The reason for carrying out the research is to find out the quality of leadership in Emirates College for Advanced Education. In the investigation, the researcher is going find out the leadership quality of Emirates College for Advanced Education from the Perspective of academics. In doing so, concentration is going to be on assessment of leadership and institutional functioning. The researcher is going to establish the arrangement of leadership and the degree it has on influencing managerial performance in the institution. It is going to recognize the features that are accountable for employee’s low performance in the chosen area of investigation. Also, the researcher is going to discover how leadership style has influenced labour administration relationships and the output in the selected institution. In each of the study aims, formulation of the hypothesis is going to get done, and answers are going to get unveiled with the use of statistical analysis. In order to arrive at the answer to the topic, this research is going to employ a mixed-design in the research to investigate the leadership quality of ECEA with perception of academicians. The data collection will be between randomly gathered from deans, professors, lecturers, and head teachers. A semi-structured interview will be conducted concerning quality of leadership and analysis made with utilization of thematic analysis. In the end, the results of data collected will be tabulated, analyzed, and presented using tables, pie charts, and histograms. Findings and conclusion will be made in the end following analysis.
Leadership is a tool that permits organization to move forward in relation to set objectives. In a learning institution, there are varied styles of leading. The quality of leadership depends on how effective is the leader in leading the group. Emirates College for Advanced Education gets structured in a hierarchy of deans, professors, lecturers and head of departments. Each component has a role to play. There are characteristics that determine efficient performance. In a learning institution, varied styles of leadership get utilized. Owing to these varied styles leadership quality gets compromised at the expense of the learner as there are conflicting interests amongst the leaders.
According to Schram (2014), the leadership style has an impact on attitude in making transformation in teaching and learning. The implication inferred from this is that educators’ attained knowledge on learning and attitude have an impact on their adaptation to instruction as well and their performance in teaching. It is because educators are in constant and direct interaction with the learners in the learning environment, and the environment is created by institution through, approach, expertise and instruction techniques. Expertise and approach can as well influence the achievement of the execution of learning effectiveness, and for this view, it is paramount to establish the leadership quality in a learning institution.
1.1 Problem Statement
According to Harding and Darling (2003), the perception of leadership on knowledge and attitude is essential in making transformation in higher education environment. The implication inferred from this is that educators’ attained knowledge on learning and attitude have an impact on their adaptation instruction as well and their performance. This is because they are in constant and direct interaction with the learners in the learning environment. Leadership and approach can influence the achievement of the execution of learning effectiveness, and for this reason, it is essential to find out the quality of leadership amongst the academicians in ECEA.
1.2 Aims of the Study
In an education system, educators are taken as champions of leadership transformation. They have the capability to make enormous contribution to leadership change in education arena (Ertmer, 2005). For leadership change to pave way for transformation in education system, leadership quality, approach and customs of educators in the learning environment is crucial for effective quality learning (Fullan & Stiegelbauer, 1991). It is owing to the fact that scholars influences tasks in the higher education and in return have a direct influence on realization of effective quality learning transformation in education environment. It is significant to examine leadership quality since this distinctiveness is taken as a pivotal-point when disseminating new skills and expertise since it has direct bearing on effectiveness in quality learning (Wozney, Venkatesh & Abrami, 2006). Therefore, the aim of this research is to investigate the leadership quality of ECAE from perspective of deans, professors, lecturers and head teachers.
1.3 Significance of the Study
The investigation is going to be of great significance in that evaluation of quality leadership is going to be established. Also, the best leadership style that is effective in a learning institution is going to be put forth. Additionally, it is going to be of significance to learners in that there is going to be changes in leadership style that ensure quality delivery of services to the learners. It is going to assist the management of the institution to be cognizant of the factors that influence employees delivering their best for quality education.
1.4 Research Questions
The research questions below will be investigated via a mixed-method investigation, employing semi-structured interviews and survey questionnaires in ECAE from perspective of deans, professors, lecturers and head teachers.
The following are the research questions.
- What are the quality leadership roles in institutional functioning?
- What leadership style influence employees functioning?
- What leadership style influence learners learning?
2.0 Literature Review
There is a considerable quality of education internationally and studies carried out on leadership quality and a literature examination is comparable to a “scope” which direct the research (Hesse-Biber, 2010). The rationale is not only to recapitulate pertinent literature, but also to induce the authenticity of the researcher’s affirmation by giving adequate logical and pragmatic backing (Rudestam & Newton, 2001). The literature is decisively assessed and employed to set up the importance of the investigation which assists to enlarge theoretical comprehension of study topic.
2.2 Leadership and its Role in the Organization
It is the ability to have an influence on the capability of followers and let the follow a set course of action. In relation to learning institution expert power exist where a person have power of expertise based on accumulated knowledge over time. It is a tool that permits organization to move forward in relation to set objectives. In a learning institution, there are varied styles of leading. The quality of leadership depends on how effective is the leader in leading the group. Leadership provide a basis for bringing together people in the organization so as to work for a common direction. It requires adequate attention so as to meet set objectives. It gets linked to management owing to the functions such as directing, and controlling. The process gets intertwined to people and systems. In framework, leadership growth get observed as the prearranged experience, directed growth and training prospects presented to those in point of influence. To this consequence the leader of a learning institution must distinguish that their obligations include carrying out management functions.
Leadership Styles in Learning Institution
The leadership styles established in institution of higher learning are is autocratic, democratic, and laissez-faire. In order to maintain weight on the peculiarity of the autocratic manager and their groups, these kinds of managers ensure to generate a clear-cut specialized association. Straightforward control is what they consider as major in keeping a fruitful atmosphere and supporters together. They maintain close monitoring to the subordinates with the aim of producing outcomes. They must keep in focus on the vision of the top management that is often not what the subordinate aspire. These leaders concentrate on efficiency and progress (Sharma, 2014). It is essential when meeting deadlines that are very short, when there are safety concerns, calls for compliance immediately, and need a top to down interactions. In many instances, this kind of leading style creates an atmosphere of fear amongst the employees, is sometimes bully to the subordinate since one is ordered to carry out certain tasks that might be in contrary to the employee’s rights. It does not give room for others to get to practice their leadership skills, and give no chance of practicing learned skills (Sharma, 2014).
In democratic there is free atmosphere in which grievances get aired where the key issue is social equality. It comprises deliberation, debate, and exchange of ideas. It encourages employees to feel the involvement in their contribution. The precincts of egalitarian contribution incline to get constrained by the establishment or the crowd necessaries and the contributory importance of folk’s qualities such as dexterity, approaches. The egalitarian style incorporates the idea that everybody, by virtue of their social position, must take a part in the collection’s pronouncements. Nevertheless, the egalitarian style of control still needs direction and domination by a particular head. The egalitarian style calls for the manager to create decisions on who must get requested in the faction and who get the right to take part in, come up with and election on pronouncements (Hess, Johnson, & Reynolds, 2014).
In the category of this style, its success depends on the members. The members must be honest, competent, intelligent, focused, mind that is broad, brave, and imaginative. According to the leader interviewed, it is the most efficient way of leading as it brings high throughput. It is because there is full contribution from all parties involved hence diverse views get ensured on board. However, it has a number of disadvantages. It leads to failure in communication in a case where there are no clear rules among the staff. It is not applicable in a situation where members have no skills as it hinders from exchange of ideas, and opinion contribution (Hess, Johnson, & Reynolds, 2014).
In this Laissez-fairestyle, the supporters get the power to deliberate and make decisions. The head of the group delegates the responsibility to a subordinate and give no or very small contribution. Members of followers get to have full freedom to come up with an excellent way of action. In an institution, it is best-exercised when learners get to decide on their own on what to do. For instance, a case when the lecturer bestows responsibility to the learners to discuss on a top. It gets known that learners get to do their tasks haphazardly. It gets also employed when employees are left to carryout tasks on their own in the department. The head of the group discharges all the tasks to sub-ordinate and acts only to give direction when need arises. It permits supporters get complete liberty to come up with decisions pertaining the accomplishment of their tasks. They get high amount of independence and self-guidance, whereas at the same-time presenting direction and backing when demanded. The leader employs directed a freedom present the factions necessary materials to complete their objectives, nevertheless does not openly take part in making decisions only if supporters ask their support (Shiri, Babelan, & Sattari, 2014).
3.0 Research Methodology
3.1 Research Design
The study will employ exploratory technique as well as qualitative and quantitative so as to attain the stated objectives and present solutions to the research questions. Therefore, mixed technique approach is adopted owing to the fact that it will permit a triangulation and, therefore, ensuring the soundness and as trustworthiness of the research results (Cooper & Schindler, 2010). Particularly, the sample of the study will comprise deans, professors, lecturers, and head of departments. The reason of choosing them is that the research will seek to their viewpoint concerning the quality of leadership that is essential in a learning institution for quality teaching.
The respondents will be sampled with the utilization of purposive sampling method as the method increases balanced choices of resource persons in diverse sections. Despite the limitation of the sample population representation, the research will target 60 resources persons who will take part in the study.
3.3 Research Instruments
Data will be gathered with the use of both primary and secondary data. Closed ended questionnaires will be employed for gathering primary data (Corbin and Strauss, 2008). Analysis of literature will employ secondary data from journal, books, magazines, the internet and any relevant materials.
3.4 Analysis of data
SPSS will be utilized in carrying out analysis. The findings will be reported, and recommendation made, and conclusion.
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Questionnaire on Teachers’ attitudes toward inclusive learning
Please take the time to complete the following questionnaire. There are no correct or incorrect answers, all answers will be taken care of confidentially. Please tick the answers conforming to your situation. Tick where applicable.
1) Students whose academic achievement is 2 or more years below the other students in the grade should be in regular classes.
2) Students who are physically aggressive toward their peers should be in regular classes.
3) Students who cannot move without the help from others should be in regular classes
4). Students who are shy and withdrawn should be in regular classes.
5) Students whose academic achievement is 1 year below the other students in the grade should be in regular classes.
6) Students whose speech is difficult to understand should be in regular classes.
7) Students who cannot read standard print and need to use Braille should be in regular classes.
8). Students who are verbally aggressive toward their peers should be in regular classes.
9) Students who have difficulty expressing their thoughts verbally should be in regular classes.
10) Students who need training in self-help skills and activities of daily living should be in regular classes.
11) Students who use sign language or communication boards should be in regular classes
12). Students who cannot control their behaviour and disrupt activities should be in regular classes.
13) Students who need an individualized functional academic program in everyday reading and math skills should be in regular classes.
14) Students who cannot hear conversational speech should be in regular classes.
15) Students who do not follow school rules for conduct should be in regular classes.
16) Students who are frequently absent from school should be in regular classes.
Questionnaire on Teachers’ practices toward and concerns concerning effective inclusive learning
Inclusive education means that all students with disabilities are mainstreamed and become the responsibility of the regular class teacher who is supported by specialists.
Please Rate Your Self about Your Strategies and Practices
|1||I use mixed ability co-operative group teaching|
|2||In my Lesson I review and practice the key ideas of previous lesson|
|3||I evaluate all pupils‘ progress during lessons and adjust my teaching as a result|
|4||In my Lesson I review and practice the key ideas of previous lesson|
|5||I provide feedback to all pupils in my class|
|6||I teach my pupils cognitive strategies; i.e. problem solving strategies|
|7||I encourage my pupils‘ to set goals and to evaluate their own progress in achieving them|
|8||I teach my pupils a range of memory strategies|
|9||I assist my pupils to improve their reading comprehension by predicting, questioning and summarizing texts|
|10||I use behavioral approaches in my teaching, especially in the case of pupils with behavioural difficulties|
|11||I teach my pupils appropriate social skills|
|12||I try to create a classroom climate safe, predictable and motivating|
|13||I try to ensure my pupils have adequate time for learning|
|14||I adapts the curriculum to suit the needs of all my pupils|
|15||I adapt assessment methods to suit the needs of all my pupils|
|16||I use available information and communication technology, including assistive technology for pupils with disabilities|
|17||I actively co-operate with other professionals and teachers|
|18||I actively involve parents in their children‘s programme|
|19||In the case of beginning readers, I teach phonological processing (e.g., listening skills and phonics)|
|20||My classroom environment (e.g. lighting, Ventilation, sound) is optimal for learning|
|21||In the case of pupils‘ undesirable social behaviours, I analyze what purpose they serve and design ways of changing them|
|22||I ensure that all my pupils achieve a 90 percent or better success rate on critical tasks|
|23||I use other strategies (please mention)|
Interview: Semi- structured interview schedule for Kindergarten school teachers
Date: Time: Location: Respondent:
1) What do you know about inclusive learning? How do you come to know about it?
2) As a classroom teacher how could you describe inclusive learning effectiveness?
3) How is inclusive learning linked to or different from your regular practice? Could you give any example?
4) What kind of children, do you think, should be included in an inclusive classroom for effective learning?
5. Do you consider those children who are very shy or often absent should be included in an inclusive classroom? What is your view towards children with social disabilities?
6) Do you think those children who often fail in some subjects, or who score below average should be taught in a regular classroom or in a separate classroom? Why?
7) Do you think the children with special needs should be taught in a mainstream classroom or in a separate classroom for effective teaching? Why?
8) Do you think the children who are aggressive verbally or physically should be taught in a separate classroom or in the regular classroom for effective learning?
9) What are the challenges, do you think, in including all kinds of children in the same classroom?
10. Do you think there is any benefit in including all kinds of children in a regular classroom?
11) What kind of knowledge or skills, do you think you may need to conduct an inclusive class?
12) What kind of supports or facilities, do you think you may need to conduct an effective inclusive class? What is your overall comment on effectiveness of inclusive learning?
Guidelines for observing teaching-learning activities
Attitudes toward Inclusive learning Scale
This scale concerns “inclusive learning” as one method of teaching students with special needs in the regular school environment.
Please place one number next to each question that describes how you usually feel.
On the blank line, please place the number indicating your reaction to every item according to how much you agree or disagree with each statement. Please provide an answer for every item.
1. Students whose academic achievement is 2 or more years below the other students in the grade should be in regular classes.
2. Students who are physically aggressive toward their peers should be in regular classes.
3. Students who cannot move without help from others should be in regular classes.
4. Students who are shy and withdrawn should be in regular classes.
5. Students whose academic achievement is 1 year below the other students in the grade should be in regular classes.
6. Students whose speech is difficult to understand should be in regular classes.
7. Students who cannot read standard print and need to use Braille should be in regular classes.
8. Students who are verbally aggressive toward their peers should be in regular classes.
9. Students who have difficulty expressing their thoughts verbally should be in regular classes.
10. Students who need training in self-help skills and activities of daily living should be in regular classes.
11. Students who use sign language or communication boards should be in regular classes.
12. Students who cannot control their behaviour and disrupt activities should be in regular classes.
13. Students who need an individualised functional academic program in everyday reading and math skills should be in regular classes.
14. Students who cannot hear conversational speech should be in regular classes.
15. Students who do not follow school rules for conduct should be in regular classes.
16. Students who are frequently absent from schools should be in regular classes