MEDICATION, CHILDREN, AND ADOLESCENTS

Medication is increasingly being prescribed to children and adolescents to treat behavioral or mood problems. Medication for an emotional or behavioral problem can be helpful; research shows that psychological interventions may be more effective for children and adolescents. Sometimes medication is necessary—especially if the child or adolescent is exhibiting extremely aggressive or dangerous behavior or is severely moody. 

Any medication has risks, such as side effects, adverse reactions, and benefits. Children’s and adolescents’ brains and bodies continue developing until around the age of 26. The safety of psychotropic medications cannot be inferred from adult use data. Research has yet to comprehensively examine many of these drugs’ effectiveness and long-term side effects on children and adolescents.

Consider the following scenario:

Tonya is a 10-year-old adolescent whose parents have come to you because of a recent diagnosis of ADHD by Tonya’s pediatrician. Tonya’s parents do not understand how a person is diagnosed with AHDH. They have heard that all ADHD medications are stimulant based and have a high risk for creating substance dependence. Tonya appears motivated to please her parents and teacher but is easily distracted and disengaged. She does not have a history of abusing medications; all medications would be dispensed by Tonya’s mother.    

Write out a mini script showing what you, Tonya’s counselor, would say to her parents.

Respond to the following prompts using your mini script:

  • Provide two potential questions you might ask about Tonya’s diagnosis.
  • Explain the role of behavioral counseling alongside a diagnosis of ADHD.
  • Explain the potential short-term and long-term consequences of not treating ADHD.
  • Include an empathetic reflection to Tonya’s parents.

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Examining how the link Between Stress and Obesity differs among Children and Adults

Abstract

This presents a research proposal for a study examining how the link between stress and obesity differs among children and adults. The study will be conducted on children aged between 5 and 14 years and adults aged between 25 and 60 years. The paper has four main sections. First, it presents a brief introduction to the study topic. This is followed by a detailed review of past literature that is related to the study topic. A research question and sub-questions follow the literature review. Finally, the paper explains in brief the significance of the research.

Key words: Stress, Obesity, Age, Children, Adults

1.0 Introduction

The prevalence of obesity in most parts of the world has increased at a high rate over the last few decades. Numerous studies have suggested that stress is one of the environmental factors that lead to development of obesity (Moore & Cunningham, 2012). Most studies have shown that stress influences individuals to seek energy-dense foods or to engage in less healthier eating habits and hence, increasing the risk of developing obesity. The purpose of this paper is to examine how the relationship between stress and obesity differs among children and adults.

2.0 Literature Review

There are numerous studies that have explored the impact of stress on development of obesity. Some studies have found that the association between stress and obesity may differ based on gender. Almost all studies that have focused on the issue have found a stronger link between stress and obesity in women than in men. A recent study conducted by Williams et al (2013) investigated relationship between stress and obesity among adults above the age of 18 years in Australia. The study utilized a sample of 3,759 respondents with obesity and other illnesses associated with style. The researchers found perceived stress to have strong association with glucose metabolism among the respondents. Williams et al (2013) also found that the impact of glucose metabolism in men was lower than in women. Chauhan (2009) conducted a study that utilized normal and obese individuals to investigate the relationship between stress and obesity. Chauhan (2009) found the amount of stress among obese individuals to be significantly higher than in normal individuals. As well, the study revealed that the link between stress and obesity is stronger in women than in men.

Some studies have focused on the relationship between post-traumatic stress disorder and obesity.  Perkonigg et al (2009) conducted a longitudinal study of different studies that have explored relationship between post-traumatic stress disorder and obesity. The researches sought to determine whether the link differs based on sex. The researchers concluded that post-traumatic stress disorder is one of the significant causes of obesity. The findings of the study also showed significant difference in the association between stress and obesity in male and in female. There was stronger relationship between stress and obesity in females than in male.  Pagoto et al (2012) also investigated the relationship between post-traumatic stress disorder and obesity. The results supported the existence of link between post-traumatic stress disorder and obesity.

            Scott et al (2012) investigated the relationship between chronic social stress and obesity by examining different reports and studies addressing the issue. The study showed similar findings to those that were derived in the studies highlighted above.  Moore and Cunningham (2012) reviewed 14 studies assessing the link between social position, stress levels, eating habits and obesity. Moore and Cunningham (2012) found that individuals in higher status positions had lower stress levels, healthier eating habits and lower body weight. On the other hand, Individuals in lower status positions had higher stress levels, less healthy eating habits and higher body weight. Stronger link between stress and obesity was found in men than in women. Torres and Nowson (2007) examined the impact of stress on eating habits and influence in development of obesity. Torres and Nowson (2007) found a strong association between chronic stress and preference for energy-dense foods. The study found strong association between chronic stress and weight gain. However, unlike most other studies, Torres and Nowson (2007) found the link between chronic stress and obesity to be higher in men than in women.

Some studies have focused on relationship between stress and obesity in Children. Koch, Sepa and Ludvigsson (2008) found that psychological stress in families may be a major cause of obesity in children. A longitudinal study conducted by Harding et al (2011) showed that psychological stress in families is a major cause of obesity among children aged between 5 and 14 years.

2.1 Area of research

Generally, there are numerous studies that have found a positive link between stress and obesity. Also, there is vast literature that has examined how the relationship between stress and obesity differs based on gender. However, studies examining how the relationship between stress and obesity differs based on age are rare. This paper seeks to fill this gap by examining how the relationship between stress and obesity differs among children aged 5-14 years and adults aged between 25 and 60 years.

3.0 Research Question

This study will seek to answer the following main research question: Does the link between stress and obesity differ significantly among children and adults?

The paper will seek to answer the following three sub-questions:

  1. Is there significant relationship between stress and obesity in children aged between 5 and 14 years?
  2. Is there significant relationship between stress and obesity in Adults aged between 25 and 60 years?
  3. Is the link between stress and obesity significantly different among children and adults?

4.0 Significance of the research

This research will contribute significantly by augmenting the existing literature on the link between stress and obesity. The study will be useful in determining the effects of stress in families in the development of obesity in children and adults. Further, the findings of the research will augment knowledge of clinicians regarding the impact of stress in development of obesity in children and adults.

References

Chauhan, S. (2009). Stress and Obese: A Comparative investigation of Obese and Non-Obese      Individuals. International Indexed & Refereed Journal, 1(49), 27

Harding, J. L. et al (2011). Psychosocial stress predicts incident obesity over 5 years: Evidence

from the longitudinal AusDiab study. Obesity Research & Clinical Practice, 5, 31 – 32

Koch, F., Sepa, A. &  Ludvigsson, J. (2008). Psychological stress and obesity. J Pediatr, 153(6),

839 – 844.

Moore, C. J & Cunningham, S. A. (2012). Social position, psychological stress, and obesity: a

systematic review. Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, 112(4), 518

Moore, Carla J and Cunningham, Solveig A. (2012). Social position, psychological stress, and

obesity: a systematic review. Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, 112(4), 518

Pagoto, S. L, Schneider, K. L, Bodenlos JS, Appelhans, B. M, Whited, M. C, Ma, Y. & Lemon,

S. C. (2012). Association of post-traumatic stress disorder and obesity in a nationally representative sample. Obesity (silver Spring), 20(1), 200-5.

Perkonigg, A., Owashi, T., Stein, M. B., Kirschbaum, C. & Wittchen, H. (2009). Posttraumatic

Stress Disorder and Obesity. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 36(1), 1 – 8

Scott, K. A, Melhorn, S. J, & Randall, R. (2012). Effects of Chronic Social Stress on Obesity.

Current Obesity Reports, 1(1), 16 – 25

Torres, S. J & Nowson, C. A. (2007). Relationship between stress, eating behavior, and obesity.

Nutrition (Burbank, Los Angeles County, Calif.), 23(11-12), 887 – 894

Williams, E. D., Magliano, D. J., Tapp, R. J., Oldenburg, B. F. 7 Shaw, J. E. (1013).

Psychosocial stress predicts abnormal glucose metabolism: the Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle (AusDiab) study. Annals of behavioral medicine: a publication of the Society of Behavioral Medicine, 46(1), 62 – 72

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The Role of Self-Kindness and Self-Esteem in Children in Fostering Psychological Resilience and Positive Psychology

The Role of Self-Kindness and Self-Esteem in Children in Fostering Psychological Resilience and Positive Psychology

Introduction

Psychological resilience is the capacity of an individual to avoid stress and adversity in order to prevent such problems as bad health. The other problems are depression, mental illness, and general body dysfunction (Cooper, Flint-Taylor & Pearn, 2013). People and children with psychological resilience can make good plans to execute it, and increase their self-confidence and self-esteem[G1]  (Cooper, Flint-Taylor & Pearn, 2013). [G2] 

Positive psychology is the use of scientific understanding and psychological intervention to bring happiness to individuals with mental disabilities and psychological stress (Fuller, Chapman & Jolly, 2009).  It is possible to achieve a satisfying life through positive psychology rather than treating mental disability (Fuller, Chapman & Jolly, 2009). One way of promoting positive living is by increasing the Child’s self-esteem and self-confidence through resilience (Fuller, Chapman & Jolly, 2009). This essay aims to analyze the ways to promote psychological resilience to help a child with mild learning disabilities and physical health problems[G3] . The limitations and any other issues related to clinical matters will be vital to the discussion.  Psychological resilience and positive psychology are two areas that help young children and adults to raise their self-esteem through avoiding stress to cope with the learning challenges (Fuller, Chapman & Jolly, 2009).[G4] 

Self-esteem is the way we perceive value to ourselves, to the world, and the way we think we are valuable to other people (Svebak, 2010). Self-kindness is the quality of being kind, having consideration for others, or having the urge to help other people (Svebak, 2010).  Kind people have compassion for others and do not show any selfish behaviour to the friends or neighbours (Hefferon & Boniwell, 2011). The connections in the terms are positive psychology helps individuals to tolerate, cope, and live well in spite of the stress and the adversities they are facing. Psychological resilience helps individuals, both the adults and the children to cope with stress and adversities while positive psychology deals with the treatment of mental disabilities to attain psychological resilience (Svebak, 2010). Positive psychology enhances self-esteem in individuals, and self-esteem promotes psychological resilience when individuals have a high regard for themselves (Svebak, 2010). Self-kindness results from having a positive attitude towards other people, which make them, cope with stressful situations, such as financial difficulties (Cope & Whittaker, 2013). From the definitions and the evaluation of all the terms, it is true that psychological resilience, positive psychology, self-esteem, and self-kindness have a connection (Seligman, 2006). A research by the Institute for Research and Society, on psychological resilience, showed that people with a high self-esteem and self-kindness have increased psychological resilience [G5] [G6] (Seligman, 2006). Positive psychology promotes self-esteem and self-kindness, which in turn, promote psychological resilience according to the National Institute of Health (Cope & Whittaker, 2013).[G7] [G8] 

Approaches to Positive Psychology

Positive psychology is a very pivotal intervention in stress management and the treatment of learning disabilities in both children and adults [G9] [G10] (Cope & Whittaker, 2013). The main approaches to positive psychology involve activities that make a person happy, have a meaningful life, and promote the mental well-being (Cope & Whittaker, 2013). The approaches are:[G11] [G12] [G13] 

Pleasures

Pleasures are those activities that cause happiness to a person easily and lead to delight of the individual (Coulson, Oades & Stoyles, 2012). The activities have a quick impact on peoples’ emotions and the senses, making them feel better within a very short time. In essence, a person does not require any efforts to feel the happiness; joy and delight just happen to the individual or child. Examples of the pleasures are body massages, which lead to the relaxation of the muscles and the mind. Relaxation helps in making a person happy, which in turn help him cope with stress [G14] [G15] (Coulson, Oades & Stoyles, 2012). Another example is good food that enhances the appetite, decorated rooms, swimming pools, bathtubs and many others, which relieve stress in a person or a child (Coulson, Oades & Stoyles, 2012).  [G16] [G17] 

Gratification

Gratifications are those activities that are challenging and make people use more strength at the same time making them happy (Seligman, 2013). They require a lot of efforts to achieve, but their long-term effects are rewarding. One example of a gratification activity is long-term love relationship through kindness, listening, and doing good things for the people one loves. The activities require self-sacrifice and effort to impress the loved ones. For the case study, showing the boy some love and doing kind things will promote his self-esteem. His learning capability will also improve once he accepts and puts effort into the gratification activities, for example, by reading his favourite book more often (Hefferon & Boniwell, 2011). The other gratification activities are drawing, gardening, solving puzzles, volunteering and writing (Hefferon & Boniwell, 2011).

Doing Meaningful Activities

Meaningful activities are those activities that involve engaging in activities that promote the [G18] fulfilment to people’s lives, either personally or professionally (Svebak, 2010). These activities can bring happiness once the person achieves his/her objectives.  Everybody cherishes success and any time an individual attains his/her goals, he/she becomes very happy and satisfied.  Meaningful life activities require somebody, especially children to involve more in gratification activities (Svebak, 2010), which will strengthen the skills of the person. A researcher, Martin Seligman said,” Total immersion, in fact, blocks consciousness, and emotions are completely absent”(Seligman, 2013).In this, he encourages people to engage fully in the activities that bring satisfaction to their lives. Some of the activities may involve assisting the poor in legal representation to enable them acquire justice. For example, since the withdrawal of the legal aid in England in April 2013 (Stewart & Brennan, 2013), many low-income families cannot afford legal fees for[G19] in divorce cases. As a lawyer, one can offer his/her services to the poor families, which will be a gratification gesture (Stewart & Brennan, 2013). The activities make the individual forget many bad emotions and conscience reducing mental stress. The boy in the case study can benefit from the approach, as being active in many activities will enhance his mental capacity. Seligman, (2013) notes that the three approaches are important for mental, emotional, and physical development of individuals hence leads to psychological resilience.[G20] [G21] [G22] [G23] 

Psychological Interventions

Positive emotions are very important to help achieve happiness and excitement for both physical and emotional satisfaction that lead to happiness (Seligman, 2013). Some of the interventions improve a person’s well-being, growth, creativity, fulfillment and any other activity that brings joy and relaxation of the person. For the case study, the boy can apply some of the interventions to promote his mental and physical health and improve his learning capability. The positive psychological interventions are:

Gratitude

According to Fuller, Chapman & Jolly, (2009), gratitude can be a source of positive feelings to a child. The research shows that those people who express gratitude to other people feel a lot of inner satisfaction and happiness with their actions. Being grateful is a virtue that brings about the feeling of wellbeing to a person and reduces depression, increases happiness, and raises self-esteem. A study by Morgan, Gulliford, and Kristjánsson in 2014 on the effects of expressing gratitude showed that those who express gratitude are more relaxed  (Morgan, Gulliford & Kristjánsson, 2014). The boy in the case study can gain from gratification by receiving grateful notes and comments from the teachers and other stakeholders to improve his health. [G24] 

Best Possible Selves

Children can write the events in their lives and any actions they undertake and how they feel about them (Morgan, Gulliford & Kristjánsson, 2014). The activities create a lot of self-confidence to the individuals, and they can achieve their goals in life. Writing will always remind the child the experiences and can provide some comparison with the recent happenings.

Hope

According to Morgan, Gulliford & Kristjánsson, hope is the ability of individuals to pursue their goals in life, which make them feel excited, determined, and committed to their roles.  Hope brings harmony to different individuals, especially the one that results from spirituality or it may lead to the reduction of broodiness in individuals ([G25] Morgan, Gulliford & Kristjánsson, 2014). Hope enables people to seek advice from their peers and parents, which reduces stress and depression of the individuals seeking advice. [G26] 

Signature Strengths

Signature strengths refer to the exhibition of appreciation of bravery, beauty, gratitude, and forgiveness by individuals depending on their experiences. For example, individuals who recover from certain illnesses show positive characteristics than those who have never experienced severe illness (Morgan, Gulliford & Kristjánsson, 2014). The recovery makes them be strong and believe in their physical fitness. [G27] Thus, they do not worry about facing difficult situations. Some people possess emotional courage to face and counter challenges to achieve difficult goals in their lives through persistence and bravery.  The other forms of strengths are humanity, pursuit of justice and temperance, which lead to physiological toughness and reduce depression and stress.
[G28] [G29] [G30] 

Positive Psychology and its Relevance to Children Development

Positive psychology has a big effect on the human brain, especially that of a growing child (Fuller, Chapman & Jolly, 2009). The brain can master everything that the child experiences when he/she is very young, and as the child matures, the mastery improves. Positive teachings create optimistic thinking as the brain can register the actions that become habitual to the child [G31] (Schueller, 2010). Repeated actions make the child do the same thing repeatedly and unconsciously, which forms part of their character.

According to Dr Seligman positive psychology, helps in getting rid of learning difficulties in young children (Fuller, Chapman & Jolly, 2009). For example, consider the scale of -5 to +5. In many cases, education will move an individual from -5 to 0. In this case, 0 denotes that somebody is okay and getting from 0 to +5 is very difficult. Therefore, education does not assist so much in moving from 0 to +5, and the only way somebody can assist children to get there is by promotion of good habits and correcting their weaknesses.

Concepts or Clinical Approaches to Promoting Psychological Resilience

There are various concepts that help in promoting a healthy living for the children and adults, such as:

Mental Training

Mental training is a new approach for assisting people to relax the body and the brain to facilitate confidence in individuals and positive thinking (Fuller, Chapman & Jolly, 2009). The approach also assists people to solve problems and develop critical thinking. Through the method, individuals and children can improve their mood and lower anxiety levels while lowering depression and increasing the individual’s self-esteem (Fuller, Chapman & Jolly, 2009).

Strengthening the Human Spirit

The parents and caregivers should play a big role in strengthening the human spirit in children as they grow up to help them improve their psychological resilience (Fuller, Chapman & Jolly, 2009). As the children develop, the parents need to do many tasks, and their parents and caregivers should make sure they assist their children in that area. Engaging in various activities will help the children acquire a sense of responsibility and develop physically and intellectually (Fuller, Chapman & Jolly, 2009).

Teaching and Discussion

Teaching children from an early development stage help the child to acquire skills in various fields and become responsible. The child can control bad emotions at an early age by incorporating the ideas from the lessons taught (Fuller, Chapman & Jolly, 2009). Teaching can occur in various places such as  homes, worshiping centres, social places, or in schools. A child should learn how to remain positive and have the self-confidence to prevent any possibilities of stress and depression. Discussions are very important for any growing children as they assist the child to express him/herself at the same time acquiring self-confidence. Through resilience, a growing child can achieve many good qualities and abilities.[G32] 

Trusting Relationships

Trust is very important to growing children in enhancing positive thinking. Parents and caregivers should not expose their children to a dangerous environment, especially those children with disabilities[G33]  (Schueller, 2010). A good and trustworthy relationship should exist between the parents, teachers, and any other member to ensure that the children can share their problems and challenges. Parents should avoid issues that can lead to their divorce or separation as it brings agony to the children. Since many parents cannot afford the legal fees after the Ministry of Justice withdrew the legal aid to low-income earners in the UK [G34] [G35] (Stewart & Brennan, 2013), parents should try to live in harmony. In the case of a divorce or separation, many parents cannot afford to pay a lawyer to handle children cases involving their upkeep. The children end up traumatized and stressed[G36]  (Schueller, 2010), although positive psychology can help them to cope with the situation and make them attain psychological resilience.
[G37] [G38] 

Encouragement, the Children to be Autonomous

Children should learn how to be independent at an early stage to instill a sense of responsibility to the child. The environment should allow the child to do an activity on their own and seek guidance in case of any challenges (Schueller, 2010).

Setting Role Models

Children always imitate the actions of the parents and, therefore; parents should provide an environment free from people of unquestionable characters (Schueller, 2010). The children with learning disabilities can suffer both physical and psychological trauma if exposed to a dangerous environment, such as a divorced or a separated family.  The withdrawal of legal aid for low-income earners will affect families with children suffering from learning disabilities [G39] (Stewart & Brennan, 2013), as in the case of separation, these children end up suffering psychological stress. For such a case, the parents should struggle and maintain peace in their homes to avoid incidences that can cause trauma to the child.  [G40] However, in case of a separation or a divorce, the parents should struggle to raise the legal representation fees and not just depend on the government legal aid. The other approaches for enhancing resilience are home rules, problem-solving, and access to education.
[G41] [G42] 

Empirical Findings from Positive Psychology

Research by various scholars; show that there are variables that promote the well-being of children and adults (Schueller, 2010). The variables enable the children to manage stress and adversities to overcome any possible trauma. The factors are showing gratitude to other people, being selfless, and extraversion.  The other variables that lead to the well-being of young children are, exercising daily through plays, having goals for their life as they mature, and the existence of stable marriages for adults. Children who grow in stable marriages have less stress than the ones whose parents separated (Cope & Whittaker, 2013). Studies by Schueller show that attaining a good education, maintaining a healthy lifestyle, and maintaining a healthy weight will improve the wellbeing of children and adults (Schueller, 2010). The other activities that enable children cope with the challenges of life are having self-acceptance, being physically fit, perseverance during hard times, and having enough sleep [G43] (Schueller, 2010).

Limitations of the Empirical Findings

Some of the limitations of the empirical findings may include inadequate time to engage in some of the healthy activities (Cope & Whittaker, 2013). Such activities are playing and working for the attainment of individuals’ goals (Cope & Whittaker, 2013).  The issues of getting a good education may not bring resilience to the children as what matters are the children’s interests. Children with learning disabilities might not benefit from some of the findings, such as play due to their learning disabilities, such as recalling verses in play songs. Some children with disabilities can have self-acceptance, but the others might not accept them, leading to stress. Children with learning disabilities may not acquire a good education in some nations, where there are no special schools.

Conclusion

Psychological resilience is a good remedy for some conditions like stress and depression, according to the findings by the National Institute of Health (Cope & Whittaker, 2013). Through positive psychology, children and adults can heal from mental illnesses, live a good life, and have high self-esteem and self-kindness. Clinical and concepts approaches include mental training of the children and trustworthy relationships while psychological interventions include gratitude and hope. Some empirical findings, such as selflessness and exercises promote positive psychology. Some limitations such as the limited time to engage in play may hinder the achievement of positive psychology. The parents and the caregivers should make sure that their children have some spare time to play and socialize with their peers.

References

Cope, A., & Whittaker, A. (2013). The art of being brilliant. Chichester, UK: Capstone Pub.

Coulson, J., Oades, L., & Stoyles, G. (2012). Parents’ subjective sense of calling in childrearing: Measurement, development and initial findings. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 7(2), 83-94. doi:10.1080/17439760.2011.633547

Cooper, C., Flint-Taylor, J., & Pearn, M. (2013). Building Resilience for Success. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

Fuller, N., Chapman, J., & Jolly, S. (2009). Positive behaviour management in sport. Leeds: Coachwise.

 Hefferon., & Boniwell. (2011). Positive Psychology. Maidenhead: McGraw-Hill Education.

Morgan, B., Gulliford, L., & Kristjánsson, K. (2014). Gratitude in the UK: A new prototype analysis and a cross-cultural comparison. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 9(4), 281-294. doi:10.1080/17439760.2014.898321Seligman, M. (2006). Learned optimism. New York: Vintage Books.

Schueller, S. (2010). Preferences for positive psychology exercises. The Journal Of Positive Psychology, 5(3), 192-203. doi:10.1080/17439761003790948

Seligman, M. (2006). Learned optimism. New York: Vintage Books.

Seligman, M. (2013). Flourish. New York: Atria.

Stewart, C., & Brennan, F. (2013). Legal issues concerning withholding and withdrawal of dialysis. Nephrology, n/a-n/a. doi:10.1111/nep.12086

Svebak, S. (2010). The Sense of Humor Questionnaire: Conceptualization and Review of 40 Years of Findings in Empirical Research. Europe’S Journal of Psychology, 6(3). doi:10.5964/ejop.v6i3.218


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The Impact of Media Violence on Children

The Impact of Media Violence on Children

The media has a significant role in shaping our lives and even that of the society. Media is just a passage used to relay either positive or negative information. The media has a way of shaping our day to day lives and at times determines the kind of people we are. Its impact is directly registered in the mind, and we rarely realize how deeply it affects us until things get out of hand. Negative effects of the media include violence, which is depicted in programmes with acts such as rape, fighting, murder, shooting, the use of explosives, torture and other forms of crime. I believe that the effects are detrimental, have long-term effects and affect us since childhood, through adolescence and into adulthood. The paper highlights the effects of media especially media violence and its effects on children.

The Impact of Media Violence on Children

Media violence comes in various forms including television programs, music, video games, movies, books, magazines and even adverts. Research has proved that violence in the media hurts children’s lives. Children exposed to media violence are more aggressive and violent in almost everything they do. These researches show that children and adults process what they see differently. A child’s mind is still under-developed; hence, most of the time they imitate what they see without judging whether what they see is right or wrong. These children believe beyond doubt that what they see in the media is what happened in real life. If left unsupervised, these children easily pick up most of what they view and even associate with some of the characters they see. Most of the casts become their role models as they admire their strengths and character. Many are times when they apply what they have seen in their schools or other social places and even influence the other children negatively (Brown, 1996).

Society has changed with time and people have also changed with it. Family values have diminished since families are not well knit as it was before. Parents allocate little of their time to their children, and this, in turn, leaves them with little time to interact with them. Violence in the family is on the increase making it a norm in our lives. Aggressive behavior in children is a major concern to sociologists who have concluded that the media influence a large percentage of aggression. Most of the media sources show that most of the successful people got involved in some illegal activity.

The media plays a major part in the increase of juvenile delinquency. The negative impact of crimes attracts children to join gangs. The gangs lure the children into practicing the violent activities that they pick from the media. Since peer pressure is common in children, most of them end up making unwise decisions of joining these gangs. With peer pressure, they believe that associating with the gangs prevents them from being alienated from their peers. Joining the gang for this reason makes them feel appreciated and comforted. These children believe that the gangs can protect them from getting harmed by members of other rival gangs, bullying in schools and in the communities. The children feel secure when they are in the company of big gangs. Some of the children in the gangs commit worse crimes like murder for they are already exposed to handling guns and other weapons. Other crimes that these children engage in include robbery with violence, buying and selling drugs, bullying and intimidating their peers and seniors. In addition, without proper counseling, the consequences to the crimes are long lasting for the perpetrators who get to understand their actions when it is too late (Carlie, 2002).

Viewing violent materials is very addictive, making children prefer them to other educating media materials. Continuous exposure to violence and violent behavior changes a child’s attitude, emotions and feelings. Children exposed to violence are prone to abuse or can be the perpetrators since they are seldom aware that it is wrong. When in a violent situation, a child becomes emotional and can react either in fear or in anger. Aggressive children are most of the time withdrawn and less interested in good activities (Bushman & Huesmann, 2006).

 Everyone, including the community, parents, educators, media houses, psychologists and peers, has a role to play in controlling the effects of media violence on children (The Australian Psychological Society, 2000). Parents should monitor and supervise the programs that their children watch, the books or magazines they read, and the video games they play. Whenever possible, they should watch the programs with them and help them interpret the happenings by pointing out the morals. They can help them choose activities that will shape them to productive members of the society. Communities and society can control the negative effects by creating networks and forums that educate everyone on the negative effects of violence.

Educators should provide educative curricula on media that can be used in their schools. Good curricular educate children on key indicators on how to identify violence in the media they choose. The curricula may involve the participation of parents, children and the educators themselves. Media producers and journalists should not take advantage of the fact that violence is addictive and attractive and thus use it to pass information. Instead, they should exercise good work ethics by producing materials whose effects do not have negative effects on their viewers. They should ensure that media houses should broadcast programs with violent materials at an hour that children could not be watching the television. They should provide caution to viewers in advance, should the programs and materials contain violent or rated scenes. Explicit and violent programs should be labeled PG, to indicate that parental guidance should be provided to children watching the program. Some parents even go to the extent of first previewing the programs, and blocking any X-rated scenes. This reduces the chances of the children stumbling into such scenes.  Lastly, psychologist should be on the lookout in identifying social trends and research on their underlying causes, effects and prevention. This way, societies around the world will be healthy right from children to adults (The Australian Psychological Society, 2000).

The effect of media violence on children is cancerous and a national pandemic. Being an issue that has been widely discussed and researched on, it shows that it has a major role in the way the society perceives and engages in violent activities. It is the responsibility of the government, and other stakeholders to control and regulate what people are watching on television, read on print media and listen to on the radio. Parental guidance is important, and every parent should take the responsibility of shaping the future of his or her children.

                                                             References:                                                           

Brown, M. (1996). Trends and Issues in Crime and Criminal Justice. Retrieved on 2nd December 2012, from http://web.comhem.se/u68426711/12/sem2/browne05.pdf

Bushman, B. J., & Huesmann, L. R. (2006). Short-term and Long-term Effects of Violent Media on Aggression in Children and Adults. Retrieved on 2nd December 2012, from Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescence Medicine: http://archpedi.jamanetwork.com

Cantor, J. (2002). The Psychological Effects of Media Violence on Children and Adolescents. Retrieved on 2nd December 2012,from Your Mind on Media: http://yourmindonmedia.com/wp-content/uploads/media_violence_paper.pdf

Carlie, M. K. (2002). Mass Media Portrayals of Gangs and Gang Members. Retrieved on 2nd December 2012, from Into The Abyss: A Personal Journey into the World of Street Gangs: http://people.missouristate.edu/michaelcarlie/what_i_learned_about/gangs/whyform/mass_media_portrayals.htm

The Australian Psychological Society. (2000). The Effects of Violent Media on Children. Media Representations and Responsibilities. Retrieved on 2nd December 2012,from http://www.psychology.org.au/publications/statements/media/

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Explore the websites in the assigned readings for the week. In addition, using the GCU Library databases, find credible, peer-reviewed articles that focus on laws and educating children with disabilit

Explore the websites in the assigned readings for the week. In addition, using the GCU Library databases, find credible, peer-reviewed articles that focus on laws and educating children with disabilities.Create a digital presentation of at least 10-15 slides that includes the following:A definition of the meaning of adequate progress as it relates to students receiving special education services.Court cases that have addressed this subject.How school districts measure adequate progress for all students, including those with special education needs.How school districts are held accountable for demonstrating growth and educational benefit.Concerns and challenges that may arise regarding adequate progress in the schools for individuals with special education needs.Provide a brief summary of the differences between No Child Left Behind and the Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA).Describe how you as a teacher will keep documentation to determine adequate progress for your students..button {background-color: #4CAF50;border: none;color: white;padding: 10px 20px;text-align: center;text-decoration: none;display: inline-block;font-size: 16px;margin: 4px 2px;cursor: pointer;border-radius: 10px;}.awasam-alert {color: red;}  “Is this question part of your assignment? We Can Help!”

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To explore whether children of varied early age groups have different memory skills compared to later age groups

DEVELOPMENT PSYCHOLOGY

 

I did research proposal. I need to do review, please can you re-do my research in the sense of more research back up and design.

Document Preview:Research proposal

To explore whether children of varied early age groups have different memory skills compared to later age groups.

Rationale for the study

Childhood memory skills are important for further development in our lives. The main role in this memory development takes place in our brain. Children develop their memory at an early stage because of fast brain development. At this stage children start to show better planning abilities as well. They can start to think in the sequence and they are able to plan ahead. The ability to recall an act is developed at this stage also. With growth this ability slowly improves. Children imitate role play from their caregiver until a child is able to perform the activity without help or prompts.

Elicit imitation was used to compare children’s age 18, 24 and 30 months on their ability to recall a variety of tasks without any delays or mistakes. The main hypothesis is that the children in later age category have a better ability to recall tasks compared to children in an earlier age category.

Haden at al. (2009) study was used as a basis for this present study. Haden at al. study was to explore Elicit Imitation tasks and also work on memory location; finding hidden objects and learning new language skills. This present study aims to explore and compare Elicit Imitation tasks and to find the relationship between a child’s age and performance to recall sequences and language skills.

Elicited Imitation tasks are used in teaching children memory skills (Bauer, 2006). Memory is an important process where our information gets processed, stored and later retrieved. Elicited Imitation is part of the working memory and the study tasks for the children and will be based on visual-spatial sketchpad (Baddeley, 2000). Recall memory is also used to retrieve previous tasks and learned information. For example, children will be asked to re-produce a set of actions which had been shown to them…

 

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How should we raise our children? Discuss each parenting style

There are two essays that need to be answered in length. Use citiations from the textbook chapters attached. No plargism.

 

  1. For this essay question, read the information in your Saylor

textbook in the chapter on Growing and Developing,Sect 4 (What makes a good parent?).For additional information so that you can adequately answer this question, you will need to go to:http://psychology.about.com/od/developmentalpsychology/a/parenting-

style.htm (You may need to cut and copy this link outside the classroom.)

 

  1. How should we raise our children? Discuss each parenting style

noting the advantages and disadvantages of each. Which style (or combination of

styles) would you prefer? Why? What might be a problem with the research on parenting styles?(Chapter 6) attached.

 

  1. On your way to work, you hear someone on a talk radio program arguing that the government is wasting money on educational programs because intelligence is inherited and some groups are born smarter than others. What are some possible weaknesses of the caller’s argument?

Note: In addition to discussing the importance of early educational programs on d

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Describe the laws and provisions that support children with exceptional needs and their families.

Describe the laws and provisions that support children with exceptional needs and their families.

Written Assignment – Laws and Standards Training

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Module 02 Content

  1.  

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Purpose of Assignment: The purpose of this assignment is to explain laws and practices regarding children with exceptional needs, as well as, how these laws affect early education programs and services.

Course Competency:

  1. Describe the laws and provisions that support children with exceptional needs and their families.
  2.  

Instructions:

Content:

Describe the laws and provisions that support children with exceptional needs and their families.

  1. Create a training for your program on the required laws and practiced for children with exceptional needs. Your goal is to provide this training during one of your programs monthly meetings. The training includes all of the following components:
  2. Choose your program (Center-based infant- toddler, Center Based- preschool or Family Child Care- mixed ages)
  3. Provide the outline of content including training title, summary, objectives, content on the necessary laws and practices, why this is important to family partnerships, content on what that looks and acts like for educators and families in your program, how the content will be presented to participants (lecture, discussions, small group, activity, etc.) and references.
  4. Create Power Point slides to accompany the outline illustrating your key points throughout. At least eight slides, including a title slide, objective slide and references slide. Total slides at least 10
  5. Include at least two credible references in your outline and power point.
laws and provisions that support children with exceptional needs

Format:

  1. Content Outline including all required content
  2. Power Point – at least eight slides (not including one slide for references and title slide)
  3. Slides are engaging and include appropriate visuals
  4. Appropriate spelling and grammar use throughout

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Resources:

  1. How to create a PPT, including best practices for high quality PPTs
  2. How to create an outline

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Relationship between parents and children

Parent-Child Relationships The topic I have chosen for my paper is that of relationship between parents and children. Some of the points that I will be discussing are child abuse, child neglect and how it can affect a child and the relationship with the parents. A parent-child relationship is a special relationship that has a huge effect on the way that the child will turn out. This relationship is formed through pregnancy, adoption, and step parenting. Parenting requires a great deal of adaptation. The parents want to develop a strong bond with their child but they also want to maintain a healthy marital relationship and adult friendships. Potential parents often ask themselves what they will be like when they are parents and try to recall some experiences when they were children. Mothers are the primary caretakers of the children. The fathers have had minimal care taking responsibilities. Many women, if they had a career before hand, have to give it up to stay at home with the child. Although, many fathers where the wives must work become important in the process of care taking because their role must increase to their children. Studies of human fathers and their infants confirm that many fathers can act sensitively with their infant (according to Parke & Sawin, 1980) and their infants form attachments to both their mothers and fathers at roughly the same age (according to Lamb, 1977). A number of studies have been done on the caretaker’s effects on the child and suggests that the effects may have been caused by child’s behavior as much as by the caretaker’s (according to Bell 1979). The child’s aggression level can be affected by the parent’s authoritarian discipline. “Parents differ widely in sensing the needs o.

. .d friendships later in life and also a good upbringing. Bibliography: References: Daniel L., Davis (2000). The Aggressive Adolescent: Clinical and Forensic Issues Don Baucum (1996). Psychology. New York: Barron’s Company F.L. Marcuse. Areas of Psychology. New York: Harper and Brother’s Publishers Edited by Raymond J. Corsini. Encyclopedia of Psychology, Second Edition, Volume 1. New York: John Wiley and Sons Inc. Edited by Raymond J. Corsini. Encyclopedia of Psychology, Second Edition, Volume 3. New York: John Wiley and Sons Inc. GE Vol 5, No 3 – Parent-child relationships & Materialism http://www.mra.org.uk/globalex/issue19/pcrels.html Themestream: Parent Child Relationships http://www.themestream.com/tax/Society/Relationships/Parent_Child_Relationships Britannica: Parent/Child Relationships. http://www.britannica.com

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Emotional and physical development in children essay

Emotional and Physical Development in Children Infants grow at a very rapid rate during the first one and a half years of life. Their development is not only physical, it is also mental, emotionally, and social. These developments are the blue prints for further development in life.

During development, there are three basic developmental laws. The first one is the baby’s development in the head region, followed by the upper body, followed by the trunk portion, and lastly the legs and feet. For example, a baby can hold up their heads first before they can grab an object with their hand. The second law is the baby’s motor skills.

Motor skills are the child’s ability to control movement. There are two basic types of motor skills; they are large motor skills and fine motor skills. Large motor skills deal with all the large muscles, fine motor skills deal with smaller muscles in the body. The 3rd developmental law is Brain development.

As the brain develops, a child responds more and more to sight and sound. Babies are born having some sort of reflexes in order for them to adapt to their surroundings. In the first 2 weeks after birth, infants develop some new reflexes. Babies begin to explore their grasping reflex where they can hold tightly to an object.

A lot of these behaviors are important for a child’s survival, without these a child would not be able to physically develop. The absence of reflexes in a newborn is signals of possible problems in brain development. A baby’s attention span is very limited. In the first two months, they can only focus on an edge of an object, however by the end of the 2nd month they can see a whole object.

Newborns can hear soft voices as well as loud voices and can also notice differences between different sounds that are made. When babies hear someone talking they are inclined to open their eyes wider and look for the speaker. Infants love the sounds of children since their voices are in a high pitch. This is why they like to hear ‘’baby talk’’ Cognitive thinking development is the reasoning and logic of an infant.

The first 18 months of development is the sensory motor. In this stage infants develop basic units of knowledge. During this stage infants can form these units only when objects are present. They cannot think about missing objects because they can’t act on them.

When a very young infant sees an abject and then looks away, the infant thinks the object is no longer there. They do not have the concept of knowing it’s there, if it’s out of sight. Infants will begin to develop the idea of permanent objects at around 4 months. Also, at this part of life they are beginning to learn that a disappearing object can still exist.

Infants between 4- 8 months will follow a moving object with their eyes until it has vanished, but they don’t search for it. From about 8-12 months infants for the first time will search manually for an object that disappears out of their sight. Social and emotional teaching is an important concept for parents to be aware of. A nurturing environment can build trails that encourage emotional stability, while repeated stress may cause problems further in development.

Infants learn from the people around them the most. Infants learn how to handle a situation through what other people are doing. During the first hour after birth an emotional tie begins. From an early age infants are alert to the people around them.

They prefer to look at children and at attractive faces. Infants also communicate through their feelings by crying and screaming. From 0-4 months babies show the majority of their emotions through crying. Also they can communicate that they want to be alone by turning away and sucking their thumbs.

A baby that smiles and is looking around is generally showing signs that they want to interact with others. Not responding to an infant’s emotional sign can slow down their social development. It’s at this point that they also develop a sense of trust. This strong sense of trust establishes their trust for a lifetime.

Without this a baby may have problems communicating with others later on in their development. Often at 5 through 7 months infants develop a sense of fear or shyness of strangers, which is completely naturally. Infants at this age will sometimes cling to their parents and will not want to be touched by people who they see as being unfamiliar. From 0-4 months babies show the majority of their emotions through crying.

They have many cries in which they show different emotions. From 4-8 months infants begin to express a wider range of emotions. Pleasure, happiness, fear, and frustration are shown through gurgles, cools, and wails. They also show movements such as kicking, arm waving, rocking and smiling.

From 8-18 months they develop a sense of self. They begin to recognize their image in a mirror and start to become more and more independent. Babies at this stage have a wide range of emotional states. One minute they could be happy and playing and the next minute they could be kicking and screaming.

Moral development begins early in an infant’s life. Moral develop depends on the type of training and attention an infant gets through it’s parent’s. If they are disciplined early enough in age they will grow up knowing things that are right and wrong. If a parent ignores a child and lets them think that the bad things are ok to do, they grow up having no morals taught through their parents.

Children most likely will first learn to respond to the words such as “no” and “hot”. There are 3 stages to moral development. These are preconventional, conventional, and postconventional. Moral development begins with preconventional thinking, which children obey in order to avoid punishment.

What determines a child’s position in these stages is weather or not they choose what they have done is right or wrong. Speech development beings within the first week after birth. A child’s first form of communication is crying. Crying is a baby’s way of usually saying that they are hungry, tired, or need their diaper changed.

By 3 months babies begin all the gurgles and “woos”. This is the beginning of their development of vowel sounds. By the age of 5 to 6 months most babies will begin to babble and may even slip out the words “ma”, or “da.” Although a baby might say these words, they can’t tie them to a certain person.

10-15 months toddlers can understand a few more words. Names and objects that they hear often are the most easily understood. The most common of these words are mama, dada, cookie, doggy, and car. At this stage in communication babies also learn inflection, which is raising your voice when asking a question.

At 18-24 months their vocabulary has increased and toddlers are most likely to repeat any word they hear. Their vocabulary may include as many as 200 words or more. From this stage on they begin to put words together and can eventually speak a sentence. There are many factors that also contribute to the development of a child.

Many things can slow down the development such as low birth weight, being premature and drug use. Birth weight is an important factor associated with an infant’s overall development and health. Children who were born under 5 ½ pounds are more likely to have serious medical problems and to also have developmental delays. A baby’s development is very important for a strong healthy life Psychology an Introduction (6th edition)Jerome Kagan and Julius SegalPublishers-Harcourt, Brace and JovanovichCopyright-1988Exploring Psychology (2nd edition)Richard O.

StraubPublisher-WorthCopyright-1990

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