The effects of inquiry-based activity approach in secondary students understanding of biology concepts and science process skills in Saudi Arabia


This study investigates the use of an inquiry-based activity approach to determine Saudi secondary school students’ level of success on biology teaching and science process skills. And if there were statistically significant differences in their success degree and science attitudes depending to their grade level and teaching method. The inquiry-based approach emphasizes the explanation and investigation of phenomena, the use of evidence to back up conclusions, and application of concepts. This view is also consistent with modern learning theories emphasizing the construction of mental structures (Piaget’s functioning model) by learners. To determine if inquiry-based instruction leads to better understanding of biology concepts taught, the study sample will consist of approximately 210 secondary students from 7 secondary schools. 3 units for 10th, 11th and 12th grade will be chosen and 45 minute per lesson will be planned. The design of the lessons divides the activities of instruction into 3 phases. In this approach, at first students will give experience with the concept to be developed. This experience will allow students to explore and ask questions. As the lessons progress from simple exploration to conceptualization, the student, and teacher will discuss and derive the concept from observations made. In the last phase, students will be provided with the opportunity to explore the usefulness and application of the concept of the chosen units at the end of the topic. Data collected will be through lesson observations, students’ participation, and ability in understanding and retention of concepts, improved attitudes toward science learning, improved reasoning ability, and better process skills, And through using biology achievement test, Basic Science Process Skill Test and Science Attitude Scale. Results of the study should show significantly enhances students’ science process skills and attitudes according the use of inquiry based activity methods.

The effects of inquiry-based activity approach in secondary students understanding of biology concepts and science process skills in Saudi Arabia

Research objective

The purpose of this study to investigate the effects of activities incorporating inquiry based activity teaching secondary students’ biology unit through inquiry based activity and attitudes toward science process skills. It compared the performance of the students using on activities incorporating inquiry based science teaching to students using a traditional science curriculum. To achieve these purpose basic process skills will be determined as Observing, Comparing and Classifying, Inferring, Predicting, Defining Operationally, Measuring, Recording and Interpreting, Formulating Models, Constructing Tables of Data and Graphs, while the integrated process skills will be Formulating Hypotheses, Identifying and Controlling Variables and Experi­menting. The program will improve students’ research and questioning skills with a scientific and tech­nological point of view, solving problems, conveying scientific views and results, working in cooperation and deciding sensibly.

Data Collection Tools:

Science Process Skill Test (MB-BISPSI) Malaysian-Based Basic and Integrated Science Process Skills Inventory: to measure the integrated science process skills, the test developed by Yahayaet al. (2011) with its 60 items will modify by the researcher with some particular changes and additions to be applied for 10th 11th and 12th grade students (age16-18).

Overall description of the instrument

Database exploredExploration terminologies usedNumber of references obtained
ERIC“Teacher Stress Inventory”18 citations from 2012 to 1999
PsychInfo“Teacher Stress Inventory”50 citations from 2013 to mid-1980’s
Dissertation Abstracts International“Teacher Stress Inventory” and Fimian (in abstract)18 citations 1983 to 2010
Google ScholarFimian Teacher Stress Inventory3 citations in 2014 Multiple citations in previous years

Teacher Stress Inventory (TSI) has found its application in published study from roughly the mid-1980. This is the time when Michael Fimian published it. Additionally, it has been used in study published in 2014 depending on search of pertinent database. Different ordinary and exceptional trainers have used TSI from PreK through high school. Some of the teachers include Backer, 201 and Cook, 2002. Private and public school educators are Thomas, 2000 and waters, 2009. The special group of teachers includes Mikka of EFL (2014), Jones of physical education (2004), and Batten as an administrator (2001). In geographical or cultural context, TSI has found its application in various geographical and cultural areas. Studies have been carried out in America’s urban, rural, and geographical areas (Kaplan & Saccuzzo, 2013). It has also been carried out in global settings like Taiwan, Ireland, and Costa Rica. Studied have taken place in many spiritual groups like Seventh-Day Adventists and Catholics. Teacher Stress Inventory has been translated into various languages hence it can be used by different teachers from Pakistan, China, and Spain.

Copies of Scholarly Review(s) of Instrument

In 1957, the American education system was greatly condemned due to the introduction of Soviet Union’s satellite Sputnik. This is because it was considered to be content-oriented. This led to the introduction of various radical changes in their science curricular. The major changes made include Science-A Process Approach. In this approach, fundamental processes begun in grades K-3. On the other hand, science processes started and developed in grades 4-6.  Process-based movement was majorly introduced to gauge the ability of the students to understand science process skills. An evaluation of the science process skills tools shows that the instruments were not adequately supplied. Therefore, they were not able to cover all the science process skills (Schmitt, 2012).  The coverage of such tools was deficient since they reviewed BSPS, ISPS or a mixture of some process skills. For instance, Beard established the Basic Science Process Test (BSPT) for students in primary school. Tannenbaum established the Test of Science Process to determine the monitoring, comparing, categorizing, and forecasting skills of learners in grades 7 to 9. Smith and Welliver established a Science Process Assessment to be used by learners in grade 4. Saudi has their locally made instruments which are used to assess various science process skills (Lissitz, 2009).  

Valid evidence

Validity evidence chart:

Types of validity evidence most appropriate for showing the quality of the instrumentDefinition of the validity evidenceMethods used to collect the validity evidence
Content validity evidenceIt addresses the similarities between assessment questions and the area of study they are suppose to evaluateContent validity evidence is collected from various curriculum experts where they are required to give their opinions on whether the test is matching curriculum goals.
Criterion-related validity evidenceThis type of validity evidence studies the connection between a test score and the results. Therefore, evaluating the connection between test score and criteria can determine the test validity for finding out success in Saudi Arabian learning institutionsCriterion-related validity evidence is collected by obtaining test results to be used and relevant data on the criteria for the same learners (Umar, 2003). The test results are linked with the criteria to establish the extent to which they show the criterion behavior
Construct validity evidenceThis refers to the level at which a certain measure evaluates the fundamental hypothetical construct it should measure. In order to work properly, it needs the collection of various sources of evidence (Oermann & Gaberson, 2013)The validity evidence is collected by acquiring two tests which can measure associated skills.
Consequential validity evidenceIt is used to refer to the common penalties of using a particular for a particular reason.Evidence can be collected by obtaining annual information from parents, teachers, and the administration concerning the assessment systems of various schools in Saudi Arabia

Reliability evidence

Reliability evidence chart:

Reliability estimateDescription of the reliability estimateHow to collect the reliability estimate
Test-retest reliabilityThis type of reliability shows the rate at which a test is capable of giving stable and reliable scores within a given period of timeTo estimate this reliability, an individual should manage a test form to identify group of examinee based on two different occasions (Tenenbaum, Eklund & Kamata, 2012)
Parallel forms reliabilityThis reliability approximate is a measure of how steady the results of examinees can be anticipated all over the test forms. A number of exam programs create many, parallel test forms to assist in providing test security. All the parallel forms are built to equal the exam outline. The forms are approximated by controlling both forms of the test to a similar group of examinees
Interrater reliabilityIt shows a measure of the reliability or consistency of results expected by the raters.This is determined by obtaining scores from various raters and establishing the most reliable

Uses of Instrument in Scholarly Literature

The instrument can be used to determine how students obtain science process skills differently. Moreover, the acquisitions can be based on their gender, location, and ethnic backgrounds.

Use of the Instrument in personal Instructional or Evaluation Context

According to the evidences collected concerning the instrument, it is important to accept that it can be used in various studies. This is because it is considered to be a high-quality test. The items have complexity and bias indices that can be found within suitable range for research and exam reasons. Moreover, it is applicable and dependable as secondary school children can use it to evaluate their science process skills.


Kaplan, R. M., & Saccuzzo, D. P. (2013). Psychological testing: Principles, applications, & issues. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, Cengage Learning.

Lissitz, R. W. (2009). The concept of validity: Revisions, new directions, and applications. Charlotte, NC: Information Age Pub.

Oermann, M. H., & Gaberson, K. B. (2013). Evaluation and Testing in Nursing Education. New York: Springer Pub. Co.

Schmitt, N. (2012). The Oxford handbook of personnel assessment and selection. New York: Oxford University Press.

Tenenbaum, G., Eklund, R. C., & Kamata, A. (2012). Measurement in sport and exercise psychology. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

Umar, A. (2003). E-business and distributed systems handbook: Management module. S.l.: N A.

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Propose a change to the current law or enactment of a governmental regulation that can alleviate a current healthcare problem in Saudi Arabia

Assignment 14 DS – 515

· Research a current healthcare problem in Saudi Arabia.

· Provide a summary of the situation, including specific examples. Discuss the current law or lack thereof.

· Propose a change to the current law or enactment of a governmental regulation that can alleviate the problem.

· Support your statements with logic and argument, citing any sources referenced

· Be 2 pages in length, not including the required cover and reference pages

· Formatted according to APA writing guidelines

· Provide support for your statements with in-text citations from a minimum of three scholarly articles from peer-reviewed journal articles.


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Medicine partner to strengthen healthcare services in Saudi Arabia.

Medicine partner to strengthen healthcare services in Saudi Arabia..

Locate five different types of healthcare organizations in Saudi Arabia. Formulate a chart that describes the differences in the facilities. Be sure to include items that describe their: Financing, Ownership, Staff information, Mission statement, Areas of treatment, Advantages and disadvantages to the structure, and Any other relevant information.Your chart should meet the following requirements: Be 4 6 pages in length, not including the cover or reference pages. Provide support for your statements with in-text citations from a minimum of six scholarly articles. Two of these sources may be from the class readings, textbook, or lectures, but four must be external. Provide full APA citations for articles under review. Saudi Healthcare organizations 1- KAMC-MNG-HA2- KSMC3- Rayan hospital by HMG4- KFSH&RC5- JHAHplease include in-text-citation and use the references and the attachment document as guide References: Aldosari, B. (2014). Rates, levels, and determinants of electronic health record system adoption: A study of hospitals in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. International journal of medical informatics, 83(5), 330-342.Aldosari, B. (2017). Supportive care pathway functionalities of EHR system in a Saudi Arabian hospital. Computers in biology and medicine, 89, 190-196.Al-Jishi, S. (2014). Saudi Aramco Johns Hopkins Medicine partner to strengthen healthcare services in Saudi Arabia. Retrieved from:, A. A. (2017). Critical analysis and review of the literature on healthcare privatization and its association with access to medical care in Saudi Arabia. Journal of infection and public health, 10(3), 258-268.Almalki, M., FitzGerald, G., & Clark, M. (2011). Health care system in Saudi Arabia: an overview/Aperçu du système de santé enArabie saoudite. Eastern Mediterranean health journal, 17(10), 784 793.Almansour, A. (2012). HMG is investing two billion to establish two medical cities in Riyadh and Al Khobar. Retrieved from:, N. K., Sheikh, S. S., Abushullaih, B. A., Al-Faris, N. A., Al-Khatti, A. A., & Al-Sayed, H. H. (2016). Minimal residual disease program for acute lymphoblastic leukemia at Dhahran Health Center. Journal of Applied Hematology, 7(1), 17 23.HMG. (2015a). About us. Retrieved from: (2015b). Mission and vision. Retrieved from: (2015c). Rayan Hospital. (2016). Investors. Retrieved from: (2016). About us. Retrieved from: (2016). Clinics and services. Retrieved from: (2018a). About us. Retrieved from: (2018b). Hospitals. Retrieved from: (2018c). Organization structure. Retrieved from: of Saudi Arabia vision 2030 (2016). Saudi vision 2030. Retrieved from:, H. G., Al Zaben, F., Sehlo, M. G., Khalifa, D. A., Al Ahwal, M. S., Qureshi, N. A., & Al-Habeeb, A. A. (2014). Mental health care in Saudi Arabia: Past, present, and future. Open Journal of Psychiatry, 4(02), 113.KSMC. (2018a). About us. Retrieved from: (2018b). Careers. Retrieved from: (2018c). Hospitals and centers. Retrieved from: (2014a). Department of Surgery. Retrieved from: (2014b). Medical departments. Retrieved from: (2015). MERS-CoV Outbreak: A Transformational Beginning. Retrieved from: (2016). King Abdulaziz Medical City in Riyadh. Retrieved from: (2017a). About NGHA. Retrieved from: (2017b). Disclaimer. Retrieved from: (2017c). Recruitment. Retrieved from: (2010). The King Agree on (King Saud Medical City) Name. Retrieved from: (2015). Health statistical book Saudi Arabia. Retrieved from:, F. M. A., Adlan, N. A., Al-Numair, N. S., & Owaidah, T. M. (2008). King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre Experience in Developing Point-of-Care Testing Program. Point of Care, 7(4), 243-245.Olden, P. C. (2011). Management of healthcare organizations: An introduction. (2nd ed.) Chicago: Health Administration Press.Yusuf, N. (2014). Private and public healthcare in Saudi Arabia: future challenges. International Journal of Business and Economic Development (IJBED), 2(1), 114 118.

Medicine partner to strengthen healthcare services in Saudi Arabia.

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