What causes lightning?



 While several hypotheses are posited to describe and explain the causes of lightning, the scientific description and explanation tend to hold.  Munoz, (2003), explains that most fulminologists argue that it is a form of electrostatic discharge in the atmosphere, which usually accompanies thunder. Most of the lightning does occur during thunderstorms or volcanic eruptions.


As water evaporates from the earth’s surface in the form of hot gas through convection into the atmosphere, they replace the cold air and condense beside the clouds to form dark cumulus nimbus clouds. These clouds form approximately 230, 000 feet ASL (above the sea level). As condensed air, forms water droplet while the rest changes into the ice sheet or snow particles. When these ice crystal and the water droplets collide with each other countercurrent, they create static electricity. The static electricity so formed builds up in different parts of the media (cloud and earth). As they build up, they reach various charge potentials. However, if the charge potentials (both positive and negative) reach their thresholds, the clouds discharge them. The positive (ve) and negative(-ve) charges created rapidly in different media tend to attract, however, as they continue to build up, a bridge is created naturally or through other media, a human being or electric poles (Wang,  Ushio, & Kawasaki,  1995).

The difference in the electric potential of different part of the cloud causes a rift in which the clouds use a third media (an electric path) to bridge them to facilitate the flow of electric current and th surge results into a main stroke (Munoz, 2003).

How lightning works

 Whenever the lower section of the cloud with the negative charges attain threshold, the electric charges within then cloud ionizes the air around the cloud. This turns the surrounding air into an electric path due to the conductivity of the static charges. This builds up and surge travels down to the ground into buildings and infrastructures. As the discharge continues, it creates charge vacuum after the leader stroke. The negative charges tend to move from the cloud to the ground and meets the streamers moving in the opposite direction. This counter movement of the electric charges is defined as the return stroke, which is usually observable to the bare eye. The main strokes lead to a zigzagging form of the flashes that light up the airspace following the pathway of the negative charges. The zigzag formation is due to the disparity between the ionization of the air.  The most ionized parts appear in the form of sparks of light, and the less ionized parts do not show any lightning

Key characteristics of lightning

A flash of lightning can composes:

  1. Flashes that appear intra-cloud (within the thunder cloud)
  2. The temperatures of the lightning vary between 100 °C to 30,000 °C.
  3. The most noteworthy characteristics are the speed at which lightning travels. The speed ranges from 100, 000km/h to 200, 000km/h.

All these characteristics have both negative and positive effects on nature, but it is commonplace to notice the negative impacts more than the benefits to nature. The most noteworthy impact is the damage to properties and injuries that people sustain when lightning strikes. However, it may be to fatal to results into death depending on the intensity and magnitude of the lightning.

cloud-to-ground lightning (NOAA) Figure 1: picture of the lightning phenomena

What causes lightning?

According to Rakov, &, Uman, (2003), there are many causes of lightning, but the most probable explanation bases on the scientific facts around lightning. Wang, Ushio, & Kawasaki, (1995), argue that lightning is appearing during thunderstorms, because liquid and ice particles come into constant collision and as they collide, a large electrical field is developed amongst the clouds. As the electric fields enlarge, they form flashes due to the opposing positive and negative ions. This static electricity discharge is manifested in the form of flashes. This flashes carry with them electric energy being discharged and have an inherent nature of shifting into anything they meet. If the flashes are exposed to a human being and the magnitude of the electric charges within the flashes was high, the damage might be fatal or even kill. However, building is the most hit due to the large surface areas. Lighting effects are often seen in towns with various demographic characteristics, such as Texas.

Types of lightning flashes

There are various types of lightning flashes; this categorization is based on the Nature of occurrences. However, the main types are:

Ground to cloud:

These types of lightning occur due to the difference in electronic charge potential between the ground and the cloud above it.

Cloud to ground

Cloud to ground lightning occurs when the charge difference between the cumulonimbus clouds and the earth ground beneath it is high. The cumulonimbus clouds tend to discharge the energy to maintain the potential. The energy is released in the form of flashes, which might lead to loss of lives.

Cloud to cloud

This lightning occurs between separate clouds having different charge potentials. If it occurs between cloud, it is referred to as inter-cloud lightning; However, if the charge potential within a cloud is different, and a lightning flash is produced, Fulminologists refer to that as intra-cloud lightning (Rakov, &Uman, 2003)..

The intra-cloud and then inter-cloud occur between the cloud and then ground. The one occurring within the thundercloud poses no hazard, but the flashes of lightning occurring between the cloud and the earth lead to the destruction of buildings, infrastructures and lives.

Triggered lightning: This is the lightning-caused by acts of man, for example, during the launch of lightning rockets etc

Extraterrestrial lightning-These are the lightning that are registered in areas beyond the earth’s surface


While lightning has attracted a lot of attention among scholars and scientists, the most studied lightning is the cloud to ground lightning. This is so because of the magnitude and the prevalence in some areas. These areas exhibit similar characteristics such as large and tall skyscrapers, high population and extreme activities. The most prominent characteristics are the proximity and interaction to the skyscrapers, telecommunication systems, air planes, and other infrastructures. All these are naturally close to the thunderstorms and thus pose  exceedingly significant threat. It is essential to realize that where as a single flash of lightning across the sky may only last for one second, it might contain an original return stroke and the two subsequent return strokes each lasting for approximately 90 milliseconds. Between the strokes there ere likely to be intervals of about 50 seconds

Rakov, &Uman, (2003), state that with each stroke, there mobile currents appear. These mobile electromagnet currents have a sub micro-second rise with insignificant fractional changes. It is also noteworthy that even if the electric flash encounters an electronic device, they are likely to spread to other adjacent areas causing interferences in the communication systems or electronically sensitive systems. The radiated electromagnetic waves with the negligible changes sometimes tend to interact antagonistically with avionics and other electronic devices (Munoz, 2003).

Recommendation for further research

Lightning are still a common phenomenon; however, there is a general belief that it has a connection with the metaphysical. Understanding the metaphysical aspects and the interconnectedness between scientific explanations of the causes of lightning and religious beliefs is imperative. The fundamental understanding of lightning in the religious circles might offer an introduction to the metaphysics. Perhaps the religious explanation may be realistic based on the law of evolution. However, as meteorologists and scientists believe that the electrostatic changes between different Media are responsible for the lightning, we should focus on the possible intervention to these struck by lightning, in addition to why some areas are exceptionally prone to lightning.  The electronic combustion of air by particularly powerful electric fields, which results into the production of forces on the charges and the subsequent flow of energy, needs further investigation for counter interaction. It is also beneficial to investigate the manner in which the potential energy carried by the electrostatic changes to thermal, light and the sound energies and how they are transmitted to the surface of the earth.


Munoz, R., (2003). “Factsheet: Lightning“. University Corporation for Atmospheric Research.    Retrieved November 7, 2007.

Wang, D,  Ushio, T; Kawasaki, T., (1995). “A possible way to trigger lightning using a laser“.     Journal of Atmospheric and Terrestrial Physics 57 (5): 456–466.

Rakov, V; &Uman, M, (2003). Lightning: Physics and Effects, Cambridge University Press,

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The Economic and Social Causes of the Salem Witch Trials

The Economic and Social Causes of the Salem Witch Trials


In Colonial New England in the 1600’s, accusations of witchcraft to explain the “unexplainable” were not uncommon, although such accusations were often met with skepticism.  What distinguishes the Salem Witch Trials of 1692 in Salem, Massachusetts, from other “witchcraft” episodes is that, in this case, the authorities supported the accusers. What was it about the circumstances leading up to the trials that made this happen? Life was difficult for these early settlers who were following strict Puritan guidelines for behavior. They were without modern science and psychology to assist them in understanding the world around them. When behavior was unconventional or a medical condition was out of the ordinary, the practice of witchcraft was a plausible explanation, even when combined with a dose of skepticism. The massive witchcraft hysteria at Salem which resulted in the hanging executions of many was particularly notable for not only its scope, but also for its origins. 

The Economic and Social Causes of the Salem Witch Trials

There were several factors which contributed to the hysteria that made such an event possible and each played a role in this great tragedy we now call The Salem Witch Trials.  Utilizing the tools of modern medicine, one can speculate that that the hysteria may have been caused by medical reasons such ergot poisoning, which stems from a fungus called Clavicips purpurea, which can cause hallucinations. A psychological theory for its cause is that the young girls who were the accusers had some sort of mental illness or were trying to get attention from others. However, the social and economic factors which existed at the time included conflict between the different sections and people of the town of Salem and the economic disparity that also existed between them. It was these social and economic factors which primarily laid the groundwork for this large, dark spot in the early history of our country.

To begin with, Norton argues that the economic disparities between the communities that inhabited the region contributed significantly to the practice of witch hunting (484). With respect to economic wellbeing, the village was divided in to two distinct groups. Historical evidence indicates that initially, the village was founded by the farmers who had moved from the urban Salem town and inhabited the village area that was also referred to as Salem Farms (Norton 484). Regardless of this, the village remained a part of the town and the communities shared common religious beliefs and practices. As aforementioned, the divisions of the town had distinct economic differences. Salem town was inhabited by merchants who engaged in various economic activities. It was generally a busy town and the inhabitants sought employment in town. As such, they amassed wealth and became very affluent. This enabled them to improve their quality of life accordingly. Conversely, the Salem village that was populated by the farmers was less affluent because of the limited economic production in the region.

The inherent economic disparities had far reaching implications on the relationships of the populations. In essence, the populations assumed different lifestyles that were reflective of their economic status. Wealth also had significant implications on the cultural wellbeing of the populations as well as their general way of life. This culminated in oppositions from the farmers who believed that the merchants were undermining the values that had initially been held in high regard. In essence, the farmers were opposed to the value system and general code of conduct that was assumed by their counterparts (Norton 487).

Further, the undue emphasis on the attainment of wealth and improvement of their general wellbeing by the merchant population contributed to the witch trials (Norton 485). This tendency was opposed by the farmers who believed that it was a threat to their Puritan ideals. Although there were affluent farmers too, the Puritan farmers believed that the wealth in this respect was accorded to them by God. However, the farmers thought that striving for wealth openly was scandalous before the eyes of God because it undermined His role as a master plan of all events and occurrences (Norton 485). The differing views regarding wealth as well as other practices contributed significantly to hostilities between the two factions. The hostilities culminated in witch hunting as farmers considered their merchant counterparts to be attaining wealth in means that could not be explained.

Another cause of Witch Trials pertained to gender prejudice (Reed, 210). In this regard, the social structure of the Salem population was patriarchal and strictly based on biblical principles. In particular, the Puritans believed that women were inferior to their male counterparts. As such, women were expected to play a submissive role and remain conservative. However, there is a faction of women who greatly valued independent behavior as well as mood. In most instances, the respective women were targeted and accused for engaging in witchcraft. Evidence indicated that a significant percentage of the individuals that were hanged constituted of women (Reed 211). Whenever the women were hanged, their properties were either given to the previous owner or to the next of kin. In most instances, the previous owners were colony administrators and therefore, they greatly benefited from the property.

The practice of magic contributed significantly to the emergence of witchcraft in Salem (Mather 34). In this regard, there were factions of the population that engaged in magic or various reasons. They practiced magic to enhance crop yields and better their ways of life. However, respective individuals gradually began to use magic to punish their enemies. This made their enemies to have negative crop yields and suffer from diseases that could not be explained (Mather 34). Such individuals were accused of witchcraft and compelled to undergo trials. This is because the population increasingly grew suspicious of their practices.

The involvement in strange activities such as using cracked eggs to predict the future also culminated in witchcraft accusations and relative trials (Kalsen 490). According to Walcot, the witch hysteria in this region specifically began in 1692. It had far reaching implications on the holistic wellbeing of the population. In total, a significant twenty individuals died and nineteen others were executed by being hanged. Statistical evidence indicates that four other people lost their lives in prison while they were awaiting trial. The respective witch mania was triggered by two girls aged nine and eleven years. Together with their friends, they dabbled with fortune telling through cracking eggs, putting them in the glass and interpreting relative shapes accordingly. The two girls lived with a slave who reportedly told them various tales about witchcraft (Karlsen 492). After a short period of time, the girls began to have strange fits. The doctor that attended to the girls claimed that they had been bewitched. This triggered a series of events that had had far reaching implications on the holistic wellbeing of the entire population.

In his research, Hutchinson indicates that the need to attain social recognition contributed in various was to the witch trials. In this regard, certain factions of the population reportedly feigned illnesses and used these to accuse others. This enabled them to appear in court and participate in the legal proceedings. In the courts, they gave wrong evidence and since the accused were not given equal chances to prove their innocence, the later gained popularity for having successfully contributed to the execution of the accused. Increased popularity enabled them to assume a higher social status in the society. In some instances, Walcot posits that the accusers took over the wealth and property of the accused. Likewise, wealth enabled them to improve their social and economic status.

The complexity of the witch trial is attributable to the sensitivity of the issue and the implications that this had on the individuals that were accused (Hutchinson 1). In most instances, the accusers were expected to provide convincing evidence that was used to execute the accused. The later used pathos and in most cases simply made up stories to convince the courts. The lack of an objective decision making strategy in this respect can be used to explain why the cases were complex in nature.

According to Aune, religious zeal is another factor that contributed significantly to this state of affairs (767). The major religions in the village included catholic and Anglican. Puritan faith placed great emphasis on the need for purity. Christian principles were at the core of social activities and played an important role in informing behavioral practices that were assumed by the population. In addition, the religious values and principles encouraged sincere moral conduct, simple worship services and direct religious experiences. In this regard, it is argued that individuals that did not exhibit the abovementioned religious attributed fell victims of witchcraft accusations. It is widely agreed that “instances of planted evidence were common” (Hutchinson 1). The evidence that was given was also strictly subjective and was not exposed to object evaluation. The personal testimonies that were given by the accusers did not require any form of proof. Thus there is a segment of the population that was accused of witchcraft simply because it did not assume the religious practices that were defined by the society.

In his review, Kamensky argues that wealth and age also contributed in different ways to the occurrence of the witch hunts (393). In this regard, the community believed that the young population was not supposed to be wealthy. This was attributable to the fact that they had spent a shorter period in economic production than their older counterparts. The young people feared to own wealth because they would be accused of witchcraft. Also worth mentioning is the recognition that most of the accused came from the poor but not the extremely poor. Usually, the practices employed for attaining wealth by this faction of the population were closely monitored by the rest of the population. Identification of any unusual practice culminated in accusation for witch craft.

The reputation and general code of conduct of the members of this population contributed in various ways to the hysteria that was experienced in the community (Boyer and Nissenbaum 516). Apparently, most of the individuals that were accused of witchcraft had common unsavory reputations. To begin with, they were known for exhibiting contentious behavior. Also, most of them had special healing powers that could not be understood by the population. The spiteful and poor older women were also in most instances accused of witchcraft. For example, one woman who was described as having a hairy lip, a furrowed brow, a wrinkled face, a squeaking voice, a squint eye, a scolding voice and always had a dog or a cut by her was accused of engaging in witchcraft (Boyer and Nissenbaum 516). The underlying reasons for the accusation in this respect pertained to the fact that the woman exhibited strange behavior and had uncommon attributes that ha not been experienced in the region.

Historical evidence indicates that mental illness also contributed significantly to the occurrence of the hysteria (Karlsem 493). In particular, delusions, mass hypnosis and mass hysteria have been identified as the main causes of the witchcraft hysteria. Notably, the abovementioned mental illnesses did not affect the entire community. However, it can not be disputed that the affected members greatly influenced the perceptions and views of the community. This is further attributed to the fact that the community members shared close knit relationships. In some instances, the conditions of the affected individuals were simply exaggerated through story telling and hearsay. The inability of the physicians to treat the mental illnesses further compounded the scenario. Since this behavior could not be explained, the locals resorted to referring this to witchcraft (Karlsen 494).

Conspiracy and individual greed are other factors that reportedly contributed to the emergence and escalation of witch trials (Latner 427). There is a certain segment of the population that was greedy and practiced unfair accumulation of wealth. Some of the accusers pursued the trials because of the need to acquire the wealth hat was assumed by the accused. In this regard, the accusers were not only greed but were also jealous of the social and economic status of their counterparts. In most instances, they conflicted with the accused and this contributed to their emotional pain and suffering. As a way of hitting back, revenging, getting even or punishing their counterparts, they resorted to accusing them for engagement in witchcraft activities. After their counterparts had been executed, they too over the wealth as sole beneficiaries.

Physical illness has also been implicated for contributing in different ways to the particular state of affairs (Reed 220). In particular, Aune argues that ergot poisoning was one of the factors that contributed to witch craft trials (770). This constituted a certain mold that in most instances grew on rye. It was one of the most common sources of food for the Puritan community. However, its consumption led to hallucinations that made individuals to fall sick and behave in an unusual manner. Since this was consumed by the entire community, it made them to loose the ability to think and act in an objective manner. For this reason, they believed that they had been bewitched and began accusing individuals that had not pursued the practice in any way. The practice spread amongst the entire community and can be used to explain the occurrence of the witch craft trials.

The strict lifestyle that the Puritan community assumed also contributed in different ways to the state of affairs (Norton 485). In this regard, historical evidence indicates that the Puritans were extremely strict. This can be used to explain why the affected girls were not allowed to play with other girls but rather confined in the house. They also greatly emphasized on the importance of hard work. As a result, most of them were intrinsically unhappy and this contributed to the emotional problems and psychological distress that thy experienced. The physical hard work that was emphasized left them emotionally drained in most instances. Furthermore, the confined in their houses did not give them a chance to share their emotional problems and devise viable ways through which they could resolve these (Norton 485). Extended exposure to this distressing environment contributed in different ways to the occurrence of hallucinations and other forms of mental illnesses.

Finally, the cultural practice of fortune telling also contributed in different ways to the occurrence and exacerbation of the practice (Norton 486). In this regard, there were fortune tellers that were presumed to have the ability to foretell future occurrences. In most instances, fortune telling was uncertain and occurrence of the respective events was solely based on luck. In some instances, the fortune tellers were not able to predict the future with utmost accuracy. At this point, it is worth appreciating that their clients strongly believed in their powers. Whenever the fortune tellers predicted bad luck, their clients requested them to provide a remedy for this. In some cases, they did not have the powers to change the future of their clients. In such cases, they were considered to harbor evil powers that prevented them from accurately predicting the future or making changes to suit client needs. For this reason, they were accused of witchcraft and forced by the community to undergo trials (Norton 487).


In sum, the economic and social factors greatly contributed to the emergence and escalation of witch craft hysteria. As it has come out from the preceding study, the economic disparities that were experienced between the farmers and merchants contributed to hostilities and culminated in accusations. Seemingly, the assumption of varied lifestyles by the merchants increased the hostilities between the two factions. Further, the undue emphasis on the attainment of wealth by the merchants made the farmers to consider this a contravention of important Puritan as well as religious ideals. As such, the farmers accused the merchants of witchcraft which later resulted in witchcraft trials. Then, gender prejudice disadvantaged the female faction of the community that was wrongly accused of engaging in witchcraft.

Religious practices have also been highlighted and considered to have contributed significantly to this status. Besides this, conspiracy and the need for revenge made some individuals to accuse others wrongly. Mental land physical illnesses that were incurable and those that could not be explained influenced the community to explain them using witchcraft concepts. Finally, the strict Puritan way of life that emphasized hard work at the expense of play and rest had adverse psychological implications on the population. At this point, the causes of witchcraft hunting were certainly wide and varied.

Works Cited

Aune James. Witchcraft as Symbolic Action in Early Modern Europe and America. Rhetoric & Public Affairs, 6.4 (2003): 765-777. Print. http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/rap/summary/v006/6.4aune.html

Boyer Paul and Nissenbaum Stephen. Salem Possessed in Retrospect. The William and Mary Quarterly, 3 (2008): 514-533. Print. http://ocean.otr.usm.edu/~w535683/Boyer_Nissenbaum_SP_Retrospective.pdf

Hutchinson Elisha. Letter 2, 1692. Available: http://etext.virginia.edu/salem/witchcraft/archives/MassHist/H01B.html

Karlsen Carol. Salem Revisited. The William and Mary Quarterly, 65.3 (2008): 489-494. Print. http://www.jstor.org/pss/25096810

Kamensky Jane. Slam Obsessed: Or “Plus Ca Change”: An Introduction. The William and Mary Quarterly, 65.3 (2008): 391-400. Print. http://www.jstor.org/pss/25096804

Latner Richard. Salem Witchcraft, Factionalism, and Social Change reconsidered: Were Salem’s Witch-Hunters Modernizations Failures? The William and Mary Quarterly, 65.3 (2008): 423-448. Print. http://www.jstor.org/pss/25096806

Mather Increase. Cases of Conscience Concerning Evil Spirits, 1963. Available at : http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/salem/witchcraft/speccol/mather/

Norton Mary. Essex County Witchcraft. The William and Mary Quarterly, 65.3 (2008): 483-488. Print. http://www.jstor.org/pss/25096809

Reed Isaac. Why Salem made sense: Culture, Gender, and the Puritan Persecution of Witchcraft. Cultural Sociology, 1.2 (2007): 209-234. Print. http://cus.sagepub.com/content/1/2/209.short

Walcot Mary, V Boroughs 3 August 1692. Available: http://etext.virginia.edu/salem/witchcraft/archives/MassHist/H07.html

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Explain the theories of etiology (causes) with a focus on the neurobiology of the disorder.

Explain the theories of etiology (causes) with a focus on the neurobiology of the disorder.

Prior to beginning work on this assignment, review Chapters 1 and 2 in the course text, as well as the Multicellular organisms and their nervous systems (Links to an external site.) and Discovering the human brain: New pathways to neuroscience, with Susan Bookheimer, Ph.D  (Links to an external site.)videos, and watch the The DSM-5: Accessing and Using the DSM-5 in the University of Arizona Global Campus Library (Links to an external site.) screencast on how to access and use this resource, and how to cite and reference the American Psychiatric Association’s (2013) DSM-5.

This assignment is an analysis of a selected neuropsychological disorder. The disorder you select this week will be used to complete the Week 1 assignment (topic selection). You will continue to use the same disorder to complete the Week 2 assignment (annotated bibliography), the Week 3 assignment (annotated outline of Final Project), and the Week 5 assignment (Final Project). Your completed Weeks 1 through 3 assignments will be used as a foundation to help you complete your Week 5 assignment (Final Project).

Select a neuropsychological disorder for comprehensive analysis from the following list. Your selection of topic should be based on your personal or professional experience, or your own academic or personal interest in the topic. Be sure to use current terminology from the American Psychiatric Association’s (2013) DSM-5.

Please select your topic from the following list:

  • Schizophrenia
  • Major depressive disorder
  • Bipolar disorder
  • Anxiety
    • Choose and focus on one of the anxiety disorders (g., generalized anxiety disorder or social anxiety disorder).
  • Post-traumatic stress disorder
  • Obsessive-compulsive disorder
  • Substance use disorder (substance abuse and addiction)
    • Provide both an overview of this topic plus a focus on a single drug of your choice.
  • Neurodevelopmental disorder (autism spectrum disorder or attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder)
  • Neurocognitive disorder
    • Choose and focus on one of the neurocognitive disorders (g., one of the dementias).
  • Neurological disorder
    • Choose and focus on one neurological disorder (g., multiple sclerosis, spina bifida).
  • Sleep-wake disorder
    • Choose and focus on one of the sleep-wake disorders.
  • Feeding and eating disorder
    • Choose and focus on one of the feeding and eating disorders.
  • Sexual dysfunction or gender dysphoria
    • Choose and focus on one of the conditions in these categories.
  • Other neuropsychological disorder found in the American Psychiatric Association’s (2013) DSM-5 but not on the list above
    • This option must be approved in advance by the instructor before your assignment is submitted.

In keeping with the focus of this class, the emphasis of your paper should be on the neuroscience aspects of the disorder you selected. In your paper, please be sure that the following aspects of your topic are discussed:

  • Explain the theories of etiology (causes) with a focus on the neurobiology of the disorder.
  • Explain associated factors in development of the disorder (genetic, environmental, familial, lifestyle).
  • Describe the pathology of the disorder with an emphasis on the abnormalities of nervous system structure and function, including any genetic and biochemical aspects.
  • Give examples of treatment options, including both drug (pharmacological) and non-drug (nonpharmacological treatments), with rationales for use of these treatments based on current understanding of the neurobiology of the disorder.
  • Summarize diagnostic and research technologies employed in clinical diagnosis, clinical and behavioral health care, and basic science research.

Please research your topic and obtain a minimum of two to three scholarly and/or peer-reviewed sources published within the last five years. These sources should provide evidence-based information regarding the biological and psychological features of the disorder, with an emphasis on the neurobiology of your selected topic. Be sure to cite your sources in your paper and include them on your references page. You may utilize required or recommended course materials in your work, but these will not count towards the reference requirements; however, you may cite and reference the American Psychiatric Association’s (2013) DSM-5 as one of your sources used for the grading credit.

The Selection of Final Project Topic Week 1 assignment:

  • Must be a minimum of two to three double-spaced pages in length (not including title and reference pages) and formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Writing Center’s APA Style (Links to an external site.) resource.
  • Must include a separate title page with the following:
    • Title of paper.
    • Student’s name
    • University name
    • Course name and number
    • Instructor’s name
    • Date submitted

For further assistance with the formatting and the title page, refer to APA Formatting for Microsoft Word (Links to an external site.).

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Explanation of disordered personality how is this theory used to explain the causes of a personality disorder?


MUST BE NEW AND ORIGINAL WORK NOT GIVEN TO OTHER STUDENTS. Write in a clear, concise, and organized manner; demonstrate ethical scholarship in the accurate representation and attribution of sources; and display accurate spelling, grammar, and punctuation. Include citations in the text and references at the end of the document in APA format. ONLY NEED WEEK 1 AND THE SECTION BELOW COMPLETED.PLEASE READ INSTRUCTION CAREFULLY. IN TEXT CITATION AND MUST CITE ALL REFERENCE IN APA FORMAT–ORIGINAL WORK ONLY

Psychosocial THEORY

1. Key Figures:

2. Key concepts of personality formation:

3. Explanation of the disordered personality:

As your team is putting together this assignment, include the following things for each section:

Key figures: who are the main theorists associated with the theory? (This should be like a mini-biography, not just a listing of names.)
Key concepts: what are the key components and concepts that make up the theory?
Explanation of disordered personality: how is this theory used to explain the causes of a personality disorder? What are some of parts used in the explanation? How would a theorist explain the development of a personality disorder based on this theory?
Scientific credibility: is this theory testable? If yes, what are some of the ways that it is tested? What are some of the tests used? If not, why is it not testable?
Comprehensiveness: does this theory look at the whole person? Does it address all parts of personality, or does it look at only various components?
Applicability: how is this theory used in the world of psychology in a professional manner? Think about different types of psychology that the theory might be used in, and talk about how (i.e. counseling, educational, I.O.). Provide specific examples here.
Note: the information provided in the tables should not just be a listing. I would like to see explanations and applications of the concepts that you are discussing for each theory. With that in mind, your sections should be similar to a substantive posting. Make sure that you are utilizing in-text citations.

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Test anxiety causes students to underperform in examinations

Test anxiety causes students to underperform in examinations

            It has been a common alibi or shall we at least consider a reason for students who did not performed well in examinations that they got nervous or anxious during the exams. Underperformance in examinations however are results of several factors including unpreparedness, lack of skill in the specific course where the exam has been taken or some sort of health-related reasons. It is however important to stress that whichever of these factors present or maybe all of these in the student are taking the exams anxiety is a normal in humans.

Health experts regard anxiety as “the body’s response to something threatening in the environment” (M. Despain). Actually, anxiety is positively considered as 1helpful tool in boosting the human mind to perform at normal levels by keeping us alert, focused, motivated and energized. Research indicates that the optimal amount of stress to maximize performance is a moderate degree.  Anxiety as a form of stress maximizes performance at normal level but negatively affects performance at either too low or too high levels. Further, physical symptoms of anxiety do not interfere with exam performance but what is going on in the mind of the one taking the exams (D. Palmer, pg.2). Anxiety works in stressful situations as worries that interfere with concentration. But what are important to find out first are the causes or sources of anxiety.

There are many sources or causes of anxiety which range from lack of preparation, too much worries about the past, present and future situations including self expectations and a consideration of the expectation of others. Poor time management resulting to cramming, poor study habits and inefficient organization of either materials or information required in the examination. Putting attention on unnecessary things and thoughts also contribute a lot to the student’s anxiety. Thinking too much of what the other students have been doing with notions as “are they done?” or “I am already behind” are things that unnecessarily consumes time and concentration on unrelated matters. Anticipating the reactions of others and anticipation of a failure to meet expectations can also add up to the anxiety of the student taking away his concentration from understanding the questions and of recalling the right way of answering them. The sum of all of these possibilities can be expressed in just two general hypotheses. First test anxiety is a product of the student’s underestimation of his ability or resources available to perform well in the examination. Second test anxiety is a normal reaction of the student’s knowledge of his lack of preparation.

There are certain theoretical models that offer explanations and arguments as to the effect of anxiety to the test performance of the student. Two of the most famous and conflicting models are the interference model and the deficit model. Interference model asserts that test anxiety is accompanied by lower test performance and that anxiety directly and negatively interferes with test performance (I.G. Sarason, 1988). Its argument was based on study results which showed that students who did not perform well in examinations (scheduled and timed) performed better in take home examinations. The model’s main point was that there are students who are well-prepared before the examination but due to anxiety that somehow preoccupied and divided his attention, the student was unable to concentrate and be able to effectively recall what he had studied. The result then is poor performance which has an inverted result when the student was given take home examinations where there is an obvious absence or at least lower level of pressure and stress.

Deficit Model however offers a contradicting explanation on how anxiety affects test performance. This model asserts that low level of performance in examinations is a result of the deficient knowledge of the subject and the lack or inadequate mastery (Birenbaum & Pinku, 1997 as cited in Musch & Broder, 1999. pg. 106). Using this model, anxiety therefore does not directly cause the underperformance of a student in the examination, rather, his unpreparedness and the lack of cognitive skills cause him to be anxious which in turn negatively affect his test performance. However we can clearly see that both models have valid points to consider. Considering that the studies upon which they based their arguments are valid, we can say that anxiety, whatever its cause negatively affects a student’s performance and therefore results to his underperformance. Considering the fact that there are students who can perform well in less pressured subjects and environments and there are also those who still poorly perform even in the absence of pressure, the vital role of anxiety in test performances cannot be disregarded.

In the separate study done by Musch and Broder, they were able to find out that the “academic performance of highly anxious students is affected both directly by their lack of knowledge and indirectly by the cognitive distraction created by task-irrelevant thinking in the test situation” (pg. 114). Although there was a difference in the results when math-related subjects are concerned, we can still see that preparation is still a determinant of the level of anxiety that the student will likely have during the examination. Whatever subjects an examination is to be taken proper preparation is still the best means of combating anxiety. However we cannot still disregard the role of the student’s “confidence” when taking examinations in areas where they find more interesting than other subjects.

It is important for researchers to also look into the role of anxiety in oral and written examinations as there are obvious differences in such results. For example, there are students who are more pressured when it comes to oral tests compared with written examinations. When this area is considered, researchers may find another area of consideration as to their explanation of the negative effects of anxiety in test performances. Finally this paper would like to reiterate that inference model and deficit model do not offer exclusive convincing explanations of how anxiety causes students to underperform in examinations. This writer maintains that the combination of causes offered by both models directly and negatively affects the student’s test performance.


1Overcoming Exam Anxiety. Retrieved on August 05, 2007 from http://www.sfu.ca/hccc/01hccc_home/documents/ExamAnxiety.pdf

Despain, Michelle. Test Anxiety Affects Performance. The Utah Statesman Online. April 15, 2002. Retrieved on August 05, 2007 from http://media.www.utahstatesman.com/media/storage/paper243/news/2002/04/15/Features/Test-Anxiety.Affects.Performance-236919.shtml

Froemling, Todd. Test Anxiety Thwarts Students. The Daily Vidette Online. September 21, 2005. Retrieve on August 05, 2007 from http://media.www.dailyvidette.com/media/storage/paper420/news/2005/09/21/News/Test-Anxiety.Thwarts.Students-991841-page2.shtml

Musch, Jochen & Arndt Broder (1999). Test Anxiety versus Academic Skills: A Comparison of Two Alternative Models for Predicting Performance in a Statistics Exam. British Journal of Educational Psychology. March 1999;69,pages 106-116. Proquest Educational Journals

Palmer, David. Exam Anxiety. Retrieved on August 05, 2007 from http://csd.mcmaster.ca/academic%20series%20pdfs/tests%20and%20exams/exam%20anxiety.pdf

What Causes Anxiety? The University of Alabama Center for Teaching and Learning. Retrieved on August 05, 2007 from http://www.ctl.ua.edu/CTLStudyAids/StudySkillsFlyers/TestPreparation/whatcausestestanxiety.htm

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Causes of the disease and risk factors ? Explanation of anatomy/physiology where appropriate ? Pathogenesis, i.e. how the disease progresses and complications ? Implications for public health

Causes of the disease and risk factors ? Explanation of anatomy/physiology where appropriate ? Pathogenesis, i.e. how the disease progresses and complications ? Implications for public health.

Causes of the disease and risk factors
? Explanation of anatomy/physiology where appropriate
? Pathogenesis, i.e. how the disease progresses and complications
? Implications for public health
• Clinical manifestations: Explain the signs and symptoms.
• Diagnostic process: Provide information on a comprehensive diagnostic work-up with rationales

Clinical updates are concise articles designed for educational purposes on clinical issues that relate to practice. You can find some examples of clinical updates in the “Assessments” folder. Please note these are examples only and may not meet all the requirements of this assignment. There are also some examples of previous student papers that received a HD.
This assignment is an 1800 word clinical update on one of the topics below.
The format of your clinical update and any innovative ideas you use to present your topic is your choice but you must include:
• Introduction: Provide some epidemiological data to illustrate how relevant the topic is (Australia and worldwide), definition/explanation about the nature of the condition/disease process, objectives and scope and structure of your paper. A good introduction will get the reader’s interest.
• Aetiology & pathogenesis:
? Causes of the disease and risk factors
? Explanation of anatomy/physiology where appropriate
? Pathogenesis, i.e. how the disease progresses and complications
? Implications for public health
• Clinical manifestations: Explain the signs and symptoms.
• Diagnostic process: Provide information on a comprehensive diagnostic work-up with rationales
• Treatment:
? Implications for pharmacological management (including medication types, mode of action, dosage, side effects)
? Non-pharmacological treatment options
? Health promotion
? Provide rationales for your treatment options, based on the literature
• Conclusion: This should include a summary of the most relevant points for the practice of a registered nurse. Do not introduce new material. This could be summarised as bullet points.
General points
• Please use the assignment template provided within the current SNM Assignment Guidelines (note: there have been a few changes re layout, etc.)
• Only submit via TurnItIn, no hardcopy required, and no extra rubric!
• This assignment is all about the process of researching a topic and being able to articulate your findings in a comprehensive and logical sequence.
• Make sure you use approved abbreviations and write in the third person.
• Graphs, figures, tables and flow charts are a great way of illustrating and summarising key points. Check the SNM assignment guidelines on how to number and name these correctly.
• Your clinical update should facilitate peer learning – use an appropriate language level! Ensure that the content is relevant to nursing practice, i.e. sufficient depth of information but not too detailed either. You can assume some knowledge as you are addressing RNs, e.g. the anatomy of the heart or medical terminology.
• Support your discussion with relevant and recent literature and websites. Use evidence based research and best practice guidelines (Australian and international if relevant, e.g. WHO).
• Read the marking criteria of the rubric; it is a good guide for how much emphasis needs to be placed on each section.
• Although the general format of the assignment is like the clinical update articles, the formatting is still according to the SNM Assignment Guidelines with regards to layout (font, spacing, margins) and referencing.
Due date is Monday, 17th of October, 2016 at 17:00 pm.
Topic Points to consider
Disease Diagnostic methods/tests
Differences between dementia, delirium, Alzheimer’s
Current theories of pathophysiology
Clinical course and prognosis
Treatment options
Safety interventions for the home or potential hospital admissions
Chronic Heart Failure Risk factors/causes
Types (right and left heart)/classification
Underlying mechanisms (Frank-Starling, after and pre load)
Consequences (remodelling, RAAS, SNS, etc.)
Diagnostic tests
Acute and chronic management (Australian guidelines!)
Later treatment options
Life-style changes
Chronic Renal Failure Fluid and electrolyte regulation (ADH, RAAS)
Development and process of renal failure, risk factors
Pre-renal, intra-renal and post-renal causes
Clinical manifestations
Diagnostic process, lab parameters, renal function
Clinical course (complications, progression to chronic condition, stages)
Consequences (anaemia, vit. D, etc.)
Treatment (pharmaceutical, dialysis)
Diabetes Type II Regulation of BSLs
Population impact
Risk factors
Difference to type I
Insulin resistance
Diagnostic tests
Treatment options, life-style changes
Marking criteria
Below you will find two tables: The first is the SNM generic marking rubric, the second is an interpretation of that rubric to help you recognise which areas are important.
The column on the left in table 2 is the high distinction column from the generic rubric (table 1). The column on the right shows you what elements you need in order to get full marks. The points in brackets show you how those elements are weighted, e.g. the introduction can get up to 5 points, whereas the section on treatment can achieve 20. Naturally elements with more points require more words/paragraphs.

2016 Well Below Average ( 25%) Below Average ( 50%) Pass/Average (50-59%) Credit (60-69%) Distinction (70-79%) High Distinction ( 80%)
Content Does not address assessment item. No evidence to support main ideas. Unable to demonstrate an understanding of the main ideas or concepts. No credible sources used to support main ideas. Does not or poorly addresses assessment item. Insufficient evidence to support main ideas. Unable to or poorly demonstrates an understanding of the main ideas or concepts. Ideas are not relevant to the topic. Limited referencing to support ideas. Assessment item addressed at a superficial level. Minimal evidence to support main ideas. Able to demonstrate an understanding of the main concepts at a basic level. Some ideas presented have relevance to the topic. Most parts of the assessment item addressed at a satisfactory level and supported by adequate evidence. Able to demonstrate an understanding of the main concepts. Most ideas presented have relevance to the topic. All parts of the assessment item addressed at a good level and supported by quality evidence. Able to demonstrate a solid understanding of the main concepts. Most ideas presented have relevance to the topic. Content fully addresses all parts of the assessment item. Thorough exploration of concepts and well-formed ideas, supported by high quality evidence. Able to demonstrate an in-depth understanding of the main concepts. All ideas presented have relevance to the topic.
0-13 14-27 28-32 33-37 38-43 44-55
Application of
Critical Thinking Does not demonstrate critical thinking appropriate to required level. No application of professional practice and/or evidence based thinking to assessment item. Poorly demonstrates critical thinking appropriate to required level. Poor application of professional practice and/or evidence based thinking to assessment item. Limited demonstration of critical thinking appropriate to level of education. Limited application of professional practice and/or evidence based thinking to assessment item. Demonstration of critical thinking appropriate to level of education. Application of professional practice and/or evidence based thinking to assessment item. Very good demonstration of critical thinking appropriate to level of education. Very good application of professional practice and/or evidence based thinking to assessment item. Excellent demonstration of critical thinking appropriate to level of education. Excellent application of professional practice and/or evidence base to practice in assessment.
0-2 3-4 5 6 7 8-10
Structure and
Presentation The assignment does not conform to the structure of the assessment item. No introduction to the assessment. Poor or non-existent paragraphing. No logical/cohesive development of ideas. No summation of key points in conclusion.
Does not comply with ECU SNM Assignment Writing Guidelines. Limited aspects conform to the structure of the assessment item. Poor introduction to the assessment. Limited paragraphing. Omits or poor summation of key points in conclusion.
Poorly complies with ECU SNM Assignment Writing Guidelines. Does not follow specific assignment instructions as per Unit Semester Plan
Some aspects conform to the structure of the assessment item. Limited introduction of topic and summation of key points in conclusion. Minimal paragraphing, and logical/cohesive development of ideas. Most aspects conform to the structure of the assessment item. Introduction adequately introduces topic and summarises key points in conclusion. Paragraphing is evident, and there is a logical/cohesive development of ideas in some of the assessment item. Most aspects conform to the structure of the assessment item. Very good introduction of topic and summation of key points in the conclusion that reflects the student’s position and provides clear insights into the issue. Very good paragraphing, and logical/cohesive development of ideas in most of assessment item. All aspects conform to the structure of the assessment item. Excellent introduction of topic and strong summation of key points in the conclusion that reflects the student’s position and provides clear insights into the issue. Excellent paragraphing and logical/cohesive development of ideas throughout
0-3 4-7 8-9 10-11 11-12 13-15
Referencing Referencing does not follow instructions in the ECU Referencing Guide. In text and/or end-text referencing has multiple errors. Includes references in conclusion. Referencing poorly follows instruction in the ECU Referencing Guide. In text and/or end-text referencing has many errors. Includes references in conclusion. Mainly adheres to instruction in the ECU Referencing Guide. In text and/or end-text referencing has some errors. Complies with ECU SNM Assignment Writing Guidelines. Follows specific assignment instructions as per Unit Semester Plan. Adheres to instruction in the ECU Referencing Guide. In text and/or end-text referencing has few errors. Complies with ECU SNM Assignment Writing Guidelines to a very high standard. Follows specific assignment instructions as per Unit Semester Plan completely. Adheres to instruction in the ECU Referencing Guide. In text and/or end-text referencing has very few errors. Complies with ECU SNM Assignment Writing Guidelines to an excellent standard. Follows all specific assignment instructions as per Unit Semester Plan. Completely adheres to all instruction in the ECU Referencing Guide. In text and/or end-text referencing has no errors.
0-2 3-4 5 6 7 8-10
Low Proficiency Developing Proficiency Moderate Proficiency High Proficiency
English Language Proficiency Multiple grammatical, spelling and punctuation errors were present throughout. Sentence structure poor making it difficult to determine meaning. Many grammatical spelling and punctuation errors were present and needs improvement. Sentence structure needs improvement. Mostly correct grammar, spelling and punctuation evident throughout.
Sentence structure acceptable but needs improvement.
Mainly correct grammar, spelling and punctuation. Very few errors. Sentence structure was of a good standard. Grammar, spelling and punctuation were error free. Sentence structure of a high standard. Effective use of all sentence and paragraph writing conventions were clearly demonstrated. Logical application of arguments throughout paper.
Grammar, spelling and punctuation were error free. Sophisticated use of all sentence and paragraph writing conventions were clearly demonstrated. Logical application of arguments throughout paper.
0-2 3-4 5
6 7-8 9-10 9-10
Table 1: Marking rubric

Table 2: Elements required in clinical update to meet marking rubric criteria:
2016 High Distinction ( 80%) Elements required
Content Content fully addresses all parts of the assessment item. Thorough exploration of concepts and well-formed ideas, supported by high quality evidence. Able to demonstrate an in-depth understanding of the main concepts. All ideas presented have relevance to the topic. Aetiology & pathogenesis (13-15)
Underlying pathophysiology, risk factors, explanation of anatomy/
physiology where appropriate
Clinical course, complications, public health implications
Clinical manifestations and diagnosis (16-20)
Signs & symptoms
Comprehensive diagnostic work-up with rationales
Treatment (16-20)
Pharmacological (type, mode of action, dosage, side effects) & non-pharmacological interventions with rationales; health promotion
44-55 44-55
Application of Critical Thinking Excellent demonstration of critical thinking appropriate to level of education. Excellent application of professional practice and/or evidence base to practice in assessment. Relevance for nursing practice
Innovative ideas used to present topic
Important nursing considerations
Providing rationales based on evidence based research and best practice guidelines (Australian preferred)
8-10 8-10
Structure and Presentation All aspects conform to the structure of the assessment item. Excellent introduction of topic and strong summation of key points in the conclusion that reflects the student’s position and provides clear insights into the issue. Excellent paragraphing and logical/cohesive development of ideas throughout
Introduction (4-5)
Definition; objectives; scope & structure
Epidemiological data, world and Australia
Getting the reader’s interest
Conclusion (4-5)
Summary of key points and effectively bring to a close. No new material. Can be summarised as bullet points in a box.
Academic clarity and format (4-5)
Logical & sequential
Use of approved abbreviations
Use of third person
Use of graphs and/or figures
Appropriate professional language
13-15 13-15
Referencing Complies with ECU SNM Assignment Writing Guidelines to an excellent standard. Follows specific assignment instructions as per Unit Semester Plan completely. Adheres to all instruction in the ECU Referencing Guide. In text and/or end-text referencing has no errors. Assignment presentation (Number of elements x 0.5, 2.5-3.5)
1 Submitted via TurnItIn
2 Coversheet completed,
3 Title page
4 Page numbers
5 Correct margins
6 Correct spacing/font
7 Correct format for tables and figures
Referencing (4.5-6.5)
In-text and end-text referencing according to APA guidelines
Evidence of research beyond text & assigned readings (at least 8-10)
Currency (not older than 7 years)
Credibility (peer reviewed, government websites, etc.)
Relevance (evidence based, covers topic)
8-10 8-10
High Proficiency
English Language Proficiency Grammar, spelling and punctuation were error free. Sophisticated use of all sentence and paragraph writing conventions were clearly demonstrated. Logical application of arguments throughout paper.

Causes of the disease and risk factors ? Explanation of anatomy/physiology where appropriate ? Pathogenesis, i.e. how the disease progresses and complications ? Implications for public health

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What Are the Common Causes of Clear Semen?

What Are the Common Causes of Clear Semen?.

The most common causes of clear semen are immaturity or pre-pubescence and frequent ejaculations, often five or more per day. Outside of these two circumstances, low sperm count may be to blame. Semen most often has an opaque milky coloring due in part to the proteins that typically surround the sperm to nourish and protect them. Boys and young men who are just beginning to develop their full reproductive potential may see clear semen as the body works itself up to full sperm production, and men who ejaculate really frequently may also see clear-colored discharge if their bodies are struggling to create enough proteins and other substances to meet the demand. In most other cases, though, translucent ejaculate may be a sign that something is amiss, and may also be an indication of fertility issues.
As a Sign of Immaturity
Sexual maturity in boys usually begins around age 11, and in most cases boys will experience their first ejaculation around age 13. This is a signal that the testes are housing seminal fluid and that the reproductive system is coming into force. It is unusual for a young man’s initial ejaculations to be as potent as they will be later on in life, though, and for many the semen runs clear for the first year or more of discharges. In most cases this is perfectly normal and is not a cause for concern.
Constant Ejaculation
Men who are very active sexually or who masturbate at very frequent intervals may also notice colorless or even thin, watery semen, particularly as the day wears on. In most cases this is simply a matter of basic biology. The body will do the best it can to provide supplies to meet environmental demands, but if there are more ejaculations than there is quality, rich semen, something thinner and clearer may be all that’s available. In general, it takes about five hours for to body to rebuild sperm volume and semen nutrients after ejaculation. As such, men who discharge five or more times per day, or who do so in very close succession, may naturally notice clearer semen.
Low Sperm Count
Over a longer period, however, uniformly clear semen could indicate a low sperm count, since sperm are one of the main things that contribute to semen’s somewhat cloudy appearance. “Low sperm count” is a clinical term used for men whose semen doesn’t contain the usual number of sperm by volume. A normal count is usually between 20 to 150 million sperm cells per milliliter (7 grams) of sperm. Clear liquid often contains some, but often not much. A thin texture to the semen is also a potential indication of a low sperm count, particularly if it is ejaculated without its customarily coagulated consistency. This isn’t usually a problem from a health standpoint, but it can make impregnating a woman more difficult.
Men who are worried are usually advised to speak with a qualified medical care provider, often a urologist. Urologists have expertise in the male reproductive system and fertility. Experts will usually start by running a semen analysis to measure the population and vitality of the man’s sperm. He or she may urge a man with a low sperm count to change to a less acidic diet and abstain from masturbation, particularly if a baby is being planned.
Implications for Fertility
The causes of infertility in men are many, ranging from aging, hormone deficiencies, and genetic inheritance to illness, alcohol abuse, and smoking. If semen is consistently clear for a year and a couple is unable to conceive a child, it is possible the man is suffering from what is known as “primary infertility.” Every month, a fertile and regularly sexually active couple has about a 25 percent chance of becoming pregnant. If after a year no pregnancies have occurred, there may be a problem. A couple is said to be suffering from “secondary infertility” if they have already conceived a child, but are struggling to get pregnant again.

What Are the Common Causes of Clear Semen?

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Causes, Effects and Solution to Boko-Haram and Kidnapping in Nigeria Essay

Causes, Effects and Solution to Boko-Haram and Kidnapping in Nigeria Essay.

You have for long warned about insecurity from the North. Why do you think the army can’t contain it? As far back as eight to nine years ago, we observed that the institution of the Nigerian army became a target of the intelligentsia behind what we called Boko Haram. They have known that the Nigerian army was the last institution in Nigeria that could practically bind the country. But now, the army seems divided. What I know is that the Nigerian army cannot handle this people because the sophistication with which the sect operates is beyond the training of the Nigerian army.

You argue that the issue is not just Islam. What is it? I think the African is the best person to know that term. What the Africans discovered is that people will use every reason everywhere to sort out their ends. I said this still is not Islam, I said it is not religious. I said it is not political, ethnic and tribal.

I said it is a new kind of war that the world knows. Some people in the Northern part of Nigeria will still tell you that Islam had been in the country up to 600 years before Usman Dan Fodio came in.

The religion of Nigerians was not killing anybody. If you like, let’s go to the archives and get the letters written by Shehu El-Kanemi, who was an Islamic scholar, addressed to Usman Dan Fodio in 1907 on the issue of jihad. The Boko Haram crisis, according to you, has a long history. What is it? There is nothing like Boko Haram. The Boko Haram thing was invented by the Western press after the explosion of Maiduguri. Boko Haram is just one out of the many demands of nothing less than 26 militant groups operating in the northern part of the country.

And what those people did was that when the title Boko Haram was convenient for them, they used it to further their cause. It was Osama bin Laden that created a new structure of modern terrorism. That is why every sensible nation of the world has separated Islam from Islamism. Nigerians are advocating for amnesty. What is your position on it? Nigerians are advocating for amnesty because they are terrified. One of the things government has refused is that there is a psychology of terror.

When the psychology of Boko Haram begins to succeed, palpable fear will overcome the opulace. When they begin to panic, a drowning man will die faster. The truth is that amnesty is a stupid idea. It is like somebody who has yellow fever and you are treating him for malaria fever, you will make it worse and the patient will die. Amnesty may work for disenfranchisement; it may work for political grievances; it may work for people who have anything apart from ideological basis for terror. The Western world is inexperienced in Africa that is why they ascribed the cause of terrorism to poverty. It is ideology that is causing it. Let me give you an example.

The son of one of the wealthiest Muslims in this country planted a bomb inside his underwear and attempted to blow up an American plane with lots of people therein. Was that poverty? The truth is that it is radicalization that makes people to use your own convenient doctrine to make a brother kill his brothers. Nigeria is at war. Everywhere in the world where this thing is happening war has been declared, a new kind of war. And the whole country must be galvanised to fight this new kind of war. It is not the old kind of war where soldiers would wear uniform and shoot.

It is a new kind of war which Nigerians refuse to understand. Therefore, there is trouble as long as people in high places continue to be stubborn and refuse to listen to sound counsel. There are people in high places who are members of Boko Haram in Nigeria. There are people who have infiltrated the ranks of Boko Haram. In Maiduguri, a Muslim is afraid of his fellow Muslim because he doesn’t know whether or not he is a Boko Haram member. In Kano, when Boko Haram wanted to use one man’s car to go and bomb, he refused but he was killed.

When they killed him, the Federal Government didn’t compensate that man’s family. It is commonsense that when you want to avert disaster and calamity that the children of the man should not suffer because the deceased was a national hero. The point now is that what amnesty are you giving to people whose modus operandi is to infiltrate your government? They will pretend to take amnesty; they’ll never stop in pursuit of their objectives. Do you think we need UN intervention force to tackle the crisis? We can contain this problem by working with other countries without selling Nigerians to foreigners.

My emphasis is that there are some countries in the world whose position is that the best way to handle the global problem is to divert it from Afghanistan to Africa. These are thinkers; they may even come to Nigeria and pretend to be helping us. But what they would do is to tackle it in Afghanistan and all the places where all these people are in the entire world and divert the problem to the country of people who are not perceptive. For 25 years, there was no government in Somalia. Chaos everywhere. Does any country of the world care what is going on in Somalia?

If they care so much the situation in Somalia would not last for twenty five years. If we are going to work with the United Nations to solve the problem, we will do so with our eyes wide open, knowing that its objective is not to come and turn Nigeria into a battleground. But we want to make sure that Nigeria is a leading country in Africa with attendant stability, peace, freedom to move around in any part of the country, freedom to pick anything you want and freedom to prosper. Boko Haram claimed that injustice has been done in the killing of its leader, Mohammed Yusuf.

Do you dispute this? Those who entertained them have mental failure. I have worked in this field for more than 14 years, but 12 years ago I began to warn Nigeria this thing is coming. How did I begin to warn Nigerians? Nigerians don’t like statistics, but no matter how conservative I am, nothing less than 650,000 Christians all over the Northern Nigeria have been struck without anybody paying them anything, without any remuneration and government’s attention. When Muhammed Yussuf moved into Maiduguri, he began to create problems.

I have a report from the Christian Association of Nigeria (CAN) that there was going to be an explosion in Maiduguri. Already, his boys had taken over Maiduguri. They had different colour of coats. They had their own army and police. They had different kinds of colour coats they were wearing in Maiduguri. I am in Lagos here; I knew all these and I don’t have any budget behind me. When I got to Maiduguri, I found that we had to care for both Christians and Moslems who were victims of the explosion. So when Yusuf’s own happened, his father-in-law was paid N100 million.

Boko Haram killed people. I know a woman whose husband was beheaded. Families of those who were killed were never paid a kobo. You took N100 million of Nigerian money to pay Yusuf’s family. He was arrested earlier on in Maiduguri, orders from the above asked for him to be released. It is not as if people in government didn’t know who acted behind the scene to facilitate his release. There are injustices all over Nigeria. The army arrested Yusuf alive, handed him over to the police. Who gave instruction for the termination of his life?

Why would they capture him alive, hand him over to the police and somebody would just go and kill him? Who assassinated him? Those who don’t want their names to be published as the backers of all these troubles gave the instruction for the assassination of Yusuf. Let them go and do their thorough investigation. Why do you think we have intelligence failure? Because the intelligence security systems are riddled with moles! We don’t have the courage to institute the new thing based on research and proper intelligence to fish out all Boko Haram members in higher places and their sympathizers.

What should Jonathan do to prevent further bloodbath in the North? It is not in the North. He needs to understand that Nigeria is at war. The sovereignty of Nigeria is at war. He doesn’t have proper understanding of the problems of the country. Let me tell you, Nigeria is in a state of war. Jonathan is a war-time President. Would you give Borno elders who claim the Boko Haram are not ghosts the benefit of the doubt? Why? Borno elders should go back to archives and stop betraying their heritage.

El-Kanemi would be ashamed of the Borno elders. He would be ashamed of many of the Islamic clerics in Borno. Go and read the writings of El-Kanemi. He was a better Nigerian than some of those elders who are there today. They should be thoroughly ashamed. There is a lot going on behind the scene in Borno. The former Shehu of Borno and the former Sultan never killed anybody. It was the safest part of the country before. The current leaders betrayed their inheritance. Borno is not the epicentre of Boko Haram in Nigeria, it’s just a victim.

Causes, Effects and Solution to Boko-Haram and Kidnapping in Nigeria Essay

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Causes of communication problems Essay

Causes of communication problems Essay.

It exhibits itself when team members always want to protect and defend own interests. There is no openness and communication is always argumentative with team members trying to outdo each other as regards explaining why they are right and their colleagues wrong (Peter, 1988). Different expectations: Divergent views on individual roles and responsibilities and authority structure results in tension and communication breakdown.

Confusion: Chaos over roles, processes and responsibilities resulting from inadequate or inaccurate information can lead to loss of productivity and communication breakdown.

Loss of momentum: Results when team members aren’t all working toward project success leading to a lag in project progress. Frustration ensues when some teammates feel they are being pulled back. The once smooth communication turns into one of finger pointing further aggravating the loss of momentum. Dissatisfaction: A project is headed towards doom when teammates find it is no fun going to work. Such a project is likely to be behind schedule and out of budget.

Communication among project team is strained. Lack of commitment: Poor communication could result when team members are not fully committed to the project success (Peter, 1988).

Unconscious incompetence: An inexperienced person in the team who doesn’t understand their limitations focuses mainly on the documentation aspect instead of dwelling on problem solving. This is because the team member should quickly learn to solve problems as they occur. Avoiding miscommunication Being receptive to mentoring: New job entrants should understand that they can benefit from learning from those who are older in the job. Managers should also avoid instructing new job entrants to do the difficult tasks as this is not conducive for one who needs to learn.

Stress management: Close monitoring and periodic management of stress levels among project team will do justice to the overall performance of the project. A Stress-free team exhibits good communication (Peter, 1988). Stimulate fun: Monitoring the level of fun in the team and working towards stimulating the same is of importance to the success of the project goals. Proper communication is more likely to result. Quickly resolve issues: This ensures timely restoration of diminished project momentum to allow for project progress. Mechanisms for resolution of disputes should be known and utilized by all (Ferdinand, 1978).

Make oneself a trusted leader: A leader who has 100% voluntary followers will initiate proper communication. The leader will offer a clear direction, decision making and problem solving if needed. Open communication: Holding a sober session to discuss decision making procedures, roles of team members and authority hierarchy among other pertinent issues will clear any doubts among team mates. Misunderstandings will be ironed out as well as trying to make expectations of team members alike. Build trust among members: This comes about when members honor their promises and perform their roles towards the project (Ferdinand, 1978).

Causes of communication problems Essay

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The Psychological Causes of Homicide Essay

The Psychological Causes of Homicide Essay.

On December 14, 2012, Adam Lanza, who was only 20, shot his mother then shot twenty children and six adult staff members in a mass killing at Sandy Hook Elementary School in Newtown, Connecticut. This mass murder is on record in American history for the as being the second most deadliest mass shooting by a single person , and the second deadliest mass murder in a elementary school. Although this incident is the most fatal public school shooting in the United States. So, what causes people to kill?

Due to irrational emotions and psychological imbalances in the Anterior Rostral Prefrontal Cortex of the brain which is important for processing emotions, fear and social and motor skills, people commit violent crimes that hurt others (Kate Kelland).

Adam Lanza was diagnosed with, “sensory integration disorder”, also now known as sensory processing. People who have sensory processing disorder or SPD may over-respond to stimuli and find clothing, physical contact, light, sound, or food unbearable. They may also under-respond and feel little or no reaction to pain or extreme hot and cold.

A third form involves sensory motor problems that can cause weakness, clumsiness or delay in developing motor skills (Alaine Griffin, Josh Kovner). The disorder SPD is due to a defect in the Anterior Rostral Prefrontal Cortex of the brain, like many others that cause motor skill problems and irrational emotions and empathy to emotions and pain. The combination of these effects can cause people who experience them to be potentially dangerous and capable of committing violent crimes. The emotions that violent criminals have can be categorized into specific groups that can be considered motivations for them to commit such crimes.

Everyday Psychology has made a Typology of Violent Offenders who do not suffer from brain defects and reasons why they would commit homicide. The first group is the Chronically Aggressive Individuals. These are people who get easily frustrated, and have limited or poor impulse control. These people frequently express anger or hostility (through passive-aggressive behavior) and resent authority. They usually believe violence and/or aggression are lawful responses to various interpersonal problems in life. They find pleasure or reinforcement is derived from the expression of anger.

Often they display the characteristics of a “stimulus seeker” – they participate in bold, fearless, or reckless behavior and are more likely to exhibit substance abuse. Typically, violence occurs in a situational context: an offense, fight, or disagreement but are less likely to engage in acts of unexpected “explosive” violence (Paul G. Mattiuzzi). These types of people do not like to be caught off guard because they like to be in control. The second group is The Over-Controlled Hostility Type. These people seem to be polite, serious, sober, and rarely display or express anger.

They do not cuss or yell, and may even be offended by such behavior. They are likely to be morally righteous and see themselves as “good people”, and often see others as “not such good people”. After the violence, people say that they never expected it, “He always seemed like such a nice guy; he was always so quiet” (Paul G. Mattiuzzi). These types of offenders can be very unpredictable and unexpected. The third group is The Hurt and Resentful. They feel that people walk on them and that they are never treated fairly.

When they are passed over, the blame is always placed on someone else. They think things are easier for everyone else; other people get more and have more advantages. They do not accept criticism well and in response to reprimands; they develop grudges, which are sometimes deeply held. This is when the Violence occurs because they hold grudges and are “impotent” to deal with their anger in other ways (Paul G. Mattiuzzi). These individuals exhibit self sympathy and often feel badly for themselves. The fourth group is The Traumatized.

Whose aggression occurs in response to a single, massive assault on their individuality. Usually something happens that is potently offensive, absolutely intolerable, and which strips them of all sense of personal power (Paul G. Mattiuzzi). Usually they have a hard time coping and moving on so they display aggressive behavior. The fifth group is The Obsessive. They are immature and egotistical individuals who demand or crave attention and affection, and get upset when deprived of desired gratifications (Paul G. Mattiuzzi). The sixth group is The Paranoid.

They typically engage in behaviors which make their paranoid beliefs come true. Many times delusions may reach the point at which the person is out of contact with reality (Paul G. Mattiuzzi). People who experience this place blame on anyone else because they are in a false sense of reality. The seventh group is The Insane. Usually rare, but does not understand the nature and quality of their actions. Typically they have essential misperceptions of reality, are incapable of rational behavior, and delusional beliefs prevent them from knowing between right and wrong behavior.

Their beliefs and perceptions are different than those of reality. They confuse beliefs about what is right, what is wrong, and what is necessary (Paul G. Mattiuzzi). They have an altered state of mind that causes them to display violent behaviors. The eight and last group is The Just Plain Bad & Angry. This is a combination of the seven previous groups with the exception of the Insane group. Usually they display the characteristics of being: angry, hostile, jealous, resentful, impotent, and disturbed individuals.

They feel socially isolated, socially inadequate, and worthless (Paul G. Mattiuzzi). Abnormalities within the Anterior Rostral Prefrontal cortex and Temporal Poles have been studied to see that the lack of grey matter that triggers empathy can cause some people to commit violent crimes. A psychopath is a person with a psychopathic personality, which is apparent as amoral and antisocial behavior (such as Adam Lanza). Usually they display a lack of ability to love or establish meaningful personal relationships, extreme self-interest, and failure to learn from experience.

People who suffer from this, compared to violent offenders that are healthy, have structural differences in their brain that cause them to have less grey matter in certain areas. These areas of the brain are important for processing others people’s emotions, intentions, fear and social skills (Kate Kelland) so, when people are lacking in these areas they become dangerous. There are two divisions that separate people who commit homicide; psychopaths who are lacking normalities of the brain, and sociopaths who are individuals with irrational emotions.

The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) lists both Psychopathy and Sociopathy under the heading of Antisocial Personalities because they both engage in similar actions and have similar characteristics. People commonly group sociopaths and psychopaths as the same thing. The differences between sociopaths and psychopaths are primarily differentiated by the origin of the disorder. In the mental health field the general opinion is that psychopaths are actually much more of an inborn occurrence while sociopath, which displays clinical presentation, is the consequence of environmental stressors.

There are three general categories of therapy, behavioral therapy, cognitive therapy, and psychotherapy. Different therapy options have their advantages and disadvantages in treating Antisocial Personalities for both people who suffer from sociopathy or psychopathy, and a patient might tolerate one clinical setting or approach over another . There is no cure for sociopathy or psychopathy, but it can be managed well or it can be managed inadequately. For example, Sociopaths don’t respond very well to punishment, but they do respond to incentives.

For psychopaths Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) has become one of the most popular MRI techniques in brain research by allowing visualization and characterization of white and grey matter in the brain. ” DTI provides a capable way for comprehensive, noninvasive, functional anatomy mapping of the human brain (Assaf Y, Pasternak O)”. People that commit violent crimes have different motivations for different crimes, and most types of homicides can be characterized by the individuals that commit them (Paul G. Mattiuzzi). Antisocial Personality Disorders (ASPD) exhibit behavior that manipulates, exploits, violates the rights of others.

Many people in the world experience Antisocial Personality disorders, and while not all people who suffer from them commit homicide they are very capable of it because they are usually impulsive, irresponsible, and lack remorse or feeling towards others (Anne- Marin B). Psychopaths do not have Antisocial Personality Disorders, they have parts of the brain that are not fully functioning properly, causing for them to not be able to understand other people’s emotions or process empathy the same as a “healthy” person. Sociopaths can have Antisocial Personality Disorders.

There is not one general group that categorizes all sociopaths because they can experience many different emotions that place them in different groups. Either way people who have these disorders display irrational behavior that can come in the forms of violent abuse. There is no cure for an Antisocial Personality Disorder but there are ways to manage and control a person’s behavior so that they do not commit violent crimes. The most accurate way to do so is by knowing how they respond negatively to certain commands and trying to avoid triggering any of them so they don’t become troubled or feel the need to be aggressive.

The Psychological Causes of Homicide Essay

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