On the Road of Electronic Commerce


The hypothesis in the article ‘On the Road of Electronic Commerce,’ is the exploration of electronic commerce technology in the business world today. The article is detailed about the introduction system and the efficiency it has of the global business today. It qualifies to be a hypothesis in this case since it is systematically tested in the field to discover the effects. The theory of electronic commerce has been practically put to test to identify how effective it is in different areas of business and the economy at large.

In the article, the general idea is establishing the ability of businesses today to benefit from electronic commerce. This is basically tactical application of technology in running of a business in order to survive the fast rising competition in the market. (Bloch., et.al, 1996) suggest in the research regarding the hypothesis that the application of the methods in different business models would enable establish the effectiveness. 


Basically, as described by (Bloch, et.al, 1996), the electronic commerce concept entails the using of the internet and technology to transact different kinds of business. This ranges from service provision industries to goods related businesses. The article also describes the uses of the electronic sources and the specific areas which include communication. It is worth noting that besides transacting; communication and accessing of information is the most popular and effective usage of the internet. To effect the testing of the hypothesis, a model of the system is formed that will simplify the process and make it easily understandable. Most importantly, the advantages and disadvantages of the electronic commerce method are assessed to ensure all relevant data surrounding the hypothesis is realized.

Generally, the tests conducted have established the use of electronic technology as a positive way of reassuring clients and ensuring there is healthy competition in the market. Organizations are able to compete on the same playing ground under these circumstances. (Bloch, et.al, 1996) has analyzed the model from the identification of the need to the support offered to the clients which is availing the information at their convenience and appropriately. The e-commerce has also been assessed with regards to the marketing strategies and the costs it has on the businesses. The article provides evidence that despite the increment in the initial costs at the time of establishment, the after income will increase by much more than the costs. Considering different structures of organizations, frameworks that can possibly suit all firms are formulated to enable sufficient application of the technology. This is in terms of the working structure to the costs and values of the businesses (Bloch, et.al, 1996).

Response by Clients

The hypothesis was readily accepted in the market following the massive advantages that were discovered by the researchers and observed by the clients. It was clearly going to be much more advantageous to the client than the firms deciding on whether to use them or not. However, the advantages are bound to reflect to the business after the costs of installation and possible training are covered. It also reflects after the sales begin to increase following the new and effective method. This therefore, explains why the hypothesis was welcomed in the business field. Though there may be reluctance due to the magnitude of change that will be required if implemented, it was generally acceptable as an efficient idea.

Implications of the Hypothesis

In an event that the hypothesis is actually practiced following the positive acceptance, there will be several implications that will enhance the performance. Some will also require much finance from the firms adopting the method. Some of the inevitable implications of adopting the hypothesis include:

Training of workers

Where e-commerce is the new trend of business in the globe, the existing staff may need to be trained for computer literacy in order to efficiently work with the new system. Though this may be quite costly, it has been established to be a form of capital where the results/returns will be realized once the business starts benefiting from the project.

Saves time

Without the application of this hypothesis, clients are required to personally access the locations of the various businesses whose products they are interested in. however, the introduction and implementation of e-commerce methods will save the clients’ time since they can access the products and services they need online. Similarly for the businesses, less time is spent explaining to the clients the specifications of the products, thus, both parties can save time which is very much economical.

Enhancement of Quality over Quantity

With the availability of information regarding organizations and their products, (Bloch, et.al, 1996) has argued that it will be possible for the clients to opt for higher quality products despite the price since there is adequate time to compare the specifications of both. Thus, where quality is highly a priority, the firms will have the pressure to produce good and highly ranked commodities which ranks the industry highly and causes health competition.


Bloch, M., Pigneur, Y., & Segev, A. (1996). On the Road of Electronic Commerce — a Business Value Framework, Gaining Competitive Advantage and Some Research Issues. Retrieved from http://portals.dmst.aueb.gr/ec/papers/OnTheRoad_1stLecture__5137.pdf



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Do you have any idea how often your life is impacted by Bluetooth technology? In case you didnt know this, it is Bluetooth technology, developed by communication giant Ericsson, that enables all of our electronic and informational devices to talk to one

Do you have any idea how often your life is impacted by Bluetooth technology? In case you didnt know this, it is Bluetooth technology, developed by communication giant Ericsson, that enables all of our electronic and informational devices to talk to one another. For example, Bluetooth technology enables wireless headsets to communicate with other devices. You might have noticed that Aliph has just introduced a new Bluetooth-enabled headset called Jawbone that is smaller, lighter, and cuts wind noise more than any previous headset designs. The headset is about the size of a large rectangular earring or about one-half the size of existing headset models. There is, however, a significant problem that must be addressed before headset communication is advised for everyone. There are reports linking forms of brain cancer to cell phone and headset use. Experts are studying the possibilities and connections. No conclusions have been reached yet. Your task is to assume that you are a member of the Advertising Council and have been asked to design a PSA (public service announcement) that will both quiet fears and encourage information-seeking about the subject as research progresses. Write your message. How do you think those who support headset and cell phone development would respond to what you have to say?


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The post Do you have any idea how often your life is impacted by Bluetooth technology? In case you didnt know this, it is Bluetooth technology, developed by communication giant Ericsson, that enables all of our electronic and informational devices to talk to one first appeared on nursing writers.

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Discuss and describe 3 facility software applications that integrate with the HER. Examples of software applications are electronic prescribing speech recognition master patient index encoder picture archiving and communication personal health record (FR) decision support and more.

Weekly tasks or assignments (Individual or Group Projects) will be due by Monday and late submissions will be assigned a late penalty in accordance with the late penalty policy found in the syllabus. NOTE: All submission posting times are based on midnight Central Time.

The United States Constitution divides power between the federal and state governments. In this assignment, you will describe those powers.

Assignment Guidelines:

Write a short essay addressing the following questions in 400–600 words be sure to use detail to explain each answer:

What powers are extended to the federal government?
What components of the US Constitution describe and detail the powers extended to the federal government?
What powers are extended to the state governments?
What components of the US Constitution describe and detail the powers extended to the state governments?
What are the power limitations of the federal government?
What are the power limitations of the state governments?
What are the similarities or overlapping of powers between the two levels of government?
How do the state governments and the federal government deal with those powers that are similar or overlap? Which government has supremacy when there are similarities or overlap?
Use a minimum of 1 reference to reinforce your thoughts. Be sure to include in-text citations and a reference list using APA style.

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Discuss and describe 3 facility software applications that integrate with the EHR. Examples of software applications are electronic prescribing speech recognition master patient index encoder picture archiving and communication personal health record (PHR) decision support and more.

As part of the Electronic Health Record (EHR) Implementation Team, you will be discussing how the work flow for all departments will change with the implementation of the EHR. The team will also compare all software applications in the health care facility to see if they integrate with the chosen EHR and if the applications will meet the needs of each department and work flow. The team will discuss advantages and disadvantages of the EHR so that they are prepared for discussions with the administrators.
The EHR implementation team will soon meet with the administrators and present all of the information collected in proceeding with the EHR implementation. In preparation for this meeting, all team members are collecting information on work flow, software applications, and advantages and disadvantages of the EHR. The implementation team must understand the work flow processes in the EHR and understand the importance of each work flow process in the EHR. The team will need to know all of the facility software applications that will interact with the EHR as well as understand the advantages and disadvantages of the EHR.
Choose 1 of the department work flow processes, and put together a thorough 1-paragraph summary to explain to the team the importance of this process and how it works with the EHR. Choose 1 work flow process from the following choices:
Appointment scheduling
Front desk or check-in
Nursing or clinical support
Care provider
Check-out desk
Business office or billing
Clinical staff or care provider
Discuss and describe 3 facility software applications that integrate with the EHR. Examples of software applications are electronic prescribing, speech recognition, master patient index, encoder, picture archiving and communication, personal health record (PHR), decision support, and more.
Prepare a 3-paragraph summary of each application for the implementation team, and discuss any problems that may be encountered during EHR implementation.
Describe the impact of 2 advantages and 2 disadvantages of the EHR so that the implementation team can start to prepare for this discussion with the administrators.

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Does The Use Of Electronic Devices Enhance The Communication Between Patient And Provider?

A Systematic Review Of The Literature.

this project is a systematic review of literature, i have also enclosed the previous project you worked on as a reference and the grading rubric

Write the following sections that are still left to complete in the template for your paper and submit them for review. TYour submission should be at least 4 pages in length and should be written in APA (6th ed.) format.

Actual Outcomes/Evaluation: Discuss your measurable evaluation methods (indicators/metrics). Include any of the following that are applicable to your project: cost savings, improved efficiencies, access to care (visits/procedures/admissions), patient/family satisfaction, associate satisfaction, associate engagement, retention, clinical outcomes, injury prevention, and risk reduction.

Summary and Conclusions: Include a summary of your change project, the main points and findings, the significance of the project to the nursing profession, and any recommendations for future research. You should also focus on the lessons learned implementing your change project, including successes, challenges, obstacles, and future recommendations for similar clinical situations.

Include in text citations

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Assignment electronic business and college

It attests to guidance, support and valuable suggestions of many. Hereby I would like to extend my thankfulness to those who have helped this assignment reach its fruition. Without their assistance, it is impossible to accomplish this assignment in time. First of all, I would like to acknowledge ISMS (International School of Management and Technology) for providing an opportunity to carry out this assignment. It is my proud privilege to express my deep sense of Gratitude and heartfelt thanks to my teachers and friends for their systematic guidance and support to complete this task.

Finally, I take this opportunity to express the profound gratitude from my deep heart to my family. Bal Krishna Sahara Introduction have been appointed as an intern for “Business Insights Pet. Ltd” which is a established local company specializing in offering guidance to established companies for starting-up their own businesses and providing e-commerce consultancy in the design, implementation and hosting of e-commerce websites for small to medium-sized, local businesses. Our company is has new client which is an educational institute named as ISMS. It requires guidance starting up to investing in an e-commerce website.

I have been asked to visit one of the directors at ISMS to understand the aims and objectives and functions of the institution. ISMS is one of the most well equipped intuitions which have about 20 dedicated and hard working staffs in different faculties and enough resources to meet the need of students. It runs two faculties BBS IT and ABA. Digital classroom and well maintained furniture is shows the reflection of dedication of the intuition TASK-I Analyze the impact, including the risks, of introducing an e-commerce system in an institution like ISMS.

Introduction Basically ISMS is an educational institution. Currently most of the educational institutes are introducing the e-commerce system to make their institute popular round the nation and worldwide too. Introducing an e-commerce system in this organization is useful and might be helpful to the students, parents, teachers etc. This may help them to know about the college, the courses it offers, about the facilities of college, fee description, and many more. Therefore students can get their required information about a college sitting at their home or from any place.

This was the basic introduction of e-commerce and now we discuss about the various impacts and risks of introducing an e-commerce system in ISMS. E- commerce is not solely the Internet, websites or dot com companies. It is about a new business concept that incorporates all previous business management and economic concepts. As such, e-business and e-commerce impact on many areas of business and disciplines of business management studies. The impacts on e-commerce are briefly described below: Global Marketplace The benefit of introducing e-commerce is the business’ goods will be available for consumers worldwide.

This could increase the number of customers because the business will be available worldwide. If the customers are increased, the revenue will be increased as well. The business could expand if more customers buy their reduces. As the business expands, it will have more competition from other businesses. For example, a business that sells computer hardware could be the leading company in one country but it will be difficult for that company to compete for other businesses in other areas or countries. 24/7 Trading Trading online means that there is no store staff required to run the online shop and transactions can be carried out at any time.

No staffs are required to make sales and all orders and transactions can be taken and acknowledged automatically. Relatively low start-up and running costs Setting up an online store does not have such high initial costs compared to a traditional store. Setting up a traditional store involves buying or renting a place or location, purchasing stock, hiring staff and paying for utility costs. Unstable pricing Online stores can also take advantage of unstable pricing which is increasing or decreasing prices quickly depending on circumstances.

It is more difficult to increase or decrease prices quickly in traditional stores. For example, when a specific item is sold quickly and few are available, this item could become more expensive as the demand for this item rises. This could make profit for the business. Another example is if an item is not sold for its current price, they could lower the price of this item to make sure that the items are sold. Consumer trust One drawback of introducing an e-commerce system to a business is the lack of trust by customers. Some customers think that a business will not keep their personal details private.

Some customers also get annoyed when sites personalize their experience by suggesting products based on their previously purchased product. Lack of human contact Another disadvantage of introducing an e-commerce system is the lack of human intact. Customers are discouraged from buying products online because they can’t speak to anyone from the business. Some customers find it impersonal shopping online. International legislation A potential disadvantage for an e-commerce business is the international legislation or laws from a different country.

For example, if an e-commerce business based in the UK is selling alcohol, you have to be 18 to buy their products but in America you have to be 21 to buy alcohol. It would be possible for an 18 year old to buy alcohol in a business based in the ASK. Security issues Another drawback with introducing an e-commerce system is the security issues. It is one of the biggest worry of consumers that their personal and financial details will not be safe from hackers and criminals to commit identity theft. They think that a business might be unsafe or not trustworthy enough for them to hand over their details to an e-commerce website.

Therefore introducing an e- commerce system in an institution like ISMS is a good concept but we face some difficulties in implementing it. The difficulties are its impacts, and some risks of introducing it, which are clearly explained above. Task-2 Discuss the global impact of e-commerce. You have to conduct extensive research on this topic to evaluate your own work and justify your claims and findings. We came to know that there are some positive and some negative aspects in introducing an e-commerce system in a business organization. Furthermore we discuss more about this topic here.

First let us discuss what is e-commerce? Electronic commerce, or e-commerce, is defined to be the process of businesses trading with other businesses and the formulation of internal processes using electronic links. Electronic business, or e-business, is a term often seed interchangeably with e-commerce, but is more concerned with the transformation of key business processes through the use of internet technologies. Electronic commerce over the Internet is a new way of conducting business. The largest effects may be associated not with many of the impacts that command the most attention (e. . Customized products, the elimination of middlemen) but with less visible, but potentially more pervasive, effects on routine business activities (e. G. Ordering office supplies, paying bills, and estimating demand), that is, on the way businesses interact. E-commerce is now ideally used everywhere in the world and the use of e-commerce and the users are been increasing day by day, due to its various advantages. Here we are going to describe about the various impacts of e-commerce on business, individual and on society. The global impact of e-commerce on business.

Lack of sufficient system security, reliability and standards. There are numerous reports of websites and databases being hacked into, and security holes in software. For example, Microsoft has over the years issued many security notices and ‘patches’ for their software. Several banking and other business websites, including Barclay Bank, Powering and even the Consumers’ Association in the I-J, have experienced breaches in security where ‘a technical oversight’ or ‘a fault in its systems led to confidential client information becoming available to all.

Rapidly evolving and changing technology, so there is always a feeling of trying to ‘catch up’ and not be left behind Problems with compatibility of older and ‘newer technology. – There are problems where older business systems cannot communicate with web based and Internet infrastructures, leading to some organizations running almost two independent systems where data cannot be shared. This often leads to having to invest in new systems or an infrastructure, which bridges the different systems. In both cases this is both financially costly as well as disruptive to the efficient running of organizations.

Impact e-commerce on customers or consumers Cost of computing equipment. Not just the initial cost of buying equipment but making sure that the technology is updated regularly to be compatible with the changing requirement of the Internet, websites and applications. Lack of security and privacy of personal data. There is no real control of data that is collected over the Web or Internet. Data retention laws are not universal and so websites hosted in different countries may or may not have laws which protect privacy of personal data.

Expensive computing equipment is needed Computing equipment is needed for individuals to participate in the new ‘digital’ economy, which means an initial capital cost to customers. A basic technical knowledge is required of both computing equipment and navigation of the Internet and the World Wide Web. Cost of access to the Internet, whether dial-up or broadband tariffs. Lack physical relation and trust -Physical contact and relationships are replaced by electronic processes. Customers are unable to touch and feel goods being sold on-line or gauge voices and reactions of human beings.

A lack of trust because they are interacting with faceless computers. Impact of e-commerce to society Breakdown in human interaction. As people become more used to interacting electronically there could be an erosion of personal and social skills which might eventually be detrimental to the world we live in where people are more comfortable interacting with a screen than face to face. Wasted resources. As new technology dates quickly how do you dispose of all the old computers, boards, monitors, speakers and other hardware or software? Social division.

There is a potential danger that there will be an increase in the social divide between technical haves and have-onto – so people who do not have technical skills become unable to secure better-paid jobs and could form an underclass with potentially dangerous implications for social stability. Reliance on telecommunications infrastructure, power and IT skills, which in developing countries nullifies the benefits when power, advanced telecommunications infrastructures and IT skills are unavailable or scarce or underdeveloped. Inclusion Therefore I have found much information on the topic E-commerce.

My findings helps me in understanding the term e-commerce, its negative and positive aspects in various sector such as on business, society, on consumers. And also the various impacts of e-commerce on business, consumers and society. Task 3 Investigate ISMS College’s market potential for an e-commerce opportunity. (3. 1, MM) Introduction ISMS is a newly opened college in chitchat offering the internationally recognized British degree. It offers the British degree in three faculties: BBS IT, ABA and BAM. It is dedicated in promoting internationally recognized quality education in Nepal adopting the laws, rules, tradition and values.

ISMS college is situated in the heart of chitchat district i. E. Apparatus. The students from various parts of the chitchat district and also from Nepal are coming to study the British degree in ISMS College. E-commerce has been an alternative to grow the business & annual income for the business organization. In modern days its need has been rapidly increased due to the competition & the globalization of the business organization. With the help of e-commerce different business organization has en able to increase their income.

Using an e-commerce site in ISMS College may increase their income. If we design and implement a e-commerce site for ISMS college may be benefit for the students, parents and the visitors who visit the sites. Because in an e-commerce site a lot of information is uploaded about the college. Site includes faculties, fees, admission procedures, application details, facilities provided by the college to its students, events etc Therefore here is an SOOT ( strength, weakness, opportunity and threats ) analysis for market potential for an e-commerce opportunity in ISMS college.

Strength * Boundary less (global location) * Time saving * No time constraints * Direct communication with students * Improved user interaction * Simple and easier exchange of information * Low operating cost weakness * Security * Fake websites * Fraud * Limited advertising * Hacking of valuable information Opportunities * Changing trends * New technologies * Global expansion * High availability (24 hour and seven days a week) * Wide business growth * Cut down on local competition * Advertising Threats * Competitors * Changes in environment, law and regulations * Innovation * Privacy concerns Risk Conclusion Therefore from the above points we can clearly understand about the strength, weakness, opportunity, and threats of ISMS College’s market potential for an e- commerce opportunity. Hence, these were the SOOT analysis for the market potential for an e-commerce opportunity in ISMS College. Task-4 Evaluate ISMS current e-commerce system in use by organizations. You need to evaluate the current e-commerce systems in use by the competitors of the colleges to present it to the directors of the college. Introduction The e-commerce system differs from one and another organization because t is implemented according to an organizational need, its structure, and its requirement. Or example the e-commerce system used in one business organization doesn’t match with the system used in another business organization. Here we are going to discuss about the e-commerce system used by various organizations i. E. By the competitors of ISMS College. There are only 4 colleges in Nepal which provides British degree; ISMS, The British College, Isolation College & Software college of IT & E-commerce. These all 4 institutes provide same kind of education differing in their costs & resources available 1 The British college The British college has made a huge investment in launching e-commerce. The website of this college is well facilitated for the huge exposure about the college.

The website is capable for providing the scenario that this college offers. The website of this college includes the courses offered by it, gallery of pictures, events and staffs information as well as the different programs organized by it. The website is also added with the function about the admission procedure & the scholarships offered by it. Here is an snapshot of the Tuberculosis’s, where the information are provided clearly. We can see below: Below is the snap shot of e-commerce site of the British college. 2 Isolation College It is the most expensive college in Nepal among those 4 college providing the British degree in Nepal.

The e-commerce system of this college is so standard and expensive than other college Here the site of this college provides the clear information to the students and the visitors who visit their web site. This has facilitated the students/parents to get the full information of the college without entering the premises of the college. It has also made student to be in touch with the lecturers ; keep track of the events of the colleges. Let us see the snap shot of isolation college from which we can clearly understand about the information provided by the college to the visitors, students and parents. 3 Software College of IT ; E-commerce It is also a British college providing the British degree in Nepal in a well and systematic way. This college also has its own e-commerce system which is totally different than other colleges.

This college has a good website like its competitors have. The website of this college contains the information which a student, parents and the visitors need. Additionally it provides the online application form o the students who are willing to study here. It means we can download the admission form the web site . The below is the snap shot of the home page of the website of this college where the information are clearly provided . In the conclusion we came to know that the e-commerce systems are different to each other. And here we discussed about the e-commerce systems used by the competitors of the ISMS College which is also totally different to each other .

Task-5 Discuss the financial implications of an e-commerce solution which may benefit the college financially compared to past years. (3. 3, MM, D 1) We have discussed in our above tasks about the impacts of e-commerce, where we have discussed that e-commerce has a positive impact on the financial sector of the business. This benefits an organization and increases its revenue and helps an organization to be in a good position. Various studies show that e-commerce had an impressive performance particular in terms of productivity growth (Free patents online 2007). Different organizations are able to grow their revenue ; expand their business with very ease ; comfort.

In these days e-commerce has been a business model to increase the revenue of the company. It also unction’s as a good cost reduction tool. From the day of initiation it caused many benefits to the different business firm. The financial benefits for the college after implementing the e-commerce system in the college. 1. Far Cheaper and Much More Flexible Than Print Advertising The Internet is extremely different from print advertising in that space is cheap, your advertisement is accessible for a longer period of time, the content can be changed without having to ask someone to do it for you (if you use a content management system) and you can potentially reach a wider audience.

This is not to say that you should not SE other forms of advertising at all You can use it to entice people to visit your website and find out about your company and potentially open two-way communication between the potential customer and a sales person. 2. Market Expansion The Internet has allowed businesses to break through the geographical barriers and become accessible, virtually, from any country in the world by a potential customer that has Internet access. 3. Wide Revenue Streams A website is not just a medium for representation of a College, it is a form of media from which everybody can acquire information. We can use this media o sell advertising space to other businesses. A recent trend has risen where businesses feature their very own directory of complimentary services, where the visitor can search for information on a business that will enhance the use of our service.

The business sells complimentary businesses a listing in their directory. 4. 24 7 365 No more turning customers away when it’s time to close shop, putting up a note saying closed for public holiday , or leaving an irritating message on your answering service specifying your trading hours tell them to visit your website for information they are looking for. 5. Offer Convenience It is far more convenient for a person to research a product on the Internet than it is to get in a car, drive somewhere and look for or ask someone for information on a productive potential visitor can visit our website whenever they like in their own privacy and comfort, without the stresses and distractions that exist in the real world . He website is a self-service medium For example, instead of having to wait in a long cue to pay your TV License, you can now do it electronically through the TV License website. 6. Growth Opportunity A website serves as a great place to refer potential investors to, to show them hat your organization is about, what it has achieved and what it can achieve in future. 7. Two-Way Communicative Marketing visitors can quickly and easily give feedback on our product and/or marketing approach. When we buy any product or inquire something about the college or any business there is a system of giving tee comments about the product, place college etc of the website. From the above explanation we can clearly understand about financial benefits to the college after introducing and implementing the e-commerce system.

E-commerce system doesn’t only help in increasing financial benefit, it also revive platform to the organization to extend their business. It can help any organization to build up a better market position both locally as well as internationally. Implementing commerce in ISMS can help the college to earn its prestige widely around the society, area, nation and also worldwide. If it’s able to make huge investment in the commerce, it may possible even get to expand its franchise throughout Nepal. This will lead in the financial benefit of the ISMS College. Task-6 Design an e-commerce solution for ISMS College by giving new creative ideas ; suggestions for short ; long term prospects. (3. 4, DO) Introduction

The main purpose of e-commerce site is to provide the information to the customers or visitors who visit the websites, therefore the website should have all the contents which can provide full information to the visitors. The e- commerce site should not lack any information on it, if its lacks then there will be no any aim of implementing it . The e-commerce site designer should consult the college and should include the data and information in the site which the college has provided. Here are see vital points which are to be considered while designing a website for a college which helps to make a e-commerce site better. An e-commerce site should be User friendly. When an e-commerce site is user friendly it Looks Good, Performs Great.

If there is a navigation menu on the left-hand side lets users can move between applications easily. An user friendly e-commerce site helps the user to get satisfaction in his research on the site. It should contain the history and records if the website of the college contains the history and records of the college it will be more user friendly to the students, parents and the visitors who visit the sites. The history and records of the college included in the site helps to get more information for them in understanding the college’s structure and position. Login system is necessary Login system is necessary for the students because the site contains the valuable information for the students which should not be exposed to others.

There with the help of login system in the site the students fell secure with their vital information. Staff members tab in the site. This helps in acquiring information about the staff members i. E. Teachers and the management working in the college. The parents or any visitors want to know that who is teaching in that college, how much is he/she is qualified, and how such experience does he have in working these fields etc. Therefore the website should include a staff members tab in the site. Students suggestion box There should be a facility of student suggestion box in the website. This helps the students to suggest any ideas or to share any information between the management and the students easily.

This decreases the communication space between the management and students. Adding the social networking links to follow Adding the social networking links like Faceable, twitter, helps us to be updated. With the help of faceable we can post the information related to college, and can announce the programmer of college. And with the help of twitter we can post the information on it. Nowadays most of the people use faceable and twitter to get information. S Conclusion While designing a e-commerce system for ISMS College the above given points should be considered because they are the vital components of website. Which are compulsory in a website. Without which a website is incomplete.

So, to remain in a good position ISMS also should be able to regularly update its commerce system. For this different solutions can be generated & successfully executed in the college. Task-7 Evaluate the suitability of an e-commerce solution for ISMS College. (3. 5, MI) 1 . Currently , internet is a huge part of human being. Use of internet has increased tremendously in the past few years with e-commerce enabled sites growing in number (admit. 2013). People have started to know the importance of commerce in business. Due to this, the use of e-commerce has been huge lately. E-commerce has also been a part of educational institute throughout the globe.

Every prestigious educational institute consists of its own commerce website embedded with diverse functions. 2. Suitability of an e-commerce solution in ISMS College Education has always played a huge role in the personal development of an individual. Like other sectors, educational institute has also always been able to adapt the new technologies. Being an educational institute, ISMS also has been able to adapt new technologies. E-commerce solutions can be a suitable business solution for ISMS. ISMS is a new educational institute. It needs an effective marketing and customer relationship management (CRM) solution to satisfy users and compete in today’s competitive market.

A complete 360-degree view of every user in every channel provides the insight you need to convey rationalized service, build user loyalty and increase revenue (Entities. Com. 1998). E-commerce can play a vital role in this process. ISMS can launch its e- commerce website ; can maintain a good relation with its user. It will even help in the direct marketing of the college. ISMS being an educational institute is always eager to develop new form of media for the transference of the education. The subset of e-commerce i. E. E-learning can be suitable solution for ISMS. With launching of e-learning ISMS can provide online education to its students. ISMS also can provide online training to its employee.

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Electronic health records (EHRs)

Electronic health records (EHRs).


1. Electronic Health Records

Electronic health records (EHRs) are at the center stage of the effort to improve health care quality and control costs. In addition to allowing medical practitioners to access and record clinical documentation at much faster rates, EHRs are also positively influencing care delivery and nurse-patient interaction. Yet despite the potential benefits of EHRs, their implementation can be a formidable task that has broad-reaching implications for an entire health care organization.

In this Discussion, you appraise strategies for obtaining the benefits and overcoming the challenges of implementing and using electronic health records.

To prepare

Review the implementation of EHRs in an organization. Reflect on the various approaches used.

If applicable, consider your own experiences with implementing EHRs. What were some positive aspects of the implementation? What suggestions would you make to improve the process?

Reflect on the reactions of others during the implementation process. Were concerns handled effectively?

If you have not had any experiences with an EHR implementation, talk to someone who has and get his or her feedback on the experience.

Search and indicate examples of effective and poor implementation of EHRs.


Required Readings

McGonigle, D., & Mastrian, K. G. (2015). Nursing informatics and the foundation of knowledge (3rd ed.). Burlington, MA: Jones and Bartlett Learning.

Chapter 15, “The Electronic Health Record and Clinical Informatics”

This chapter describes the crucial parts of an electronic health record system and explores the benefits of implementing one.

Bates, D. W. (2010). Getting in step: Electronic health records and their role in care coordination. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 25(3), 174–176.

The author of this editorial critically analyzes current applications of electronic health records (EHRs) and their impact on cost, quality, and safety of health care delivery. The author describes a study on the use of vendor-developed EHRs in clinical practice settings, the results of which pinpointed the benefits and drawbacks of EHRs.

Cresswell, K., & Sheikh, A. (2009). The NHS Care Record Service: Recommendations from the literature on successful implementation and adoption. Informatics in Primary Care, 17(3), 153–160.

This article defines the United Kingdom’s National Health Service’s Care Record Service (NHS CRS) as a standard electronic health record system. The article describes the challenges associated with implementing this new information technology and provides recommendations for overcoming those challenges.

Fickenscher, K., & Bakerman, M. (2011). Change management in health care IT. Physician Executive, 37(2), 64–67.

This article offers strategies for health care leaders to successfully implement change programs in their organizations, especially with regard to the new standards for electronic health records (EHRs). The article provides insights on change management, the reasons people resist change, and the ways to establish a culture that is more open to change initiatives.

Gruber, N., Darragh, J., Puccia, P. H., Kadric, D. S., & Bruce, S. (2010). Embracing change to improve performance. Long-Term Living: For the Continuing Care Professional, 59(1), 28–31.

This text describes the implementation of a new electronic health record system at a 105-bed hospital related-facility. The authors highlight five key elements that were deemed necessary for a successful EHR implementation.

Hyrkäs, K., & Harvey, K. (2010). Leading innovation and change. Journal of Nursing Management, 18(1), 1–3.

According to the authors, the health care field is in need of more effective leaders who understand innovation, who appreciate diversity and change, and who can foster and implement innovation and creativity. The authors describe how nurse leaders can be instrumental in embracing and disseminating innovation throughout the health care system and provide scaffolding for subsequent articles in this issue of the journal.

Mooney, B. L., & Boyle, A. M. (2011). 10 steps to successful EHR implementation. Medical Economics, 88(9), S4–6, S8–S11.

The authors of this article describe the incentives and requirements for electronic health records (EHRs) outlined in the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health (HITECH) Act. The authors then provide 10 steps for health care leaders and organizations to follow when implementing EHRs.

Murphy, J. (2011). Leading from the future: Leadership makes a difference during electronic health record implementation. Frontiers of Health Services Management, 28(1), 25–30.

In this article, the author examines the causes behind the increasing complication of EHR implementations. In addition, the author explores the role of leadership in guiding successful EHR implementations.

Required Media

Laureate Education (Producer). (2012b). Electronic health records. Baltimore, MD: Author.

In this video, Katie Skelton, Richard Rodriguez, Carina Perez, Shannon Mori, and Carmen Ferrell describe how their hospital implemented an electronic health record. They also outline the general considerations, benefits, and support measures related to electronic health records.

2. Successful Implementation of Electronic Health Information Technology

Since the inception of the HITECH Act, health organizations have faced increased pressure to update their health information technology (HIT) resources. As discussed last week, many believe that the increased use of electronic health records and the quick and efficient communication afforded by HIT can lead to improved quality of patient care. Yet there are significant costs associated with implementing such systems. What can organizations do to ensure that the correct system is selected and that the system will be appropriate for those required to use it? Who should be involved in those decisions?

This week introduces the systems development life cycle and discusses how it can guide an organization through the complexities of adopting a new HIT system.

In this Discussion, you are asked to consider the role of nurses in the SDLC process.

To prepare:

Review the steps of the systems development life cycle.

Think about your own organization, or one with which you are familiar, and the steps the organization goes through when purchasing and implementing a new HIT system.

Consider what a nurse could contribute to decisions made at each stage when planning for new health information technology. What might be the consequences of not involving nurses?

Reflect on your own experiences with your organization selecting and implementing new technology. As an end user, do you feel you had any input in the selection or and planning of the new HIT system?


Required Readings

McGonigle, D., & Mastrian, K. G. (2015). Nursing informatics and the foundation of knowledge (3rd ed.). Burlington, MA: Jones and Bartlett Learning.

Chapter 10, “Systems Development Life Cycle: Nursing Informatics and Organizational Decision Making”

This chapter explains the systems development life cycle and explores various methods of applying it. The chapter also examines the importance of interoperability in implementing HITECH.

Chapter 11, “Administrative Information Systems”

This chapter provides an overview of agency-based health information systems. The text also details how administrators can use core business systems in their practice.

Boswell, R. A. (2011). A physician group’s movement toward electronic health records: A case study using the transtheoretical model for organizational change. Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research, 63(2), 138–148.

The authors of this article present a case study on an EHR implementation in a multispecialty physician group. The case study attempts to determine actions that promote successful EHR implementation and the pros and cons of implementation.

Hsiao, J., Chang, H., & Chen, R. (2011). A study of factors affecting acceptance of hospital information systems: A nursing perspective. Journal of Nursing Research, 19(2), 150–160.

The focus of this article is to determine what factors are most important in predicting the acceptance of new health information technology. The results of the study indicated that self-efficacy, top management support, and the quality of information retrieved are the most important determinants of the willingness of nurses to adopt and use a new technology.

Kelley, T. F., Brandon, D. H., & Docherty, S. L. (2011). Electronic nursing documentation as a strategy to improve quality of patient care. Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 43(2), 154–162.

This article summarizes a literature review of the relationship between electronic health records (EHRs) and quality of patient care. The article identifies deficiencies in existing research regarding the daily interactions of nurses, patients, and electronic documentation, and it provides a comparison between electronic and paper-based documentation and its effect on quality of care.

Nurse leaders discuss the nurse’s role in driving technology decisions. (2010). Virginia Nurses Today, 18(1), 8–9.

This article summarizes a roundtable held with a number of nursing executives to discuss the role nurses should take in the selection and adoption of new technologies for health care. The executives concluded that the nurses’ goals should be to select technology that will further their ability to provide safe, quality care to their patients.

Page, D. (2011). Turning nurses into health IT superusers. Hospitals & Health Networks, 85(4), 27–28.

This article highlights the importance of involving nurses with all phases of the decision and implementation process surrounding new health information technology. The author stresses the importance of communication in the process as well as defining success.

Swab, J., & Ciotti, V. (2010). What to consider when purchasing an EHR system. hfm(Healthcare Financial Management), 64(5), 38–41.

In this article, recommendations are given for purchasing health information technology. These include selecting the appropriate vendor, carefully considering the cost of both new equipment and personnel, and involving clinicians in decisions.

Required Media

Laureate Education (Producer). (2012g). Systems development life cycle. Baltimore, MD: Author.

The systems development life cycle (SLDC) provides a framework for all of the steps necessary to implementing a new technology or process within an organization. This video explains the SDLC and how it is used in the health care field.

Optional Resources

Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. (2005). A toolkit for redesign in health care. Retrieved from http://www.ahrq.gov/legacy/qual/toolkit/index.html

This website supplies strategies for reconfiguring and transforming a hospital’s care processes. The text breaks down the redesign process into a series of steps.

3. Understanding Workflow Design

As you explored last week, the implementation of a new technology can dramatically affect the workflow of an organization. Newly implemented technologies can initially limit the productivity of users as they adjust to their new tools. Such implementations tend to be so significant that they often require workflows to be redesigned in order to achieve improvements in safety and patient outcomes. However, before workflows can be redesigned, they must first be analyzed. This analysis includes each step in completing a certain process. Some systems duplicate efforts or contain unnecessary steps that waste time and money and could even jeopardize patient health care. By reviewing and modifying the workflow, you enable greater productivity. This drive to implement new technologies has elevated the demand for nurses who can perform workflow analysis.

In this Discussion, you explore resources that have been designed to help guide you through the process of workflow assessment.

To prepare:

· Take a few minutes and peruse the information found in the article “Workflow Assessment for Health IT Toolkit”.

o As you check out the information located on the different tabs, identify key concepts that you could use to improve a workflow in your own organization and consider how you could use them.

o Go the Research tab and identify and read one article that is of interest to you and relates to your specialty area.


Required Readings

McGonigle, D., & Mastrian, K. G. (2015). Nursing informatics and the foundation of knowledge (3rd ed.). Burlington, MA: Jones and Bartlett Learning.

Chapter 14, “Nursing Informatics: Improving Workflow and Meaningful Use”

This chapter reviews the reasons for conducting workflow analysis and design. The author explains specific workflow analysis and redesign techniques.

Huser, V., Rasmussen, L. V., Oberg, R., & Starren, J. B. (2011). Implementation of workflow engine technology to deliver basic clinical decision support functionality. BMC Medical Research Methodology, 11(1), 43–61.

In this article, the authors describe an implementation of workflow engine technology to support clinical decision making. The article describes some of the pitfalls of implementation, along with successful and future elements.

Koppel, R., & Kreda, D. A. (2010). Healthcare IT usability and suitability for clinical needs: Challenges of design, workflow, and contractual relations. Studies in Health Technology and Informatics, 157, 7–14.

This article points to many health information technology designs and workflow decisions that limit their value and usage. The authors also examine the structure of the conceptual relationships between HIT vendors and the clinical facilities that purchase HIT.

U.S. Department of Health & Human Services. (n.d.b). Workflow assessment for health IT toolkit. Retrieved, June 18, 2012, from http://healthit.ahrq.gov/portal/server.pt/community/health_it_tools_and_resources/919/workflow_assessment_for_health_it_toolkit/27865

This article supplies a toolkit on the planning, design, implementation, and use of health information technology. The sections of the website provide a definition of workflow, examples of workflow tools, related anecdotes, and research.

Document: Sample Workflow of Answering a Telephone in an Office (Word document)

Required Media

Laureate Education (Producer). (2012f). System design and workflow. Baltimore, MD: Author.

This video provides an overview of how workflow modeling can be used in a health care setting to target areas for revising current practices and procedures. The video also shows how technology and informatics can be used to improve workflow efficiency and increase the quality of care.

4. Using Health Information Technology as a Source of Evidence-Based Practice

Before the digital revolution, health information technology supplied very limited support for evidence-based practice. If nurses wanted to be informed about cutting-edge research, their best bet was to either subscribe to leading journals or make periodic trips to the library. With the establishment of research databases, however, nurses became empowered to learn about and facilitate interdisciplinary and translational research. Databases are just one example of how health information technology supports evidence-based practice.

To prepare:

· Read the following scenario from the text (McGonigle & Mastrian, 2015, p. 445):

Twelve-hour shifts are problematic for patient and nurse safety, and yet hospitals continue to keep the 12-hour shift schedule. In 2004, the Institute of Medicine (Board on Health Care Services & Institute of Medicine, 2004) published a report that referred to studies as early as 1988 that discussed the negative effects of rotating shifts on intervention accuracy. Workers with 12-hour shifts realized more fatigue than workers on 8-hour shifts. In another study done in Turkey by Ilhan, Durukan, Aras, Turkcuoglu, and Aygun (2006), factors relating to increased risk for injury were age of 24 or less, less than 4 years of nursing experience, working in the surgical intensive care units, and working for more than 8 hours.

· Consider how the resources identified in the scenario above could influence an organization’s practice.

· Select an issue in your practice that is of concern to you. Using health information technology, locate at least three evidence-based practice resources that address your concern and that could possibly inform further action.


Required Readings

McGonigle, D., & Mastrian, K. G. (2015). Nursing informatics and the foundation of knowledge (3rd ed.). Burlington, MA: Jones and Bartlett Learning.

Chapter 23, “Research: Data Collection, Processing, and Analytics”

The authors of this chapter relate nursing research to the foundation of knowledge model. The chapter assesses informatics tools for collecting data, storing information, and processing and analyzing data.

Chapter 25, “Translational Research: Generating Evidence for Practice”

In this chapter, the authors differentiate evidence-based practice and translation research. They also describe models used to introduce research findings intro practice.

Hynes, D. M., Weddle, T., Smith, N., Whittier, E., Atkins, D., & Francis, J. (2010). Use of health information technology to advance evidence-based care: Lessons from the VA QUERI program. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 25(Suppl. 1), S44–S49.

This article presents a study that evaluated the role of health information technology (HIT) in the Department of Veteran Affairs’ Quality Enhancement Research Initiative. The authors convey their findings on how HIT provided data and information to aid implementation research, and how implementation research helped further HIT development. Additionally, the text details methods of overcoming common HIT barriers to implementation research.

Jamal, A., McKenzie, K., & Clark, M. (2009). The impact of health information technology on the quality of medical and health care: A systematic review. Health Information Management Journal, 38(3), 26–37.

This text details a study that reviews the published evidence concerning the impact of health information technology (HIT) on the quality of health care. The study investigated the use of HIT in medical care and allied health and preventive services. The authors primarily focus on the impact of electronic health records, computerized provider order-entry, and decision support systems.

Umscheid, C. A., Williams, K., & Brennan, P. (2010). Hospital-based comparative effectiveness centers: Translating research into practice to improve the quality, safety and value of patient care. JGIM: Journal of General Internal Medicine, 25(12), 1,352–1,355.

This article revolves around the usage of the hospital-based comparative effectiveness (CE) center model. The authors highlight the model’s benefits and the increasing usage of CE evidence. The article also reviews solutions to overcoming many of the challenges to operating hospital-based CE centers.

Optional Resources

Chlan, L., Tracy, M. F., & Grossbach, I. (2011). Pulmonary care. Achieving quality patient-ventilator management: Advancing evidence-based nursing care. Critical Care Nurse, 31(6), 46–50.

5. HITECH Legislation

In order for organizations to receive the incentives offered through the HITECH legislation, they must be able to demonstrate that they are using the technology in meaningful ways. The following criteria for meaningful use must be evident to qualify for EHR incentives (U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, 2012). The technology must:

· Improve quality, safety, and efficiency, and reduce health disparities

· Engage patients and families

· Improve care coordination

· Improve population and public health

· Ensure adequate privacy and security protections for personal health information

For this Discussion, you consider the impact of the meaningful use criteria of the HITECH legislation on the adoption of health information technology.

To prepare:

· Review the Learning Resources on the HITECH legislation and its primary goals.

· Reflect on the positive and negative impact this legislation has had on your organization or one with which you are familiar.

· Consider the incentives to encourage the use of EHRs. Focus on the definition of meaningful use and how it is measured.

· Reflect on how the incentives and meaningful use impact the quality of patient care.

· Find an article dealing with one of the criteria to qualify for meaningful use and how it has been successfully met.


Required Readings

McGonigle, D., & Mastrian, K. G. (2015). Nursing informatics and the foundation of knowledge (3rd ed.). Burlington, MA: Jones and Bartlett Learning.

Chapter 9, “Legislative Aspects of Nursing Informatics: HITECH and HIPAA”

This chapter explores two pieces of legislation that dramatically impact nursing informatics: the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act of 2009 and the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996.

Arlotto, P. (2010). 7 strategies for improving HITECH readiness. hfm(Healthcare Financial Management), 64(11), 90–96.

This article reviews seven strategies to help prepare for the implementation of the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act (HITECH). The central point of the article focuses on demonstrating meaningful use of electronic health records.

Begum, R., Smith Ryan, M., Winther, C. H., Wang, J. J., Bardach, N. S., Parsons, A. H., & … Adams Dudley, R. (2013). Small Practices’ Experience With EHR, Quality Measurement, and Incentives. American Journal Of Managed Care, 19eSP12–8.

This article presents a study of clinician’s attitudes toward the use of financial incentives for the implementation of electronic health records in small practices.

Brown, B. (2010). The final rules for meaningful use of EHRs. Journal of Health Care Compliance, 12(5), 49–50.

In this article, the author poses four questions pertaining to the EHR system in the United States. In particular, the article examines Medicare and Medicaid incentive payments and the ways the meaningful use of certified EHRs will be verified.

Classen, D. C., & Bates, D. W. (2011). Finding the meaning in meaningful use. New England Journal of Medicine, 365(9), 855–858.

This article details the challenges of meeting the meaningful use standards in order to receive the benefits legislated under the HITECH Act. The authors specify the requisites for achieving benefits with EHRs, the relationship between meaningful use and commercial EHRs, and the tools needed to evaluate EHRs after implementation.

Kempfert, A. E., & Reed, B. D. (2011). Health care reform in the United States: HITECH Act and HIPAA privacy, security, and enforcement Issues. FDCC Quarterly, 61(3), 240–273.

The authors of this article examine HITECH, in addition to the impact of the privacy rules under the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA). The article details the potential negative repercussions of failing to comply with HIPAA and HITECH.

Murphy, J. (2010b). Nursing informatics. The journey to meaningful use of electronic health records. Nursing Economic$, 28(4), 283–286.

This article reviews HITECH and the background leading up to its passage. The author also details the financial incentives intended to assist health care providers in purchasing and implementing HIT and EHR systems.

Optional Resources

U.S. Department of Health & Human Services. (2011). Health IT home. Retrieved from http://www.healthit.gov/

U.S. Department of Health & Human Services. (2012). Regulations and guidance. Retrieved from http://www.healthit.gov/policy-researchers-implementers/health-it-rules-regulations


Electronic health records (EHRs)

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Electronic Health Record System (EHRS) Paper

Electronic Health Record System (EHRS) Paper.


Background: Electronic Health Record System (EHRS) is used largely in developed countries, though developing countries have also implemented the system in their health care industries. Electronic Health Record System (EHRS) is expected to improve the quality of patient care and its successful implementation depends upon the clinical perception of EHR systems. Many medical staff have resisted digitalization, observing the system as uncaring, confusing and dehumanizing. The literature showed physician’s perception and attitude towards the significance of the system to improve healthcare facilities but also identified the factors influencing the resistance in using the new system.
Research Question: Do healthcare professionals perceive that the use of electronic health records improves the quality of healthcare services in healthcare organizations in Gulf Cooperation Council Countries?

Objective: The systematic research was conducted to evaluate the physician’s perception and satisfaction with the newly implemented EHRS in healthcare organizations to improve the quality of healthcare services in Gulf Cooperation Council Countries.

Method: A systematic literature review is used to examine the physician’s and medical staff’s attitude, knowledge, satisfaction, preferences and perception about the Electronic Health Record system. The study was focused on physicians, pharmacists, receptionist, medical staff, and nurses working in various hospitals in Gulf countries such as Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, Kuwait, U.A.E, and Oman. The literature review was concentrated on the government and private hospitals in different regions of Saudi Arabia i.e. Makkah, Jeddah, Taif, and Riyadh. In Oman, Bahrain, Kuwait, and U.A.E several clinical specialist, public hospitals, and primary healthcare centers were investigated.

Result: The overall response of physician’s and other medical staff’s perception and satisfaction towards using EHR systems to improve healthcare services was positive. However the study identified negative perception of the system in Saudi Arabia, mainly because of the lack of sufficient technical training and personal preferences.

Conclusion: Majority of the studies specified the positive perception and high satisfaction rates toward the newly implemented computerized record keeping system. Physician’s agreed on the useful impacts of using electronic health record system to reduce errors and maintaining a proper record of patients especially in diseases like HIV which requires constant medical treatment and assistance. The review also revealed the barriers and factors influencing the adoption of EHRs in hospitals and medical care facilities. Two major barrier identified to hinder the successful implementation and adoption were human barriers; related to knowledge gap, personal beliefs, and financial barriers; related to the high cost and insufficient funding to implement EHRs in developing countries.
Literature Review

Electronic health record system is a digital form of a patient’s paper chart (McDonald, Tang, and Hripcsak, 2014). It is widely used in any healthcare organization to collect patient’s data such as medical history, prescribed medication use and demographic information. The developed countries such as Canada and the United Kingdom have a national EHR system. In 2012, 72% of office-based physicians used EMR/EHR systems in America (Hsiao, and Hing, 2012). Keeping health records digitally is undergoing a transition not only in developed countries but also in developing countries.

The developing countries lack a well-organized healthcare infrastructure to effectively fight against Malaria, Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) among other deadly disease that requires constant medical assistance and treatment. The basic paper-based record keeping is not enough and needs to be substituted by a new, innovative electronic health record system (Kalogriopoulos, et al., 2009).

The study aim to investigate the physician’s perception about the impact of using electronic health record systems (EHRS/EMRS) to improve the quality of healthcare services in Gulf Cooperation Council countries. The literature review reflect the most current and pertinent research available on electronic health record systems in Gulf countries. In Saudi Arabia, the Saudi Ministry of Health (MOH) has taken initiatives to implement EMRS nation-wide. According to a research conducted by Shaker, Farooq, and Dhafar in 2015, 52.8% physicians appreciated EHRS positively in Saudi Arabia. However there is a deficiency of awareness about the use of EHR systems among a range of administrative staff and health professionals (Hasanain, Vallmuur, and Clark, 2015).

EHR is an assisting technology that let physicians to apply quality improvement processes in the practice of medicine. The systems provides accuracy of information, speed of communication, date revision, and data retrieval, and improve adherence to clinical practice guidelines in health care facilities (Al Alawi, et al., 2014). The computerized clinical record system are useful to storage huge volume of regulatory information, administrative, and clinical information. These systems not only provide speed and accuracy but also decrease the rate of medical error, increase quality, and fulfil the regulatory audit. Physicians see the digital system as a mean to advance quality care, increase cost efficiency (Al Farsi, and West, 2006). It is a new way of communication and interaction among paramedical employees, nurses, and physicians. EHRs is reducing the medical cost by eliminating inappropriate care, inefficiency, and medical errors (Fleming, et al., 2014). The system is also capable of detecting unusual pattern such as high number of lab investigations ordered by physicians, oddly high degrees of hospitalization or patient readmission.

The successful use of electronic health record system is crucially dependent upon the clinical perception of EHRs. The literature review of nine articles from different countries in Middle East is focused to determine the physician’s satisfaction and perception of the electronic health record system. The study conducted in United Arab Emirates (U.A.E) concluded that physicians are satisfied with the system and have an affirmative perception regarding the application (Al Alawi, et al., 2014). Similarly researches conducted in Saudi Arabia indicate the positive attitude of nurses towards EHRs (Alzobaidi, et al., 2016) and they agree on the benefits of using this system (Asiri, AlDosari, and Saddik, 2014). An article from Taibah University of Medical Sciences in 2014, stated the dissatisfaction of physicians with the digital system significantly associated with the performance of the system and the quality of the information (Youssef, et al., 2014). Another study showed an increase adoption of the EHRs in Saudi Arabia however it indicated the computer training and literacy rate directly proportional to the clinical efficiency and EHR satisfaction (Alasmary, Metwally, and Househ, 2014).

Two researches conducted in Kuwait have showed a very positive perception of EHRs by the physicians and their confidence in the efficiency and accuracy of EHR systems (Al Azmi, et al., 2008). The majority of physicians participated in a study has reported the EHR system as easy to use (Al Azim, and Al Saleh, 2008). However, In Oman physicians indicated low satisfaction with the current EHR system because of its inadequate and inappropriate usage (Al-Mujaini, et al., 2011). Most of these studies showed positive attitude and a high satisfaction of physicians in electronic health record system however, there are several barriers and challenges involved in the adoption of a digital system.

Adopting the new technology is always challenging. Nurses are the largest part of the healthcare personnel in the critical care facilities; therefore, nurse’s advocacy of the electronic health record system is a crucial factor prompting its implementation. The process of adopting EHR systems is growing rapidly within the healthcare industry. The Medical secretaries and the nurses interact with EHR systems as receptionists, transcriptionists, and nursing diagnoses, write nursing care plans, check physician orders, and record vital signs. This makes them the primary users of the system but the evaluation of EHRs by nurses has received less devotion (Mahalli, 2015).

The major barriers identified by several researches that hinder the successful implementation and adoption of health information systems in Saudi Arabia are human barriers and financial barriers (Khalifa, 2014). Human barriers refer to the healthcare professional’s knowledge, personal beliefs, and attitude regarding the health record adoption (Mahalli, 2015). While financial barriers include insufficient money and funding to implement EMR system.

The studies investigated the barriers and factors affecting the user satisfaction with Electronic Health Record System and concluded that the physicians agree on the usefulness of digital system to record medical history but adopting a new technology is challenging. Computer literacy and training can improve the satisfaction. Another important element to improve the physician adoption of system is the involvement of the primary users in developing the EHR system and ask for the recommendation of how to improve the interface. The implementation of a computerized system is not as challenging as providing the maintenance and the technical support to sustain the system. Low budget countries face difficulties in technically maintaining the system and thus indicate the need of improved technical trainings.

Electronic Health Record System (EHRS) Paper

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electronic communication between the patient and healthcare provider?

electronic communication between the patient and healthcare provider?.

Discussion Topic 1: Regulating Professional Practice

Compare the roles of state board of nursing with the role of professional organizations in regulating professional practice. What are the major methods of credentialing? List the benefits and weaknesses of each method from the standpoint of protecting the public and the protection of the professional scope of practice.

Discussion Board: Minimum 200 words, APA Style, Time New Roman, Font 12, (3 references- in text citations) not older than (2012-2017). No Plagiarism please.

Discussion Topic 2: Case Study

Look at the case study number one, (In)Secure Communication? on page 240 of Health Policy and Politics, A Nurses Guide, by Milstead. Analyze what might have transpired if Annie did not have a nursing background. List the breakdowns in communication that occurred and the potential ramifications. Did the advance practice nurse’s office fulfill a meaningful use stage 2 requirements of providing secure electronic communication between the patient and healthcare provider? Why or why not?

Discussion Board: Minimum 200 words, APA Style, Time New Roman, Font 12, (3 references- in text citations) not older than (2012-2017). No Plagiarism please.

electronic communication between the patient and healthcare provider?

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What is the Electronic Communications Privacy Act (ECPA) of 1986? Please use outside resources to assist with your answer.

What is the Electronic Communications Privacy Act (ECPA) of 1986? Please use outside resources to assist with your answer..

What is the Electronic Communications Privacy Act (ECPA) of 1986? Please use outside resources to assist with your answer. Research the United States v. Councilman case. Why was this case important to the history of the Electronic Communications Privacy Act? Research a recent case of identity theft. Please explain the case in detail. Also, be sure to provide the outcome. Do you agree with the ruling? Find recent laws dealing with identity theft in your state of residence. If you could improve the law in one way what would you change or do differently?

What is the Electronic Communications Privacy Act (ECPA) of 1986? Please use outside resources to assist with your answer.

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