War in Afghanistan in Response to the Attacks of September 11th

Annotated bibliography and outline with prof feedback comments are uploaded just for a better understanding of the paper.

This is an extremely important term paper for the international studies justice, war, and power course, the essay should be qualitative and relevant. Clear arguments, and clear counterarguments, with in-text citations to the four sources provided in the annotated bibliography, those sources should be used for sure, and a maximum of two more peer-reviewed sources can be added from the author’s choice and research.

The entire actual topic is as follows and should be considered by the author: In 2001, the U.S. initiated a war in Afghanistan with support from Canada and a number of other allies. This military action was taken in response to the attacks of September 11. The stated aims of the war included destroying Al Qaeda and removing the Taliban regime (which had allowed Al Qaeda to operate and be based on its territory) from power. Was this war morally justified? Why or why not? (The paper must address relevant aspects of just war theory, information discussed by Micheal Walzer in “Just and Unjust War”, and relevant articles regarding civilian harms, the morality of war, etc.)

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Choose one of the organizational systems, such as social, ethical, religious, spiritual, educational, ecological/environmental, political, economic, technological, or legal. Discuss how this organizational system can prepare you to care for individuals from other cultures.

The educational system can prepare individuals to care for individuals from other cultures in several ways. Here are a few examples:

  1. Cultural Competency Training: The educational system can provide cultural competency training to students to understand and appreciate cultural diversity. Such training can include learning about different cultural beliefs, values, and practices and developing skills for effective cross-cultural communication.
  2. Exposure to Diversity: Educational institutions can also provide opportunities for students to interact with individuals from different cultural backgrounds. This exposure can help individuals understand and appreciate diverse perspectives, which can be useful when caring for individuals from other cultures.
  3. Language Skills: Learning a second language can also be a valuable tool for individuals who care for individuals from other cultures. Communicating with individuals in their native language can improve communication and foster trust.
  4. Ethical and Social Responsibility: The educational system can also instil a sense of ethical and social responsibility in individuals. By understanding the impact of social, economic, and political factors on health, educational institutions can teach students how to be advocates for social justice and equity.

In conclusion, the educational system can provide individuals with the knowledge, skills, and attitudes necessary to care for individuals from other cultures. By providing cultural competency training, exposure to diversity, language skills, and instilling a sense of ethical and social responsibility, the educational system can prepare individuals to provide culturally sensitive care.

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Limitations of the Applicability of the Keynesian Economic Policies

Limitations of the Applicability of the Keynesian Economic Policies

The Keynesian principles of economics are a school of macroeconomic theory that basis its arguments on the principles and ideologies of John Keynes, a twentieth-century economist. The principles point out that the decisions of the private sector at times result to inefficient macroeconomic results and, thus, campaigns for responses by the public sector through such actions as monetary policy and fiscal policy by the central bank and the government, respectively, to stabilize the output in the cycle. The principles of this economist argue for a mixed economy, one mainly composed of the private sector but also has a considerable role of the public sector and the government. This particular economic model was seen and practised during the Second World War, the great depression and during the economic expansion of after the war (Chapter 12. Keynesian economics and the Great Depression).

This paper, therefore, will look at and try to solve the issue of what the economists of the Keynesian principle suggest is the best solution for the problem of insufficient aggregate demand if it were to exist in an economy. Furthermore, the article will also attempt to find out whether there are any limitations or shortcomings of the applicability of the principles proposed in the Keynesian economic theory.

After the great depression, the socialist cause became extremely popular, especially in the 1930s. While the capitalist world at this time was experiencing one of the most challenging depressions, the Soviet economy was experiencing a booming growth. The depression hit, and most Americans were caught by surprise, as they had to come to believe in the notion that their nation was destined to attain immense success. The economic system based on capitalist ideas seemed inadequate to address these challenges and was actually on the verge of collapse. To revive it, a number of countermeasures had to be developed, nut to develop such measures, an understanding of what had happened was also crucial. One English economist, Keynes, who tried to explain what had happened to the capitalist economy in his book, made this task easier (Chapter 12. Keynesian economics and the Great Depression).

Keynes began his task by attempting to look at and understand the production process. In a certain period, a company produces certain products worth a certain value. From the revenues generate from the sale of these products, the company pays and compensates for the production cost, which in many cases includes wages, rent, salaries, raw materials, supplier and interest on loans. After all this has been paid off, the company’s profit remains. According to the economist, one thing never to forget here is that the production cost to the business organization represents income to another firm or individuals. The profit is also the income the owners of the firm gain. Because the production value is exhausted, the value of the products has to be equal to the generated incomes resulting from its production (Chapter 12. Keynesian economics and the Great Depression).

In terms of the whole national economy, the aggregate picture is similar to that for an individual company. The value of all products in the economy during a certain stage is equivalent to the overall profits established during the matching stage. As it follows, for a company to sell all its products, customers must spend all of their incomes in the aggregate. If any amount equal to the society’s total income is spent on services and goods of a certain company, then the production value is realized in the realized sales. As a result, profits remain high, and business owners are willing to manufacture or produce similar amounts or more amounts of the product (Chapter 12. Keynesian economics and the Great Depression).

Keynes referred to such a trend as a circular flow because money flows from businesses to the society in the form of salaries, wages, rent, profits and interests, and the money then flows back to the companies when the society procures the merchandise and services created by the companies. However, this flow is never complete. When money moves from the companies to the society, some of it never goes back to the companies. Therefore, this circle has leakages. This is because not all people spend all of their money. They save certain percentage and, therefore, they withdraw it from the spending stream. Another group of people who take loans from banks because they spend more money than their income also offsets this saving. Keynes, however, argued that at the peak of success savings are usually more than what customers borrow; therefore, there is usually a net leakage or a net saving from the circulating flow of expenditure and income (Chapter 12. Keynesian economics and the Great Depression).

Keynes also pointed out other kinds of leakages. Firstly, individuals buy services and goods from foreign businesses, but the capital they spent on importing these goods and services cannot be spent on products that are produced domestically. Secondly, the taxes individuals pay are also not included in the income, expenditure flow. Leakages that result from imports, saving and taxes can be offset by exports. This happens when foreigners purchase goods produced in the US in levels or amounts similar to the imports bought by US citizens. The government makes use of taxes to finance the buying of services and goods. If it makes use of all taxes for the same reason and balances the budget, then the expenditures of the state will offset taxes in the spending flow. On the other hand, if business people want to expand their capital, they have the option to finance investment on capital goods through taking loans from funds saved at the bank. Investment, thus, may in a way offset the leakage in savings (Chapter 12. Keynesian economics and the Great Depression).

If these three are injected into the flow of income and expenditure then they are just as significant as the three leakages in the savings, and spending becomes equal to the production value. Everything that businesses produce has the potential to be sold and success reigns.

The economist, however, held the belief that it was unlikely that the process could go on without interruptions for a long period. Investment, which is needed to absorb savings enlarges the stock of capital and, therefore, increases the productive capacity of an economy. Income and production must, therefore, increase in the following period to fully use the new capacity of production. However, with increase income increases in savings occurs, which calls for increases in investment, and according to Keynes, this investment is never forthcoming. He saw that people with higher incomes saved more percentages of their income than those with lower incomes. He held that this pattern is true for the whole society, as the society’s aggregate income increase, total society’s savings increase (Chapter 12. Keynesian economics and the Great Depression).

This means that, at each new higher income level, an even larger income level is kept away as savings. Therefore, investment would have to increase at a higher rate than income if it would successfully offset savings constantly. Only such a quick increase would allow businesses to sell all of their products, but as investments grows quicker, the quicker is the increase in the capacity to produce. As a result, the economy has to invest in even larger amounts in each successive time if it is to maintain the balance. Keynes, however, pointed out that in any mature economy generated by the private enterprise the number of investments profitable enough are limited, thus, as the process of growth of the economy continues, so does the difficulty of finding enough outlets of investment. Suppose it becomes difficult to find sufficient outlets for investment. In that case, investment falls short of total and saving expenditures of products fall short of the product value of the produced goods. If a business is unable to sell all of its produced goods then it reduces the level of production for the next period. This in turn results to decline in income, decrease in employment and reduction, in production (Chapter 12. Keynesian economics and the Great Depression).

However, with the decline in incomes, more consumers spend less on products in the following period. This leads to further cuts in the levels of production and the downward trend continues. Under such circumstances, incentives to expand a business’s capital are low, and investment reduces. All types of expenditures decrease. Savings, as well, decline with decreases in income. This process goes on until the time when income reduces so much such that there is no longer surpasses the decreased investment level. Equilibrium is realized at such low levels of income. Leakages from the flow of expenditure and income are equal once more to the injections into the flow. The economy becomes stable but at a level where significant unused capacity of production and unemployment exists (Chapter 12. Keynesian economics and the Great Depression).

The application of Keynesian economic policies has several limitations according to several of his critics. One such criticism that pointed out the limitations of the Keynesian policies is the neoclassical macroeconomists who in the 1950s started to disagree with the policies and methodologies Keynesian employed. Keynesian and his successors focused on the dependence of consumption of income that is disposable, and of investment on current cash flows and current profits. Furthermore, the Keynesians posited a curve that connected the nominal inflation of wages to unemployment rates. To support his theories, Keynesians and his successors traced to the logical basis of their model and supported their theories with statistical data for evidence. Neoclassical macroeconomists demanded that macroeconomics be based on similar foundations as theories of microeconomic theories, rational, profit- maximizing companies and utility- maximizing customers (Akerlof, 2007).

An Australian economist who pointed out that the Keynesian economic policies exhibited and made use of a collectivist approach pointed out another limitation of the applicability of the economic policies of Keynes. The economist argued that such theories or approaches encourage planning that is centralized which in turn leads to capital malinvestment, which is the predominant cause of cycles in business. The critic also argued that the studies by Keynes of aggregate relations in an economy are not applicable, as recessions are, as a result, of micro- economic factors. He pointed out that what begins as a temporary fix by the government usually grows to become expanding and permanent programs of the government, which limits or eliminates the civil society and the private sector all together (Hayek, 1989).


Akerlof, G. A. (2007). The Missing Motivation in Macroeconomics. American Economic             Review 97, 5–36. 

Chapter 12. Keynesian economics and the Great Depression. Retrieved from             http://www.public.coe.edu/~eichhorn/Pmac/HuntCh12.pdf

Hayek, F. (1989). The Collected Works of F.A. Hayek. University of Chicago Press.

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Economic Brief

Economic Brief


Goods and Services. Utilities, the number 221 industry as per the NAICs website, comprises a wide range of companies, including renewable electric producers, independent power firms, gas, as well as multi-utilities. In particular, the electric utility subsector includes businesses that invest in the production and distribution of gas to individual consumers in their respective countries. Notably, this group of companies does not include firms tasked with excavating and refining gas. On the other hand, multi-utilities emphasise a mix of avenues that make up the utility sector, which means they diversify when it comes to product offerings, including electricity, gas, and water. Concisely, the utility industry provides basic amenities in the form of natural gas, water, dams, sewage services, and electricity.

Market Structure and Characteristics. The utility industry, especially the electricity subsector, is structured in a way that it has over 3,000 cooperative, public, and private utilities and 1,000 independent power-generating firms. Policymakers collaborate with regulators to implement market competition by removing legal and associated technical barriers, which play a central role in hindering market entry (BLS, 2020). Examples of legal barriers include license restrictions and unsustainable or high license fees when the technical barriers such as sunk costs commingle with legal challenges, the industry risk having few service providers.

Moreover, the regulators monitor any forms of anti-competitive trends, restructure the sector, while at the same time, providing access to a variety of essential facilities. Therefore, continuous market restructuring helps prevent the dangers associated with monopoly and non-competitive portions. The industry achieves this through structural separation, which involves availing non-competitive and competitive services or elements by separate entities (BLS, 2020).

Microeconomic Relationships, Trends, or Market Outcomes. The utility sector prioritizes providing green services by diversifying clean energy sources to relieve pressure attached to current energy pricing. Through the adoption of clean energy technology, the sector brings a lot of microeconomic benefits, such as the reduction of costs incurred in doing business, while at the same time, minimizing energy expenditure (McMillen, 2009). Moreover, any of the clean energy projects contribute to regional employment growth, as seen in biomass and photovoltaic cell production.

Apart from the identified microeconomic relationships and market outcomes, the industry is fast witnessing significant changes, trends in its composition. As of 2007, the United States (U.S.) constituted more than 3,000 cooperative, private, and public utilities. Additionally, the sector in question has up to 1,000 independent power firms. Each of these producers is connected to three regional power grids. According to Nunez (2007), the grids are further synchronized with over eight different but related electric reliability councils. The industry has 150 control areas from which operators, as well as a separate land, use regulatory, economic,  environmental, and engineering authorities to work to manage these complex systems successfully,. Table 1 shows the revenue share of electricity end-users.

End User/Consumer% Revenue
Investor-owned utilities (IOUs)59
Publicly-owned utility15
Power markets11
Federal power agencies1

Adapted from EIA (2011)

Government Impact on Market Structure, Prices, or Output. Although utilities, like any other industry, earn profits, the sector belongs to the public service landscape, which means it is heavily regulated by the government (BLS, 2020). In particular state-based public service commission play a leading role in regulating utility services provided by private firms in the industry. On the same note, larger states and federal power utilities are run by the government. In this respect, there is no aspect of utilities that is not burdened by a variety of government regulations (Nunez, 2007). Electricity and water are the two subsectors that experience heavy government regulation, with prices changing periodically. These changes case pay little to no attention to supply, demand, and any of the market forces, meaning governmental intervention translates to fluctuations in the prices of other goods and services.


BLS. (2020). Industries at a glance: Utilities: NAICS 22. https://www.bls.gov/iag/tgs/iag22.htm

McMillen, S. (2009). The economic impact of the renewable energy /energy efficiency industry on the Connecticut economy. http://www.remi.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/12/188-CT-Dept-of-Economic-and-Community-Development-Economic-Impact-of-the-Renewable-Energy-Energy-Efficiency-Industry-on-the-Connecticut-Economy-JUL-2009.pdf

Nunez, K. (2007). Electric utility deregulation: Stranded costs vs. stranded benefits. Journal of Accounting and Public Policy26(2), 193-211. DOI: 10.1016/j.jaccpubpol.2007.02.002

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China’s Economic Weaknesses

China’s Economic Weaknesses

China has enjoyed essential improvements in the economic sector over the last few decades, making it one of the world’s largest economies, mainly driven by its mixed economy incorporating small aspects of capitalism. However, the economy may not enjoy a smooth ride as there are still numerous weaknesses limiting the comprehensive growth of China’s economy. Notably, the continuous threats and strained relationships between China and the United States are some of the weaknesses that continue to disrupt China’s comprehensive continuous economic growth.

China’s Economic Weaknesses

The total debt has limited China’s economy to GDP per ratio, whereby the government, consumers, and corporations have been immersed in debts in their quest to stimulate economic growth. The weakness has outlined a situation where housing prices have skyrocketed while the rising growth levels have affected consumers’ safety, leading to unwanted pollution, inflation, and food safety issues. Consumer debt, on the other hand, has contributed to the creation of an asset bubble. Therefore, the quest for economic growth has necessitated looking for diverse ways to acquire the necessary financial manpower which has limited the country’s growth due to the debt levels. Consequently, the debt level of Beijing and its inefficient central planning has had a collective impact on the nation and thus outlining one crucial weakness in China’s economy.

Secondly, China has been involved in rampant threats with the United States, notably the trade war between Beijing and the US. There have been constant tariff threats and counter-threats between the United States and Beijing, thus outlining a possible enactment of a trade war. China may be walking down a dark path as the trade war can lead to the stagnation of the Chinese export-oriented manufacturing as well as its export-dependent economy. The US is the largest market for China’s industrial and agricultural products. Increased trade wars with the US will mean industrial profits will dip putting pressure on jobs, household consumption and overall China’s economic growth. The slowdown in industrial production and corporate profits will threaten China’s long-term economic growth.

Conversely, China has developed a culture of overbuilding that outlines another major weakness. Its emphasis on grand planning outlines the situation where China tend to overbuild in pursuit of success. Notably, the nation witnessed successful results when they exported cheap shoes and toys and thus assumed that the sales and growth rate would go on indefinitely. Therefore, the nation fails to comprehend where to slow down and thus they may have more to offer while there are no interested people. China experiences surpluses of commodities and production facilities that may ultimately be unwanted worldwide. China aims to remain competitive and thus encounters the challenge of failing to understand when the export is excessive. Therefore, China’s economy is being limited by the dire need to keep growing and thus failing to understand the market and make the necessary adjustments to maintain a competitive edge.

China’s controversial “one child” policy that was enforced from the early 1980s until 2015 has greatly affected the productive age population. China’s working population has been on a decline ever since raising the prospects that the country may get old before it gets rich. A rapidly  aging population  and poor population fertility mean that the surplus labour pool that has been central to Chinese economic growth will be exhausted in a few years to come and industries will begin to raise wages rapidly.  Subsequently, China will find it harder to match the easy productivity gains it had experienced for the past quarter-century. It is estimated that if China did not enforce the one-child policy, its population would have peaked at 1.6 billion by 2040 before beginning to decline thus providing the country with the much longer demographic dividend. However, with the one-child policy, one child will be tasked with taking care of two parents and two grandparents thus putting more pressure on the economy.

China’s economic weakness may continue to limit the nation from reaching its economic potential. Notably, it has been self-inflicted especially with the strained relationships with the United States and the excessive production of products. Therefore, the outlined weaknesses outline diverse shortcomings that China have instigated and thus have a key role to play to ensure they do not manage an economy that has grown over the last decades.

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Premium cruise lines

Premium cruise lines

Cruise ship industry is among the fasters growing segment in the hospitality industry all over the world, with an approximate annual growth rate of about 8.4%. According to darity (2008), in 2007 alone 12.6 million tourists cruise worldwide. This number grew the year after and it was approximately 80 million at end of 2013. At present, about 350 premium cruise lines are sailing the world’s seas. Premium cruise industry has a number of economic benefits to a port state. These benefits arise from five principles: cruise tourist and crew spending, employment by the Premium cruise lines companies, premium cruise lines expenditure on goods and service, which are necessary for cruise operation, cruise line expenditure for port services, and expenditure for premium cruiser maintenance.

Most tourist in the world chooses premium cruise lines because they are smaller as compared to the larger cruise ships and, therefore, take fewer cruisers. The space ratio of the premium cruise lines is greater than the larger one, who make premium cruise lines are less crowded as compared to the greater. Some premium cruise lines, sometimes, characterize themselves up premium cruise. Most premium cruise lines offer larger staterooms and more luxurious bathing facilities as compare to large cruise ship (Dickinson & Vladimir, 2008).

How currents affect premium cruise lines

With the current technologies, premium cruise lines trends are shaping up with a greater focus on multigenerational groups with more unique food offering. Most of these premium ships now offers about a quarter mile boardwalk. Mullins & Walker (2013) show that some Cruise lines carry up to 3600 passengers and still include a jogging track and space for walk. Unlike the ancient premium cruise, modern cruise reflects new trends of being outside all the time with outdoor restaurants, much on-deck seating and other things that will make you be outside most of the time.

Modern technology has made it possible for premium cruiser to offer most luxurious things such as skating rings, planetariums, climbing walls, among other new attractive activities that keep coming. Among the most modern is Crystal symphony, which includes a vertical garden. The other two most competitive premium cruises are carnival Cruise lines and Holland America line cruise. Carnival lines cruise offer TV game, which allows passengers to participate while watching it (Papathanassis, 2012). The carnival cruise lines also include 3-D movies, which are shown on theatres equipped with motion seats, which has special effects like wind and water. America cruise lines, on the other hand, include programming partnership, which are usually used for fitness workout and pool parties.

With advance technology, most premium cruises have expanded food option. Some such as Norwegian have everything from separate bars of Asian noodles, raw shellfish to churrascaria. Most cruise lines also are trying to accommodate diverse needs for youth and adults. They are expanding where youths can have enough exercises and at the same time creating cool places for adults where they can sun, read books, and nap (Peng, 2009).

Lastly in the current trends is the information technology, which has shifted the way travellers book cruise lines. Unlike sometimes back where travellers were forced to book cruise lines with some middlemen, they now book it directly online through cruise’s company branded website.

Effects of cruise industry on economy

The benefits of the cruise industry are derived from income generated from the spending at the port. These incomes, which include money received from dockage, wharfage, and passenger’s spending were originally earned somewhere. In fact, direct purchases by cruise lines and passengers from local business create income and jobs. Local government benefits from the cruise industry through taxes imposed on this sector. In most cases, taxes flow directly from the port authority rather than local government (Walker, 2012)..

Benefits derived from the cruise industry are usually measured by impact analysis, which is based on input-output model. An input-output model calculates effects on the income; employment on the region, and value added which resulted from the original input. Direct and indirect effects that arise from the passenger’s spending become an income the affected local firms. All these incomes are received from the services and goods rendered. That means for a firm to produce and distribute the requisite goods and services, needed by cruise lines, local firms must invest some money. Therefore, if a country’s economy is poor and has less to invest on the cruise business, then the amount obtained from the travellers, are also low. If a country is so poor and fails to invest on this industry, the number travellers wishing to visit such a country will also reduce dramatically (John, 2008).

Social impact of cruise industry:

Premium cruise industry has a social and cultural impact on the destination. This impact is as a result of the relationship between residents and guest. Premium cruise lines have both social and negative impacts and positive impacts.

Cruise lines impact the society positively through culture exchange, labour issues, and revitalization of culture and tradition. Destination gives an opportunity for travellers to learn by visiting museums, cultural centres, and heritage centres. On the other site, social exchange is likely to increase the chances for people to develop mutual sympathy, understanding and tolerance. Therefore, it is clear that tourism can be away for local people to trade he culture and knowledge. The culture of the community can improve cruise industry in many ways. For instance, festivals and events local communities can increase the number of the premium cruise lines visiting a country.

Another positive social effect of the cruise industry is on education. A research show that cruise tourism has promoted and increase educational opportunity. According to Henkens(2006), tourism can also bring a positive force toward peace, and fosters pride in traditional culture that can assist in avoiding urban relocation.

On the negative side, cruise industry may lead to misunderstanding and conflicts. Generally, social impacts of cruise vary from place to place. However, the result can be managed by regulating the number and timing of visitors to avoid disruption of social and economic cycle (Butler, 2010).                             


According to Cetron,  DeMicco, & Davies (2006), it is undeniable that the premium cruise industry brings money to the local economy, however, ensuring development of the cruise industry at the destination require much capital. Therefore, the question is, do the cruise lines bring fewer benefits that the initial cost?

As could be seen, we have to make a decision that pressure to promote cruise industry. However, there is no policy in most government imposed to control the impact of such activity. Lack of planning allows confronting the massive arrival of cruise tourism will eventually lead negative effects in the destinations. Ports too often say those cruises are more important to them than the way they are important to the cruise lines. With the recent growth in the cruise industry, more ports need to be build (Conrady & Buck, 2009).


Butler, M. (2010). Cruise tourism: current situation and trends.. Madrid: World Tourism Organization.

Cetron, M., DeMicco, F., & Davies, O. (2006). Hospitality 2010: The future of hospitality and travel.. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Prentice Hall.

Conrady, R., & Buck, M. (2009). Trends and issues in global tourism 2009. Berlin: Springer.

Customer-to-customer interaction : impact on cruise experience and overall vacation satisfaction. (2008). Oxford Press: John.

Darity, W. A. (2008). International encyclopedia of the social sciences (2nd ed.). Detroit, Mich.: Macmillan Reference USA.

Dickinson, B., & Vladimir, A. (2008). Selling the sea an inside look at the cruise industry (2nd ed.). Hoboken, N.J.: Wiley.

Mullins, J. W., & Walker, O. C. (2013). Marketing management: a strategic decision-making approach (8th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.

Papathanassis, A. (2012). Cruise tourism and society a socio-economic perspective. Berlin: Springer.

Peng, Q. (2009). International Conference on Transportation Engineering, 2009 Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Transportation Engineering, July 25-27, 2009, [Southwest Jiaotong University] Chengdu, China. Reston, VA: American Society of Civil Engineers.

Walker, J. R. (2012). Introduction to hospitality management. s.l.: Prentice hall.

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The Main Factors that Influence Population Size in Different Parts of the World.

The Main Factors that Influences Population Size in Different Parts of the World. Outline

  1. Introduction

Population size is always changing in the world due to influence from several factors.  This paper focuses on the main factors that influence population size in different parts of the world.

  1. Main Body
  2. Fertility
  3. Positive

a) There are currently more births than deaths worldwide, particularly in developing countries that account 97% (Fact Sheet: World Population Trends 2012 by Carl Haub. This result from dual effect of the high birth rate and young population

  • Negative
  • Women’s fertility rates have dropped around the world and particularly developing countries due do family planning and more access to contraception.
  • Mortality
  • Positive

a) Living longer can cause a region’s population to increase even if birth rates remain constant. In Developed Countries, annual number of births barely exceeds deaths because of low birth rates and much older populations

  • Negative
  • High mortality rate than the birth rate influences population negatively. Trend studies point that in developing countries, by 2025, it is likely that deaths will exceed births in developed countries, the first time this will have happened in history.
  • Migration
  • Positive
  • a) Population has increased due to people migrating into these countries. U.N. Demographers believe that the numbers of people moving to other countries to work and live is rising. The United States adds to global demographic diversity by having by far the largest population in the industrial world (about 303 million)
  • Negative
  • High migration instances result in high population in most urban areas and countries. For example, the United States adds to global demographic diversity by having by far the largest population in the industrial world (about 303 million). Higher world population in the decades ahead is cause for concern
  1. Conclusion

To sum up, Population can either increase or decrease as a result of fertility rate, mortality rate, and migration among others. These factors influence populations either positively or negatively. Positively influence result in an increase whereas a negative influence result in a decrease respectively


Haub, C. (2012). Fact Sheet: World Population Trends 2012. [online] Prb.org. Available at: http://www.prb.org/Publications/Datasheets/2012/world-population-data-sheet/fact-sheet-world-population.aspx [Accessed 8 Feb. 2015].

Dimick, D. (2014). As World’s Population Booms, Will Its Resources Be Enough for Us?. [online] National Geographic. Available at: http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2014/09/140920-population-11billion-demographics-anthropocene/ [Accessed 8 Feb. 2015].

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Political Economy of Canada


Political economists are mostly concerned with the allocation of the called scarce resources in this world which has the infinite wants and needs as well. Therefore, for allocation of these resources, then politics are used in the state for provision to the people. Political economy therefore is a branch of social science which entails the studies of the relationship between individuals and society in addition with markets and state by the use of a diverse set of tools and ways drawn largely from economics and sociology. Notably, the word political economy comes from derivation of the Greek word polis, which means city or state and oikonomos, which means one who can manage a household or an estate. Political economy however, can be understood as a study of how the country –public household- is governed by the government considering both political and economic factor.

Traditionally, political economy was understood as the social change and historical transformation. To the classical theorists for instance Adam smith it all meant comprehending the great capitalist revolution, an upheaval that transformed the societies majorly based on agricultural labour into commercial, manufacturing and finally the industrial societies. Therefore, in the introductory of the 1923 edition of the author John Kells Ingram’s influential ‘history of political economy’ in the explanation of the role of history in the mind of the political economist. “It is now universally acknowledged that societies are subject to a process of development, which itself is not arbitrary, but regular; and that no social fact can be really understood apart from its history. Hence the ‘pocket formulas’ in favour with the older school, which were supposed to suit all cases and solve all problems, have lost the

Esteem they once enjoyed and Economics has become historical in its method, several stages of social evolution being recognized as having different features, and requiring in practice a modifying intervention which ought to vary from one stage to another.” (Ingram, 1923:4-5)

Over the years Canada has encounter a lot of challenges and crises. As a failure of efforts in the constitution reform that ensure that the outstanding issues like provincial and Aboriginal rights remains the forefront of Canadian political problem, hence this failure calls for the government of Canada to manage a range of other challenges. With the continentals pressure put by the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Canada has to adjust. Moreover the international pressure set by the globalization of business and commerce as well will adjust it too. Question such as how will the Canadian cope up with this pressure? And will the political and economic system encounter with this challenge in its present form will be addressed by the political economy.

Political economy in relation to the study of domestic is majorly concerned with the relative balance in the economy of the country between the state and the market forces. Most of this debate can be followed from the thoughts of the English political economist John Keynes (1883-1946) who postulated in the theory of employment, interest and money which existed as an inverse relationship between the unemployment and the inflation hence the government should manipulate the fiscal policy to ensure a balance between the two. The Keynesian revolution which happened when the state were attempting to ameliorate the impacts in the world great depression of the 1930s, it contributed to the rise states welfare and increase in the governments size relatively to the private sector.

In some countries, specifically Canada, Keynesianism development led to gradual shift of the meaning of the liberalism, from doctrine calling for a relatively passive state as well as an economy that is guided by the ‘invisible hand’ of market to the view that the state needs actively intervention in an economy so as to generate growth and sustain employment levels as well.

Keynesianism dominated domestic economic policy as well as development of the post-world II international economic system which consisted of creation of international Monetary Fund and World Bank that was from 1930s. Countries of political complexion practised Keynesianism, with inclusive of those that embraced capitalism, social democracy and fascism. In 1970s majority of western countries experienced stagflation or high unemployment and inflation which was simultaneous, this phenomenon contradicted the Keynes’s view. The effects of it were the revival of classical liberalism also known as the neoliberalism which was now the cornerstone of economic policy in Canada and United States of America.

The neoliberals and others state that the state should once again reduce its role in the economy. It could happen by the government selling off the national industries and promoting free trade. The pioneers of this approach, who influenced the policies of the international financial institutions and government worldwide, maintained generation of prosperity, would be through free market. However, opponents of neoliberalism has argued that the classical theory overlooked many of the negative social and political impacts of the free markets, which includes the creation of the large disparities of wealth and damages to the environment. In 1990s, the major point of debate was the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) that facilitated the creation of a free trade zone which was between the United States, Canada and Mexico. Since its effect in 1994 it has generated the

Controversy of whether it has created or eliminated work or rather jobs in the United States and Canada. Moreover, the controversy as well is about whether it has helped or harmed the labour condition, local culture in Canada.

The contemporary periods is witnessed remarkably with the ability of capitalist institutions to restructure themselves anew. It was attributed by forms of production which were new to new communication networks that linked the world market in a way that is remarkable to the political alliances of the neoliberalism. Canada is witnessed registering all this remarkable shifts. In some assessment, Canada’s position amongst the highly advanced capitalist countries is under threat if it lacks a concerted industrial policy; while others, Canada is once again re-establishing its competitive place within the NAFTA economic bloc; still others, the new egalitarian politics was offset by deepening social inequalities as well as Canadian decline of the economy relatively. The trajectory development of Canada in the world market was attributed by all those factors mentioned above. They need some of conceptual and historical perspective which is of political economy of Canada.

Majority of the Canadian scholars agree that the pre-eminent Canadian political was Harold Innis the economist. The economist studied the fur trade relationship between the extractions of staple products with the nature of the Canadian state; moreover, he theorized the interaction between the means of communication as well as system government.

Bourgeois Canadian Political Economy

The Canadian political economy was cognizant which was of the contradictions leading to peripheral development within the world’s capitalist system expanding. Since its starting point of analysis its distinctive was the international character of the market economy as well as international division of labour. It emphasised on the specificity of historical circumstance that helps in the understanding of development, with the rejection of most part of the abstract normative assumptions of the modern economics. Therefore, in the sense it recognises the specificity of Canadian capitalism and development of Canadian capitalist. “Since the household [in the simplest form of competitive capitalism] always has the alternative of producing directly for itself, it need not enter into any exchange unless it benefits from it. Hence no exchange will take place unless both parties gain from it. Cooperation is thereby achieved without coercion…. In the complex enterprise and money-exchange economy, co-operation is strictly individual and voluntary provided… that individual is effectively free to enter or not into any particular exchange, so that every transaction is strictly voluntary…. Payment according to product is therefore strictly necessary in order that resources be used most effectively, at least under a system depending on voluntary co-operation.” (Milton Friedman, Capitalism and Freedom)

The Canadian union leaders highly committed to organizing the organizing s they believed that they could attain the objective without further transformation to labour laws. Increase in the union in Canada increased the organizing the investment which is necessary in the maintenance of the levels of organizations through two decades of neoliberal in the structure as well as major affiliates had made them. Since 1960s, Canadian labour laws have been more conducive to organizing than their United States counterpart with the impact that there has been pressure which is less to a development in innovation organizing tactics. Therefore there was need for the CLC to be a stimulus to the higher level of expenditure on organizing and disseminator that promises innovations in this domain. In the past five years the AFL-CIO conjunction with the unions backed the New Voice leadership has made moves closer to Canadian labour movements that long stood stress continuous, and building of the members commitments to their unions that is organizational forces which includes movements for the greater social justice and economic democracy. The federation in Canada took the lead in development of broad social movements’ alliances in the scramble against the Canada-U.S. Free Trade Agreement (CUSFTA), the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) The frame work of Marxian analysis is stressed in their discussion of the nature Canadian capitalism which was largely incidental to their principal themes that were the question of the logic of a unified Canadian nation-wide.

Canada’s transformation under neoliberalism

For the past few years Canada began to transform after the post war expansion, economically and socially Canada progressed. The living standard of the Canadian citizens improved, fuelled by the rising of the real wage-which doubled in the generation and dramatic expansion of the social wage. This was inclusive of the national Medicare and Canada pension plan. This showed that Canada was economically catching up with the US and socially surpassing it. Moreover, Canada carved a unique and in some way independent role for the nation in the global economic military, and political affairs. Canada hosted Expo 67 in Montreal which showed hope and confidence as well as momentum which was officially opened by the Prime Minister Lester Pearson. Compared to other countries, the recipe of

strong profits and business investments and the Keynesian welfare-stat was fine-tuned and thus began to disintegrate. It was predicted that the capitalism would eventually experience the full-employment sickness. Workers were empowered by the long run employment which increased the capitalist employers in the maintain ace of complaint disciplined and the low cost workforce. Therefore, confident workers of the high class won the larger and larger shares of economic pie. The GDP of Canada grew steadily through the post war time/era which peaked in the 1970s. The power of the business was constrained by the employers, workers demanding changes in the workplace and in society.

Neoliberalism therefore, represents a multi-faceted global strategy by the scholars (which is in both the financial and real sphere economically) to change the whole ship around. Hence, it is important to consider how that transition or strategy has being successfully. This strategy has empowered many and put the employee/workers on the defensive side. Despite f all this success however neoliberalism has not led to creation of world economy that is stable, efficient and successful in meeting the human needs. In Canada, the neoliberalism has being harshly applied consistent with the trend which also reflects the unique characteristics of Canadian capitalism.

The review of the neoliberalism in Canada can be identified into three crucial transition points. The following are the crucial transitions

  • Monetary policy which was attributed by the drastic shift in the early year of 1980s
  • The Canada-U S free trade which was implemented in 1989
  • A dramatic rise in the economy’s reliance on the resource export and extraction.

Monetary policy

The advent of the neoliberalism in Canada was the rate of interest shock teat happened early in the 1980s, which the banks of Canada’s oversaw then later Governor Gerald Bouey. The monetary shift which was an action by an unelected economic authority, created a foundation for that advent of neoliberal macroeconomic priories. It was to be evident by abandonment of the full employment moreover, prioritizing of the interest of the financial wealth and as well as ushering of new ideology of the tough love capitalism. The time when Canada was governed by the Trudeau Liberals that represented one of the last gasps of the post war Keynesian interventionism. The central bank could intervene by directly controlling the growth of the money supply following the new-disproven belief of the hard core monetarists. At this time the credit growth curtailed and the interest rate shot up. The lending rate at this time reached the historic incredibility peak of 22.75 per cent in 1981 during summer.

Neoliberalism has played a key role in the transformation of the Canada economy from recession. It was attributed by the se of the Keynesian tools of economics. In the successive political and fiscal attack on program the scale of the government shrinks rapidly. Therefore for a good a good economic growth, a constitution should be formulated which will enhance in the development of the economy. Constitutional reform in Canada cannot divorce from its materialist base. It is not agnostic towards power relations. The Atlantic Provinces are situated in a particular structural economic relationship with Canada, the continental (North American) economy and the global economy. It does not mean a simple causal relationship exists between extreme economic dependency and constitutional docility. It merely locates provincial constitutional concerns and interests in a wide framework which helps to explain their motives


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Mizell, L., & Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. (2009). Governing regional development policy: The use of performance indicators. Paris: OECD.

Governance in northern ontario. (2012). S.l.: Univ Of Toronto Press.

Savoie, D. J. (1986). The Canadian economy: A regional perspective. Toronto: Methuen.

Morales, G. D. A., & Torres, A. M. J. (1995). Social policy in a global society: Parallels and lessons from the Canada-Latin America experience. Ottawa ;Cairo ;Dakar [u.a.: International Development Research Centre.

Firestone, O. J. (1974). Regional economic development. Ottawa: University of Ottawa Press.

Nijkamp, P., Mills, E. S., Cheshire, P. C., Henderson, J. V., & Thisse, J.-F. (1986). Handbook of regional and urban economics. Amsterdam: North-Holland.

Economist Newspaper Limited. (2011). Guide to economic indicators: Making sense of economics. Hoboken, N.J: Wiley.

Blad, C. (2011). Neoliberalism and national culture: State-building and legitimacy in Canada and Québec. Leiden: Brill.

Finkel, A. (2006). Social policy and practice in Canada: A history. Waterloo, Ont: Wilfrid Laurier Univ. Press.

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Man versus Machine in the Workplace

Investigating the role of Artificial Intelligence in the Increasing Levels of Unemployment

Man versus Machine in the Workplace:

Investigating the role of Artificial Intelligence in the Increasing Levels of Unemployment

Proposed Research Topic:

New Technology and the End of Jobs

 Human beings are slowly being replaced with machines in almost every sector as well as industry by technology revolution. Many people are permanently getting eliminated from their jobs as the work category and job assignments continue to sink even further. Jobs are also being restructured and others are disappearing because of the continuous adoption of technology. There is continued unemployment and according to findings, global unemployment is at its record high since the great depression back in 1930s. An estimated 800 million people are un employed and this figure could even rise further. Millions of graduates who are hopeful for employment opportunities, who are continually entering the work force are continually finding themselves jobless. It is now clear that the rising figures of unemployment indicates a short term adjustment to a market so powerful and powerfully driven by forces that drive the global economy towards a new direction. The global market is looking forward towards an exciting world of high tech automated production, abundant materials that are unprecedented, and booming world commerce. In the US alone it is estimated that 2 million people are being eliminated annually from their jobs by corporations. In return the jobs that are created are low paying low sector jobs. The worrying factor is that this transition is all over the world. Even the developing nations are increasingly eliminating employees with built state of art which tech facilities used for production (Bailey, 2013).

Technology has changed to the disadvantage of human labor. There is what is referred to as “Big Data” by scientists. This is the use of computers to thrive on information from the international website, barcodes are placed on nearly every product. More information is passed across the internet every second twice the total amount of information that was stored on the entire internet some 20 years back. Giving an example with Wall-Mart, the store is capable of collecting approximately 50 million cabinets of information from the customer’s transactions every 1 hour. This is far much the capability of a human if they were to be left to handle the transactions, according to Andrew McAfee and Erick Brynjolfsson, (2012). Computers can make sense of so much data than human beings.

It is true that the world is changing technologically and this the major force towards unemployment, because machines are replacing human labor but corporations are taking this as an advantage to gain Return on Investment. ROI refers to the capital invested in a company and the return realized from the capital based on then net profit of the business. It is important to understand that profit and ROI are two different things. Profit is used to measure the performance of the business. ROI is not necessarily the same as profit.  However ROI can be used to gauge the profitability of the business. It is used to identify the past and potential financial returns of a business looked by the managers as a project. This is because it can portray how successful a business is expressed in ratios or percentages. It is also used to describe financial returns and increased efficiencies in the organization. It is also used to calculate the much of a value an investment is.

ROI has been used in line with Artificial Intelligence (AI). It worth knowing that it is customer demand that drives today’s business and the demand patterns varies from period to period.  Because of these variables it has become very difficult for organizations to develop accurate forecasts, which refers to the process of estimating future events. Forecasting reduces uncertainty and used to provide benchmarks used to monitor performance. Combinations of AI and emerging technologies have been used to improve the accuracy of forecasts to contribute to organization enhancement. It is perceived that the use of machines to replace human labor is more effective and contributes to profitability and improved ROI. This has also fueled investors to replace human labor with machinery and computer software.

There is a saying that goes that whatever is measured gets done. Human nature can also be measured. It is true that many workers constantly re-prioritize their work activities. It is also worth understanding that not everyone in an organization will work towards a common goal, that is, the success of the organization. It is therefore important to measure performance against input. Metrics have the attention of both manufacturing and business leaders. It is important to measure sectors in business activities and provide improvement where necessary. The following are some of the manufacturing metrics utilized mostly by process, discrete, and hybrid manufacturers:

Improving customer expectations and responsiveness such as on time delivery and manufacturing cycle time, Metrics to improve quality such as yield, consumer rejects, material returns, supplier quality incoming, Metrics for improving efficiency such as capacity utilization, throughput, overall equipment effectiveness, schedule of production effectiveness, Metrics for reducing inventory like WIP Inventory/ Turns, Metrics on increased flexibility and innovation like rate of new product introduction, and Engineering change order cycle time. Metrics for Ensuring Compliance, Metrics for reducing maintenance like percentage planned, Metrics for cost reduction and increasing profitability like net operating profit, productivity in revenue per employee, energy cost per unit, productivity in revenue per employee, and manufacturing cost as per percentage of revenue.

ROIReturn On Investment-this is a business term used to identify the past and potential financial returns. It helps to indicate how successful a business is.Metrics on Improving Costumer Experience and Responsiveness-Manufacturing cycle time, On-time delivery to Commit  Bailey, R. (2013, February 8). Were the Luddites right? Smart machines and the prospect of technological unemployment. Reason45(1), 48.  
AIArtificial Intelligence-this is a computer science emphasizing on intelligent machines working and relating like humans.Metrics on improving quality-Customer rejects, Yield  Brynjolfsson, E., & McAfee, A. (2012). Technology’s influence on employment and the economy. In Race against the machine: How the digital revolution is accelerating innovation, driving productivity, and irreversibly transforming employment and the economy (p. 10). Lexington, MA: Digital Frontier Press.  
MetricThese are quantifiable measures used to assess the position and status of a venture.Metrics on Improving Efficiency-effectiveness, Through put, Capacity utilization,  Grint, K., & Woolgar, S. (2013). The machine at work: Technology, work and organization. John Wiley & Sons.  
InventoryThese are stock held by a business in form of materials or goods for the purpose of repair, resale, or raw materials waiting processing.Metrics on Reducing inventory- Work in progress inventory turnSachs, J. D., & Kotlikoff, L. J. (2012). Smart machines and long-term misery (No. w18629). National Bureau of Economic Research.  
WIPWork In Progress- these are materials that are partly finished. They are materials that are already in the production process but have not yet turned to a fully finished product.Metrics on Increased flexibility and innovation-Engineering change, Rate of new product introduction  Hart, M. (2013). Educating cheap labour’r. The learning society: Challenges and trends, 96.  
Big DataThis is the use of computers to thrive on information from the international website, barcodes are placed on nearly every productMetrics on Cost reduction and profitability-Productivity in revenue per employee, Net operating profit   

The agricultural industry has seen numerous changes in the previous 100 years. Since the conception of the modern horticulture in 1900, we have pushed ahead to the period of computerized improved farming where everything that is carried out before seeding and up to after harvesting produces data that can be broke down or analyzed. Big Data officially changed the horticulture industry a ton and in the impending decade this will get to be unmistakable or visible in every aspect of farming in the Western world and progressively likewise in the Developed world. There are three ranges that will be influenced the most by the chances of big data: reduced costs of operation and improved efficiency, crop and animal efficiency and improved productivity, optimization of crop prices and mitigation of weather conditions (Grint, 2013).

In the agricultural industry, the internet of things and industrial internet are adversely affecting agricultural equipment such as sprayers, tractors, harvesters, milking machines and soil cultivators. Farmers are now capable of getting information thanks to the sensors that have been deployed in machines such as tractors, cow milking and several others. These machines offer information in real time 24/7 even in the absence of the farmer. These machines act as smart machine that are capable of talking and can coordinate with each other to give the farmer the overall condition of the farm. They can predict problems and even take action before adamage can be realized. The farmer can take action immediately he sees a problem dismayed by the sensors and if the problem is very serious, a service employee will visit the farm.

These sensors have led to increased productivity in many processes of agriculture. They also predict failure and maintenance and also safe the farmer fuel and energy for harvesting and transportation by optimizing the best driving conditions especially in large farm because they can predict shorter routes to drive and help save a lot of fuel. These computers are integrated and they pass information to each other making the entire process manageable by only 1 person. These machines are managed by diagnostics to make sure that optimal settings are in place. These data are passed to the farmer who will then analyze them to ensure continuity of effective operation now and in future. Big Data technologies are continually making precision agriculture interesting. This includes recognition, understanding, exploitation of information capable of quantifying variations in crops and soil. This has helped the farmers a lot especially in optimization of the crop productivity (Sachs, 2012).

Not just yields and crops can be enhanced with huge information, additionally the farm animals will gain from enormous information innovation. Having sensors in the sheds will allow input on the states of the animals. Sensors can consequently measure the animal’s weight and conform bolstering if needed. Contingent upon the conditions in the shed or the states of the creatures, sustaining can be balanced too. The creatures will get the right nourishment and the perfect sum at the right minute. There are also chips inserted on the animals that can monitor their health conditions. Sick animals can receive medication through the food there are given and conditions of the sheds adjusted in any case they are affecting the animals. The heard can also be traced via the smart phone with the help of the chips placed on them. These sensors also display the mental health of the animals. Big Data flips around the customary horticulture industry. Despite the fact that the ventures can be significant for ranchers, the potential advantages of applying huge information advancements on the field are gigantic (Hart, 2013).

I used both primary and secondary data collection methods to collect data. Under primary data collection, I collected the data myself by through qualitative and quantitative methods. I used observations, interviews, focus group interviews and questionnaires.

The following were the sourced of data I used:

Primary Data: interviews-I will use forms that the respondents will complete. Interviews are better for complex questions that I will be asking even though being expensive than questionnaires. Questionnaires: these are forms that are completed and returned by respondents. I will use this method of data collection because it is cheaper and they allow the respondents humble time to give feedback to the questions asked. Focus group interviews: I will identify a group of particular group of people especially the farmers and people employed in the agriculture industry and conduct an interview on them. Observations: I will use direct observation to collect data. I will try and find observer programs to help me with the exercise.

Secondary data sources: Previous researches: I would use previous researches on how smart machines are affecting employment in Agriculture industry; official statistics: statistics published by government agencies or other public agencies on economic and social development and environment; Mass media products: data from media houses on development in the Agricultural and horticultural industry and how machinery is affecting employment in the industry; Government reports: the government publications and reports on Agricultural Industry and how smart machinery and Big Data is affecting employment; Web Information: searching the international network for data on Big Data and smart machinery and how they are affecting employment in Agricultural industry; Historical data and information: the history of smart machinery and Big data.


Bailey, R. (2013, February 8). Were the Luddites right? Smart machines and the prospect of technological unemployment. Reason45(1), 48.

Brynjolfsson, E., & McAfee, A. (2012). Technology’s influence on employment and the economy. In Race against the machine: How the digital revolution is accelerating innovation, driving productivity, and irreversibly transforming employment and the economy (p. 10). Lexington, MA: Digital Frontier Press.

Grint, K., & Woolgar, S. (2013). The machine at work: Technology, work and organization. John

Wiley & Sons.

Sachs, J. D., & Kotlikoff, L. J. (2012). Smart machines and long-term misery (No. w18629).

National Bureau of Economic Research.

Hart, M. (2013). Educating cheap labour’r. The learning society: Challenges and trends, 96.

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The Role of Self-Kindness and Self-Esteem in Children in Fostering Psychological Resilience and Positive Psychology

The Role of Self-Kindness and Self-Esteem in Children in Fostering Psychological Resilience and Positive Psychology


Psychological resilience is the capacity of an individual to avoid stress and adversity in order to prevent such problems as bad health. The other problems are depression, mental illness, and general body dysfunction (Cooper, Flint-Taylor & Pearn, 2013). People and children with psychological resilience can make good plans to execute it, and increase their self-confidence and self-esteem[G1]  (Cooper, Flint-Taylor & Pearn, 2013). [G2] 

Positive psychology is the use of scientific understanding and psychological intervention to bring happiness to individuals with mental disabilities and psychological stress (Fuller, Chapman & Jolly, 2009).  It is possible to achieve a satisfying life through positive psychology rather than treating mental disability (Fuller, Chapman & Jolly, 2009). One way of promoting positive living is by increasing the Child’s self-esteem and self-confidence through resilience (Fuller, Chapman & Jolly, 2009). This essay aims to analyze the ways to promote psychological resilience to help a child with mild learning disabilities and physical health problems[G3] . The limitations and any other issues related to clinical matters will be vital to the discussion.  Psychological resilience and positive psychology are two areas that help young children and adults to raise their self-esteem through avoiding stress to cope with the learning challenges (Fuller, Chapman & Jolly, 2009).[G4] 

Self-esteem is the way we perceive value to ourselves, to the world, and the way we think we are valuable to other people (Svebak, 2010). Self-kindness is the quality of being kind, having consideration for others, or having the urge to help other people (Svebak, 2010).  Kind people have compassion for others and do not show any selfish behaviour to the friends or neighbours (Hefferon & Boniwell, 2011). The connections in the terms are positive psychology helps individuals to tolerate, cope, and live well in spite of the stress and the adversities they are facing. Psychological resilience helps individuals, both the adults and the children to cope with stress and adversities while positive psychology deals with the treatment of mental disabilities to attain psychological resilience (Svebak, 2010). Positive psychology enhances self-esteem in individuals, and self-esteem promotes psychological resilience when individuals have a high regard for themselves (Svebak, 2010). Self-kindness results from having a positive attitude towards other people, which make them, cope with stressful situations, such as financial difficulties (Cope & Whittaker, 2013). From the definitions and the evaluation of all the terms, it is true that psychological resilience, positive psychology, self-esteem, and self-kindness have a connection (Seligman, 2006). A research by the Institute for Research and Society, on psychological resilience, showed that people with a high self-esteem and self-kindness have increased psychological resilience [G5] [G6] (Seligman, 2006). Positive psychology promotes self-esteem and self-kindness, which in turn, promote psychological resilience according to the National Institute of Health (Cope & Whittaker, 2013).[G7] [G8] 

Approaches to Positive Psychology

Positive psychology is a very pivotal intervention in stress management and the treatment of learning disabilities in both children and adults [G9] [G10] (Cope & Whittaker, 2013). The main approaches to positive psychology involve activities that make a person happy, have a meaningful life, and promote the mental well-being (Cope & Whittaker, 2013). The approaches are:[G11] [G12] [G13] 


Pleasures are those activities that cause happiness to a person easily and lead to delight of the individual (Coulson, Oades & Stoyles, 2012). The activities have a quick impact on peoples’ emotions and the senses, making them feel better within a very short time. In essence, a person does not require any efforts to feel the happiness; joy and delight just happen to the individual or child. Examples of the pleasures are body massages, which lead to the relaxation of the muscles and the mind. Relaxation helps in making a person happy, which in turn help him cope with stress [G14] [G15] (Coulson, Oades & Stoyles, 2012). Another example is good food that enhances the appetite, decorated rooms, swimming pools, bathtubs and many others, which relieve stress in a person or a child (Coulson, Oades & Stoyles, 2012).  [G16] [G17] 


Gratifications are those activities that are challenging and make people use more strength at the same time making them happy (Seligman, 2013). They require a lot of efforts to achieve, but their long-term effects are rewarding. One example of a gratification activity is long-term love relationship through kindness, listening, and doing good things for the people one loves. The activities require self-sacrifice and effort to impress the loved ones. For the case study, showing the boy some love and doing kind things will promote his self-esteem. His learning capability will also improve once he accepts and puts effort into the gratification activities, for example, by reading his favourite book more often (Hefferon & Boniwell, 2011). The other gratification activities are drawing, gardening, solving puzzles, volunteering and writing (Hefferon & Boniwell, 2011).

Doing Meaningful Activities

Meaningful activities are those activities that involve engaging in activities that promote the [G18] fulfilment to people’s lives, either personally or professionally (Svebak, 2010). These activities can bring happiness once the person achieves his/her objectives.  Everybody cherishes success and any time an individual attains his/her goals, he/she becomes very happy and satisfied.  Meaningful life activities require somebody, especially children to involve more in gratification activities (Svebak, 2010), which will strengthen the skills of the person. A researcher, Martin Seligman said,” Total immersion, in fact, blocks consciousness, and emotions are completely absent”(Seligman, 2013).In this, he encourages people to engage fully in the activities that bring satisfaction to their lives. Some of the activities may involve assisting the poor in legal representation to enable them acquire justice. For example, since the withdrawal of the legal aid in England in April 2013 (Stewart & Brennan, 2013), many low-income families cannot afford legal fees for[G19] in divorce cases. As a lawyer, one can offer his/her services to the poor families, which will be a gratification gesture (Stewart & Brennan, 2013). The activities make the individual forget many bad emotions and conscience reducing mental stress. The boy in the case study can benefit from the approach, as being active in many activities will enhance his mental capacity. Seligman, (2013) notes that the three approaches are important for mental, emotional, and physical development of individuals hence leads to psychological resilience.[G20] [G21] [G22] [G23] 

Psychological Interventions

Positive emotions are very important to help achieve happiness and excitement for both physical and emotional satisfaction that lead to happiness (Seligman, 2013). Some of the interventions improve a person’s well-being, growth, creativity, fulfillment and any other activity that brings joy and relaxation of the person. For the case study, the boy can apply some of the interventions to promote his mental and physical health and improve his learning capability. The positive psychological interventions are:


According to Fuller, Chapman & Jolly, (2009), gratitude can be a source of positive feelings to a child. The research shows that those people who express gratitude to other people feel a lot of inner satisfaction and happiness with their actions. Being grateful is a virtue that brings about the feeling of wellbeing to a person and reduces depression, increases happiness, and raises self-esteem. A study by Morgan, Gulliford, and Kristjánsson in 2014 on the effects of expressing gratitude showed that those who express gratitude are more relaxed  (Morgan, Gulliford & Kristjánsson, 2014). The boy in the case study can gain from gratification by receiving grateful notes and comments from the teachers and other stakeholders to improve his health. [G24] 

Best Possible Selves

Children can write the events in their lives and any actions they undertake and how they feel about them (Morgan, Gulliford & Kristjánsson, 2014). The activities create a lot of self-confidence to the individuals, and they can achieve their goals in life. Writing will always remind the child the experiences and can provide some comparison with the recent happenings.


According to Morgan, Gulliford & Kristjánsson, hope is the ability of individuals to pursue their goals in life, which make them feel excited, determined, and committed to their roles.  Hope brings harmony to different individuals, especially the one that results from spirituality or it may lead to the reduction of broodiness in individuals ([G25] Morgan, Gulliford & Kristjánsson, 2014). Hope enables people to seek advice from their peers and parents, which reduces stress and depression of the individuals seeking advice. [G26] 

Signature Strengths

Signature strengths refer to the exhibition of appreciation of bravery, beauty, gratitude, and forgiveness by individuals depending on their experiences. For example, individuals who recover from certain illnesses show positive characteristics than those who have never experienced severe illness (Morgan, Gulliford & Kristjánsson, 2014). The recovery makes them be strong and believe in their physical fitness. [G27] Thus, they do not worry about facing difficult situations. Some people possess emotional courage to face and counter challenges to achieve difficult goals in their lives through persistence and bravery.  The other forms of strengths are humanity, pursuit of justice and temperance, which lead to physiological toughness and reduce depression and stress.
[G28] [G29] [G30] 

Positive Psychology and its Relevance to Children Development

Positive psychology has a big effect on the human brain, especially that of a growing child (Fuller, Chapman & Jolly, 2009). The brain can master everything that the child experiences when he/she is very young, and as the child matures, the mastery improves. Positive teachings create optimistic thinking as the brain can register the actions that become habitual to the child [G31] (Schueller, 2010). Repeated actions make the child do the same thing repeatedly and unconsciously, which forms part of their character.

According to Dr Seligman positive psychology, helps in getting rid of learning difficulties in young children (Fuller, Chapman & Jolly, 2009). For example, consider the scale of -5 to +5. In many cases, education will move an individual from -5 to 0. In this case, 0 denotes that somebody is okay and getting from 0 to +5 is very difficult. Therefore, education does not assist so much in moving from 0 to +5, and the only way somebody can assist children to get there is by promotion of good habits and correcting their weaknesses.

Concepts or Clinical Approaches to Promoting Psychological Resilience

There are various concepts that help in promoting a healthy living for the children and adults, such as:

Mental Training

Mental training is a new approach for assisting people to relax the body and the brain to facilitate confidence in individuals and positive thinking (Fuller, Chapman & Jolly, 2009). The approach also assists people to solve problems and develop critical thinking. Through the method, individuals and children can improve their mood and lower anxiety levels while lowering depression and increasing the individual’s self-esteem (Fuller, Chapman & Jolly, 2009).

Strengthening the Human Spirit

The parents and caregivers should play a big role in strengthening the human spirit in children as they grow up to help them improve their psychological resilience (Fuller, Chapman & Jolly, 2009). As the children develop, the parents need to do many tasks, and their parents and caregivers should make sure they assist their children in that area. Engaging in various activities will help the children acquire a sense of responsibility and develop physically and intellectually (Fuller, Chapman & Jolly, 2009).

Teaching and Discussion

Teaching children from an early development stage help the child to acquire skills in various fields and become responsible. The child can control bad emotions at an early age by incorporating the ideas from the lessons taught (Fuller, Chapman & Jolly, 2009). Teaching can occur in various places such as  homes, worshiping centres, social places, or in schools. A child should learn how to remain positive and have the self-confidence to prevent any possibilities of stress and depression. Discussions are very important for any growing children as they assist the child to express him/herself at the same time acquiring self-confidence. Through resilience, a growing child can achieve many good qualities and abilities.[G32] 

Trusting Relationships

Trust is very important to growing children in enhancing positive thinking. Parents and caregivers should not expose their children to a dangerous environment, especially those children with disabilities[G33]  (Schueller, 2010). A good and trustworthy relationship should exist between the parents, teachers, and any other member to ensure that the children can share their problems and challenges. Parents should avoid issues that can lead to their divorce or separation as it brings agony to the children. Since many parents cannot afford the legal fees after the Ministry of Justice withdrew the legal aid to low-income earners in the UK [G34] [G35] (Stewart & Brennan, 2013), parents should try to live in harmony. In the case of a divorce or separation, many parents cannot afford to pay a lawyer to handle children cases involving their upkeep. The children end up traumatized and stressed[G36]  (Schueller, 2010), although positive psychology can help them to cope with the situation and make them attain psychological resilience.
[G37] [G38] 

Encouragement, the Children to be Autonomous

Children should learn how to be independent at an early stage to instill a sense of responsibility to the child. The environment should allow the child to do an activity on their own and seek guidance in case of any challenges (Schueller, 2010).

Setting Role Models

Children always imitate the actions of the parents and, therefore; parents should provide an environment free from people of unquestionable characters (Schueller, 2010). The children with learning disabilities can suffer both physical and psychological trauma if exposed to a dangerous environment, such as a divorced or a separated family.  The withdrawal of legal aid for low-income earners will affect families with children suffering from learning disabilities [G39] (Stewart & Brennan, 2013), as in the case of separation, these children end up suffering psychological stress. For such a case, the parents should struggle and maintain peace in their homes to avoid incidences that can cause trauma to the child.  [G40] However, in case of a separation or a divorce, the parents should struggle to raise the legal representation fees and not just depend on the government legal aid. The other approaches for enhancing resilience are home rules, problem-solving, and access to education.
[G41] [G42] 

Empirical Findings from Positive Psychology

Research by various scholars; show that there are variables that promote the well-being of children and adults (Schueller, 2010). The variables enable the children to manage stress and adversities to overcome any possible trauma. The factors are showing gratitude to other people, being selfless, and extraversion.  The other variables that lead to the well-being of young children are, exercising daily through plays, having goals for their life as they mature, and the existence of stable marriages for adults. Children who grow in stable marriages have less stress than the ones whose parents separated (Cope & Whittaker, 2013). Studies by Schueller show that attaining a good education, maintaining a healthy lifestyle, and maintaining a healthy weight will improve the wellbeing of children and adults (Schueller, 2010). The other activities that enable children cope with the challenges of life are having self-acceptance, being physically fit, perseverance during hard times, and having enough sleep [G43] (Schueller, 2010).

Limitations of the Empirical Findings

Some of the limitations of the empirical findings may include inadequate time to engage in some of the healthy activities (Cope & Whittaker, 2013). Such activities are playing and working for the attainment of individuals’ goals (Cope & Whittaker, 2013).  The issues of getting a good education may not bring resilience to the children as what matters are the children’s interests. Children with learning disabilities might not benefit from some of the findings, such as play due to their learning disabilities, such as recalling verses in play songs. Some children with disabilities can have self-acceptance, but the others might not accept them, leading to stress. Children with learning disabilities may not acquire a good education in some nations, where there are no special schools.


Psychological resilience is a good remedy for some conditions like stress and depression, according to the findings by the National Institute of Health (Cope & Whittaker, 2013). Through positive psychology, children and adults can heal from mental illnesses, live a good life, and have high self-esteem and self-kindness. Clinical and concepts approaches include mental training of the children and trustworthy relationships while psychological interventions include gratitude and hope. Some empirical findings, such as selflessness and exercises promote positive psychology. Some limitations such as the limited time to engage in play may hinder the achievement of positive psychology. The parents and the caregivers should make sure that their children have some spare time to play and socialize with their peers.


Cope, A., & Whittaker, A. (2013). The art of being brilliant. Chichester, UK: Capstone Pub.

Coulson, J., Oades, L., & Stoyles, G. (2012). Parents’ subjective sense of calling in childrearing: Measurement, development and initial findings. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 7(2), 83-94. doi:10.1080/17439760.2011.633547

Cooper, C., Flint-Taylor, J., & Pearn, M. (2013). Building Resilience for Success. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

Fuller, N., Chapman, J., & Jolly, S. (2009). Positive behaviour management in sport. Leeds: Coachwise.

 Hefferon., & Boniwell. (2011). Positive Psychology. Maidenhead: McGraw-Hill Education.

Morgan, B., Gulliford, L., & Kristjánsson, K. (2014). Gratitude in the UK: A new prototype analysis and a cross-cultural comparison. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 9(4), 281-294. doi:10.1080/17439760.2014.898321Seligman, M. (2006). Learned optimism. New York: Vintage Books.

Schueller, S. (2010). Preferences for positive psychology exercises. The Journal Of Positive Psychology, 5(3), 192-203. doi:10.1080/17439761003790948

Seligman, M. (2006). Learned optimism. New York: Vintage Books.

Seligman, M. (2013). Flourish. New York: Atria.

Stewart, C., & Brennan, F. (2013). Legal issues concerning withholding and withdrawal of dialysis. Nephrology, n/a-n/a. doi:10.1111/nep.12086

Svebak, S. (2010). The Sense of Humor Questionnaire: Conceptualization and Review of 40 Years of Findings in Empirical Research. Europe’S Journal of Psychology, 6(3). doi:10.5964/ejop.v6i3.218

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