Research Essay for undergraduate

Research Essay

Choose two eras of particular interest to you, and choose three from the list of topics below. Provide a summary of these three topics in each of the two eras; each summary should contain the main themes, a description of the methods used, and the main results and conclusion of the research. Following the summaries, make comparisons of the research as it was presented by philosophers/psychologists of the time in the two different eras. For instance, psychopathologies were viewed and studied differently in the era of the Renaissance when compared to the early twentieth century.

Research Essay


  • Title Page: APA format
  • Summaries of the topics in each era should contain the following:
    • the main themes (in the literature of the time)
    • the description of the methods
    • the main results and conclusions
  • Comparisons should contain: a critical comparison of the two eras addressed from a historical perspective.
  • Maximum 6 pages: 2 pages per topic, double-spaced, Times 12-pt font, 2.5 cm margins
  • References: APA format (You can use any reference source.)

List of Topics

  • Personality Disorders
  • Mood Disorders
  • Psychotherapy
  • Dreams
  • Emotions
  • False Memories
  • Language Acquisition
  • Nonverbal Communication
  • Child Development Theories
  • Brain and Behaviour
  • Judgment and Decision Making

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Due Friday, June 9 by 11:59pm to Canvas

Part 1 of the “Pop Culture and Me” essay will ask you to consider your relationship to popular culture. Use first-person voice to articulate the significance of one form of pop cultural production that has shaped your identity today. Choose something that has greatly impacted your life in some way. This does not necessarily need to be your “favorite” thing (though it could be), but rather something that has helped shape your identity and worldview. The idea of this essay is to situate yourself as an active consumer of culture. A PDF of sample essays from students is posted to Canvas.

Below are some examples of forms of popular culture that you can choose to engage in your essay:

· Television show

· Festival or convention (i.e. music festival or comic book convention)

· Film

· Album or song

· Musician, music group, or band

· Brand and/or store (i.e. Apple, Nike, Target, or Coca-Cola)

· Play/Theater

· Musical

· Comic book/manga

· Book – novel, biography, cookbook, memoir, etc.

· Ritual or custom

· Poem

· Celebrity

· Stand-up comedian or comedy special

· Sports team

· Athlete

· Social media community or forum

· Or something else. Double check with me if you’re not sure about a topic.

Part I of your essay should be 2-3 pages in length and consist of the following parts:

1) Introduction (1 paragraph)

2) Thesis statement at the end of the introduction/first paragraph

3) Define and explain what your pop culture artifact is in your own words

4) Explain how the pop cultural piece has impacted your life, experiences, or worldview

5) Attempt to situate the pop culture artifact in a larger context. What has its role been in larger society (if any)? What impact has it had on the world outside of just yourself?

6) Conclusion (1 paragraph)

Format: 2-3 Pages, 12 point, Times New Roman, double spaced, 1-inch margins

This paper….(1-10)
…has a clear introduction and conclusion.
…has a clear purpose in addressing the prompt, by specifying a particular pop cultural item and its significance in your life.
…provides details.
…is clear and understandable throughout; fully explains ideas (development).
…is organized in a way that includes transitions, topics sentences, a logical order, and “flow” (organization).
Total Score Averaged (out of 10)

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Asthma case study instructions ( Essay)

Asthma case study instructions ( Essay)

A 6-year-old female child came to the clinic accompanied by her mother, complaining of a cough since 8 weeks ago. The cough is triggered when she laughs or cries. Her cough worsens when exposed to cold air, during exercise, and at night. Patient’s past medical history of mild eczema and chronic nasal congestion. No shortness of breath, wheezing, or fever was reported. She is currently taking no medications. No known allergies were reported. On her examination, she is not in acute distress. Positive findings during examination: nasal turbinates were a little pale and edematous. During lung auscultation,, she had end-expiratory wheezing but no accessory muscle use for respiration. The child was born in India and moved to United Stated when she was 1 year old. Her family recently moved to a new area, and she complains of worsening nasal congestion. The house has some carpets on the floor. She also has a dog in her house. The patient has a history of mother and cousins diagnosed with asthma. Her primary diagnosis is asthma based on her history, clinical presentation, and family history.


Should be a paragraph that provides a brief overview of the case and main diagnosis:


Differential Diagnoses

Provide EACH differential diagnosis with the rationale and supporting evidence with the REFERENCE for each one. Also, explain why differentials between Viral pneumonia and sinusitis) were not the main diagnosis.

  1. Asthma:
  2. Viral pneumonia:
  3. Sinusitis:


Identify the lab, radiology, or other tests needed for Asthma with supporting evidence.


Include the initial treatment plan for Asthma. It should include medication names, dosages, and frequencies


 Patient/family education in patients with asthma

Follow-Up for asthma

Appropriate follow-up plan.

Please include when a patient will follow up: 2 weeks, 1 month, or 3 months.

What are some follow-up labs or tests? Referrals

 Why are they following up? What outcome do you wish to assess? 



APA format

Intext citation

References at least 4 high-level scholarly references per post within the last 5 years in APA format.

EACH differential diagnostic gets 1 reference

Plagiarism free.

Turnitin receipt.

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English 1C: Assessment Essay Prompt

English 1C: Assessment Essay Prompt

Plot Holes:

A plot hole is an inconsistency in a story. Plot holes can take different forms. A plot hole might refer to a character’s choices or abilities; they can also refer to settings or histories. We have a plot hole whenever a storyline or plot breaks its rules.

Narrative Rules:

Every narrative has specific, generally, unstated rules that guide the audience’s expectations. For example, an action hero might be thrown through a brick wall and remain unhurt. This is not a plot hole. Plot holes are inconsistencies that are unexplained or seem to deviate from the rules already established by the storyline. An example of a plot hole might include a character demonstrating a specific ability and then not using that ability to solve her problems later.


Pick any story (movie, video game, TV show episode, book, or short story) that includes a plot hole. In approximately 800-1,000 words, describe the unstated rules of this storyline, the dynamics established by the storyline itself, and one existing plot hole. Your essay should be evenly divided between discussing the plot hole and its explicit rules. You can also discuss potential counterarguments.

Topic and Scope:

Choosing a viable topic will be an important first step as you begin writing. Numerous videos and articles online discuss the plot holes within popular storylines and franchises. As you consider your topic, consider the scope. Scope refers to the size and broadness of any topic you choose. As you research/consider different possibilities, be sure that your idea is sufficiently narrow so that you can discuss the totality of your topic but also large enough so you don’t run out of ideas.

This essay must include an introduction, a thesis statement, body paragraphs with topic sentences, and a conclusion.


This assignment allows you to practice organizing complex ideas, structure paragraph, and develop your mastery of academic English. This essay should demonstrate your mastery over essay structure and standardized language.


800 to 1,000-word essay, MLA Format, word count


Your essay will be assessed based on its structure, format, use of specific language, grammatical correctness, and its adherence to MLA style.

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Essay Question Marxism is a revolutionary political ideology of the 19 century

Essay Question Marxism is a revolutionary political ideology of the 19 century. Discuss its primary features and its impact on mainstream political thought.

 Due Date- April 27th 2023

 1700-2000 words

 1.5 spacing

 Font-Arial

Rubric for Essay Grading: Total 70 points.

Introduction (5 points): 4-5 points – The introduction presents a clear and concise thesis statement that establishes the essay’s focus and provides a brief overview of the main points to be discussed. The introduction also engages the reader and provides context for the topic. 2-3 points – The introduction presents a thesis statement that is somewhat clear but may lack precision or conciseness and provides some overview of the main points to be discussed. The introduction may engage the reader and provide some context for the topic. 0-1 point – The introduction is missing or presents a thesis statement that is unclear or poorly defined and may not provide a clear sense of the main points to be discussed. The introduction does not engage the reader or provide adequate context for the topic.

Biography (15 points)

13-15 points: Outstanding, Depth and scope of the bibliography is comprehensive, covering various aspects of Karl Marx’s life, work, and contributions. 9-12 points: Good, Depth and scope of the bibliography are decent, covering

key aspects of Karl Marx’s biography. 5-8 points: Fair, Depth and scope of the bibliography may be limited, covering

only a few aspects of Karl Marx’s biography. 0-4 points: Poor, Depth and scope of the bibliography are inadequate, lacking

coverage of key aspects of Karl Marx’s biography. Content and Analysis (30 points):

20-25 points – The essay demonstrates a clear understanding of the topic and

provides detailed and well-supported arguments that effectively address the thesis statement. The analysis shows originality and depth of thought and is supported by strong evidence and examples. The essay also demonstrates an understanding of relevant counterarguments and responds to them effectively. 13-19 points – The essay demonstrates some understanding of the topic and provides some arguments that address the thesis statement but may lack depth or originality. The analysis is supported by some evidence and examples but may be somewhat inconsistent or incomplete. The essay may not demonstrate an understanding of relevant counterarguments or respond to them effectively.

6-12 points – The essay demonstrates a limited understanding of the topic and provides weak arguments that do not effectively address the thesis statement. The analysis may be poorly supported by evidence and examples and may lack originality or depth. The essay may not demonstrate an understanding of relevant counterarguments or respond to them effectively. 0-5 points – The essay demonstrates little or no understanding of the topic and

provides no or very weak arguments that do not address the thesis statement. The analysis is unsupported and lacks originality or depth. The essay does not demonstrate an understanding of relevant counterarguments or respond to them effectively.

Conclusion (5 points):

4-5 points – The conclusion effectively summarizes the essay’s main points and restates the thesis statement in a clear and concise manner. The conclusion also provides insights or recommendations based on the arguments presented in the essay. 2-3 points – The conclusion summarizes the essay’s main points and restates the thesis statement but may lack clarity or concision. The conclusion may not provide insights or recommendations based on the arguments presented in the essay. 0-1 point – The conclusion is missing or does not effectively summarize the essay’s main points, restates the thesis statement poorly or incompletely, and does not provide insights or recommendations based on the arguments presented in the essay.

Organization (5points):

4-5 points – The essay is well-organized and clearly structured, with

appropriate use of headings and subheadings. The essay flows logically from one section to another, and the transitions are smooth and coherent. 2-3 points – The essay is somewhat organized and structured, but may contain some sections that are unclear or poorly defined. The essay may lack coherence in some areas or have transitions that are not always smooth. 0-1 point – The essay is poorly organized and structured, with frequent

grammar, spelling, or punctuation errors that significantly impact the clarity or coherence of the essay.

Use of English (5 points):

4-5 points – The essay demonstrates a high level of fluency and sophistication in the use of English, with an appropriate level of formality and academic style. The essay uses a wide range of vocabulary and demonstrates excellent sentence structure and coherence. 2-3 points – The essay demonstrates a basic level of fluency and sophistication in the use of English, with occasional errors or awkward phrasing that may detract from the clarity or coherence of the essay. 0 -1 point – The essay demonstrates a poor level of fluency and sophistication

in the use of English, with frequent errors or awkward phrasing that significantly impact the clarity or coherence of the essay.

APA Format and Referencing (5 points): 4-5 points – The essay follows APA format and referencing guidelines, including

proper citation of sources in-text and in the reference list, and demonstrates a high level of accuracy and attention to detail. 2-3 points – The essay follows some APA format and referencing guidelines, but may contain some errors or inconsistencies in citation or formatting. 0-1 point – The essay does not follow APA format and referencing guidelines, and contains significant errors or inconsistencies in citation or formatting.

Essay Guide


 Provide a thesis statement that outlines the primary features of Marxism and its impact on mainstream political thought.

 Provide a brief overview of Marxism as a revolutionary political ideology that emerged in the 19th century.

Short Biography

 Discuss the background and biography of Karl Marx, the influential philosopher, economist, and political theorist who developed Marxism.

 Provide information about Marx’s early life, education, and the socio-political context of his time.

 Discuss Marx’s influences and key works, such as “The Communist Manifesto” and “Das Kapital,” which laid the foundation for Marxism as a political ideology.


 Explain ANY 3 key features of Marxism, including his views on class struggle, historical materialism, and his critique of capitalism.

 Discuss how Marxism advocates for the abolition of private ownership of the means of production, the establishment of a classless society, and the redistribution of wealth and resources.

 Explore Marx’s concept of alienation, which refers to the estrangement of individuals from the products of their own labour under capitalism, and its significance in Marxist thought.

 Discuss the idea of the dictatorship of the proletariat, where the working class rises to power and controls the means of production, as a means of achieving a communist society.

 Analyze the role of revolution in Marxism, as Marx believed that revolution was necessary to overthrow the capitalist system and establish a socialist society.

 Discuss the international aspect of Marxism, including the idea of proletarian internationalism and the call for workers of the world to unite against capitalist exploitation.

Impact on Mainstream Political Thought

 Discuss the impact of Marxism on mainstream political thought, both historically and in contemporary times.

 Explore how Marxism has influenced political movements and revolutions around the world, such as the Russian Revolution, the Chinese Revolution, and anti-colonial movements in the Global South.

 Discuss the ways in which Marxist ideas have been integrated into mainstream political discourse and policy, including debates on economic inequality, social justice, and labor rights.

 Analyze criticisms of Marxism, including concerns about its feasibility in practice, critiques of its historical implementations, and challenges to its core principles.

 Discuss the continued relevance of Marxism in modern political thought, including its impact on debates about capitalism, socialism, and the role of the state in society.


 Summarize the key features of Marxism as a revolutionary political ideology of the 19th century.

 Highlight its impact on mainstream political thought, both historically and in contemporary times.

 Restate the thesis statement and provide a brief concluding statement that emphasizes the ongoing significance of Marxism in shaping political discourse

and movements.

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Why is it important to create a detailed outline for your essay?

Creating a detailed outline for your essay is important for several reasons:

  1. Organization: An outline helps you organize your thoughts and ideas logically and coherently. By outlining your essay, you can ensure that your arguments and ideas flow clearly and logically, making it easier for your reader to follow and understand your main points.
  2. Efficiency: A detailed outline can help you save time in the long run. By creating a roadmap for your essay, you can ensure that you stay on track and don’t waste time writing content that doesn’t contribute to your overall argument.
  3. Clarity: An outline can help you identify gaps in your argument or areas needing further development. Reviewing your outline ensures that your essay is well-structured and includes all the necessary information to support your thesis.
  4. Revision: A detailed outline can also make the revision process easier. If you encounter any problems or inconsistencies while writing your essay, you can refer to your outline to see where you went off track and make any necessary changes.

In summary, creating a detailed outline for your essay is a crucial step in the writing process that can help you organize your thoughts, save time, improve clarity, and streamline the revision process.

How difficult was it for you to move from your prewriting in Week 2 to your basic three-point outline here?

For some people, prewriting is a valuable tool that helps them generate ideas and organize their thoughts. Moving from prewriting to a basic three-point outline can be a natural and straightforward process. They may find that the ideas they generated in the prewriting phase easily fit into the outline format.

On the other hand, some people may struggle with the transition from prewriting to outlining. They may find their ideas scattered or disjointed and have difficulty putting them into a coherent outline. In this case, it may be helpful to revisit the prewriting phase and spend more time developing and refining ideas before creating an outline.

Overall, the difficulty of moving from prewriting to a basic three-point outline can vary depending on the individual’s writing process and the complexity of the assignment. With practice, however, most writers can become more comfortable with this process and develop effective strategies for organizing their ideas.

How difficult was it for you to develop vivid supporting details?

To develop vivid supporting details, you must clearly understand the main points you want to make in your essay. Once you have identified your main points, you can brainstorm supporting details that illustrate and reinforce your argument.

One helpful strategy for developing vivid supporting details is to use sensory language that appeals to the reader’s senses. For example, instead of simply stating that a place is beautiful, you could describe the colors, textures, and sounds that make it so. Using descriptive language that engages the reader’s imagination can create a more vivid and engaging picture.

Another effective technique for developing supporting details is to draw on personal experiences or anecdotes that illustrate your argument. Sharing personal stories or examples can help your reader connect with your argument more emotionally and make it more memorable.

In summary, developing vivid supporting details can be challenging, but with careful planning, brainstorming, sensory language and personal anecdotes, writers can create compelling and persuasive essays that engage their readers.

After outlining your main points, sub-topics, and vivid supporting details, do you feel more comfortable about writing a five-paragraph essay?

A detailed outline helps to provide a roadmap for the essay, ensuring that each paragraph contributes to the overall argument and supports the thesis statement. By breaking down the essay into specific sections, the writer can focus on developing each idea in detail without feeling overwhelmed or unsure of what to write.

A well-structured outline can help writer manage their time more effectively. By identifying the main points, sub-topics, and supporting details in advance, the writer can allocate the appropriate amount of time to each section, ensuring they have enough time to develop each idea fully.

In summary, a detailed outline can provide a solid foundation for a five-paragraph essay, making the writing process more manageable and efficient. Using the outline as a guide, writers can focus on developing each idea in detail and create a compelling and persuasive essay supporting their thesis statement.

Other areas of cultural difference only minimally affect how gender is understood and valued in a culture; gender itself is the strongest component of culture.

While gender may be a significant component of culture, other factors such as religion, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and historical context can also influence how gender is viewed and treated within a particular culture. These factors can affect how individuals are socialized, the roles and expectations assigned to men and women, and the extent to which gender equality is promoted and achieved.

Therefore, it is important to acknowledge and understand the complex interplay between gender and other cultural factors when examining gender issues in different societies.

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Scholar Essay

Scholar Essay

The framers established the Bill of Rights at a time of great mistrust, with civilians seeing the federal government as a potential threat characterized by oppression. For this reason, the earliest amendments to the U.S. Constitution enunciate broad principles that limit the powers of governments and associated institutions, such as law enforcement agencies (Chhablani, 2009). For instance, the Sixth Amendment provides more particularized rules tasked with safeguarding life and individual liberty. The amendment goes a long way in guaranteeing the rights of any criminal defendant: the right to an attorney, know who the accusers are, speedy trial, the nature of charges, as well as evidence against him or her, and an impartial jury. However, media exposure and other factors commingle to undermine the impartiality of the courts and the due process of the law. Consequently, this paper identifies threats to the rights provided under the Sixth Amendment, strategies the courts can use to ensure fundamental fairness, in addition to examining important aspects of the amendment in three historical cases.

Part I

Identify what options are available to the courts to ensure the fundamental fairness that may be threatened by media exposure.

Although the Constitution is yet to specify devices necessary for curtailing potentially extreme and prejudicial media coverage, the U.S. Supreme Court and other courts have utilized several approaches to achieve fundamental fairness by reducing media influence in court proceedings and outcomes. The first option involves the constitutional assumption that a defendant is ‘innocent until proven guilty’ (Chhablani, 2009, p. 489). Despite the potential onslaught by the media, courts prioritize innocence as one of the key elements of the due process. The jury objectively assesses all the evidence before the court to determine whether the accused is innocent or guilty to achieve this.

Another option available to the court is the higher courts’ discretion over lower courts’ rulings. The Supreme Court, for instance, can overturn convictions after establishing that biased media coverage played a central role in influencing the jury’s decision. Although this is one of the trickiest approaches, the courts should focus on the burden of evidence presented by the convicted individual. Clear evidence should comprise identifiable prejudice.

Besides the option of overturning a ruling, the courts can decide to use the gag order. This curtailing approach is a strict device as it helps with restricting the press from making public events, as well as proceedings surrounding given cases (Breheny & Kelly, 1995). Critics have argued that gag orders breach the various rights under the First Amendment because it is seen as an attempt of the courts to silence the media, freedom of speech or expression. In response to this resistance, some courts only restrain trial participants as a way of controlling the statements made by defendant attorneys. For instance, in Gentile v. Nevada (1991), the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that any of the courts could issue orders preventing lawyers and other players from making materially biased statements.

Explain potential threats that exist when trying to protect the rights of the accused from a media frenzy.

The uncontrolled media coverage presents a wide range of challenges to the jury in its attempt to protect the defendant’s rights. One of the threats presented by a media frenzy is the availability of extraneous information that could play a central role in impacting the jury’s decision. Typically, the courts have difficulty measuring the impact of new and irresistible information, perceived as evidence, provided by the media. Given the powers to the First Amendment, the public is a party to any of the trials, which means the courts are required to adhere to full disclosure (Bakhshay & Haney, 2018). The right to an uninterrupted information flow has the potential to influence the ruling as the court is subjected to media scrutiny. 

Another threat is the exaggerated publicity characterized by unsupportive but unchallengeable views to the court. The accused should be made aware of the accusations and evidence available against him or her to counter with a strong defense. Still, the media’s active role is most likely to result in injustice by compelling the jury to impute media and public opinions into the whole process of determining the accused’s innocence or guilt (Chhablani, 2009). In other words, the press tends to respond to demands for information, presenting the court with a great deal of pretrial knowledge that the jury pool is least likely to distinguish from the actual evidence.

In a world that seems to record everything, describe how that presents an additional challenge to due process?

Media coverage involves various activities, including recording every bit of information in the courts: testimonies, arguments, counterarguments, dissenting voices, and majority decision. In essence, the press stores vital information for posterity purposes. This brings an additional challenge when it comes to ensuring impartiality and following the provisions of the due process. In particular, by recording everything, the media creates a dilemma in which the jury is divided between making rulings that conform to the public demand and remaining impartial (Deitch, 2018). The jury is not only entrusted with but also tasked with deciding the fate of the accused. In this respect, the jury is not expected to curtail media coverage but improve their ability to reach a just decision, which is least likely to be the case due to the pressure from the unchallengeable media information.

Identify one other threat to due process and successfully providing an impartial trial.

One other challenge to successfully overseeing an impartial trial, as well as to the due process, is the effect of high publicity on the witness demeanor. In most cases, witnesses required to testify before the jury in a highly publicized trial are most likely to be concerned about their anonymity and personal safety. At the same time, these witnesses tend to be stressed. Undoubtedly, these factors commingle to influence their demeanor, which is considered as one of the critical aspects of any testimonial evidence (Chhablani, 2009). When nervous, jurors tend to question the witness’s character and admissibility of their testimony as evidence. An intensified media coverage goes a long way in compromising the witnesses’ ability to remain unbiased and reliable.

Part II

In Press-Enterprises Co. v. Superior Court of California (1986), a nurse working in one of the facilities allegedly administered lethal doses of lidocaine, one of the heart drugs, to at least 12 patients. The District Court sealed and closed the proceedings transcripts and preliminary public hearings. When the Press-Enterprises Company appealed, the Supreme Court argued that the lower court failed to prove that media coverage could result in substantial prejudice. While overturning the ruling, the new standard replaced the previous rule that revolved around a reasonable likelihood of bias or prejudice. This case was based on the Sixth Amendment principles of fairness and the defendant’s right to be made aware of the evidence, accusers, and crime against him or her. By denying media access to the sensitive courtroom proceedings, the District Court deprived the public and the accused of their right to full disclosure and thus suggesting the possibility of foul play or impartiality behind the courts.

In Estes v. Texas (1965), the Supreme Court was asked by the appellant to overturn a previous ruling by the trial court, which he believed was influenced by biased media coverage. Billie Sol Estes was one of the high-rolling swindlers and a person who ended up gaining national notoriety in the case. He argued before the Supreme Court jury that the lower court chose to televise and broadcast his trial, thus denying him the right to due process. In his views, Estes firmly believed that the news photographers and the television crew engaged in activities that disrupted the trial. In its decision, the Supreme Court reversed the ruling, citing the various factions of the media that played a pivotal role in tainting the original jury, as well as the original jury. The most significant aspect of the Sixth Amendment, in this case, is the impartiality of the jury. Although the State of Texas argued that prejudice resulting from media’s direct and active involvement was not apparent, media coverage undermined the testimony presented by the witnesses, which in turn influenced the jury’s decision. The importance of the case’s outcome revolves around the fact that the legal system prioritizes the prevention of the probability of any forms of fairness in a judicial proceeding.

In Sheppard v. Maxwell (1966), the Supreme Court faced the challenge of determining specific elements of unfairness due to media coverage. The appeal by Sheppard alleged the jury was impartial and relied on media influence to determine the case. Dr. Sheppard’s pregnant wife was bludgeoned to death, and he was accused of the murder. However, the press coverage of the incidence was overwhelming. Given the pervasive communications and the far-reaching effect of the prejudicial publicity on the jurors’ minds, the court decided to reverse the previous ruling. The key aspect of the Sixth Amendment that featured in this case is the defendant’s right to protection the disruptive influences from other parties, including the public and media. Therefore, it was the court’s duty to establish whether the lower court had allowed the media to saturate the courtroom proceedings, thus denying the accused a fair trial.


Bakhshay, S. & Haney, C. (2018). The media’s impact on the right to a fair trial: A content analysis of pretrial publicity in capital cases. Psychology Public Policy and Law, 24(3), 326-340.

Breheny, B. & Kelly, E. (1995). Maintaining impartiality: Does media coverage of trials need to be curtailed? Journal of Civil Rights and Economic Development, 10(2), Article 6, 371-401.

Chhablani, S. (2009). Disentangling the Sixth Amendment. Journal of Constitutional Law, 11(3), 487-550.

Deitch, B. (2018). The unconstitutionality of criminal jury selection. William & Mary Bill of Rights Journal, 26(4), Article, 5, 1059-1080.

Gentile v. State Bar of Nevada, 501 U.S. 1030 (1991).

Sheppard v. Maxwell, 384 U.S. 333 (1966)

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My Cultural Identity Essay

My Cultural Identity Essay

In social geography, the term culture has been widely used by different authors and scholars to refer to the sum of life of a people or a group occupying a distinct area or location. This concept of human existence entails the way institutions are structured, people’s attitudes, food, musical work, religion, language, mode of dressing, values, and beliefs. Conversely, culture as a term can be used again to denote a nebulous structure of a people feeling in relation to their ordered set of life, modes of production, interaction as well how institutions are structured. Further, culture is thought to be a quagmire as it relates to both the way of life and the social practices of a people at a given geographical location.

My name is Justin; I have an African-American origin. My father is an African while my mother is an American. With regards to this, I have both an African and an American accent.  I am able to communicate in my native African language effectively and fostered the second language with the fact that I have chances of staying in the US where my mother works.  I have met and interacted with people in two nations but what stands out is a quantum thought of differentiating between the right and wrong regardless of where I am or what I am doing. By the end of the 19th Century, countries such as Asia, and other Europeans nations applied the term culture to differentiate between civilized groups from a primitive group of people. Surprisingly, the European culture was worshipped as the epitome of the ordered and desired  way of life. 

From the ancestral perspective, I have realized that culture dictates what I do as a person. From my an African background I can comfortably say that their forefather had a deep sense of culture which was exhibited through various forms including songs, artifacts, clothing, food, dances, and religion. These are the same rules which guided the social being of the whole community. Individuals who were found to have violated the rules were heavily punished or in extreme cases excommunicated from society. My father used to narrate that their great father used to worship their gods under certain trees and mountains which were considered holy and sacred. On the other side, my mother had a different view of the same story; she was born in a nation which was considered developed at least 200 years ago. Their way of doing things was different and informed by the concept of civilization. Their past cultures date back to the colonialism period where her great parents were among the people struggling to have a portion of the African continent. They lived in the developed homestead with enhanced security and clean water as well as healthy food.  On the contrary, my cultural identity is formed and informed by what I engage in on a daily basis; this includes the kind of music I listen to, the sort of food I consume, my choice of dress code, my religion, the family structure as well as art that appeals to my inner conscience. My belief system plays a central role in defining the type of song, either praise or worship and the timeline that it should be listened to. This aspect of livelihood helps me transverse through all the spheres of life when I am happy or sad, hoping everything will be okay.

The concept of globalization has influenced the traditional set of cultures. In the contemporary world, people can freely travel to different part of the world for different reasons such as adventure, trade or for political reasons. The interaction fostered by this aspect of human engagement has in one way or another influenced the way people talk and socialize with each other. As  such, some weak cultures may be absorbed by strong cultures thus losing their identities, as people learn new languages and ways of life, it is clear that some original concept of attachment is lost. As a student, I believe that there are numerous disciplines within the field of humanities, which can influence the way of life of a student but am compelled to note that only one has impacted my cultural identity as a person. I love music and art as they have elements of social constructs which store historical tales and pass them to the next generations. In particular, music has dramatically influenced my identity with regards to cultural history.  These concepts have been entirely used to inform other events within my circle, mainly when interacting with my peers.

Being an African-American, I find great pleasure in the cultural practices that revolve around the two cultures. This is majorly tailored in events where people from different walks of life have to meet for a common interest. Such occasions and merriments are highly observed across America. Every year is appealing and exciting as it brings many people together who share a common origin but have been separated by time and space. Such events have enabled me to have a different view of how I interact and relate with other people within my circle. And again, they serve as a grand reunion of families and friends who have a chance to share their in-depth understanding of cultures.  

Culture is a means through which human activities are regulated for a common reason. It is clear that my participation in cultural events has made me realize that we share cultural identities with other people indirectly. As we interact, I learn that different circumstances define individuals, and sometimes I wish other people could see and have a concise understanding of other people cultures. It is easy to learn and acquire unique cultures by being attractive; this is possible by migrating to new regions or by changing our social, economic as well as political perspective. With a keen analysis of culture, I realize that as much as we are different, we belong to many cultures at once though time and space influence how we interact.

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Admission/Application Essay

Admission/Application Essay

Dear sir/Madam

I have read the information about the Masters Program in Business Management at Stern School of Business, New York University with great interest in your website. I would like to put forward my candidacy for enrolment in this program through this letter.

In the course of my studies, my interest in business management has grown bigger since I perceive the skills and competency developed from this filed as crucial in building and maintaining a business strategy that leads to success. I am particularly captivated by tactics that organizations use to adjust to changes in customers’ needs and manage a profitable business in a turbulent business environment. Therefore, I see that advanced study through a Masters Program in Business Management will provide an exciting challenge for me to excel in business management. The globalized nature of the modern business world requires employees who can interpret trends and provide solutions to complex business challenges.  The Masters Program in Business Management at Stern School of Business, New York University is an essential springboard to a future career in Business.

I understand that the standard for admissions in your program is high and that it requires completing a rigorous and challenging curriculum. Not only am I passionate about my studies, but also naturally gifted and dedicated student with a strong belief that the Bachelor in Business Management program will be beneficial for my future career.

The Stern School of Business, New York University is the best choice for me since it offers a challenging and compelling Masters Program in Business Management that I believe will prepare me adequately to manage businesses effectively in the face of rapidly changing global business environment. Stern School of Business is an internationally renowned and one of the prestigious schools of business globally.  The professors at the university are highly talented and sophisticated to guide me through my quest to become a highly competitive business manager in the future. My previous educational experience and insatiable desire to manage businesses make me a good match for this program. I will be honored if considered a part of the Master’s programme in Business Management.

Yours sincerely,

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Find prompt and sources here.

Sample Essay #1:

Penmanship is a practice that has held true throughout centuries of world history. Throughout its beginnings as pictographic scripts and its historical practical applications, penmanship has managed to connect people for as long as time can tell. Through letters via lovers via carrier pigeon or through signatures on legal documents, penmanship finds its place in society day in and day out. While to some, cursive handwriting in particular may seem a futile use of motor skills, for many, the track of a pen soaring loops across a paper allows them not only several cognitive benefits, but a sense of individuality and normalcy in a rapidly digitalizing world. Cursive handwriting, though it may seem outdated in the digital age, is vital in society not only because it promotes cognitive development, but because it can be used to define a person and his/her work; due to the importance of cursive writing, its teaching must not be omitted from schooling.

In practice, the benefits of cursive writing cannot be outshone, especially in terms of cognitive development. Studies show that the act of handwriting not only develops the regions of the brain associated with thinking, short term memory, and language, but that it also helps with information retention (Kysilko). While the cognitive benefits of handwriting are not limited to cursive handwriting, manuscript, while it yields the same benefits, is slower. Many proponents of eliminating the teaching of cursive in schools argue that it would allow time for other more important skills to be developed, cursive helps save time in the long term for many due to its fluidity in practice. Others claim that cursive should not be taught as a necessity but as an art, but this perspective, too, fails to acknowledge that it contradicts the primary doctrine of the anti-cursive: that the teaching of the skills is a waste of time (Pot). The historical significance of cursive is also important to note when discussing the viability of teaching cursive in school today. In American history, cursive was taught as a method of cultivating an American identity, as Dickie Drake, Alabama state representative, stated, “cursive writing identifies you as much as your physical features do.” (Trubek). To maintain the sense of individuality Americans hold to dearly, handwriting must continue to be taught. Perhaps handwriting seems a superficial means of maintaining individuality, but in a rapidly digitalizing world, sometimes the only way to distinguish the writing of two people is by handwriting. Unless you are a seasoned stylograph, two 12pts Times New Romans fonts written by anonymous authors will be impossible to distinguish. No matter how you look at it, cursive handwriting is vital to human development and must continue to be taught in schools.

Perhaps the most common rebuttal to the importance of teaching cursive handwriting in school is that traditional writing methods are becoming obsolete. Still, studies show that this is not the case. As schools opt to print fewer copies of worksheets in favor of digital annotation and many textbooks are releasing digital forms, a widespread falsehood is gaining popularity: the idea that schools are “[writing] off the traditional route of writing” (Gillis). In casual observation of more affluent areas, this may seem obvious. Still, studies show that a greater amount of time in many elementary classrooms is spent hand-writing than is spent using technology (graph). This simple disproval eliminates the top argument against the continuation of teaching cursive handwriting, thus deeming anti-cursive sentiment unarguable.

Teaching cursive in schools offers copious amounts of benefit for students that cannot effectively be replaced by any other method. Cursive is ingrained in people’s minds everywhere, perhaps due to its lasting effect on human cognitive development. So I implore you, student or not, to continue to study cursive. Allow yourself a return to tradition after a long day at the computer. You might have a mark on your mind forever.

Sample #2:

In the present, handwriting instruction in schools has dwindled from its former prominence. The digital age offers alternatives to developing and mastering penmanship, so art is less prioritized than alternative common core subjects. Although handwriting instruction develops motor skills, it has little place in schools because it is inefficient compared to technology, and other subjects are more important in the real world.

Many advocates for handwriting instruction cite motor skill development as a reason to keep the practice. For instance, the National Association of State Boards of Education claims practicing handwriting both requires and augments fine motor skills (Source D). However, attributing motor skills primarily to this cause is not entirely accurate. Justin Pot rebutted the claim by explaining other uses of hands such as playing video games are equally as effective (Source E). While handwriting instruction may indeed promote superior motor skills, alternative options render taking periods of class for this one section, irrelevant. Therefore, the development of fine motor skills is not exclusive to handwriting instruction, so schools should instead consider less time-obtrusive alternatives.

One flaw of handwriting instruction is its decreasing efficiency with the advent of digital typing. Author Anne Trubek of the New York Times admits even third graders spend less time typing than writing (Trubek). Because note-taking skills are maximized with the author’s speed, if one method is notoriously slower than others, the most efficient option should be practiced. In fact, a survey of elementary school students quantified the difference in speed as handwriting takes over twice as much time as computer use (Source F). Due to this extreme discrepancy, practicing handwriting instruction in schools should not be encouraged when technology is generally far superior for the students whose skills must be cultivated. As such, handwriting instruction has little place in the modern era.

Finally, other subjects should take the place of time spent instructing handwriting in schools. Specifically in regards to specialized handwriting like cursive, limited school time is better spent on subjects the students will use daily, and even second-grade teacher Deb Fitzgerald agreed schools should “‘move on’ and focus class time on other topics” (Source A). Skills such as math should be prioritized for younger children since methods like multiplication are integral to both adult and child life (Source E). Overall, rather than devote time to a subject with little use, schools should instead reallocate time to other case topics the student can use in the real world.

In conclusion, while handwriting instruction has some amount of merit with its promotion of motor skills, it poses little worth in schools because of its inefficiency and lack of physical use.

Sample #3:

Cursive handwriting should not be focused, or taught in school, because it is a waste of time, it is not useful, and technology is more prevalent now.

Teaching cursive writing is a waste of time. If cursive writing is not mandatory, then that can lead students to focus on building a larger vocabulary, which will ultimately make them a stronger writer. In Source C, the text states in the last paragraph “the changes imposed by the digital age may be good for writers and writing, because they achieve automatically quicker on the keyboard, today’s third graders may well become better writers as handwriting takes up less of their education.” This piece of text displays how younger children have a better chance at being better writers as handwriting is not taking much of their time. With this extra time the children could be building vocabulary to be a successful writer. Learning cursive writing in school is a waste of time because as the future is approaching the use of cursive is becoming non-existent. Source A states that “the experiences most of us have, with 30 minutes of practicing cursive in class, have gone by the wayside.” This is supporting the fact that the time used learning cursive has not been useful in everyday life.

Going along with a waste of time cursive isn’t used enough to be beneficial, so why learn it. Many schools have cut it out of the curriculum. Source A states that “41 states have adopted the Common Core State Standards for English, which omits cursive handwriting from required curriculum.” Source A clearly displays the ideal that cursive handwriting in the school system isn’t mandatory, because it is stated that 41 states have taken it out of their curriculum.

As time goes on and technology progresses technology will be used more and the use of pencil and paper are going to be more discrete. In addition to that with technology advancing there are going to need to be skills taught about technology. Source A states “The move outside our schools, and in innovative schools, is toward technology.” This from Source A is simply supporting that technology is taking over, because the world after school is filled with technology. From Source C it states “the world is changing, quickly. And while it is hard to make predictions about where technology is headed, it’s safe to say the future won’t involve a lot of cursive handwriting.” With that in mind, it is obvious to see with technology advancing the need for cursive handwriting is decreasing.

To conclude, cursive handwriting shouldn’t be a skill enforced in school.



For any of the following: There is no defensible thesis.The intended thesis only restates the prompt.The intended thesis provides a summary of the issue with no apparent or coherent claim.There is a thesis, but it does not respond to the prompt.Responds to the prompt with a thesis that presents a defensible position.  


Simply restates thesis (if present), repeats provided information, or references fewer than two of the provided sources.Provides evidence from or references at least two of the provided sources   Commentary summarizes the evidence but does not explain how the evidence supports argumentProvides evidence from or references at least three of the provided sources.   Commentary explains how some of the evidence relates to argument, but no line of reasoning is established, or the line of reasoning is faulty.Provides specific evidence from at least three of the provided sources to support all claims in a line of reasoning.   Commentary explains how some of the evidence supports a line of reasoning.  Provides specific evidence from at least three of the provided sources to support all claims in a line of reasoning.   Commentary consistently explains how the evidence supports a line of reasoning.


Responses that do not earn this point:   Attempt to contextualize their argument, but such attempts consist predominantly of sweeping generalizations (“In a world where…” OR “Since the beginning of time…”). Only hint at or suggest other arguments (“While some may argue that…” OR “Some people say…”). Use complicated or complex sentences or language that is ineffective because it does not enhance the argument.Demonstrates sophistication of thought and/or a complex understanding of the rhetorical situation by doing any of the following: Crafting a nuanced argument by consistently identifying and exploring complexities or
Tensions across the sources. Articulating the implications or limitations of an argument (either the student’s argument or an argument conveyed in the sources) by situating it within a broader context. Making effective rhetorical choices that consistently strengthen the force and impact of the student’s argument. Employing a style is consistently vivid and persuasive.

Directions: Find prompt and sources here. Review the sample synthesis essays here and grade them according to the AP rubric. Please provide specific examples and feedback.

Sample Essay #1

Thesis Grade: ____/1

Evidence & Commentary Grade: ____/4

Sophistication Grade: ____/1

  1. What are the essay’s strengths (be specific)?
  1. What are the essay’s areas of improvement (be specific)?
  1. What is one piece of actionable feedback you would give the essay (be specific)?

Sample Essay #2

Thesis Grade: ____/1

Evidence & Commentary Grade: ____/4

Sophistication Grade: ____/1

  1. What are the essay’s strengths (be specific)?
  1. What are the essay’s areas of improvement (be specific)?
  1. What is one piece of actionable feedback you would give the essay (be specific)?

Sample Essay #3

Thesis Grade: ____/1

Evidence & Commentary Grade: ____/4

Sophistication Grade: ____/1

  1. What are the essay’s strengths (be specific)?
  1. What are the essay’s areas of improvement (be specific)?
  1. What is one piece of actionable feedback you would give the essay (be specific)?

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