Changes on the balance sheet and income statement items


Changes on the balance sheet and income statement items

Assetsyear 1year 2ChangeLiabilitiesyear 1year 2Change
Current Assets12502100850Current Liabilities750620-130
Fixed Assets55004820-680Long Term Liabilities48005700900
Total Assets67506920170Total Liabilities55506320770
owners’ Equity72007500300
Total of owners’ Equity and liabilities12750138201070

Changes in assets- The current assets have how a positive change from year one to year two. The difference could be a change in inventory levels, debtors, or the cash at hand. The fixed assets show a negative change, which may be attributable to the company’s plant property and equipment depreciation.

Liabilities-the current liabilities show a negative change, which may be caused by the reduction of the company’s creditors. The long term liabilities show a positive change from year one to year two, which may be caused by the acquisition of a long term debt such as a mortgage.

Equity- the owners’ equity shows a positive change from year one to year two, which may be caused by the acquisition of new company shares.

Year 1Year 2Change
Less cost of goods sold25153305790
Total Revenue248536951210
Less expenses70020001300
Net income17851695-90

Total revenue-from the table we can observe that the total revenue change is positive. However, this does not give the profit/loss position of the company until expenses and taxes are paid out

Net income- from the table, the net income is negative, implying that the company made a loss.

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Pollution in Lake Michigan

Pollution in Lake Michigan

Wetlands present on of the greatest opportunities for conservation exercises in a modern world faced by myriad environmental scares. Inland lakes worldwide are perhaps among the only environmental treasures the world has to protect due to their diversity and environmental importance. In the United States, pollution continues to be a major threat to the integrity of such treasures, which can be protected with the right approaches. The importance of the Great lakes which hold about a fifth of the entire earth’s fresh water cannot be ignored. Pollution concerns of the Great Lakes have been raised by conservationists, inspiring conservation interventions to be designed and carried out. A highlight of the state of pollution, pollutants and conservation interventions at Lake Michigan is made in this discourse. 

Types of Pollution

Lake Michigan has a retention time of about a hundred years, exposing it to several pollution threats. Along the Lake’s basin, several activities take place which further expose the lake to pollution. According to  (Cathy, Emily and Xochi, 1) there are about 362 pollutants that the Great Lakes are exposed to, making Lake Michigan to share in the risks that these pollutants present to the ecosystem. Some of these pollutants include Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs), Dichlorodiphenyl Trichloroethane (DDT), Organochlorides and Organophosphates which are not only toxic but difficult to eliminate and manage when in voluminous quantities. There are indications that heavy metals form a part of the pollutants presenting a serious concern to the conservation inputs employed in the lake. Other pollutants that have been isolated from Lake Michigan and the in some of the other Great Lakes include alkylated lead furans, methylmercury dieldrin, toxaphene dioxins, hexachlorobenzene mirex, metabolites among other dangerous pollutants that have attracted the attention of conservationists in the Lake (Cathy, Emily and Xochi, 1).

According to the Delta Institute (1), a significant number of other air pollutants also threaten Lake Michigan, making it difficult to control the conservation condition, even if the industrial controls were put under checks. According to the Institute, various air pollutants in form of precipitation and other gaseous particles enter into the Lake in huge volumes that need urgent conservation checks. Some of these airborne pollutants threatening the conservation activities at the Lake include Atrazine, toxaphene, cadmium, mercury and incinerated fossil fuel residues.


Regarding the extent of pollution mitigation and conservation measures that the American authorities and conservationists have implemented towards the protection of the Lake, it is with much relief that promising plans can be identified. Lake Michigan occupies the third slot in size among the five Great Lakes and wholly inside the United States. As such, it presents a bundle of important place among the American community. Its conservation means assurance of continuity to the great reliance that the environment and the people in the United States make on it for various needs. Animal life and agricultural usages are among the most important needs that the Lake serves with a direct impact to life. These are among some of the benefits that the American people have identified to make an informed decision about the conservation effort that the Lake needs before irreparable damage has been done.

Various government and non-governmental agencies have deliberately made specific projects toward the conservation of the Lake possible. Among some of the most vocal conservationists with this regard include the Nature Conservancy (TNC) which has employed updated conservation strategies on Lake Michigan that had previously used in major conservation drives in Lakes Ontario and Huron (Lake Michigan Forum, 1). A group of conservation experts drawn from the best conservation institutes across the United States have been identified for this noble course. Besides the American contingent of conservationists into the project, the Lake Michigan Forum reports that other powerful federal machinery have been sought. The other player slotted into the strategy by the Lake Michigan Forum is the Michigan Natural Features Inventory.        

Specific projects already on the ground by various interagency cooperation plans include eliminating basic pollution regulations implementation plans around the Lake with follow-ups by state and federal authorities being placed under strict watch (GLIN, 1). Some of the individual conservation projects carried out by various agencies on the Lake include those by; Michigan Dune Alliance and Michigan Farmland Protection among others (Conservation Fund, 1).  The Lake Michigan Shorelands Alliance (1) is perhaps another powerful agency that facilitates the conservation input at the Lake, alongside other government and non-governmental agencies at the site. The Michigan Department of Natural Resources (1) reports that continued conservation vigilance and enforcement of environmental laws have been strengthened to facilitate a comprehensive conservation drive.

Works Cited

Cathy, Emily & Xochi “The Science of Water Pollution in Lake Michigan,” last updated 20 February 1999. Web. (accessed 15 May 2011)

Delta Institute “Air Toxics Significant Pollution Source of Lake Michigan,” (n.d). Web. (accessed 15 May 2011)

GLIN “Water Pollution in the Great Lakes,” (n.d). Web. (accessed 15 May 2011)

The conservation Fund, “On-going Projects,” 2011. Web. (accessed 15 May 2011) The Michigan Department of Natural Resources, “Lake Michigan Basin,” 2011. Web.,1607,7-153-10370_30909_31053-153460–,00.html (accessed 15 May

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Health economics politics and law and environmental health.



Week 3

This week we are going to talk about health care economic. Health economics, politics and law and environmental health. Health economic is a branch of economics

concerned with issues related to efficiency, effectiveness, value and behavior in the production and consumption of health and healthcare In broad terms, health

economists study the functioning of health care systems and health-affecting behaviors such as smoking.

Read chapter 7, 8 and 12 of the class textbook and review the attached Power Point Presentations. Once you complete the task please answer the following questions;

Why is the U.S. health care market referred to as an “imperfect” market and give and example.

2. What are the financing eligibility, and covered benefits of Medicare and Medicaid?

3. What is the role of the government in the health of its citizens? Give an example.

4. What specific global environmental threats affect public health? Give an example.

As required and stated in the syllabus present your assignment in an APA format with a minimum of 2 evidence based reference, word document attached to the forum in

the discussion tab. An arial 12 font is required, 2 replies sustained with proper references are required to any of your peers. A minimum of 600 words are required.

Text Book:
Community Health Nursing, Caring for the Public’s Health. (2nd ed.) Saucier Lundy, K & Janes, S. (2009). ISBN: 978-0-7637-1786-5

Your responses must be in APA format

Publication Manual American Psychological Association (APA) (6th ed.). 2009 ISBN: 978-1-4338-0561-5

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Health economics, politics and law and environmental health.



Week 3

This week we are going to talk about health care economic. Health economics, politics and law and environmental health. Health economic is a branch of economics

concerned with issues related to efficiency, effectiveness, value and behavior in the production and consumption of health and healthcare In broad terms, health

economists study the functioning of health care systems and health-affecting behaviors such as smoking.

Read chapter 7, 8 and 12 of the class textbook and review the attached Power Point Presentations. Once you complete the task please answer the following questions;

Why is the U.S. health care market referred to as an imperfect” market and give and example.

2. What are the financing eligibility, and covered benefits of Medicare and Medicaid?

3. What is the role of the government in the health of its citizens? Give an example.

4. What specific global environmental threats affect public health? Give an example.

As required and stated in the syllabus present your assignment in an APA format with a minimum of 2 evidence based reference, word document attached to the forum in

the discussion tab. An arial 12 font is required, 2 replies sustained with proper references are required to any of your peers. A minimum of 600 words are required.

Text Book:
Community Health Nursing, Caring for the Publics Health. (2nd ed.) Saucier Lundy, K & Janes, S. (2009). ISBN: 978-0-7637-1786-5

Your responses must be in APA format

Publication Manual American Psychological Association (APA) (6th ed.). 2009 ISBN: 978-1-4338-0561-5

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Environmental impacts of water pollution from industrial effluents


Water pollution generally can loosely be defined as the contamination of water by foreign bodies which can either be soluble or insoluble e.g. dissolved chemicals and solid particles. Water pollution is caused by many factors but this study will focus on the pollution brought about by the spilling of industrial effluents i.e. chemicals coming out of industries and manufacturing firms. Other forms of water pollution include; anthropogenic pollutants emanating from the careless dumping of garbage by people, pesticides from farms and soil erosion e.t.c.

The most dangerous form of water pollution emanates from industries which come in the form of chemicals and very hot water that are either carelessly dumped or later on washed down by surface run-off thus ending up in rivers and lakes inhabited by flora and fauna. Other form of water pollution includes the belching of smoke containing acidic and poisonous gases like carbon dioxide and sulphur dioxide. These gases accumulate in the atmosphere and later on mix with rain water forming acid rain which when it collects in ponds, lakes and other water reservoirs in substantial quantities end up forming acid rain thus interfering with the water P.H by increasing its acidity levels.

The study also proposes solution to this environmental problem and mitigation measures. It also identifies the various stakeholders who play a very central role in addressing this issue of water pollution.

Environmental Impacts of Water Pollution from Industrial Effluents

Water pollution from industrial effluents is one of the very grave causes of water pollution due to its major effects and the time and cost it take to clean such environments or watered areas that have been polluted. This study will examine the impacts of water pollution from industrial effluents to both human and non-living things, mitigations measures and the stakeholders involved plus their roles in ensuring that there is clean water in all the areas.

The origin of water pollution from industrial effluents can be traced way back to the beginning of industrial revolution in the 18th and 19th Centuries. Many nations of the world especially in the north developed quite a number of industries in an attempt to attain economic development. Many had just emerged from the impacts of the Second World War and were therefore in a hurry to catch up with the rest of the world in terms of development. This development was done without taking into account the impacts that these industries would have on the environment and so development went ahead while the environmental paid the heavy price for it.

Industries generally have a two-fold impact to the environmental and especially on water pollutions.  Water pollutions by industries and factories therefore take two forms; one is through the effluents that are constantly being washed away into water courses including hot water that is released into rivers. Secondly, industries through their operations emit poisonous gases; to the atmosphere. These gases which include carbon dioxide and sulphur dioxide accumulate in the atmosphere and later on mix with rain to from acid rain which when combines with the waters in ponds and other water bodies, affect the chemical properties of the water thereby affecting the aquatic lifestyle.

a)      Effects Of Water Pollution

All living things depend on water on their survival and therefore whenever one of them gets affected, the others in the food chain follows suit. Excel Water Technologies argues that the presence of high levels of toxic metals in drinking water – Arsenic, Cadmium, Lead, Mercury, and Silver. Pose the greatest threat to human health. Whenever these chemicals get infused in the food chain, they are passed on to the preceding member and when they reach the human being, man also consumes food like fish containing traces of heavy metals in them thus when accumulated in considerable amounts they results in fatal disease like cancer. Water pollution also causes water borne diseases. According to research by Grinning the Planet;

“Waterborne diseases occur when parasites or other disease-causing microorganisms are transmitted via contaminated water, particularly water contaminated by pathogens originating from excreta. These include typhoid, intestinal parasites, and most of the enteric and diarrheal diseases caused by bacteria, parasites, and viruses.”

Animals like birds are also affected. When water containing oil and other chemical compounds finds its way into lakes ad ponds, birds and other marine life forms die as a result of poisoning and lack of oxygen. Plants are also affected as the leaves are not able to breathe effectively and carry out the process of transpiration.

b)      Proposed Mitigative Strategies Against Water Pollution

Since water pollution is a man’s problem, it can therefore only be solved by man himself. If several basic environmental ethics are adhered to, the issue of a polluted environment will be a thing of the past. Some of the proposed mitigative strategies include; responsible waste disposal. Industries should set a side an area away from wetlands and water bodies where they could dump their waste responsibly. The economic theory of polluter pay principle should be adopted by the government to ensure that whenever there’s an oil spillage thereby causing danger to the general environment, the company bearing the responsibility should foot the bills for cleaning up its mess.

There should also be awareness campaigns both in the media and environmental forums where people are taught on the importance of conserving our environment and also equipped with the necessary know-how on how to go about cleaning the environment.

The governments could also enact an environmental law that would guard against the unscrupulous business men and individuals who would want to dump waste without following the proper procedures.

c)      Current Sustainability Strategies And Solutions

In order to attain sustainability for the strategies and solutions mentioned above a few things need to be done.  First and foremost, governments need to establish an environmental body which would act as a watch dog against companies and individuals steeped on breaking the law. Such body will have the mandate of not just monitoring and evaluations but also advising the governments on the way forward.

There should also be established an environmental kitty in addition to the budgetary allocations to the environment ministry. Such a kitty will ensure that there are always funds available for running g various environmental programs i.e. capacity building sessions and acquisitions of the latest technology like Geographical information Systems that could be used for monitoring purposes.

d)     Challenges of the strategies

The main challenge is sustainability and commitment. The program requires a lot of funds and a dedicated team of professionals who could work tirelessly with a passion for the environment. Another issue involves a situation where a problem straddles across the international boundaries where environmental laws are either none-existent are in conflict with the other country.

e)      Stakeholder involvement

These initiative mentioned here would definitely require the support and goodwill of various stakeholders in order to work effectively. According to UNEP, in order to tackle the issue of water pollution effectively, a mechanism should be set up with the government taking the leadership, relevant departments taking the responsibilities, environmental departments carrying out supervision and management, enterprises conducting treatment, and the public supervising and participating so that the pollution treatment effects will last for long term. This therefore calls for coordination among the various stakeholders in order to achieve synergy in environmental conservation. Funding to facilitate various activities is also expected to come from the government. Development partners like NGOs focusing on environment would also be key in achieving this mammoth task. They would provide technical know-how and supplement the government’s finances for running environmental programs. Last but not the least are the industrialists themselves. If they would be engaged in a conversation about the dangers of industrial effluents importance of responsible dumping, a great deal would have been achieved.


In conclusion, its better to appreciate the fact when one area of the environment suffers, other areas suffer as well because we re all in a connected chain. Chemical effluents have been known for centuries to be a very big challenge for many governments not only because they are costly to clean up, but most importantly, many discharges contains non-biodegradable chemicals compounds and heavy metals that pose a great risk to both flora and fauna both aquatic and non-aquatic and therefore its incumbent upon each and every one of us to be conscious about our environment and strive to ensure that its protect and clean by living responsible lifestyles.

References (n.d). Retrieved June 03, 2010, from (n.d). Retrieved June 04, 2010 from (n.d). Retrieved June 04, 2010 from


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Environmental biology ocean biomes

Environmental Biology Oceanic Biome A Biome is a large naturally occurring community of flora and fauna occupying a major habitat. There are a couple different types of biomes. There are six major groups of biomes which are; freshwater, marine, desert, forest, grassland, tundra. Then these six groups are broken down a bit father. In this paper we will discuss part of the marine biome which is the ocean biome. When one thinks of very large bodies of water such as the ocean, we are talking about marine biomes.

Instead of freshwater it contains saltwater. They also include the coral reefs and estuaries. The ocean biome is the largest of all of the worlds. Which makes sense considering that the majority of the world surface is made up of water. Due to the massive size of the biome, there are many subcategories offered as well. This is a good thing because it makes it possible for them to evaluate things further. Thanks to the technology of today we are allowed to see what occurs with the relationships among the animals and plants that live there.

You can’t help but recognize the importance of the ocean biome. There is so much more to the ocean then refreshing water and enjoyable to engage with, there is so much activity that goes on underneath. This is because most of the animals and plants live in areas where we don’t see very often. If you go out to the ocean to where you can no longer touch, you are nowhere near the depths of what it really is. This biome is by far the largest being found on 71% of the planet’s surface.

There are five ocean biomes in the world, Atlantic Ocean, Pacific Ocean, Indian Ocean, Southern Ocean, and the Arctic Ocean. Then they branch into the world’s major seas. The largest one is the Pacific. It is 64 million square miles. The deepest part of any ocean biome in the world is the Mariana Trench. It is 36,200 feet deep. The average temperature is 39 °F. There are different types of plant life that live under water. Phytoplankton, kelp, and paddle grass are just a few examples.

There are also very many types of animals that live in the ocean such as whales, sharks, octopus, dolphins, sea cucumbers, and squids. Dolphins are my personal favorite. They help balance out the numbers eating a variety of fish and animals. They go though some struggles dealing with water pollution just like all other animals. Humans have to realize how there environmental awareness in taking care of this world’s oceans is very important because we are affecting everything in the ocean.

As we can see we have to take very good care of our world’s oceans. Covering most of our planet and having so many different types of plants and animals we have to acknowledge our impact on it. We have to be self-conscience of our effects on it in polluting our waters. The animals suffer so much getting caught in trash or dying of dirty water. Works Cited http://bioexpedition. com/ocean-biome/ http://www. ucmp. berkeley. edu/exhibits/biomes/marine. php#oceans http://www. ehow. com/list_7427082_plants-live-ocean-biome. html

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The key environmental drivers in the airline industry

Assignment Submitted Monday 20th December 2004
1. The Key Environmental Drivers in the Airline Industry

(appendix , PESTEL / Porters Five forces)
The airline industry is a turbulent and competitive sector, influenced by multiple environmental variables/driving forces. How these key drivers influence individual sectors within the industry differ.

Political issues, such as the threat of ongoing war in the Middle East, and more recently issues in Sth. America have driven oil prices up. This is intrinsically linked to the cost of aviation fuel. Whilst these political factors have direct economical ramifications such as increasing fuel costs, increased congestion, environmental restrictions, higher security, and insurance, they also have potentially indirect devastating socio-cultural effects for the airline industry, upon the attitudes towards air travel. The result of these shifts in attitudes cause a snowball effect throughout the industry. Where by, a decrease in air travelers, impacts upon airline profits, whilst the requirements for increased airport security, result in a slower turn-around for operators, increasing costs for the airlines, and in turn raising the cost of air tickets. Large numbers of network carriers have resulted in a substantial overcapacity in the market, which was exacerbated by the events stemming from September 11th. These all reflect the increased perceived risk of terrorism.

Surprisingly these key drivers have proven to be potentially advantageous for the ‘no frills’ airlines. An increase in low-cost airline passengers reflects, or more so suggests, a general consensus that these airlines are less likely to be targeted by terrorists. Whilst major airlines suffered immensely post 911, the European low-cost airlines entered a period of unprecedented growth. We could also ascertain to an extent, that the perceived risks associated are not subject to short-haul flights. Additional key drivers in the growth of low cost airlines include the deregulation of the European Airline industry, increases in disposable income, leisure time and internet use.

Key technological advancements have been of particular benefit to ‘low-cost’ airlines. They have facilitated the implementation, of such systems as internet booking. This combined with shifting attitudes towards purchasing tickets online has been capitalized upon by the ‘no-frills’ airline sector.

2. Critical Success factors for ‘low cost’ airlines
The ‘low-cost’ airlines share a common approach to conducting business. This stems from the business model established by Southwest (US since 1967). Southwest has paved the way, proving to be a model organization for ‘low-cost’ airlines. Critical to the success of ‘low-cost’ airlines, as the name suggests, is the delivery of competitively lower(cost efficient) travel costs to the consumer, compared with their major counterparts. Customers expect a service that places price over comfort. Factors determined by consumers/stakeholders are central to success, thus it is critical for the organization to able to consistently meet these requirements (Thomson, 2004). “…we aim to provide our customers with safe, good value, point-to-point air services. To effect and to offer a consistent and reliable product and fares appealing to leisure and business markets on a range of European routes. To achieve this we will develop our people and establish lasting relationships with our suppliers” (Easyjet 2004). Easyjet’s mission statement outlines the company’s aspirations or promises, therefore determining, to a degree, stakeholders expectations of their service. It clearly states that Easyjet aims to provide a safe, good value and reliable transportation. We could therefore state that critical to Easyjets success is the delivery of these promises. There are also, however a number of critical success factors dictated by the industry or nature of the business environment. These airlines concentrate on providing point to point, short-haul flights throughout Europe. Distinguishing factors consistent across all ‘low-cost’ carriers, include the ability to sustain minimal operational costs and significant investment in ongoing promotional activities, which contribute towards enhancing market place awareness and perception. The establishment of a strong culture and public image, reinforced by clear, and recognizable branding is also evident. Online bookings account for 90% of Easyjets business. Internet accessibility
(online booking) and the supporting technological infrastructure of their service, has also proven a fundamental imperative for ‘low-cost operators’. The necessary financial backing to support the operations/infrastructure, human resource requirements, and physical assets (ie.planes etc), establishment of an efficient and effective supply chain and logistics are all critical to the carriers success. How does Easyjet meet these critical success factors? Easyjet meets stakeholders expectations by effectively ensuring costs ‘across the board’ are kept to a minimum. This includes strategic decisions to fly mostly to smaller less popular airports, where landing slots are more readily available, tariffs are cheaper, and planes can be turned around more efficiently. Concurrently they are vigilant in ensuring that all aspects of operations are sufficiently slimmed in the most cost efficient and effective manner, whilst maintaining the necessary safety standards to meet or surpass the CSF’s. The company maintains its position, on offering only point to point services. Easyjet recognize the need for, and invest extensively in the promotion of, the culture and image of the company. This cultural marketing has been reinforced by their bold distinctive branding coupled with the charismatic charm of Haji-Ioannou.

The company has consistently demonstrated the ability to yield large profits, essential means by which to finance the current and future prospects for the company. It strategically chose to increase available capital by floating on the stock market, as opposed to raising capital through extensive borrowing (gearing). Until recently, Easyjet chose to operate only one type of aircraft. This also, was a strategic choice, which has multiple advantages such as reducing overheads incurred in training operational staff, and the reduction of the maintenance variables and associated costs of maintaining their fleet at the industry standard.

3. Easyjets Core Competencies

In the ‘low cost’ airline industry it is necessary to be competent across a range of areas in order to be a viable market contender. However, it is clear that Easyjet excel in several areas, hence highlighting their core
competencies. The ongoing success (increasing profit margins and business growth) of Easyjet, indicates an exceptional ability to consistently maintain low costs and entice new customers in what is a turbulent and competitive environment. How do they achieve this? Where is the magic?

A combination of vigilant cost cutting, throughout Easyjet’s value chain, whilst continually meeting stakeholders requirements demonstrates an extraordinary ability to position themselves, on the cost versus benefits threshold (customer threshold requirements). Distinguishing operational ‘cost-cutting’ procedures include their ticket-less boarding system and near paperless office. Although these could be perceived as insignificant or minor procedures, they do, to an extent represent the innovative thinking embodied within the organization. It is important to note that clearly both these, and similar procedures can be easily imitated by competitors, however the organizational culture that stimulates this innovative environment, is not so easily replicated.

“To a great extent the culture of the organization is dictated by the strategic leader”(Thomson, 2004 pg.421) The charismatic leadership qualities of Haji-Ioannou coupled with Ray Webster, previously of Air New Zealand, form a dynamic team of solid experience backed with entrepreneurial flair. It is Haji-Ioannou’s vision and public persona which reinforces and has influenced the embedded culture of the organization. ”An entrepreneur is a person who habitually creates and innovates, to build something of recognized value around perceived opportunities” (Thomson 2004, pg. 425) Haji-Ioannou has clearly identified the significance of culture within organization, and has effectively utilized and marketed it, hence shaping the publics perception of the company. This gives a face to the carrier, in turn differentiating Easyjet, in what is a difficult industry to make your product stand out, especially when your competitors are offering a very similar product. By no means is this a revolutionary concept, but one which has been tried and tested by predecessors in the airline industry including that of the ‘model’ business Southwest and the ever so ‘lime-light’ hungry Richard Branson. Nevertheless this marketing approach has proven successful in differentiating the carrier, thus clearly being a strong
competence, hence advantage over competitors.

“The webs favorite Airline “(ezyjet website, 2004) Without buying into the marketing propaganda, it is clear how successful Easyjet has been, at identifying not only the opportunity, but also strategically implementing and marketing their online booking system. This has set the bar for other ‘low-cost’ carriers. Access to online booking is clearly a CSF or ‘lynch pin’ in Easyjet’s operations and is an integral ‘value-adding’ part of the process in which they have indisputably demonstrated extreme competence in establishing and maintaining. (appendix 5:Value Chain Analysis) Considering the turbulent and competitive nature of the Airline industry, it is clear, that the competencies stemming from operational capabilities are somewhat durable, but they also can be easily transferred or replicated by competitors. However the more tacit sources of competitive advantage are much more difficult for competitors to replicate. These factors implicate concerns, regarding the sustainability of competitive advantage, hence highlighting the need within this industry for active identification of opportunity and innovation in meeting it.(Kotler, 2003) 4. Easyjets Strategic Capability

Thomson 2003, defines strategic capability as the ability to be able to meet, or to beat that of your competitor’s competencies. This can be achieved through benchmarking or comparing the company’s resources.

Key capabilities are reflected by not only the CSF’s and the core competencies (see 2&3) but also the company’s resources. A significant capability, fundamental for implementation of strategy is the company’s financial resources.

Both Ryanair and Easyjet have demonstrated excellent financial growth. Both company’s have large capital available to finance expansion. (Cash in the bank Ezyjet 427,894,000, Ryan Air 899,275,000 – 2002). The figures for ROCE(return on capital employed) suggest that Ryanair(10.3%, 2002) is slightly out-performing Easyjet (8.48%, 2002). These ratio’s, demonstrates Ryanairs ability to gain marginally higher returns on their available
resources before making any distribution of those returns. The sales ratio’s reflect the total asset utilization. These figures (Ryanair 39.46%, Easyjet 68.58%) indicate what sales are being generated by each pound worth of assets invested in the business. It is clear that Easyjet is gaining more from their investment than their counterpart. This undoubtedly is a positive benchmark, although it may reflect some limitations in improving these figures.(appendix 2:Financial comparison). Both Ryanair and Easyjet have substantial financial backing (cash in the bank) to support ongoing business and expansion.

(Appendix 3: SWOT Analysis) This brings to question, whether the climate/environment is suitable for expansion. Experts believe there are too many carriers in Europe, and suggest that low cost airlines need to be consolidated. Easyjet recently acquired ‘Go’ airlines. I recommend that in light of their current positioning (Environment, Industry, Competitiveness, Financial strength) they continue to strategically seek new acquisitions, in the pursuit of further market dominance/growth (appendix 4: strategic positioning). As the UK Market is nearing saturation, there is clearly a substantial shortfall of ‘no frill’ carriers covering Europe. This along with the incorporation of new countries into the EU, presents a vital opportunity for the expansion of Easyjet’s routes. Their current situation strongly indicates, favorable circumstances, by which to capitalize on such opportunities. This will require substantial investment in new planes, staff and necessary airport infrastructure. They currently have the resources to embrace such a strategic approach, although sufficient contingency plans must be established to counter potential risks, such as expanding too quickly. The potential benefits however, by far outweigh these risks. Concurrent to these strategic approaches, the airline must maintain its current focus on cost and innovation, vigilant in ensuring sustainment of their current competitive advantage.


D, Rae (2001) ‘Easyjet: a case of entrepreneurial management’ Strategic Change, 10,6,325-336 available from Emerald database [accessed 16th December

Thompson, J (2004) ‘ Strategic Management’ 4th edition, Italy : Thomson Learning


Easyjet (2004) ‘ Annual report 2003 ‘ available from [accessed 12th December 2004]

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Flottau,J et al (2004) ‘ The No Frills march on’ Aviation Week & Space Technology, Vol.160 issure 19, p62. available from EBSCO [accessed 12th December 2004]

Ford,N (2004) ‘Low cost airlines enter the Gulf marker’ Middle East, March 2004, issue 343 ,p40. available from EBSCO [accessed 12th December 2004]

Harvard Business Review (2004) available from [accessed August 04 – Dec]

Johnson, G & Scholes,K (2002) ‘Exploring Corporate Strategy’ 6th edition, England : Pearson Education.

Kotler, P (2003) “Marketing Management”(11th edition). England, Prentice Hall

Mullins, L (2004) ‘ Management and Organizational Behavior’ England, Prentice Hall

Slack N, Chambers.S, Johnson,R (2004) ‘Operations Management’ 4th edition, England : Pearson Education.

The Economist (2004) available from
[accessed August 04 – Dec]

Appendix 1

PEST Analysis

Political-Legal factors
 Threat of ongoing war in the middles east.  Fear of terrorism has reduced passenger numbers and increased the need for security, and resulted in a slower turn around of planes.  Eu expansion may provide access to new potential markets.  De-regulation of the European Airline Industry  European countries are underdeveloped in terms on no frills and these offer huge potential for further growth.  environmental laws regarding pollution ( both noise and CO2)  Eu legislation is increasing the statutory levels of compensation for compensating canceled flights.  Experts believe there is not the room for the multitude of Airlines in Europe, indicating the need for restructuring and consolidation of the industry.

Economical factors
 increasing fuel costs
 the need for higher security and insurance post 911 (reflect terrorism)  The positive effects of globalization
 Increases in disposable income
 The recent introduction of a single European currency has reduced translation costs for carriers and lessened the risk of exposure to adverse
movements in foreign currency.  Airport charges have risen to reflect both increased security.  Increasing threat of global recession

 European countries are underdeveloped in terms of no-frills airlines
Socio Cultural Factors
 promotional factors
 Some apprehension (germany and …….) using credit cards online  It appears that many passengers believe that low cost airlines are less likely to become the target of terrorists.  Passengers can be disappointed when the actual price they have to pay for a ticket is much higher than the advertised price.

Technological Factors
 How can they effectively utilize new technology to offset the increasing costs.  The need for easyjet to keep up to pace with competitors in order to maintain competitive advantage.  The growth of the internet and the willingness of individuals to use the facility to book tickets.  Easyjet must keep up-to-date with technological developments oin the field of e-commerce and aircraft manufacture in order to gain a competitive advantage.

Porters five forces : Competitive Analysis

The Threat of Substitutes
There is little threat from other modes of transport like cars and trains on domestic routes. Airlines have a time and cost advantage.
The Threat of New Entrants
Easy jet ( startup costs ) …. The cost of entry imposes some restrictions upon entering the airline market. There are limited take-off and landing sights…

The Power of Suppliers
Established airlines have more power over suppliers.
The price of fuel is directly related to the cost of oil, airlines have no power of this as it is subject to global political and economical factors. Easyjet is dependent on only two suppliers, being airbus and Boeing. This could cause problems with the availability of parts.

The Power of buyers
The low cost market is fiercely competitive on price, providing the customer with a range of low cost alternatives. The ability for the customers to shop around makes the buyer power relatively strong.

Rivalry among existing firms
Major competitors : Ryanair, BMIbaby, Mytravellite and buzz in the UK. Virgin express, Hapag Lloyd express, Germanwings and Air Berlin could possibly become competitors in the future. RyanAir is the only airline which has continued show profits continuously. BA and other large traditional carriers are to an extent competitors as well, but to a much lesser degree… Due to the huge cost base for these airlines it is unlikely they will ever be able to directly compete with the low-cost airlines. Low cost expansion is somewhat contradictory to the environmental factors…….

Appendix 2.

Financial Comparison Easyjet vs Ryanair 2002

Ryanair 10.30%
Easyjet 8.48%
Sales/capital employed
Ryanair 39.46%
Easyjet 68.58%

Cash balances

financial sound – Cash in the bank 427,894,000 Ryan Air 899,275,000 Bank and other loans

Easyjet liabilities – 804,692,000
Ryanair – 1,581,380,000

Shareholders capital

E – 97,919,000
R – 9,587,000

Working Capital ( stocks, debtors,,,,) %
E % = 62%
R % = 93%

Appendix 3.

SWOT Analysis
Strengths &
Potential for growth. (EU expansion)
The Need for higher security & insurance post 911
Crowded Marketplace
Need for consolidation
More full-service airlines may withdraw
Growth focus on price and convenience are reaching there limits Difficulties in finding new viable routes from london

Main Strengths

Image differentiation on price & brand




Financially Resources





Is perceived as being innovative and successful




Stong e-business

Main weaknesses

Operates only within Europe

– –
Image differentiation on price and brand
– –

– – –

– –

– – –










Appendix 4

Appendix 5

‘Key aspects’ Value Chain Analysis : EasyJet

Inbound Logistics +
– Central location (airport)
– Close to maintence
– close to suppliers??
Operations +++++
– efficient and accessabile booking/reservation system – organizational learning
Outbound logistics
– Selection of the same planes to reduce associated costs Marketing ++
– Stong brand differentiation
– Charismatic leadership
– Competitive pricing
– service deliver to required/expected level? – most of the time Procurement
– Strong relationships with suppliers
– Bulk puchases….planes etc
Technological Development ++
– Large investment in technology to support online booking etc. HRM ++
– Open, relaxed and cooperative environment – Ongoing development
Firm infrastructure
– Cost effective information systems
– Few management levels, reduce overheads

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The importance of environmental disclosure towards society accounting essay

This chapter begins with subdivision 2.

2 that provides information about the environmental revelation and the importance of environmental revelation towards society. Section 2. 3 reappraisal the anterior surveies on association of assorted corporate features with environmental revelation. These corporate features include environmental sensitive companies, fiscal public presentation, ISO 14000 companies every bit good as purchase.

Section 2. 4 discuss some background information on the development of environmental revelation in Malaysia and eventually Section 2. 5 buttockss theoretical model on the CSR revelation patterns As clip goes by, the company ‘s battle in CSR issues has developed and so as the extent to which they unwrap the information. Previous researches indicated a gradual addition for CSR revelation in companies ‘ one-year studies.

However Ten ( 2009 ) claimed that Malayan corporate societal coverage pattern is still at its babyhood, peculiarly in the environmental country. Environmental coverage was ab initio studied as portion of societal coverage ( Pahuja, 2009 ) .Assorted survey have been done about corporate societal coverage and environment coverage. ( Pahuja.

2009 ) . Previous survey has been predict the voluntary environmental revelation over a longitudinal period. ( Razeed, 2009 ; Yusoff et Al, 2005 ; Campbell, 2004 ) Some of research worker have done a longitudinal surveies to looked the tendency of environmental information. ( Yusoff, Yatim & A ; Nasir, 2005 ; Cambell, 2004 ; Ten, 2004 ) .

Harmonizing to Othman and Ameer ( 2009 ) corporate environmental coverage is refers to a corporation ‘s release of environmental public presentation information to the general populace.Pahuja ( 2009 ) has been made an effort to statistically prove the combined impact of selected variables on environmental coverage patterns of big fabricating companies in India. Environmental coverage by the public sector companies was found to be significantly higher than those operating in the private sector. Jaafar ( 2006 ) found that environmental information was reported in the Review of operation ( 30 per centum ) and Chairman ‘s Statement ( 17 per centum ) .

All of this environmental information was reported on a voluntary footing since no information was found in the statutory subdivision of one-year reported. The bulk of the companies reported environmental information in the general statements or quantitative- non-monetary informations signifier. The degree of quality measured based on subjects and location of environmental information in one-year reported, the mean mark obtain merely nine which considered really low. This indicates that the environmental affairs was non reported in elaborate and found in the less of import subdivisions in one-year study.

In add-on Dragomir ( 2009 ) and Clarkson et Al ( 2008 ) used an environmental revelation index, inspired by the Global Reporting Initiative Guideline which are forms the footing for the content analysis of sustainability study published before the twelvemonth terminal of 2008. Disclosure index surveies are assume that the sum of revelation on specified subject is a placeholder for the quality of revelation. Besides, this index better gaining controls steadfast revelations related to its committedness to protect the environment than the indices employed by anterior surveies.In contrast, Cho ( 2009 ) had been investigate whether a higher degree of governmental support for standalone coverage is associated with differences in the extent of revelation.

These researcher utilizing two separate environmental revelation hiting prosodies and analyze the extent of environmental revelation made by a matched sample of 25 South Korean and 25 U. S companies in standalone sustainability-type studies. Their consequences show, utilizing either revelation graduated table, that South Korean companies ‘ environmental revelation are significantly more extended than the revelations for U. S.

opposite numbers.Environmental revelation patterns are affected by some other factors like fouling nature of industry, foreign association of the company, its association of the company, its associations with big concern houses or place of the company in the planetary market. ( Pahuja, 2009 ) As for that Pahuja ( 2009 ) have been explore the environmental revelation patterns by selected big fabricating companies in India and take into consideration these issue. There was an addition in the figure of surveies analyzing the motives behind Malayan environmental revelations utilizing different theoretical positions and Methodologies.

Environmental information is a strategic mechanism used towards heightening good corporate repute of the company. Yusoff et Al ( 2005 ) it is really of import for the company to unwrap their environmental information that shows the corporate environmental public presentation. The growing of environmental describing enterprises to guarantee its effectivity to carry through the demand and demands of stakeholders. Battle in environmental coverage amongst listed companies varies between sectors.

( ERRM, 2002 ) .Sector with greater environmental impact which are industrial merchandise, plantation, consumer merchandise, trading, building and substructure appeared to be more active in describing environmental information. The environmental sensitive industry has been identified as industry where the operation of companies in the industry can hold a significant negative impact to the environment. ( Jaafar, 2006 ) .

The industry which is consider as an environmental sensitive company are agribusiness, plantation, excavation, chemical, building, transit, fabrication, trading and services, wood and lumber every bit good as oil and gas companies.Jaafar ( 2006 ) has been investigated the environmental coverage patterns by environmentally debatable companies which are define as a companies that are non in conformity of the environmental ordinance. The survey found that merely 44 per centum of environmental debatable companies ( 14/ 32 ) has provided environmental information in their one-year studies. Twelve of these 14 companies ( or 86 per centum ) have reported positive environmental information while two others companies reported both negative and positive information.

In add-on, 93. 75 per centum of environmentally debatable companies ( 30 out of 32 ) did non advert this job in their one-year studies. Furthermore, Dragomir ( 2010 ) besides examine the relationship between environmentally sensitive companies and environmental revelation of 60 of the largest Europian Union industrial concern group for the twelvemonth 2008. However Yusoff et Al ( 2006 ) examine the motive factor from both environmental sensitive companies and non environmental sensitive companies towards environmental revelation and found that the industry factor has no function in advancing environmental revelation among Malayan companiesAmongs most of the research workers found that industry type has no relationship towards environmental revelation, Goa, Heravi and Xiao ( 2005 ) have been examine the environmental revelation by analysing 33 listed companies and found that there is a positive relationship between industry differences towards environmental revelation.

Fiscal public presentation shows how good the company is able to run into its fiscal duties, whereas low liquidness ratios predict bankruptcies.Different profitableness and growing steps used hold given beliing marks for its association with revelation quality. Pahuja ( 2009 ) has been define profitableness as the ratio of net net incomes to net gross revenues. The ratio indicates net net income border on gross revenues.

Its steps the capableness of the company in order to run concern successfully every bit good as to cover disbursals occur efficaciously. The higher the ratio will be the profitableness of the organisation.Accordings to Jaafar ( 2006 ) the mean per centum of return on assets of these companies is 5. 2 per centum and besides indicated that there are non much differences in fiscal public presentation between companies that produced positive or negative environmental information.

The rate of return on assets is 11. 16 per centum for companies that provide environmental revelation compared with 11. 5 per centum of companies that provided negative environmental revelation. Pahuja ( 2009 ) besides provide an grounds in support of the hypotheses related to influence of the profitableness on environmental revelation patterns.

The consequence indicate that large and more profitable companies provide more information on environment than little and less profitable companies severally. In contrast, Dragomir ( 2009 ) and Leary ( 2003 ) found that there is no association between fiscal public presentation and environmental revelation. However, some of the survey done by the old research workers show that there is a important relationship between company public presentation and environmental revelation ( Stanwick and Stanwick, 1998 ; Cormier, Ledoux and Mangan ( 2009 ) .Sumiani et Al.

2007 had been examined the revelations made by top 50 Malayan public companies to research the describing behavior of ISO-certified companies. They found that out of 36 unwraping companies, 13 were ISO14001 certified and all the ISO-certified houses provided some signifier of environmental revelation in their one-year studies. Lapp goes to Saizarbitoria, Landin and Azorin ( 2010 ) stated that the internal drivers to implement and attest the ISO 14000 criterions have a grade of influence on the environmental revelation. However, Ten ( 2009 ) noted that non all ISO 14000 companies showed an environmental revelation.

Harmonizing to bureau theory higher monitoring costs would be incurred by houses that are extremely leveraged. To cut down these costs, houses are expected to unwrap more information. Leverage is the ratio of debt that is refer to the non current liabilities and plus that is refer to average entire plus. ( Razeed, 2009 ; Ten, 2004 ) .

The more the companies rely on debt funding, the more company will supply an environmental revelation to be seen as a company is being seen as a company with lower hazard ( Campbell, Sefcik and Soderstrom, 2003 ) .Pahuja ( 2009 ) stated that the companies with higher debt-equity ratio are expected to unwrap more environmental information than the companies with lower debt -equity ratio. In his survey, ratio of entire debt to equity was used as it has a important impact on the ability of an organisation to obtain extra financess. It gives some thought about the protection given to loaners if the organisation become insolvent.

Lapp goes to Cormier, Ledoux and Mangan ( 2009 ) that found that purchase have a important impact towards environmental revelation.However, Leary ( 2003 ) revealed that there is no association between purchase and environmental revelation. In a underdeveloped state like Malaysia, the betterment of stuff public assistance tends to have top prirority ( Cho, 2009 ) . The growing of Malayan economic system, on the other manus, has accelerated the enlargement and globalisation of concern endeavors, which in bend, has induced increased social demands for a cleansing agent environment.

As clip goes by, there are no statutory demand in Malaysia necessitating public listed companies to unwrap environmental information to the populace.Current ordinance sing environmental revelation including Environmental quality Act 1974, Occupational Safety and Health Act 1994, Listing Requirements of Kuala Lumpur stock exchange 2001, Malayan Accounting Standards Boards and Malaysian Code on Corporate Governance 2001. The chief power for the bar and control of environmental pollution in Malaysia is the Department of Environment ( DOE ) , a section under the umbrella of the Ministry of Science, Technology and Environment ( MOSTE ) .MOSTE is responsible for developing environmental Torahs and ordinances, while DOE is responsible for developing criterions and guidelines for guaranting conformity.

There is no specific demand on the revelation of environmental information under the Environmental Quality Act 1974. However, there are requirement under sub-regulation 17 of Occupational Safety and Health Act ( OSHA ) 1994 for the revelation of information with regard to personal safety, which could be interpreted to cover cases that affect both people and environment.Besides, sub-regulation 22 of occupational safety and wellness ( control of industrial Major accidents ) CIMAH ordinances, 1996 for makers to unwrap information to public relating to the nature of a major accident jeopardy including its possible effects on the population every bit good as the environment. Furthermore, demand for revelation of information under the companies Act, 1965 are financially oriented, with no mention to environmental information.

Under the Act, every company meaning to carry on a concern in Malaysia must register with the Registry of Companies ( ROC ) before beginning of any concern activity.In add-on, the merely other beginning of environmental coverage guidelines is the Malayan Accounting Standards Board ( MASB ) . Financial Reporting Standard ( FRS ) 101 ( once known as MASB 1 ) makes expressed mention to environmental studies promoting companies to show extra information if direction believes they will help users in doing economic determinations. FRS 137 ( once MASB 20 ) sets out the revelation demands for the acknowledgment of contingent liabilities and assets.

Although FRS 137 does non supply specific inside informations of the types of liability, it is foreseeable that environmental liabilities could potentially be included within a company ‘s fiscal statement. It is clear from the above treatment that one-year study environmental revelation in Malaysia is mostly optional. Despite the absence of compulsory demand, the literature reveals that Malayan corporate environmental coverage pattern is on the addition ( Ten, 2009 ) . Traveling towards the vision of 2020, Malaysia have been gone through Ninth program period, 2006-2010.

For the Ninth Plan, environmental stewardship will go on to be promoted to guarantee that the balance between development demands and the environment is maintained. Environmental be aftering tool such as environmental appraisal, cost benefit analysis, market-based instrument and environmental auditing will be progressively applied in measuring and extenuating environmental impact of development activities. The theoretical context, associating to a few theories that can assist in explicating what really motivated voluntary revelation among companies.The related theoretical model adopted comprises of the institutional theory, legitimacy theory and stakeholder theory.

This theory implies the relationship between an organisation and its broader institutional context. The constructs of establishment can be indicted every bit equivocal as it has been defined in assorted ways. Institutional theory asserts as a distinguishing procedure whereby one accepts a shared definition of societal duty. In other words, companies are motivated to unwrap environmental activity because it was perceived to be well-accepted patterns by other companies as good.

Despite of that, DiMaggio and Powell ( 1983 ) has suggested the ‘new institutionalism ‘ , which the key statement is that organisational patterns has changed and become institutionalised because they are considered as legitimate. They identify three mechanisms of institutional isomorphous alteration that are the coercive, mimetic and normative procedures. DiMaggio and Powell ( 1983 ) further explain the coercive isomorphy as the external codified regulations, ordinances, norms and Torahs that assigned the legitimacy to new direction patterns. The legitimacy theory underpins the kernel of the relationship between company and its stakeholders.

Disclosure schemes, which in this survey, focal point on the environmental revelation go the manner companies manage this relationship. Harmonizing to Jantadej and Kent ( 1999 ) , legitimacy theory is based on the underlying construct of the societal contract that exists between houses and societies within which houses operate and consumes resources. Legitimacy can be considered as a generalised perceptual experience or premise that the actions of an entity are desirable, proper, or allow within some socially constructed system of norms, values, beliefs and definitions ( Suchman, 1995 ) .Firms seeking to derive or keep legitimacy have an inducement to utilize communicating schemes, including fiscal study revelations, to potentially act upon social perceptual experiences ( Lindblom, 1994 ) .

In this respects, old research into environmental coverage suggests that companies can try to protect their legitimacy by utilizing the corporate one-year study to unwrap voluntary information about their societal and environmental activities ( Mastrodanas & A ; Strife, 1993 ; De Villiers & A ; Van Staden, 2006 ) .It has been argued that the inclusion of voluntary information in the one-year study can be, and is used by directors to direct specific signals and messages to the populace ( Salancik & A ; Meindl, 1984 ) . Amernic ( 1992 ) besides asserts that the inclusion of information in the corporate one-year study is used to carry readers to accept directions ‘ position of society and that one-year studies are both brooding and constitutive of a wider set of social values ( Dyball, 1998 ) .Deegan ( 2002 ) and Campbell et al.

( 2003 ) have opined that legitimacy theory has become the most widely used theory to explicate environmental revelation as there is mounting grounds that directors adopt legalizing schemes. Harmonizing to Magness ( 2006 ) , advocates of legitimacy theory have suggested several ways that companies use treatment of non-financial issues to pull off stakeholder feeling. Legitimacy theory has its roots in the thought of a societal contract between the corporation and society.Yusoff and Lehman ( 2009 ) stated that from the legitimacy theory position, the qualitative and narrative environmental narratives are seen to hold been utilized by company as an feeling direction tool.

The stakeholder theory proposes that a house ‘s success is dependent upon the successful direction of its relationships with its stakeholders. Gray et Al. ( 1995b ) in carry oning longitudinal surveies of UK corporate societal and environmental revelation assert that societal revelation is seen as portion of the duologue between the company and its stakeholders.Company ‘s being requires support from stakeholders and activities are adjusted to derive blessing from the stakeholders, particularly if the stakeholders are more powerful.

The definition of stakeholder has expanded and altered well to accommodate with alterations in concern demands and tendencies. Some have defined stockholder as the exclusive stakeholder since this party serves most of that company needs. The others have visualized stakeholders in wider positions that include people outside the corporations ; for illustration society, conservationist, authorities and others.Clarkson ( 1995 ) which stated that stakeholders are individuals or groups that have ownership or involvement in a corporation and its activities in yesteryear, present and future offers a comprehensive definition of stakeholder.

Therefore, with assorted groups of stakeholders, it seems that corporations are now responsible and accountable to carry through wider corporate duties because these groups have the ability to impact and command the resources and operations of corporations.In add-on, the work of Neu et Al. 1998 explicitly links the usage of stakeholder theory with the construct of ‘organizational legitimacy ‘ , admiting the interrelation of the two positions in analysing CSD. Neu et Al.

( 1998 ) examined the environmental revelations in the one-year studies of Canadian public companies runing in environmentally ‘sensitive ‘ industries. They concluded that chiefly an organisation ‘s relevant populaces influence the degree and type of environmental revelation contained in the one-year studies, and that the communicating schemes adopted by the organisation are influenced by the multiplicity and power of these different populaces.With the increasing consciousness and planetary demand for better environmental revelation, companies should acknowledge and follow them into their direction patterns. Traveling frontward, it is of import to observe that while environmental activities can merely be taken on by the companies themselves, stakeholders, particularly authorities, employees, consumers and investors, can play an effectual and decisive function in motivating companies to follow such patterns.

The stakeholders can besides heighten their function by necessitating companies to be crystalline with regard to their societal duty public presentations.In similar, the power of authorities as a stakeholder is manifested in its enforcement mechanisms. For illustration, the corporation may utilize environmentally responsible activities to cut down the hazard of governmental invasions, which may impact the house ‘s value. Stakeholder theory is besides called organisation centered.

Its consider corporation to hold a figure of different stockholder affect the organisation mission. Organisation responsible to these stakeholder. Its concerntrated upon specifying factors act uponing the continued being of corporation.There are two ground for the consideration of stakeholder theory.

Firsly, as for stakeholder demand for environmental revelation is being a stakeholder issue. Second, to supply a model to bring out the determiner and motive behind the corporate revelation. There are three constituent of stakeholder theory which consist of stakeholder power, strategic position and economic public presentation. As a placeholders of these constituent, it seems that different research worker used different placeholders to mensurate it.

Razeed ( 2009 ) measured stakeholder power by purchase ( debt to assets ratio ) , while strategic position through the degree of environmental revelation on the cyberspace and difficult transcript and economic public presentation is measured through return on plus. In contrast, Ten ( 2004 ) measured stakeholder power by authorities power, strategic position by environmental concern which can be placeholders by ISO 14001 and presence of environmental commission. While economic public presentation are placeholders by mean return on assets and alteration in house value.This research worker besides categorise stakeholder into two group which are primary and secondary.

Primary stakeholder include stockholder which are capital supplier of the company, creditor, client, provider, regulator and employee. Secondary stakeholder include environmental anteroom group, media and consumer protagonism group. The basic proposition of stakeholder theory is that the house ‘s success is dependent upon the successful direction of all the relationships a house has with its stakeholders. Stakeholder theory offers a utile model given the increasing stakeholder engagement in the coverage procedure.

Hence, as stakeholder engagement becomes progressively of import in the coverage procedure globally, it is extremely insightful to cognize if a stakeholder model that has been extensively used in Western societies could be utile in our apprehension of the determiners and motives behind voluntary environmental revelations in a developing economic system such as Malaysia. The motive for utilizing the Malayan context is driven by its built-in background in footings of its strategic vision, economic development and regulatory/nontransparent scene.First, from a strategic point of view, Malaysia is the lone developing state with an expressed timeline to accomplish the developed state position by the twelvemonth 2020 ( Vision 2020 ) . The launch of Vision 2020 coincides the origin of the National Development Policy in 1991.

Since so, Malaysia has non been immune to environmental catastrophes such as the 1993 Highland Towers eroding, the 1997 haze crisis ( when the Air Pollution Index exceeded the 500 grade ) and more late, the 2004 tsunami that hit Penang along with 8 other Asiatic states killing more than 200,000 people.Although these catastrophes have been caused both by adult male and mother-nature, these experiences necessarily put environmental considerations as a top precedence making the demand to strategically continue and keep the environment if Vision 2020 is to be achieved. This may make inducements for houses to supply environmental studies. Second, on the economic forepart, Malaysia offers an interesting scene since it is one of the fastest turning economic systems in Southeast Asia since the 1960’s1.

Compared to its neighbouring states like Indonesia, Thailand and the Philippines, Malaysia has recovered much quicker from the 1997 Asiatic fiscal crisis. Along with rapid economic development, nevertheless, Malaysia has been sing intensified environmental impacts such as deforestation, eroding, loss of biodiversity, air and H2O pollution mostly brought about by corporate activities such as logging, big graduated table land development, unfastened combustion, excavation, power Stationss and dam buildings ( Teoh ; A ; Thong, 1984 ; Smith, Yahya ; A ; Amiruddin, 2007 ; Sumiani, Haslinda ; A ; Lehman, 2007 ) .Firms are motivated towards following stakeholder direction patterns due to stakeholder influence on the ultimate concern result which are net income. ( Yusoff, Lehman and Nasir, 2006 ; Yusoff and Lehman, 2009 ) .

Yusoff et. Al ( 2006 ) found that stakeholder concern are one of the motivation factors towards concern particularly environmental revelation. Among the three dimension of stakeholder theory, merely authorities power are important to the one-year study environmental revelations. ( Ten, 2009 ) .

The other two which are stakeholder power and creditor power are non important to the one-year study environmental revelation. This chapter has briefly discussed the construct behind the environmental revelation and its functions, environmental development in Malaysia every bit good as the relationship between house features with environmental revelation. From the literature, it can be concluded that environmental coverage demands are deriving greater and better attending among assorted legal powers.The same conditions besides apply in Malaysia through assorted enterprises and attempts.

The revelation of environmetal activities in different states are varied and inconsistent as different states required different revelation demands. However, even with different coverage demands, one thing for certain is that all these attempts have shed some visible radiation to better coverage and pass oning environmental activities to carry through assorted stakeholders demand.

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Explain in detail the decision, alternatives, bias, consequences, environmental, ethical, and situational factors that may affect the process of decision making upon each level.

Explain in detail the decision, alternatives, bias, consequences, environmental, ethical, and situational factors that may affect the process of decision making upon each level..

This report should be double spaced, in narrative format, 12-point font, and 5-6 pages in length excluding the title page and reference page; Title page with your name, the course name, the date, and instructor’s name; Include a reference page; Use headings to separate the different sections; This paper is to be written in the third person. There should be no words in the paper such as “I. we, you or your;” Use APA formatting for in-text citations and reference page. You are expected to paraphrase and not use direct quotes. Deductions will be taken when direct quotes are used and found to be unnecessary;

Charles Jackson is chief information officer (CIO) at McConnell Spice, a Maryland spice company. Within the industry, McConnell Spice has a large national market presence yet is global in its need for raw materials. McConnell Spice is always looking for ways to increase productivity and efficiency while staying connected to its worldwide sources. Two years into the job, Jackson suggested to company president, Ann McConnell, that McConnell Spice implement a new global knowledge-sharing application that promises to cut development time and costs in half. Jackson has done thorough research on knowledge-sharing systems, and has talked extensively with his counterpart and friend, Jack Thyme at the food ingredient global powerhouse, ADM. Thyme agree with Jackson’s assessment of the need for IT sharing systems as he believes they play an important role in a company’s competitiveness in the new global market.
On Jackson’s recommendation Ann McConnell presented the idea to the board of directors, and everyone agreed to pursue the project. McConnell has asked Jackson to investigate firms that could assist the company’s IT department in developing and implementing a global knowledge-sharing application. The system must be compatible with McConnell’s existing systems. McConnell explained that she wants the final project contenders narrowed down to four with the IT’s department recommendation presented by Jackson to the board of directors for the final decision next month.
Jackson took the instructions back to his desk and began to debate how best to go about researching the decision and possible recommendation. Jackson has 11 people in his department, three women and eight men. The three women have more global sourcing experience than the males, so ultimately the new software applications will fall into the overview of the female male members of his staff. Yet, the more experienced IT people are among the men. One of his female workers, Rosemary, has recently come from ADM and has used the new knowledge sharing application there. John came from ADM as well and participated in the selection of the firm who ultimately got the contract. The other workers have a cursory knowledge of the system but would need training. Jackson decided that he would put together a team to research and determine the best suppliers for the job. Their research is summarized below.
Word had gotten out about the new purchase and staff members were discussing among themselves possible candidates. A little in-fighting had developed and there was concern that Jackson would favor ADM people’s choice, Johnson and Company. On the other hand, those workers who currently like the reps at TECH4U think this company can do the application best because they know the current system at McConnell. They may even be able to cut a deal if they had the whole account but TECH4U is known to be expensive. Supporters of Johnson and Company know that the bigger Tech4U doesn’t specialize in this particular application of knowledge-management and may not be able to give the quality that they know is in the Johnson product. One lone IT staffer has been silent throughout this discussion and wonders why Jackson should favor these two companies. He knows of yet another, Information Systems Inc. which should be included. He’s hoping that if Jackson chooses to pick a team to make a decision he can get on the team. Jackson however, is confident that he wants a group decision making process but cannot decide what type will work best. Jackson is not sure whether it should be an individual decision made by him with staff input or whether the entire group should have the decision making authority. One thing is for sure, he and the group only have four weeks to make a multi-million dollar decision.
Almost two weeks into the decision process Ann Mc Connell called Jackson into her office to see how the project was coming along. Jackson informed her that they had identified five major candidates and were currently in the process of evaluating these alternatives. McConnell looked over the summary of the findings to date and balked. “You don’t have Standard IT Systems on this list,” she exclaimed. Surprised, Jackson said, “but they do accounting software only. Admittedly, they do it well which is why we use their software in the Finance Department but for the global sourcing application I can’t see them as a contender.” McConnell looked at him and said, “You are right! They do a good job and I think they can expand into this area easily. They know our systems and we may even be able to get a better deal because this is a new area for them. Be sure to put them on the list.”
Jackson was surprised—Standard IT Systems was known primarily for helping small companies computerize their accounting systems. He was uncertain about them and decided to do as the boss said and put them on the list. He soon found out that they had never done any work related to knowledge-sharing applications, particularly on a global basis. Upon further investigation into the company, he learned that Standard was owned by McConnell’s new son-in-law. Fortunately, he also learned that the firm did have some limited experience in more complex applications. Regardless he thought, I have to tell the team of the new addition.
During the next two weeks, the decision making process continued and it became apparent that Standard IT Systems was not a good alternative for the job.
McConnell happened to meet Jackson in the hall one day and informed him that the Board would meet in next week and he was to present his findings and decision to the Board for approval. With a nod and a wink McConnell said “I know you are for Standard like I am but we have to make the pretense of looking at other options.” Jackson stood with his mouth open staring at her back as she walked away. As the shock wore off Jackson turned toward his office, his mind racing, do I present the team’s recommendation or Standard IT Systems?
Research Results from Jackson’s Team
Tech4U Inc.: A globally known firm based in California with over 35 years of IT experience. This corporation currently provides innovative applications for over 1,000 businesses in 23 countries and is currently the top provider of knowledge sharing applications worldwide with an A+ rating. This company provides 24/7 telephonic customer support and on-site technical support upon request. They give only one week training on the system and for two people only. They also developed the current IT systems for McConnell. They are willing to package the service component of the deal to save money but still come in as one of the two most expensive bids. Tech says it will take 3-5 months to get the system up and running.
Information Systems, Inc.: Based in Dallas, TX, Information systems, Inc. is a rising global competitor next to Tech4U. They specialize in various complex applications and have over 25 years’ experience. They are second in market share and also have an A+ rating. Most known for patenting the K-M sharing system that is currently used in every large US Spice company, Info is experienced in spice companies knowledge needs. They have not worked with McConnell’s existing system but feel confident that the information will be easy to adapt as they have done so with other spice companies. This company also provides 24/7 tech support. They give training for 4 weeks and will make sure that all people who will use the system are included. It is the least expensive of the group. However, they will need 9-11 months for installation.
Johnson and Company: A boutique IT knowledge-management firm Johnson has 10 locations in the continental United States and 4 worldwide. In business since 1997, Johnson and Company has extensive knowledge in complex IT applications with excellent customer service and on-call tech support. They of course train anyone who is named by the company. The clients of the company include some of the major food ingredient companies (including ADM) but no spice firms. This company only provides sharing applications hence their boutique moniker. It is also the most expensive bid. While Johnson is familiar with knowledge management sharing it has not had experience with the current McConnell IT systems. Some learning curve time has been put into the time it would take to get the systems up and running. They suggest 6-9 months.
Standard Company: A local firm that specializes in providing accounting applications for small businesses in the area. This company provides excellent customer service but has limited experience with complex applications and large firms. It has no experience with the type of application needed but for this reason is willing to take the project for less money. They can provide 24/7 tech support with limited training to staff. They will however need more time to develop and implement the application.

Part One:
In the final project you have four potential decisions to make from the fact pattern, two individual decisions for Jackson, a group decision for the firm selection, and one decision for the organization.
• In four to five pages identify the four decisions.
• Then, set out each decision and demonstrate how Joe, the group, and the organization might approach, and apply the decision making process to the issue.
• Explain in detail the decision, alternatives, bias, consequences, environmental, ethical, and situational factors that may affect the process of decision making upon each level.
• Substantiate your conclusions with course material and/or outside resources.

Part Two:

We have discussed in class that decision-making usually requires change and that in turn may bring about another decision. Review Jackson’s decisions and write a one-page epilogue to his decision-making. Was it effective? Did it generate any new decisions to make? Be sure to look at ways to measure the success of the decisions.

Explain in detail the decision, alternatives, bias, consequences, environmental, ethical, and situational factors that may affect the process of decision making upon each level.

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Identify, analyse and summarise major physical, chemical and biological environmental health hazards that may impact on human health.

Identify, analyse and summarise major physical, chemical and biological environmental health hazards that may impact on human health..

Identify, analyse and summarise major physical, chemical and biological environmental health hazards that may impact on human health.


characterise potential sources of exposure and health impacts associated with environmental hazards;


synthesis the interdisciplinary and interactive nature of environmental health problems;


Associated content areas:

Ecology, population, environmental degradation and health.

Human biology and environmental disease.

Communicable disease control.

Pollution and health.

Food safety and water quality.

Environmental health management.


Overpopulation is accelerating the depletion of resources on the planet, while at the same time accelerating global pollution and climate change. Your government is considering adopting a stance similar to China’s one child policy, as part of its vision for a sustainable future.


Your task:


Write a report to inform policy makers about the positive and negative aspects of such a policy as it applies to your country.


Hint: The use of peer-reviewed journal references will strengthen your argument.


Your report should be professionally presented and include:


Introduction (3 marks)

Table of contents or index (2 marks)

Main body (12 marks) – compare and contrast

Conclusion (5 marks)

Policy recommendations (15 marks) – be realistic within your country context (democracy vs communist society)

Correct in and end-text referencing (3 marks).


Use APA referencing style. Marks may be deducted for incorrect or omitted

referencing. Penalties apply for late submission.

Identify, analyse and summarise major physical, chemical and biological environmental health hazards that may impact on human health.

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