civilizations. Excavations of early civilizations demonstrate that Lapis lazuli beads with cornelian were rather common female ornaments of royal personages and nobles.  Russia Lapis lazuli (also known as Lazurite) is called “azure stone.” Beautiful blue color of the gem is due to the presence of sulfide and sulfate ion-radicals. Lapis lazuli, as presented, hardly brings out notable inconsistencies in the author’s presentation and description of the stone. It may be useful to compare this work with the other studies conducted in the recent past, centuries after more advancement in research and technology, to assess further the work.

            A number of scholars have attempted to review  the works of Pliny’s description of Lapis luzuli. Pliny is given a credit for a succinct description of the stone, especially on its physical attributes, which makes it come out clearly as a blue gemstone. [6] A major source of controversy, however, was Pliny’s choice of word in describing the stone. Hill, for instance, has argued that Pliny’s description of the stone as “Sapphire”)  was erroneous, because the dark blue color with gold –dust  is not sapphire as known today.  [7] Rather, the description refers to the Cyanus. Another weakness pointed out is that the gold-like stars, which is considered to be sprinkles of gold  was a wrong judgment, because this stone does not have gold components. Rather, the specs were elements of Sulfur found within the stone. Sulfur like gold, has a yellow color, and for this reason, might have been confused in the description of lapis luzuli. [8] This claim has been supported by research among the mineralogists, which point out that lapis lazuli  has no metallic components in it, and existence of any metal is just incidental.[9]


            One of the components of the natural world that he explores in Natural History is lapis lazuli, which he describes as a precious and beautiful stone.  However, his discussions on lapis lazuli has attracted significant attention and evaluation among other scholars, some appraising the accuracy of Pliny’s analysis, while others faulting him for a inaccurate technical description of  what  the rock actually is. This analysis has established a few inaccuracies concerning the chemical composition of the stone. However, Pliny may still earn credit, considering limited advancement in the understanding of elementary composition of minerals during the author’s lifetime.

List of References

Britannica..Pliny the Elder. Retrieved from

Lewis, P. R.; Jones, G. D. B. (1970). “Roman gold-mining in north-west Spain.” Journal of Roman Studies,60, 169–85

Pliny, Natural History XXXIII:154–751

Price, M. T. (2007), Decorative stone: the complete sourcebook. Thames & Hudson, London

[1] Pliny, Natural History XXXIII:154–751

[2] Pliny,168

[3] Britannica..Pliny the Elder.

[4] Ibid

[5] IBID

[6] Price, M. T. (2007), Decorative stone: the complete sourcebook. Thames & Hudson, London, p.119

[7] Ibid

[8] Lewis, P. R.; Jones, G. D. B. (1970). “Roman gold-mining in north-west Spain.” Journal of Roman Studies (The Journal of Roman Studies, Vol. 60) 60: 169

[9] Bowersox, G. W., and B. E. Chamberlin (1995), Gemstones of Afghanistan, Tucson, Arizona: Geoscience Press

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Prison System and the Society

The criminal justice system in any society is anchored on a belief that prison will punish offenders and correct them so that when they re-enter society after serving their terms, they will have been reformed. Therefore, locking them away and denying them certain rights and freedoms is thought to deter not only them but also other members of society from the commissioning of crimes. On this score, prison is, therefore, beneficial to society.

However, a growing mass of evidence suggests that prison is failing to reform inmates and keep crime rates down. The United Nations Office of Drugs and Crime (2006) reports that 62 percent of all prison inmates released in the United States are again rearrested within three years. Gaynes (2005) blames this situation on the fact that society is often ill-prepared to welcome released inmates through support structures such as job programs and counseling services. Therefore, they have to face a hard life that may force them into crime to make ends meet. On the other hand, exposure to violent criminals coupled with the psychological trauma of incarceration may harden the criminals. According to the United Nations Office of Drugs and Crime (2006), most of nonviolent offenders will not be nonviolent by the time they reenter society. This means that the safety of society, which was to improve as a result of prison is compromised more.

It is, therefore, clear that society cannot rely on prison walls alone to correct the inmates. Society should play an even greater role in reforming the inmates so that they can quit crime at the end of their prison terms. Gaynes (2005), believes that society should provide the assistance prisoners need to fit back into society. This support should be offered during and after incarceration. This assistance may involve visiting the inmates during their terms, offering counseling services, drug treatment, and training in job skills. These services are sometimes difficult for the authorities to avail at the prison. This may perhaps call for the criminal justice system to be more aligned towards community-based sanctions rather than incarcerations (Gaynes, 2005).The community will therefore play an active role in not only reforming, but also helping the criminals turn over a new leaf.


Gaynes, E. (2005). Reentry: Helping Former Prisoners Return to Communities. Baltimore: The

    Annie E. Casey Foundation.

United Nations Office of Drugs and Crime. (2006).Custodial and Non-Custodial

    Measures. Vienna: United Nations

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The history of cigarette smoking

Lung cancer is one of the deadliest diseases caused by excessive tobacco consumption. The government has responded to the rising levels of tobacco consumption by slapping a highly exploitative tax to both the tobacco farmer and the cigarette manufacturer.  The question that stems out of this line of thinking aims at establishing a relationship between the rate of cigarette smoking and cigarette tax. For this research, we shall hypothesize that the higher the rate of cigarette taxation, the lower the smoking rates in the United States of America. The reasoning that leads to the development of this hypothesis is in accordance to the law of demand that states that, the higher the price of commodities the lower the consumption levels. Higher taxation levels are expected to increase the prices of the respective commodities. Some of the issues expected to shed some light on this topic include the impact of tobacco taxes and prices on the demand levels of cigarettes. This will be possible to access by determining a possible correlation between the two variables. Secondly, we shall use a measure of the proportion of individual income spent on the purchase of cigarettes. Previous studies have shown that a change in price leads to less than proportionate decline in the level of demand hence, the price elasticity of demand stands from -0.3 to -0,5. In this research, we shall determine the relationship between price and the level of cigarette demand.


Ramsey’s rule holds that consumption taxes should be applied to goods with low price elasticity. The major reason for this is to allow for the minimization of the welfare losses associated with the taxation of such goods. In the recent past, many countries have moved to increase tobacco taxes to reduce the levels of tobacco consumption. A good example is the United States, where the welfare loss associated with tobacco far much outweighs the benefits that are associated with it. The agenda of the increased costs is that tobacco users should bear the full costs associated with tobacco consumption. However, they assume that the social costs arising can be quantified in monetary terms and their equivalents determined. A major topic that relates heavily to this topic is tobacco tax as part of public health policy. This is supported strongly by the externality costs that come with tobacco use. However, this research aims at establishing the impacts of taxes on tobacco.

The history of cigarette smoking

In the United States, one can say that the tobacco tax is much older than tobacco smoking. This is in light that tobacco law was developed from developing tobacco products such as snuff in the late 18th century. It was not until the mid-19th century that cigarette smoking became popular among citizens. Alexander Hamilton introduced the first tobacco law in 1794 as the secretary to the treasury. The introduction of this law on tobacco products was successful as many amendments. It was composed of major modifications that were repealed after it was realized that they had minimal impact on the federal budget. Despite the failure of this law, Hamilton’s idea of tobacco taxation remained a major topic and subject to the history of tobacco taxation in the United States.

Almost a decade later, the House of Representatives passed a major law on many similar products, among them tobacco. The passing of this law was aimed at raising funds that would be used in debt servicing after the union had acquired increasing debts over time. The law, passed on July 1, 1862, could not last as a whole. Shortly after the civil war financing was over, most of the substances that had been passed alongside tobacco were repealed but incidentally, tobacco remained one of the substances that had to be regulated by the law. The tax revenues emanating from tobacco taxation were the government’s main source of revenue in the year 1868.

The federal government was the only entity that had imposed an exercise tax on tobacco until the 20th century when Iowa became the first state to enact a law to exercise tobacco tax. This new tax was in addition to the federal tax making the taxation of tobacco gain significant weight on the producers. By 1950, about 40 states had enacted legislation to levy taxes on tobacco. The entire United States and Columbia district had enacted tobacco tax by 1969. Several other cities had also put in place their citywide cigarette tax that aimed at collecting tax for the jurisdictions. Among these cities, we have New York and Chicago, among others. New York had the highest levels of the tobacco tax in the entire United States, with a $1.5 levy on the city tax and $4.55 rate on the state and local levels. The state of Missouri had the least tobacco taxes listing 17 cents, far below the list of many other countries. 

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Post Colonial Criticism Of My Name Is Red

Post Colonial Criticism Of My Name Is Red

0.1 Introduction

            The extent of discovery of the imperial and colonial topos, of the imagined space temperament is dissimilar in the works of different transcultural authors. The works of the transcultural writers negates the corporation of milieu, ethnic culture and time as the fundamental foundation of poetological mechanism typical for validity discourses. The way out of impasse of permanent passage has been looked for, both in the tales by postmodernists passageway. Post-colonial theory is a term of collection of critical and theoretical polices employed to investigate the culture of former European empires, colonies and their links to the rest of the world. While postcolonial theory embraces no particular technique or school, the theories question the salutary impacts of the empire and raises exploitation and racism issues. Key among all, is the stance of the post-colonial or colonial subject. In this regard, post-colonial criticism provides a counter-narrative to the long practice of European imperial narratives.  This paper provides criticism of the novel; My Name is Red, by Pamuk, and places it in the context of post-colonial theory.  The paper also highlights an intellectual discourse that contains reactions to colonialism cultural legacy. The views and theory of Edward-Said will be highlighted as he is a leading intellectual figure in the 20th Century, and presents a fruitful cultural critique of the modern Western World.

            Literary criticism practiced in the modern world comes in four different forms. One of these forms is the practical criticism found in reviewing of books and literary journalism. The second one is academic literary history, which is a descendant of 19th Century specialties as classical, philology, cultural history and scholarship. The third form of literary criticism is primarily academic, but not confined to regularly appearing writes or professionals. The last form of literary theory is the post-colonial theory. In the contemporary world, all literature, art and culture belong to definite classes directed to clear-cut political lines. Art and literature form part of blue-collar revolutionary cause. Orhan Pamuk method of utilizing cultural history in the reformulation of the contemporary literature defines a politics of form. Therefore, My Name is Red writes against the prominent secular discourse of the Ottoman legacy as pre-modern and post-modern. Pamuk tries to recoup an early modern Ottoman Cosmopolitanism, which is cast as a blank space in the course of the obfuscating strategies of the Cultural Revolution through modern creation of secular modern. As a result, Pamuk’s regeneration of sequence of events through Ottoman documentation becomes the foundation for change in literary modernity and a political assessment of secular modernity.

  1. Orhan Pamuk

            Orhan Pamuk, a Turkish novelist, an academic and a screenwriter, was born on June 7, 1952 in Stanbul. Pamuk is one of the highest-flying novelists in Turkey. This is because he sold over 11 million novels in six different languages, an aspect that made him the best seller in Turkey. He grew up in a huge family living in the rich district of Nisantasi. Pamuk devoted his childhood and teenage life in painting and he one time dreamt of becoming an artiste. He studied in the secular American Robert College after which he joined Istanbul Technical University to study architecture for three years. He did not complete his architecture course as he dumped it and joined Istanbul University where he studied Journalism. 

            When he turned twenty-three years, Pamuk chose to become a novelist and he gave up everything else to do writing. He wrote his earliest novel, Cevdet Bey and His Sons, published in 1982. His first novel talks of a tale of 3 generations of a rich Istanbul family that lives in Nisantasi, his home district. The novel received both the Milliyet and Orhan Kemal literary prizes. Other works following his first novel include, The Silent House, translated in French and published in 1983. Just like his initial nover, The Silent House, also won a prize. His other works include the 1985 White Castle,  the 1990 Black Book,  the film, the Hidden Face,  the 1995 Yeni Hayat, the 1999 Öteki Renkler, and the 1998,My Name is Red

0.2 Summary of My Name Is Red

            My Name is Red (Benim Adım Kırmızı) was originally published 1998 and the initial translation was done in 2001. The book starts with an exceptional establishment through which Orhan Pamuk highlights the motivation that led him to write the novel, the autobiographical components, its literary impacts and the reason why the story is narrated in scores of voices, and from divergent perspectives. The author included an expansive record of his life and a literary context. At the end of the book, he presents an expanded chronological account that juxtaposes history, art, historical events and literature. Pamuk inscribes every chapter of novel in the person’s presented voice. For instance, chapter 1 is written in the voice of the dead Elegant Effendi.  The seven characters whose voices tell the story encompass, a corpse, other storytellers include a dog, a gold coin, color red, death and a miniature symbol of a horse. Apart from murder, behavioral taboos and art, the Pamuk highlight love and lust

            My Name is Red is a historical work of fiction set in Istanbul in the course of Sultan Murat III reign (1574-95).  The book explores the conflicts of identity and cultural memory prompted by Westernization. The novel highlights romance, philosophical puzzles and mystery experienced in sixteenth Century in Istanbul.  It also highlights the providence of illuminators and miniaturists whose artistic works started in the course of the Timurid Dynasty between 1370 and 1526. Pamuk translated the book in twenty- four languages, and it won the most profitable literary award, the International Dublin Literary Award, in 2003. The novel highlights Ottoman Sultan Murat III’s reign in 1591. 

            The book entails a wonderful exploration of the culture of Islam. It invites readers to tension amid West and East from an anxiously critical approach. My Name is Red hold an appended chronology and contains more that 400 hundred pages. Through the novel, Pamuk highlights the constructive capacity and patience of the 19th century fabricators. The book contains 59 chapters narrated from a twelve different perspectives entailing that of the killer. The two slain actors address the reader from the next world, and the reader even get treated at the final part of the highest chapter to the attitude of a cut off head whose brain and eyes persistently function in a miserable fashion. The reader takes part with revulsion, through the need that the highest Persian miniatures master, Heart, shaded himself with.

            The story occurs at the miniature’s paintings demise cusp. It opens with killing of elegant Effendi, “”I am nothing but a corpse now, a body at the bottom of a well…I was happy; I know now that I’d been happy. I made the best illuminations in Our Sultan’s workshop….” (Pamuk 5).  A colleague in the art world kills Elegant. Elegant and 3 other miniaturists were secretly working on a book that was initiated by Murat III.  In the novel, both blasphemous and radical, were to entail Sultan’s portrait.

            Pamuk creatively weaves a story of art, mystery, murder and love via manifold storyline character voices. The story is set in Ottoman Empire situated in Istanbul in the course of 1500s. The tale develops through the killing of a miniaturist, Elegant Effendi.  Enishte Effendi specially made Elegant to assist him paint a document highlighting Sultan’s reign. While the master visual artist searches for the murderer of Elegant, a story of romance opens up. Enishte Effendi’s nephew arrives from abroad and he instantaneously resumes his love for Shekure, his cousin. She, nevertheless, had already been married and separated with two children, and his husband left for war. Enishte Effendi’s nephew used a letter carrier named Esther to assist him win the love of Shekure via romantic propositions and words. In the meantime, Black Effendi helped his uncle to explore who killed Elegant besides helping him complete the document in absence of Elegant. 

            Black visits the places of the three miniaturists employed by Osman and who had been assisting Enishte Effendi with the text of Sultans. The three miniaturists who were assisting Enishte Effendi were nicknamed Olive, Stork and Butterfly. They divulged tales to Enishte’s nephew that outlined the tension amid the conventional artistic method of flat, mimetic representation and the novel Venetian approach of difference and dimension. The most questionable aspect included the conflict amid the novel and old, East and West conflict and the personal approach. While Black tries to disclose any top secret that, the three miniaturists have, he attempts to Pursue Shekure. Nevertheless, Shekure realizes that she needs to protect her stance and get hold of the best status for her sons and herself. Her husband’s parents are indisposed to release her and Hassan, her brother-in-law too does not want her to go. While Shekure wants to stay in her in-laws home, she eventually gives in to Black’s proceeds and creates a plan to split-up with her husband. 

            Eventually, Shekure and Black Effendi get married in quick wedding ceremony. As the story unfolds, Enishte Effendi almost finds out who killed Elegant before a person who pays him a visit in his home is kills. Following the murder of Enishte Effendi, Sultan calls for a detailed investigation and he threatens to torture the miniaturists if the killer never surfaces. In an astonishing turn of occurrences, the killer is disclosed, an aspect that questions the temperament of inventive style and its links to the celestial.

Chapter 1

1.0 Literature Review

            According to Bugeja, an author, my Name is Red brings in a discrete Mashridi cultural and historical milieu to establish itself to a European readership from when the records of Tabriz and Isfahab are alien or esosteric (Bugeja 195). Pamuk Memoir Istanbul serves a different purpose. He actively prioritizes the cultural schemata that would bring on his European readerships’ natural and immediate identification with the subject matter of his personal memories. Orhan attains this description via a comprehensive and historicized analysis of Meling’s lithographs of the metropolis, and Gautier’s and Flaubert’s highly intimate incidents of Istanbul that would be familiar to his German, Austrian and French reader. 

            In his novel, Pamuk does not exocitize the city but he represents it as a space that is always already confidentially present within the European reader’s gear of culture. His memoir looks for a very highly interactive and direct engagement with the readers as himself is a kind of flaneur investigating the memoirist’s own cultural landscape. Pamuk secures the sufficient transference of his vision, and as a result, through playing upon the reader’s cultural preconditioning, situating the space he focuses on across the paths of European literary-cultural canonicity (Bugeja 195). By situating himself in the propinquity to Flaubert and Gautier, Orhan self-consciously attempts to rise above the cultural politics engaged in locating the origin of Istanbul’s modernity. He identifies himself with Harold Bloom’s idea that political positions hold little effect in the distinctively intimate family romance of the major writers influenced by one another without putting into consideration political differences and similarities. Pamuk used chronicle form as a link to some kind of Western canonicity. By using chronicle form, he fraught question that warrants comprehensive study, particularly in view of the chronicle as a distinctly writing medium. Through this medium, he admits to a particular Blanchot-esque rhetoricity regarding the temperament of literary relations and literature (Bugeja 195). 

1.1 Postcolonial Theory                                                               

            Post-colonial theory refers to a post-modern rational discourse that encompasses the response to colonialism cultural legacy as well as the evaluation of the colonialism cultural legacy. Post colonialism holds different theories present among film, human geography, feminism, sociology, political science, philosophy, and literature, theological and religious studies (Ashcroft 89). Post-colonialism aims at preventing lasting  impacts of colonialism on different cultures. It functions to recoup past worlds and entails the strategies needed for the world to move past the effects of colonialism and attain mutual respect.

             Edward W.Said is among the most prominent intellectual figures of the twentieth Century.  Post-colonial theory grew in essence, from the work of the colonial discourse theorist Edward Said, specifically in his books Orientalism, Culture and Imperialism. Edward Said evaluated the means in which Europe represented scores of the cultures in the 19th Century, which the continent met via imperil expansion. Said asserted that the Western World offered these other cultures as an “Other” to a Western custom. For instance, scholars and travelers represented these other cultures as the divergent British culture and as a negatively divergent culture. According to Said, other people apart from the British got identified as degenerate, lazy, uncivilized and barbaric. 

            Post-colonial theory has grown in the last 10 years by both building on Said’s work and responding to some of its globalizing tendencies. Post-colonial theory is concerned with theorizing and analyzing the lasting effect of the 19th Century European colonialism in countries such Africa and India which were under colonial rule and countries such as France and Britain which were the colonies. Post-colonial theorists maintain that there were assortments of dissimilar imperial and colonial links during the nineteenth Century, which hold serious effect on the manner in which different cultures viewed themselves. As a result, the present-day-legacy of imperialism is the basic focus of post-colonial theory. While post-colonial theory covers broad theoretical concerns, it greatly focuses not only on analysis of political and economic structures, but also on the evaluation of the growth of certain structures of behavior and mode of thinking.

1.2 Edward W. Said and His Theory

1.2.1 Edward W. Said and His “Culture and Imperialism” 

            Edward Said, a political commentator, a cultural and literary theorist illustrated the usual paradoxical temperament of identity in a considerable globalised and itinerant world. Said is a person placed in a tangle of theoretical and cultural contradictions; contradictions amid political concern of his Palestinian and Westernized persona. The close link between identity of Said and his cultural theories demonstrates something regarding the convolution and constructedness of intellectual identity. Edward Said (1935-2003) is one of the widely recognized and controversial intellectuals in the world. He was a breed of academic critic who also took the role of vocal public intellectual who placed the plight of Palestine before a world audience. His effect on developing school of post-colonial studies made it to be soundly vindicated as the cultural and political functions of literary writing that has been re-confirmed.

            Edward Said was a Palestinian and an Arab of cultural identity itself. He was also a Christian Palestinian, certainly making him an intellectual who was the most important critic of the modern Western demonization of Islam. The paradox of Said’s identity is the most theoretical aspect of his own worldliness, an aspect that offers a key to the convictions and interests of his cultural theory. Edward Said believed that in the beginning all theoretical and cultural movements held scores of starting points as opposed to a single origin. His orientalism is closely awarded the condition of an influential text. According to Said, the Western world formed an Orient as an aspect of investigation via divergent disciplinary, administrative and cognitive practice.

            Cultural imperialism refers to the cultural features of imperialism. Imperialism on the other hand, refers to the maintenance and formation of unequal links among civilizations supporting the strongest civilization. Imperialism is utilized in an uncomplimentary sense usually calling for rejection of favoring strong civilization. Cultural imperialism take different forms among them military action, a formal strategy to strengthen cultural supremacy. Edward Said highlights cultural imperialism in his Orientalism book where he evaluates enlightenment. In his Orientalism book, Edwards evaluates Western acquaintance concerning Western formation of the East. The acquaintance prompts an affinity concerning a binary rejection of the Occident verses the Orient where description of one is in rejection of the other. According to Said, imperialism holds a cultural birthright in earlier colonized civilizations. Moreover, he ascertains that cultural imperialism legacy is very dominant in worldwide power systems. Cultural imperialism in the modern world refers to the compelled acculturation of a given population or intentional embracement of a certain foreign culture by people without compulsion but out free will.

            Edward Said asserts that culture and imperialism starts from the understanding that institutional, economic and political functions of imperialism are nothing in the absence of the culture that upholds them (Ashcroft & Ahluwalia 82). Culture and imperialism centers on how strong an ideology functions, both unconsciously and consciously, to create and uphold a domination system that rises above military force. Through considering tales of colonized countries written or told by Westerners, Edward assesses the images, symbols and language to demonstrate how their influential as opposed to communicative nature functioned to model the imagination, identity, history, subjectivities, interactions and culture of the oppressed and the oppressor. 

            Edward contends that oppression have modeled how the Western world unenthusiastically conceptualized other nations. From the growth of empire and worldwide strive for homegrown freedom, Edward credibly discloses the separatist temperament of nationalism besides trying to elucidate the prospects of the worldwide community. The insights, outlook and critique in culture and imperialism are evident in America and other powerful nations where Western cultural values and nationalism are woven into the opinionated expression and public edification where conventional learners are instructed on how to celebrate the distinctiveness of the culture while taking advantage of minority culture. According to Said, cultural imperialism shows that the Western countries control all aspects of the world, an aspect that makes these nations hold a strong effect on the 3rd World cultures through enforcing their Western views thereby damaging the native cultures of the third world countries.

            Edward questions the construction, adherence and acceptance of beliefs and ideologies. Colonialism and imperialism are intrinsically bound up through philosophical and ideological concepts regarding moral and cultural superiority (Said 184). Said confirms that it is deceiving to pay no attention to the more basic beliefs that makes a cultural group or a nation feel defensible in taking over other groups, culture or people. Said centers on the participation of culture and the way of describing people, their customs and the spread of their beliefs and values. His concepts regarding an invented or imagined practice are impressive. He utilizes a proportional literary theory as a device for evaluation. He further ascertains that people are not liberated from thrash about geography (Said 183).  The struggle remains to be intricate and attention grabbing as it regards forms, imaginings, images and ideas. According to Said, geography is a subjective political boundary and must entail cartography of ideas to discovery blueprints that instigated the minds of colonizing and occupied imagination territories. As occupation blueprints deepen because of the current abundance of the mass media, it becomes natural for a given culture to fight to protect its particularity.

            The term cultural imperialism does not hold a particularly long history. It appears to have surfaced along with scores of other terms of radical criticism in early 1960s (Said 183). It has endured to become a part of the general rational prevalence of the second half of the 20th Century. Cultural imperialism is a generic ideal and refers to an assortment of generally similar phenomena. According to Tomlinson, a writer, cultural imperialism is one, which should be assembled out of its discourse (Tomlinson 3). The role of culture in maintaining imperialism cannot be overestimated because it is through culture that the statement of the divine right of colonial powers to rule is authoritatively and vigorously recognized. The struggle of domination is hidden and systematic, and there is an interminable interaction amid nations, regions, classes and power centers looking to dominate and displace one another. However, what makes the struggle more than a random tight battle is that values’ struggle is entailed. What tells the differences between the contemporary European empires from the Spanish or Roman or Arab with reference to said, is the constant reinvestment of their systematic enterprises. They do not go into a nation, loot it and leave. What maintains them is the lack of a simple greed nut Post Colonial Criticism

Chapter 2: Culture

2.1: Religious

            The development of postcolonial theory mostly informs Post colonialism in relation to the study of religion. Postcolonial theory is diverse in its content and methodological approach. The basis of the vast content is availability of a wide range of literary works that primarily attempt to dissect post colonialism in connection to the study of religion. Scholars have further initiated different methods or methodological approaches to enhance understanding of the effect of religion in the postcolonial era (Bloom & Sheila 2009). Religion played a critical part by bringing together individuals from different socio, economic, and cultural backgrounds. The major concern among religious leaders and believers is identification of the colonialist construction of knowledge that Edward Said commonly referred to as orientalism. The body of knowledge used by the colonialists was critical in justifying and maintaining the subordination of colonized groups. Despite the growth of religious beliefs and doctrines across all religious denominations and groups, a number of practices of the postcolonial era featured prominently with many people supporting and shunning religious doctrines and values in equal measure (Bloom & Sheila 2009). 

            The postcolonial theory has categorically challenged the colonialist assumptions of regarding religion as rooted in Judeo-Christian. This has given rise to new understanding of religious responses to the Empire. Most postcolonial theorists have evaluated the effect of these formulations as far as religious ideologies and institutions are concerned. Categories such as religion and sacred have particularly been of great concern including the process of identifying responses of the colonial rule in the form of nationalism. Of a greater challenge has a largely been the democratic society because different restrictions or boundaries that previously governed religion in the post colonialism (Bloom & Sheila 2009). Democratic societies tend to allow religious groups and denominations to exercise their rights fully even when some of their newfound practices go against the ethics and moral benchmarks of the society. In particular, many theorists are greatly concerned about the impending repercussions when societies fully exercise their democratic rights. Such developments amid process to make the society and religious institutions become more liberal and dynamic, justify why religious freedom is far from reality. Post colonialism is essentially a period that comes after the end of colonialism. To understand the events and challenges that ensued during this period, it is important that theorists acknowledge the fact that it marked the end of one era before ushering in a different era or period (Bloom & Sheila 2009). 

            The end of particular period and the process of ushering in another might be a difficult development, which in many cases could go beyond logical grasp. However, the process of segregating societies using their religious, cultural, or even political entities has overshadowed the postcolonial epoch. However, the ultimate goal of post colonialism, which is to combat the residual effects of colonialism on cultures, has never changed. Similarly, religious groups have braved the controversies surrounding their doctrine and stood firm in their quest to accomplish social and religious tranquility. Different societies have no option but to embrace the emerging trends that characterized religious groups in the wake of post colonialism. As part of societal cultures, religion plays important part to ensure cohesion and harmony among diverse communities and groups. This, religion would seek to achieve, despite a clear ideological, cultural, and political differences between societies. All religious groups and denominations have made commendable steps toward realizing their fundamental ambitions and goals to bring people from diverse backgrounds together. During the transition period from the colonial era to liberal and democratic age, different societies have experienced assorted challenges. Such challenges emanate because of either internal or external factors. Religions have the mandate to protect their reputation as well as reputation of the believers. Hence, most of these religious groups would avoid sideshows at all cost (Sheila 2006).                                       

2. 1 Culture of Religion

            According to Kalman, culture is the way people live. He further asserts that culture refers to the arts and expressions of people’s commonsensical accomplishments viewed collectively (Kalman 4). Culture is the traits of a given group of individuals, described by language, arts, music, cuisine, religion and social habits and conceptualized in terms of understandings and meanings. It is the means of life of a given group of individuals or a society and it entails blueprints of beliefs, thoughts, customs, rituals, traditions, language, behaviors literature, music and art. It is the shared blueprints of feeling, adaptation and beliefs, which individuals carry in their brainpower. It is a well thought-out group of habits, concepts conditioned reaction shared by different people in a given society. Religion just like culture contains systematic values, behaviors, beliefs attained by individuals as member of certain society. The blueprints are systematic given that their expressions are habitual in expression and occurrences shared by a group’s member. However, within all religions, there lacks homogeneity and as result, there are disparities of meanings and principals interpretations. From an anthropological approach, religion refers to beliefs systems in supernatural forces where rituals and symbols make life evocative.

2.1.1 Culture of Religion

            Religious people can be cosmopolitan in the casual sense of term and in the more robust ethical view that they are devoted in enhancing dignity, human rights and emancipatory politics past their faith communities. In this regard, cosmopolitan who refers to being familiar and at ease with divergent cultures and religion are compatible. International celebrities, the precepts of a given religion and the ever-rising transnational faith communities are principal vector of engagement with the world beyond their nations. However, cosmopolitanisms countersigned by certain faiths are complete ways of supporting for a religion’s putative universality as opposed to an endeavor to support substantive involvement with religious disparities.

             Christianity can logically affirm that it has been a broad-based faith since the reign of Apostle Paul and his preaching to non-Jews about Christian universalism. Apostle Paul in his preaching claimed that their people were no longer female and male, free or slaves but were one body in Christ Jesus (Neuman 144). According to Neuman, Appiah, an author, identifies radical globalized religious movements as definitive paradigms of counter-cosmopolitanism. Appiah used counter-cosmopolitanism to denote both technophilic and transnational temperament of radical globalized religious movements, and to stress their adherence to universal truth visions that antithetical to robust pluralism he celebrates (Neuman 144). 

            With respect to Pamuk’s novel, the most significant limits of the contemporary world system are not political or territorial but religious. Any cosmopolitanism area must provide a model of universalism and inclusivity that both reckons and recognizes with the substantive disparities that isolate different secular and religious experience. Religion is mechanism of representations, which introduce pervasive, powerful and enduring motivations in human beings through formulation of ideas of a common order of existence. Symbols can be objects, pictures, events, actions, relationships or any other thing that conveys meanings to people. Religious representations conduct a different function and they influence human beings that there is a straight link amid their ethos and their worldview. Religious symbols inform people regarding their ways of life and how to live in a particular way given that the world is one of the certain ways.. 

            Pamuk reflects the tension between the profane and the sacred in the illusion to two texts that are identified as being beyond depiction, that is the sacred word from Quran and the secular text of the novel. The literary text is therefore conflated with a consecrated one. To strengthen the creative aspect of the secular-centered form, Orhan delineates an absent text (the secret book commissioned by Sultan) in the plot that in turn becomes the drive of the formal experimentation. My Name is Red entwines modern and pre-modern, sacred and secular, and text and image. Pamuk conceives the absent text as a narrative space with potential change in literary modernity that is both structural aspect and plot element of the novel. Pamuk challenges the republican assurance that Ottoman is merely a signifier for the pre-modern through revising the criticized Ottoman cultural perspective as being an early modern cosmopolitan one. 

            In the novel, My Name is Red, Pamuk depicts Islam as a culture, but foreign to the novel. However the novel while depicting Islamic culture is a background and an entertaining collection of fragments. The novel is the greatest invention of the Western culture. However, the author goes further to examine the known Islamic distrust of the European liberal arts. This is evidenced by the first objections of Italian portrait painters by Ottoman. According to Almond, Islam often view Pamuk’s work as the antithesis of innovative self-expression (Almond 127).My Name is Red is narrated against the milieu of historical and cultural Islam

2.2 Culture of Arts

            Art is linked to all aspects of human life. Art is something that human beings do in numerous and great ways for great reasons. The more one learns regarding a background of any piece of art, the more it appears linked to the entire meaning of life of people who formed and utilized it. This makes artwork more interesting, alive and more pleasing. The study of art as an anthropological study requires considering art as a factor of culture and using the theories and techniques that anthropologists use to study other aspects of culture. Culture in the anthropological sense means more than the arts. People understand cultures as the sum of all shared and learned behavior of people, how they make their living, produce things, utilize language and other symbolic forms and organize their societies. 

            Culture is the characteristically human means of survival. Every society holds a more or less consistent way of life otherwise known as culture. Art historians and anthropologists are currently going into the field to understand how artists form art and utilize it in different cultures. These people come back with records of the arts thereby enriching the comprehension of people through published works and other types of exhibits. From this perspective, artists make art and utilize it in social situations where some of these situations are exciting and lively. There are close links between forms of art and almost all other factors of human life.

            In the novel My Name Is Red, the Ottoman cultural chronicles is a foundation of literary reimagination that becomes commentary on the modern world. To stress on this synchronic aspect, the novel by Pamuk uses two narrative devices. In one of these devices, Pamuk makes his 16th Century characters conscious of the present-day-read or observer while, on the other hand, he situates modern autobiographical component into the historical novel. For instance, the self-description of Shekure, named after Pamuk real mother, early in the book, “ with one eye on the life within the book and one eye on the life outside, I, too, long to speak with you who are observing me from who knows which distant time and place” (Pamuk 43). The story is told by numerous first-person narrators who are conscious of themselves as well as the observer or the reader. The literary inversion of modern and pre-modern period offers a synchronic impact that confirms the revaluation of secular values.

            Pamuk’s literary reimaging of the Ottoman legacy is founded on the novels set in the premature modern cosmopolitan Istanbul contexts that highlight the procedure of textual production. The types of cultural history emanating from the Ottoman archive become a commentary on the foundation of reconfiguring literary modernity and assessing of the secular modern. In the novel, My Name is Red; Orhan novelization of miniature elucidation changes this pictorial medium into an intertextual model of literary form. The novel form  its roots on combined genres that include mystic romance, autobiography, murder-mystery, allegories of the contemporary Middle Eastern nation-state, Quaranic-style parables and philosophy of Islamic image and text. The conflation of image and text runs in the novel where subject matters such as time, style and signature reappear as the representational perspective fluctuates amid the profane first-person and the sacred omniscience of the divine

            . Chapter 3: Historical Chronology

            The chronology covers places and events that were either significant in the history of Islamic art or in the legends and folktales. The Islamic art describes the art created specifically in the service of the Muslim faith and also the art and architecture historically produced in the lands ruled by the Muslims. Apart from Muslims themselves producing the Islamic art, selected Muslim artists also contributed to manufacturing such arts mainly produced by Muslim patrons. The goal of post-colonial theorists is to clear space for multiple voices. Dominant ideologies had previously silenced the multiple voices. The theorists intended to give every individual, scholars and non-scholars, the opportunity a place and opportunity to air their voice without discrimination. The changing trends that characterize societies especially the cultural and social beliefs and values have overshadowed such efforts. A section of the humanity believes they are better off and at an advantage than others are (Sheila 2006).

            Despite the glaring challenges, postcolonial theorists are determined to clear the air to allow every person equal chance to participate irrespective of the sexual orientation, political views, or cultural backgrounds. They attempt to clear the previously silenced voices within the field of academia. The book Orientalism by Edward Said provides a clear and comprehensible picture of the techniques or ways social scientists employ to stem their disregard of those they actually study. Instead, they rely largely on the intellectual superiority of themselves and their peers. Although many scholars are of the opinion that Orientalists disparage views and ideas of those they actually study, the tendency to rely on their own intellectual property as well as those of their peers illustrate their capacity to deliver detailed and comprehensible materials (Sheila 2006).

            The Islamic Art is not only a religion but also a way of life. Islamic religion and art brings together Muslims from different parts of the universe that acknowledge and appreciate their religion. Islamic art characterize a range of activities mainly bin the building of mosques and important monuments associated with Islam. Apparently, the cost of making these artifacts would depend on the materials used and the purpose of the art. The religion fostered the development of distinctive culture considering its unique artistic language that features in the art as well as architecture throughout the Muslim world. The lands that Muslims had newly conquered had their own pre-existing artistic traditions. Apparently, artists who worked under Sasanian or Byzantine patronage continued to work in their own indigenous styles. However, they worked mainly satisfy the needs of Muslim patrons. The first Islamic art would rely on the earlier techniques, styles, and forms that reflects the blending of Iranian and classical decorative themes and motifs. The most expensive pieces of art mainly decorated to suit the interests of Muslim leaders (Sheila 2006). 

            Religious monuments erected under the Umayyad patronage had clearly defined meaning as well as functions. The Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem shows the amalgam of Byzantine, Sasanian, and Greco-Roman elements. These symbols and artistic materials attempt to demonstrate the fundamental doctrines and beliefs of Muslims. Despite the raging debate as to whether the arts are universally applicable, it is clear that Islamic art have a lot of semblance around the world. The Domes of the Rock of Jerusalem have characteristics that indicate majority of similarities and limited differences. Islamic architecture has gained popularity in the recent past with many temples also exhibiting the design. The Islamic art mainly emerged from Muslim faith and nascent Islamic state. The rampant spread of Islamic culture and beliefs across the globe has been the main reason, which has led to the increase in the number of architectural buildings that exhibit Islamic art. Modern temples and mosques are awash with the ancient art of Muslims. In addition, a number of buildings that believers of Islamic religion have constructed have immensely borrowed ideas of Muslim art. In essence, the dome has features prominently in most of the modern buildings (Bloom, p. 12). 

            Many scholars considers Umayyad caliphate (661-750) as one of the most formative periods of Islamic art. Despite the challenges that Muslim countries have faced in the past few decades, it is clear that most of the art and architectural designs used in the modern constructions have immensely borrowed their ideas from the ancient practices. The art gives the building an attractive and striking appearance that distinguishes it from the rest of constructions. Different scholars and theorists of the postcolonial era attest to the rampant increase in application of Muslim art in different places across the globe. However, the escalating cases of violence and civil wars pitting Muslim countries mainly in the Middle East have greatly hampered the growth of the architectural designs in countries within the Asian continent and beyond. Classification of Muslim art is also an essential aspect that theorists seek to focus. The class to which given art fall under would primarily depend on factors such as the origin, duration of existence, purpose, or even popularity. Societies have varied opinions about application and relevance of particular form of art. Another method that is widely applicable in the classification of Islamic art is according to dynasty that reigned by the time that particular piece of art was produced.  This kind of periodiozation always follows the general precepts of the Muslim history (Bloom, p. 12). Despite the several instances characterized by other unique classifications, Islamic Art has emerged to be one of the most outstanding and dependable form of culture and belief relevant to many societies around the world. The art has also characterized the building and success of a range of dynasties across the universe. Some of the outstanding dynasties include the Umayyad and Abbasid. The two dynasties governed an immense, enormous, and unified Islamic states worldwide. Majority of dynasties are found in the Middle East where the Islamic religion traces its origin before gaining ground in other states and countries worldwide. Some of the regional though equally powerful dynasties include Safavids, Mughals, and Ottomans. These dynasties have thrived in respective periods and areas of location due to the imminent reinforcement, architectural, and Islamic design in general. With the geographic spread and long history, Islamic art and architecture has been subject to a wide range of regional and national styles as well as influences within the various periods of its development (Bloom, p. 12).

Islamic Arts

Islamic art has been in existence for quite a while and the perception derived from the work of art in the Muslim society describes how much devotion there is in religion. The Islamic art reflects the cultural values that are in existence within the Islamic community. To express how much the Muslims view their spiritual realism art has been in practice for several decades. The history of Islamic arts dates back to around the seventh century when they started with the use of visual arts. At that time, there were people living in areas where inhabitants were under the rule of culturally Islamic individuals (Behrens, p. 26). The range in which the Islamic society extends happens on a rate that one can hardly define the art. 

Islamic arts cover wide ranges of land that are different personnel for more than one thousand four hundred years. Islamic art is evident in a diverse aspect in that there are buildings that have the Islamic architectural structure. These buildings design is majorly on the Islamic concept making them stand out from the rest of the building of the present day. Constructions from most ancient times tend to project the Islamic artistic features from the old days. Apart from architecture, other materials project the Islamic art such as textile. Clothing design by the use of Islamic art is something that prospers for quite a while (Bloom, p. 12). Most Muslims’ recognition is through there textile work which posses a unique work of art. Using the Islamic art in there textile is as a way to easily distinguish them from other individuals and embrace there cultural values. 

Calligraphies development has been an additional way in which the Islamic art promotion has been taking place in most Muslim societies. There are popular works of art precisely with the Islamic art concept like the panel by a famous artist in the late eighteenth century up to the early nineteenth century by the name Mustafa Rakim. Calligraphies have been commonly in use to print messages from the Quran and create decorations in buildings available in most Islamic communities (Behrens, p. 26). The origin of Islamic art is traceable from a number of sources such as the Romans as well as the Early Christian art. Additional areas that the Islamic art could have originated from include the influence by Sassanian.

The Islamic art is also popular through ceramics used commonly in house decorations such as tiles that have the designs developed through Islamic art. In the present day, there are houses that have tiles that portray the Islamic art and they are apparently becoming pricy. The advantages of having ceramics that have the Islamic art design are that they are applicable to people who are from various cultural backgrounds. There are carpets and rugs that are also promote the use of Islamic art and are marketable through a diverse global perspective. People have developed an irresistible attraction to these materials that have the Islamic art and with time, they are gaining popularity on different regions from around the world (Bloom, p. 12). Glasses are other pieces of material that have the influence of Islamic art and have been on demand. Application of Islamic art on material such as glass and metal has been in existence for several decades promoting the sales of glass materials. Metals have also proved a success in the application of Islamic art since it boosts the sales and demand.















Work Cited

Almond, Ian. The new Orientalists: Postmodern presentations of Islam from Foucault to  Baudrillard. New York: I.B.Tauris, Aug 15, 2007.

Ashcroft, Bill, Ahluwalia, Pal. Edward Said. London: Routledge, Oct 17, 2008.

Bugeja, N. (2012). Postcolonial memoir in the Middle East: Rethinking the luminal in Mashriqi   writing. New York: Routledge, Nov 27, 2012.

Kalman, Bobbie. (2009). What is culture?. New York: Crabtree Publishing Company.

Said, Edward Wadie. Power, politics and culture: Interviews with Edward W. Said. Texas:           Bloomsbury Publishing, Mar 1, 2005.

Tmlinson, John. Cultural imperialism: A critical introduction: New York: Continuum      International Publishing Group, 1991.



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How do you explain Nasser’s triumph in the 1956 Suez conflict compared to his devastating loss in the 1967 War?

Please read and follow the instructions carefully. Respond to each instruction on the page.

QUESTION: How do you explain Nasser’s triumph in the 1956 Suez conflict compared to his devastating loss in the 1967 War? Explain what had changed for Nasser to make the outcomes of each war so different. See the uploaded document for all instructions.

Comparison of the 1956 War to the 1967 War

Please read and follow the instructions carefully. Respond to each instruction on the page.

QUESTION: How do you explain Nasser’s triumph in the 1956 Suez conflict in contrast to his devastating loss in the 1967 War? Explain what had changed for Nasser to make the outcomes of each war so different.


· Write 600 words at least to answer this question. It should be posted as a “Word” file. Read over the directions for writing your essays on the first page of the syllabus to make sure you are clear about what is necessary to do well on this essay. Make sure to use footnotes and to add a “List of Sources” at the end of your essay. Use quotes where appropriate and cite the main arguments from each reading in your work. Make sure to respond to each part of the question.

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· List of Sources: Be sure to add a “List of Sources” at the end of your essay, listing all the sources you cite. Each article must be referenced in full. Consult the website of the Chicago Manual of Style to do this correctly. Make sure you cite internet sources correctly as well.

Your list of sources and subtitles does not count toward 600 words. Ensure to cite lesson materials in the essay and reference them on the List of sources to ensure an A. All other sources must be correctly cited in Chicago style.


Geoffrey Wawro, Quicksand: Chaps 7, 8, 9 pp. 229-328 [99 pages]

Bickerton & Klausner, A History of the Arab–Israeli Conflict. Chaps 6, 7, 8. [45 pages]

Bruce Riedel, Kings and Presidents: Saudi Arabia and the United States since FDR. pp. 27-56. [28]

Philip Weiss, “Jimmy Carter believed he lost a second term because he opposed settlements, alienating Jews — Eizenstat,” February 7, 2019.

Documentary: [90 minutes] Six days in June, by Ilan Ziv about the Israeli-Arab Six days war in 1967.

Geoffrey Wawro, Quicksand: Chap 5, 6 & 7, pp. 153-228. [75]

Bickerton & Klausner, A History of the Arab–Israeli Conflict. Chap. 5

“The Suez crisis of 50 years ago marked the end of an era, and the start of another, for Europe, America and the Middle East,” The Economist, July 27th 2006.

Watch this 57 minute BBC documentary about Suez –


Roland Nikles, “Why a false understanding of the ‘Six Day War’ still matters,” June 17, 2014 Mondoweiss Blog

Israel Palestinian Conflict: The Truth About the West Bank – by Danny Ayalon, Uploaded on Jul 19, 2011,

The REAL truth about Palestine in response to Danny Ayalon, Youtube video, Nov 6, 2013.

Miko Peled, “Six days in Israel,” June 6, 2012, LA Times.

Jeffrey Goldberg, “Did Israel Actually Lose the 1967 War?” November 18, 2011 in the New York Times.

Shay Fogelman,The Palestinian state of Ishmael, as envisioned by Rehavam Ze’evi,” 15.10.2010 in Haaretz, ff. 5.

“Myths & Facts Online – an Israeli viewpoint: The 1967 Six-Day War,” Jewish Virtual Library, By Mitchell G. Bard.

“The 1967 War and the Israeli Occupation,” a Palestinian viewpoint.,395.0.html

Raymond Close, “The Mideast linkage factor” 1973

Jerry Taylor and Peter Van Doren, “Time to Lay the 1973 Oil Embargo to Rest,” October 17, 2003.

Lizette Alvarez, “Britain Says U.S. Planned to Seize Oil in ’73 Crisis,” New York Times, January 2, 2004.

Jimmy Carter, “colonization of Palestine precludes peace,” Council on Foreign Relations, Friday, March 10, 2006.

William B. Quandt, “Reflections on Camp David at 40,” The Cairo Review of Global Affairs, Winter 2019. The 1978 agreement was more than anyone could have hoped for, yet it’s still costing us peace.

Documentary [6 minutes long]: The 1973 October/Yom Kippur War was a war fought by a coalition of Arab states led by Egypt and Syria against Israel. Report by: Kevork Almassian

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What do CARVER, CPTED, SVA, NIPP, and CIKR mean?

What do CARVER, CPTED, SVA, NIPP, and CIKR mean?

Based on the Read items thus far, you can see that acronyms abound.  What do CARVER, CPTED, SVA, NIPP, and CIKR mean?  Be sure to briefly discuss each.  Find at least 1 extra acronym you would like to share. Next, what is the purpose of a Security Vulnerability Analysis (SVA)? Explain how one (SVA) works.

What do CARVER, CPTED, SVA, NIPP, and CIKR mean?

The thread must be a minimum of 500-750 words. MINIMUM OF TWO SOURCES BESIDES THE TEXTBOOK. Must cite at least 2 sources in addition to the Bible.

TEXTBOOK: Bennett, B. T. (2018). Understanding, assessing, and responding to terrorism: Protecting critical infrastructure and personnel (2nd ed.). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. ISBN: 9781119237785.

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The Enlightenment attitude toward science and how it influenced psychology’s history

1. The Enlightenment attitude toward science and how it influenced psychology’s history

The age of enlightenment in Europe encompassed a cultural movement of cognoscente who championed reason and individualism and were greatly opposed to traditions. The enlightenment attitude by the intellectuals using reason tried to reform the then society using advanced scientific methods. Enlightenment was positive towards science as it promoted scientific thought as well as intellectual interchange. This movement that comprised of intellectuals was greatly opposed to superstition and traditional faith. Therefore, advanced scientific methods of tackling issues were adapted and were championed by the intellectuals. These included philosophers such as Baruz Spinoza, John Locke, Pierre Bayle, Voltaire, and Isaac Newton.  Scientific insurgency is meticulously connected to enlightenment and its inception resulted in the overturning of many traditional concepts and brought about new conceptions of nature (Hergenhan, 2008, p. 84).

The foundations of psychology can be traced to enlightenment to a great extent. Psychology itself is a social science which involves the study in details of human thinking perspectives. The laws of human society could be discovered by application of the various scientific methods. Finally, the end result was the birth of social sciences which psychology, history and sociology are members (Valentine and Reese, 2004, p. 134). In their bid to improve human beings as well as the human societies, the enlightenment thinkers the pillars of psychology and other social sciences were developed. Enlightenment paved way to open thinking which is part and parcel of psychology. Therefore, it can be comprehensively concluded that enlightenment laid the foundation for psychology which has advanced over time up to where it is currently.

2.         Compare and contrast Wundt and Galton   

Both Wilhelm Wundt and Francis Galton were renowned intellectuals during their time and their work is still reckoned to date. Both of them were involved in vigorous scientific researches as they fought to unearth the concepts behind numerous happenings and especially in psychology. They made significant contributions too many fields some of them important to be accorded chapters in books on the history of philosophy and psychology (Popple, 2003, p.379). They both contributed in a great way in the field of psychological testing though in their own way. They established their own ways of psychological and mental testing some of which are used to date despite small modifications. They can be referred to as the forerunners of the contemporary psychology and other scientific disciplines. Both had student who learned their theories and practiced them.

On the other hand, Galton and Wundt had various differences in their theories and findings. These ideological differences are the ones that enable us to tell apart the two ancient scholars.  Galton’s approach was more radical and he failed to recognize and mend any loopholes in his theories. Wundt on the other hand used a more practical approach whereby he made numerous experimentations on various psychological matters. Wundt was recognized as the father of psychology while Galton mostly specialized in psychophysics and eugenics (Popple, 2003, p.380).


3.         Explain why Descartes is considered (a) a rationalist, and (b) a nativist.

(A) rationalist

Descartes was a famous French intellect and was a crucial figure in the history of philosophy. Rationalism is the belief that we can have knowledge without experiencing the real world. Descartes to some extent believed that people could visualize some facts about anything without necessarily having to get into direct contact with the “anything”. Descartes brought together involuntarily the influences of the past into a synthesis that was striking in its originality and yet congenial to the scientific temper of the age (Jensen, 2002, p.146). Descartes considered that anything that could not be justified by reason could not be categorized as knowledge. Anything that could not be proved, to Descartes was not true. He tried to prove this claim of rationalism in his self-evident claim cogito ergo sum which is basically, I think and therefore I am. 

(b) Nativist

Nativism which is also synonymous to innatism is the belief that one is born with ideas and knowledge and no one is born with the mind in a blank state. Descartes had a strong belief of preexistence of ideas in the mind. He believed that these innate ideas, principles and knowledge were placed by a supreme being in the mind of any being before birth. This principle echoes rationalism and states that the mind of a newborn child is not a tabula rasa but is equipped with an inborn structure which only develops and sprouts with time as development and growth takes place. Descartes believed in the notions of causality, that all events have a cause. Concepts of good and evil logical and mathematical truths, metaphysical notions concerning transcendent objects like God or souls (Valentine, 2004, 135). 

4.         What is the connection between Galton’s beliefs about intelligence and (a) eugenics, and (b) mental testing?

(a). Eugenics

Francis Galton, an ancient philosopher came up with the concept of Eugenics. This concept concerned genes and their transition from one generation to the other. Galton was a cousin to Charles Darwin who had formulated the theory of evolution. Galton had read of his cousin’s theory in depth and had analyzed it for some time. This theory to a great extent proposed and promoted a higher reproduction of people with the desired traits which would ensure that only the desirable traits were passed to the consequent generations (Lynn, 2001, p.18). Galton strongly believed that this measure would to a great extent lead to the improvement of human population. This measure would ensure the complete elimination of the undesirable human traits in the world. Therefore, Galton as the individual who coined this concept championed it for the wellbeing of the world.

(b) Mental testing

Galton was the pioneer of differential psychology. He invented a number of tests that were aimed at quantifying various qualities in human beings and differentiating them. One of his inventions was the mental test. Being an English aristocrat, Francis Galton made serious attempts to develop measures that would reflect an individual person’s intelligence. He believed that intelligence was mainly a person’s thoughts and not necessarily possession of the right genes. He reasoned out that superior intelligence would be a reflection of superior physical development of the brain as well as the body (Marcus, 2009, p.120). If his finding were true, then simple physical measures would provide a reliable index of intellectual prowess. In his investigations, he set about measuring a variety of physical variables such as the reaction time and grip strength and checked out for the correlation.

5.         Describe the essential principles of phrenology and explain why it eventually failed as a science. Be sure to consider the research of Flourens in your answer.

Phrenology was a science of character divination, faculty of psychology, theory of the brain which was referred to as the only true science of mind by phrenologists who existed during the 19th century. Phrenology was an original idea of a Viennese physician, Franz Joseph Gall, through his theories of the idiosyncratic. This science had some basic tenets which are as follows. Phrenology termed the brain as an organ of the mind. This science also acknowledged multiple innate faculties of the mind (Marcus, 2009, p. 124). These faculties were believed to be separate, since they are distinct, each faculty must have a separate seat or rather an organ in the brain. The different sizes of organs could be ranked among themselves based on the differences in their own power. This science also stated that the shape of the brain was chiefly determined by the development of various organs. The last tenet was that the skull took its shape from the brain and its surface could be read as an accurate index of the psychological aptitudes and tendencies.

However, the science eventually flopped due to a number of reasons. The methods that Francis Gall used in his researches lacked scientific rigor and he simply ignored to a great extent any evidence that disapproved his self-formulated theories. In the year 1843, Pierre Flourens found out that the fundamental assumptions of phrenology, that the contours of the skull corresponded to the underlying shape of the brain was wrong. Other scientists like Francois Magendie also disapproved the theories behind phrenology by saying that the efforts of phrenology were mere assertions, which would not bear examination for an instant (Longo, 2007, 140).

6.         Show how the two varieties of the clinical method for studying the brain are illustrated by (a) Phineas Gage and (b) Tan.

(a) Phineas Gage

Phineas Gag was a rail road worker who encountered a terrible accident when a meter long iron rod propelled straight third through his head at high speed in an explosion. He amazingly and surprisingly survived this terrific accident. However, the man underwent dramatic changes in his personality which many ancient neuroscientists used to study clinical aspects of the brain. Recent researchers in their mission reconstructed his skull to try to get various enlightenments on the changes and how they were related to his brain damage. Neuroscientists from the California University produced his connectome indicating how long range connections were altered by the injury (Marcus, 2009, p.119). In this study method, numerous techniques are applied in collecting data on the connectivity of the brain. A related method which has become popular in the recent years is the diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) which can be used to visualize the larger white matter tracts which form long range connections between different parts of the brain.

(b) Tan

Tan was a patient of Pierre Paul Broca who suffered from speech disorientation complications. Broca in his studies identified a robe on the human brain that was responsible for comprehension as well as formulation of language and speech. This lobe was named Broca in the honor of this renowned physician. His patients including Tan had lost the ability to speak after an injury to the posterior inferior frontal Gyrus of the brain (Longo, 2007 p. 143). This deficit in language production was attributed to the damage in the sensitive cells in this region. Today neuroscientists define the area in terms of Pars opercularis and pars triangulalis of the interior of the frontal Gyrus represented in the Bradman’s cytoarchitecture map. Therefore, Tan’s problem has enabled neuroscientist to study speech development in human beings. 

7.         Wundt rather than Fechner is considered to be the founder of modern experimental psychology. Why?

Many individuals are recognized for their efforts in the inception, rise and the evolution of modern psychology. Examples are Wilhelm Wundt, William James and Fechner. However, much of the establishment of this discipline of psychology is attributed to the man, Wilhelm Wundt. He made the major contributions to the establishment of psychology more than other ancient scholars who also made efforts in its establishment. He is identified as the father of psychology (Hergenhan, 2008, p.84). Wundt formed the world’s first experimental psychology lab. This is described as the official kick start of psychology as a separate and distinct science. By establishing lab that utilized scientific methods to have a deeper study of the human mind and behavior, Wundt took psychology from a mixture of philosophy and biology and made it a unique field of study. Wundt also had a number of students who became influential psychologists who made a number of remarkable inventions.

Fechner to be considered as one of the ancient founders of psychology and was the founder of psychophysics. However, the man had problems with his vision which dimmed his chances of doing extensive study and research like Wundt. This hampered his influence and his ability to experiment allowing the younger men like Wundt to reap the glory of his earlier work (Dennis and Mitter, 2010, p.465). these factors therefore paved way for his predecessor, Wundt to carry all the glory and to be termed as the father of modern psychology.

 8.        Darwin had his theory worked out in the early 1840’s. Why did he delay publication and why did he eventually publish in 1859?

There exist wide speculations as to why Charles Darwin delayed the publication of his work, The evolution theory despite having completed it decades ago. Various scholars and philosophers have developed theories that probably explain Darwin’s motives. During his long and expansive research on the evolution of man, his beliefs were not at all secretive. However, he delayed the publication of his work for two good decades which leaves numerous queries running through our mind (Wyhe, 2008, 234). He delayed the publication until the year 1959 when Alfred Russell’s hit a similar theory. Many referred this period of delay to as; the long wait, Darwin’s procrastination and the Darwin’s delay.

The chief reason as to why Darwin delayed his publication is believed to be the fear of the unknown. It is said that Darwin feared the reaction of his scientific colleagues and was not in for a damage of his reputation. It is also said that Darwin feared religious persecution as his theory of evolution was very much against the religious theories that explained the origin of life. Darwin also feared upsetting his religious wife and disturbing the social order. Frank Sulloways research during this time also disapproved Darwin’s postulates beyond any reasonable doubt and hence he feared publishing an already disapproved theory which would not fetch him credit at the time (Wyhe, 2008, p.235).

9.         Describe Weber’s Law and the concept of a jnd.

This was a law that was formulated by Ernst Heinrich Weber in psychophysics. This law brings together two dissimilar laws of human perception. It entails the study of human response to a physical stimulus in a quantities way. The law states that, the just noticeable difference between two stimuli is proportional to the magnitude of the stimuli. Weber’s co-founder of this law, Gustav Theodor Fechner offered an elaborate interpretation of Weber’s findings. He attempted to describe the correlation between the physical magnitudes of stimuli and the perceived intensity of the stimuli (Marcus, 2009, p.121). Fechner’s law states that the subjective sensation is proportional to the stimulus intensity. In its derivation, the concept of just noticeable difference concept, JND arises.

Weber found out that the just noticeable difference JND between the two weights was approximately proportional to the weights. Therefore, if the weight of 110 grams can only just be distinguished from that of 105 grams, the just noticeable difference is 5 grams. If the mass is doubled, the differential threshold also doubles to ten grams so that 310 grams can be distinguished from 300 grams. In the above examples and illustrations, its evidence that a weight seems to have a weight increase of 5% for there to be a noticeable difference. This minimum required fractional increase of 5% is referred to as the weber’s fraction (Marcus, 2009, p.125). Other discrimination tasks such as length may take different web’s fractions.

  10.     Distinguish between primary and secondary qualities of matter and compare the views of Locke and Berkeley’s with regard to these qualities.

It is believed that Locke inherited from Descartes or borrowed from Newton and Boyle the differentiation between the primary and secondary qualities of matter. Primary and secondary differentiation is the ideological distinction in metaphysics and epistemology concerning the nature of reality. primary qualities are said to be the properties of objects that are independent of any observer. These qualities include; motion, number, solidity, extension and figure.  Such characteristics bring out facts and they exist in the object in discussion and can be observed with certainty and never depend on subjectivity (Longo, 2007, p.145). 

On the other hand according to both Locke and Berkeley secondary qualities of matter are thought to be the qualities that arouse sensation in the observers such as color, smell, taste and sound. They can be elaborated as the different effect things have on different people. The concepts aroused by secondary qualities of matter do not provide objective facts about things. It can be concluded according to Locke’s and Berkeley’s postulates that primary qualities are measurable aspects of matter and on the contrary secondary qualities are subjective and are dependent on differences in various persons (Marcus, 2009, 124).





Dennis, L and Mitter, J. (2010). Introduction to psychology. Journal of psychology. Volume 23(4). Pages 200-245.


Hergenhan, B. (2008). History of psychology. Journal of biological science. Volume 12(5). Pages 123-234.


Jensen, A. (2010). Galton’s legacy to research. An intelligence journal of biological science.                                Volume 34(2). Pages 145-175


Longo, M. (2008). Spatial attention and the mental number line: Evidence for characteristic.  Neuropsychologia. Volume 45(7). Page 140-165.


Lynn, R. (2001). Eugenics: A reassessment. Perception. Volume 6(3). Pages 234-456.


Marcus, E. (2009). A brief history of human brain mapping. Trends in neuroscience. Volume 32(7). Pages 118-126.


Popple, A. (2003) Wundt versus Galton. Perception. Volume 29(4). Pages 379-381.


Valentine, R and Reese, M. (1984). Principles of philosophy. Journal of psychology. Volume 34(5). Pages 125-134.

Wyhe, J. (2008). Mind the Gap: Why did Darwin avoid publishing his theory for many years? Cambridge: Christ press.

Xavier, G. (2011). Early theories and foundations of psychology. Journal of bioscience. Volume 32(8). Pages 234-300.










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The history of Hezbollah.

The history of Hezbollah.

Hezbollah is an Islamic militant group and also doubles as a political organization that operates in Lebanon. The group has multiple transliterations including; Hizballah and Hezbollah. The literal meaning of the Hezbollah is “Party of Allah” or rather “Party of God” it has many operating names which include; Islamic Jihad, organization for the oppressed on earth and the Islamic Resistance. Essentially the group is a paramilitary wing classified as a resistance movement in much of Arabic and Islamic nations. The United States of America, Netherlands, the United Kingdom, Canada, and Israel consider Hezbollah to be a terror group (Heidi Hayes, 2005).

The Hezbollah formation was a brainchild of Muslim clerics in Iran. It was founded in the Iranian country after Israel invaded Lebanon. It was officially formed on 1985. Lebanon gained political independence in 1943 after the French army withdrew its troops from the country (Heidi Hayes, 2005). Lebanon had 17 recognized sectarian communities the Shia being one of them. The Lebanese national pact set out procedures of national governance. The National pact of Lebanon stipulated that political privileges such as parliament membership and appointment to senior and bureaucratic and political positions be effected to the 17 sectarian communities based on proportionate size of each community (Samer, 2012).

 The Shia community received the speakership of the parliament being the third largest sectarian community after the maronites and Sunnis. The Shia society however remained marginalized socially, politically and economically .the Shia society became noticeable in the 1960s and 70s after Imam Musa Sadr became a leading Shiite figure in the Tyra city (Augustus, 2009). Imam Musa played a vital role in fighting for the rights of the Shiite community. He formed various pacts with different persons and groups in a bid to attain equality for the oppressed Shiite society.


Hezbollah’s demographics.

The Shia society began exploding and gained recognition in the 1960s and 70s (Ghorayeb, 2002). This was closely followed by the formation of the Supreme Islamic Shiite Council. The council main obligation was to amplify the say of the Shia community in government and overturn the status quo whereby the Shiites literary had no say in the Lebanese government. Imam Musa was appointed to head the council in 1969. He advocated without fear for change in the Lebanon government in favour of the Shiite society. Under the watch of Imam Musa Sadr numerous social utilities like clinics and schools were established throughout southern Lebanon (Alaga, 2011). 

  The group rose through ranks to steal scenes in the Lebanon politics. Having started with only a small population, it has grown into an organization that has seats in the Lebanese government. The organization today is termed as a state within a state (Ghorayeb, 2002). It maintains huge and strong support especially from the Shia community. The movement is always in position to mobilize huge demonstrations of hundreds of thousands in a bid to attain a given obligation. For instance in the year 2006 the Hizballah in conjunction with other groups began the 2006-2008 Lebanese political protests. Other groups began the 2006-2008 Lebanese political protests which were in opposition of the then government prime minister.

The movement currently boasts hundreds of thousands supporters in and out of Lebanon. They enjoy this strong support in Syria, Iran and many Arabian countries. According to an analyst in anonymity, the total force including part-time men who are known as saraya exceeds fifty thousand men (Hayes, 2005).


Hezbollah’s agenda


On its formation the Hezbollah movement had some goals to achieve. Its main goal was to offer resistance to the Israel occupation of Lebanon. Its other goal was to eliminate marginalization of the Shia community. Their goals were listed in their manifesto and have evolved with time and situations. In their 1985 manifesto they had listed four main goals that they would strive to achieve (Alaga, 2011).

Their chief goal was to liberate Lebanon from Israel. Israel had invaded Lebanon in 1978 in an operation it termed as “operation Litani”. The invasion was carried out by the Israel defense forces in response to the coastal land massacre. The operation resulted in deaths of thousands and displacement of hundreds of thousands Lebanese citizens (Augustus, 2009). The Hezbollah was much opposed to the wrongful occupation of Lebanon by Israeli forces which resulted in massive losses.

The second goal of the Hezbollah was to eliminate imperialism in Lebanon. The movement was much opposed to the phalangists whose mission was to just rule. They were not only opposed to their rule but also wanted to make bring the imperialistic phalangists to trial and make them pay dearly for their committed crimes. The Hezbollah movement also had in mind giving all people an equal chance to have a say in the government making without compromising the Islamic rule (Samer, 2012). The Hezbollah had massive callings for destruction of the Israeli state which they referred to as a Zionist entity. The greatest agitation of the Hezbollah was the Israeli’s forceful invasion of Lebanon.


The Operation method of the Hezbollah.

Hezbollah operates as a liberation movement. Its operations however are in total secrecy. Its aim was to liberate Lebanon from Israeli attacks and ensure its sovereignty. Its founders were inspired by Ayatollah Khomeini who was an Iranian religious leader and a politician (Hayes, 2005). Their initial forces were trained by a contingent of Iranian revolutionary guards. The organization receives substantial financial and philosophical support from Iran Syria and worldwide fundraising operation. The United States of America accuses the hezbollian movement of counterfeiting to raise funds.


The Islamic movement operates various social development programs. It own and runs social services such as schools, hospitals and agricultural services that are beneficial to thousands of Lebanese Shiites. The organization also runs a satellite television station called Al-manar satellite television and a radio broadcast station (Ghorayeb, 2002).

The group after formation and with its aim in mind had to form a military wing to ensure achievement of its goals. It runs military training camps in Bekaa valley and in other parts of Lebanon (Hayes, 2005)). They often carry out terroristic activities against their enemies such as the United States of America. Their terror acts include bombings, assassinations, kidnappings and use of guerilla warfare. In 1983 Hezbollah allegedly blew a van that was filled with explosives.  The hezbollian forces also work outside Lebanon in parts of Europe, America and East Asia. They acquire sophisticated weapons such as short and long range rockets, anti-tank anti-aircraft and anti-ship weapons. All these weapons are used in and out of Lebanese soil to protect their interests.

Hezbollah also operates as a political group. It has a political head Hassan Nasrallah. The group has a huge influence in the Lebanese politics. It was given veto powers in the Lebanese parliament and controls eleven out of the thirty cabinet seats. With veto powers and with Iranian support they literary runs Lebanon. 



The primary target of Hezbollah. 

The Hezbollah movement has targets which. The militia group was primarily established to counter the forces royal to Israeli trying to occupy Lebanon (Samer, 2012). With time the group has evolved into a terror group that can’t tolerate any nation or organization that is against their ideologies. On their list of aggressors is the Israeli nation, Jewish people, the United States of America, the pro-western Arab states, the west and their internal enemies in Lebanon.

This movement has been used by their main sponsor, Iran to carry out terrorist attacks on various targets mainly their enemies. Therefore the group can be regarded to as the unit that spearheads Iran’s foreign terrorism (Ghoyareb, 2012). Their current target is Israeli’s diplomatic missions abroad and also Israeli foreign tourists in various tourist destinations. This militia group through its operative have attempted bombing of Israeli’s ambassadorial residences in countries such as Turkey and Bulgaria. They have also carried out attacks targeting the United States. According to intelligence reports, the Iranian linked terror group has all it requires to launch an attack against the United States of America. 

They also carry out retaliatory attacks especially on nation which interfere with their jihadist “holy” war. On killing of their senior commander Imad Mughniyeh, of which they believe that the leader was executed by forces royal to Israeli, this terror movement has waged a strong revenge mission against Israeli. Their current leader Nasrallah openly spoke of dangerous retaliatory plans against any Israeli war strike. “Hezbollah is prepared for a comprehensive war against Israel and will respond to any with a surprise to any military strike” (Hayes, 2012). The Hezbollah has a special unit force that carries out overseas attacks on embassies and various tourist destinations. They also target eliminating leaders of opposing sides, on several occasions this terror group has attempted assassinations of leaders such as the Lebanese prime minister who was killed in the year 2005. 


Affiliate groups.

The movement has various groups with which it works in conjunction to facilitate smooth running of its activities. These groups facilitate each other’s realization of goals. They are mostly terror groups or Islamic movements which strongly support jihadist wars or have other interests (Samer, 2012).


Hezbollah has had close and strong ties with Iran which is its main partner. Iran funds their activities and offer moral support to them. Their militants are trained by Iranian forces and they also supply them with lethal weapons. Hezbollah is also in good terms with Syria since the era of the late Hafez Al-Assad until his demise in the year 2000 and the good relationship has been on the move even after Bashar Al-Assad took over leadership of Syria (Augustus, 2009). 


In their own country Lebanon, the terror movement it has ties with other movements such as the Jhabat Al-Nusra which is a sunnist group which is affiliated to the Palestinian cause (Samer, 2012). Outside the Middle East the Hezbollah is believed to have affiliates in Latin America. The movement is also linked to the Al-Qaeda terror group although little evidence exists to support this claim. Shiite communities in Lebanon also support this movement as in its formation it had a goal of fighting for their rights. 


The group receives massive support from individuals mainly business persons who finance its operations. Arabian business men who operate businesses all over Middle East channel funds to Hezbollah’s activities. 


Hezbollah assignments and contributions. 


Since its formation thirty years ago this terrorist group has had many assignments and contributions some of which have positive impacts and some negative. This militant group believes that God fights alongside them. They have triumphed in battles and have made numerous achievements according to their targets.

 In their quest to liberate Lebanon from Israeli invasion, Hezbollah has continuously over decades engaged Israel in winning battles. The resistance offered to Israeli defense forces has resulted to their withdrawal from Lebanese soil. The Hezbollah is recognized in the Middle East as an anti-Israeli champion (samer,2012). The movement has a strong military base which keeps its enemies at bay. Its application of guerilla tactics strengthens its attacks or counter attacks. Their secrecy is also an advantage that accrues to them in battles especially in battles where they fight against force that undermines their capability. Hezbollah’s main contribution to the Assad’s war is military expertise. 


One of their four main goals during formation was to eliminate imperialism and ensure equality of communities especially the Shia community. The movement strived hard to overturn the status quo in Lebanon whereby marginalized communities like sheer rose to higher ranks. The Hezbollah was also given veto power in the parliament and dominated in the cabinet (Alaga, 2011). 




Hayes, H. 2005. History of our world. Newjersy : prentice hall .


Alaga, E. 2011. Hezbollah’s documents. Amsterdam: Amsterdam university press.


Samer, S. 2012. Islamic politics in Middle East. London: Routledge press.


Augustus, N. 2009. Hezbollah: A short history. Newjersy : Princeton University Press.


Ghorayeb, S. 2002. Politics and religion. London: Pluto press.




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Prepared by: Mary H. Maguire, California State University, Sacramento Kim Schnurbush, California State University,Sacramento

Psychology of Drugs and Abuse

Drug Addiction May Be Hereditary, Study Suggests

Steve Connor

Learning Outcomes

After reading this article, you will be able to:

  • Discuss the role of genetics in drug addiction. • Identify the contribution of self-control to drug addiction.

The human brain may be “wired up” for addictive behav- iour according to a study that shows how some people are more likely than others to become addicted to crack cocaine.

Scientists have found specific abnormalities in the brains of regular cocaine users which are likely to have been present in early childhood rather than coming about as a result of the drug misuse.

The researchers also found similar abnormalities in the brothers and sisters of cocaine addicts—even though the sib- lings were not themselves drug users—but did not find the same brain patterns in the general population.

The discovery of specific brain abnormalities in the families of drug addicts suggests a genetic basis for addictive behav- iour. But it also implies that some people can overcome this predisposition to remain free of drugs, said Karen Ersche of the University of Cambridge.

“Cocaine is a highly addictive drug but only some people get hooked on it. However, your chances of getting hooked rise about eight times if you have a family member who is addicted,” Dr Ersche said.

“Our findings suggest that drug addiction is not a failure of character or a life-style choice. It’s a problem with the brain.

If your brain is wired for addiction it’s easier for the drugs to take over, but the good thing is that this is not inevitable,” she said.

The study, funded by the Medical Research Council and published in the journal Science, used hospital scanners to anal- yse the brains of 50 cocaine addicts and compared them against the brain scans of their nonaddicted siblings. As an overall con- trol, the researchers also scanned the brains of 50 unrelated, healthy volunteers.

The scans showed that both the addicts and their siblings shared defects in the nerve fibres that communicate with the front part of the brain, the temporal cortex, which is known to be involved in controlling impulsive behaviour.

Previous research has shown that drug addiction is linked with brain abnormalities involved with self control but it was not known whether the drug misuse was the cause or the result of the irregularities in the brain.

“Given that some forms of drug addiction are thought to develop out of bad habits that get out of control, it’s intriguing that siblings who don’t abuse drugs show similar brain abnor- malities as the ones who have been abusing drugs for many years,” Dr Ersche said.

“Our findings now shed light on why the risk of becoming addicted to drugs is increased in people with a family history of drug or alcohol dependence—parts of their brains underlying self-control abilities work less efficiently,” she said.

“The use of drugs such as cocaine further exacerbates this problem, paving the way for addiction to develop from occa- sional use,” she added.

The next stage of the research is to find out why the drug- free siblings were able to avoid getting hooked on drugs.



Drug Addiction May Be Hereditary, Study Suggests by Steve Connor

They may have developed other interests that led them away from drug taking, or have been influenced by older family members.

“While we still have more work to do to fully address the reasons why some family members show a greater resilience against addiction, our results will provide the scientific basis for the development of more effective prevention and treatment for people at risk,” Dr Ersche said.

Professor Les Iversen of the University of Oxford said: “These new findings reinforce the view that the propensity to addiction is dependent on inherited differences in brain cir- cuitry, and offer the possibility of new ways of treating high- risk individuals to develop better ‘self control’.”

Critical Thinking

  1. Discusswhytheriskforbecomingaddictedtodrugsis increased in those with a family history of drug dependence.

Analyze two different theories that explain the onset of drug addiction.

Internet References

National Council on Alcohol and Drug Dependence

National Institute on Drug Abuse

Connor, Steve, “Drug Addiction May Be Hereditary, Study Suggests,” The Independent, February 3, 2012. Copyright © 2012 The Independent. Reprinted by permission. All rights reserved.


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