Descartes’ first and second arguments for dualism both appeal to the same principle: namely, Leibniz’s Law.

Descartes’ first and second arguments for dualism both appeal to the same principle: namely, Leibniz’s Law.

1. According to the Mind/Brain Identity Theory, do mentalistic terms like “belief” or “pain” compete with physical terms like “neuronal impulse” or “synaptic cleft”? Should we aim to preserve the use of both mental terms and physical terms? Why or why not? 

Descartes’ first and second arguments for dualism both appeal to the same principle: namely, Leibniz’s Law.

2. Reconstruct Descartes’ first argument for dualism. Is it valid? If not, why not? (Are the premises true? Is the conclusion true? Explain your answers.) 

3. Descartes’ first and second arguments for dualism both appeal to the same principle: namely, Leibniz’s Law. Will the same objection suffice to undermine both? If not, why not? 

4. What is a propositional attitude? Give three examples that aren’t discussed above. 

5. Consider the following set of propositions: (1) “Linda remembers receiving an autograph from Muhammad Ali.” (2) “Linda does not remember receiving an autograph from Cassius Clay.” • Do these propositions contain any reference to propositional attitudes? If so, which? • Do these propositions attribute any properties to objects? If so, which objects? • What conclusion, if any, can you derive from these two propositions? (Does it follow that Muhammad Ali and Cassius Clay are different people? 

6. Descartes says that he can conceive of himself being a disembodied spirit (that is, having a mind but not a body). What does conceiving of something mean? Does Descartes’ claim entail that it is possible for him to be a disembodied spirit? (See discussion of conceivability and possibility in Chapter 8.) 

7. Is a statue identical with the stone it is made of? Is an organism identical with the collection of cells in its body? Can Leibniz’s Law be used to show that either of these claims of identity is false? 

8. In the Sixth Meditation, Descartes argues that he is essentially a thinking thing. An essential property of a thing is a property that the thing must have if it is to exist. Could Descartes be deprived of thought and still be Descartes? Could Descartes have been born without the capacity of thought and still be Descartes? If Descartes can’t doubt that he thinks, is that enough to show that Descartes is essentially a thinking thing? 

9. It was suggested in this chapter that we understand causality best when there is a physical signal that passes from cause to effect (the electricity example). However, the fact that “absences” sometimes cause suggests that causality need not involve a physical signal. For example, suppose a patient dies because his doctor fails to give him medicine. There is no “physical signal” between the doctor and patient in this case, but there is causation. Does this point solve the objection to dualism that concerns the nature of causality?

10. Would the discovery of perfect correlations between certain mental events and physical events (say, between experiences of pain and c-fiber firings) be evidence against dualism? Why or why not? 

11. What are the two central arguments that advocates of the Mind/Brain Identity thesis typically appeal to when defending their position? 

12. Why might someone doubt that the Principle of Uniformity is a surefire guide to which theories we should pursue? Do you think this skepticism is well-founded, or is it just another example of philosophers’ penchant for “radical doubt”? 

13. Suppose we observe a perfect correlation between some mental property (like feeling pain) and some physical property (like having one’s c-fibers fire). Apply the Surprise Principle (Chapter 3) to see whether this observation strongly favors the identity theory over dualism. 

14.In the passage from Principles of Natural Philosophy quoted in this chapter, Newton defends the Principle of Parsimony by saying that “Nature does nothing in vain.” Is this idea consistent with what we now know about natural selection (Chapter 6)? 

15. The Principle of Parsimony is often thought to be relevant to the question of whether God exists. Formulate and evaluate an argument for atheism that makes use of this principle. 

16. On the companion website, the psychologist U. T. Place defends the identity theory, but does not mention the Principle of Parsimony. He does so by describing a situation in which the correlation between two events justifies the conclusion that the two are identical. Evaluate Place’s argument.

17. What would it mean for something to be a first cause without being God? What would it mean for something to necessarily exist without being God 

18. Aquinas seems to commit the Birthday Fallacy when he argues that, if every natural event has a cause, then there must be one “first cause.” Why is this line of reasoning fallacious? Can you think of another example of the Birthday Fallacy? 

19. Why does Aquinas think that it is “inconceivable” that the world is infinitely old? Do you think his argument is plausible? Why or why not? 

20. Why, if at all, do you think it might be helpful to reflect on unsuccessful arguments for the existence of God? Explain your answer. 

21. Which of the four arguments discussed above do you find most convincing? Why? Problems for Further Thought 

1 I formulated Aquinas’s proofs by having him talk about objects that exist in “nature” (in “the natural world”). What does “nature” include? Does it include just the things we can see or hear or touch or taste or smell? 

2 In discussing Aquinas’s third proof, I talked about Charlie the atom as an example of a thing that is both eternal and contingent. Could something exist that is both necessary and noneternal? It would exist at some time in each possible world, though it would not exist at all times in the actual world. Can you give an example of such a thing? 

3 I criticized Aquinas’s third argument by discussing numbers, which I claimed exist necessarily. Can the argument be reformulated so that this objection no longer applies? 

4 I criticized Aquinas’s fourth argument by discussing “maximum stupidity.” Can Aquinas reply to this objection by claiming that stupidity is just the absence of intelligence?

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This is the assignment example to give you an idea about what to do. I would upload the initial assignment.


Description of the Client and the Problem – be sure this is clear and that the goal for each theory clearly relates to the client’s problem. Be sure the problem description is comprehensive enough for each theory, since you may be focusing on different aspects of the client’s problem with each theory. In this example, the theories that the writer used are CBT and Ego Psychology. Only CBT is shown in the Goal, Objectives, Interventions, and Justification section, but the problem description is broad and includes information that relates to both a CBT and Ego Psychology perspective:


Client: Bethany is a 17-year-old, Caucasian female currently completing her senior year of high school. She is the eldest of two children in her family and does not have a particularly positive relationship with either of her biological parents or her stepfather, Bradley. Bethany does, however, have a close bond with her younger sister. Bethany has expressed that she wants to improve upon the relationships she has with her mother and Bradley. She is also considering options for her future plans after graduation in the spring.


Problem Statement: Bethany recently came into the agency after being discharged from an inpatient rehabilitation center. She entered treatment because of her repeated attempts to commit suicide and her history of alcohol and prescription narcotic abuse. During the time of her hospitalization, Bethany presented with a range of depressive symptoms, but she was compliant with treatment. Upon her discharge from the facility, Bethany was provided a referral to the agency for outpatient treatment and to seek medication management for her depression. Her depression has been an unresolved problem, dating back to approximately six years ago when her parents made the decision to divorce. Bethany noted previously that when her mother married her stepfather, she felt like the relationship that she had with her mother began to deteriorate. Bethany never really had a positive, supportive relationship with her biological father because he was always high on Percocet and never seemed to take an interest in her life. Overall, Bethany feels mistrustful of others because she feels that they will leave her, and has developed defense mechanisms to deal this these feelings. She has consistently demonstrated unstable relationships throughout her life, which is especially evident in her relationships with men. Over the past few years, Bethany has tried to date several men, with unsuccessful results. This typically contributes to her feelings of abandonment, but Bethany expresses a desire to find someone that loves her the way she is.


  Currently, Bethany reports that her depression occurs every day, but it has improved in severity since she was discharged from hospitalization and moved back to Maryland with her mother. Bethany typically resorts to patterns of increased sleeping and decreased eating behaviors when she begins feeling depressed. The depression has caused her to fight a long-standing battle with substance abuse over the past few years. Both she and her mother are concerned about her chances of relapsing and ending up back in rehabilitation. Bethany is now seeking help for her depression so that this does not occur.


Theory 1 (name of theory)


Treatment Goals, Objectives, Interventions, and Justification


Please use the table format for this section. The following is an example goal, objectives, interventions, and justification (applying CBT).

 Treatment Goal


Bethany will increase her coping skills related to her depressive symptoms.


Objectives – must be measurable

1. Bethany will identify 3 situations or triggers that currently cause her to experience sadness.

2 Bethany will identify at least 2 consequences that occur as a result of her depression.

3. Bethany will identify at least 1   new method to cope with her depression.  

Interventions – must be detailed and theory specific

1. With cognitive restructuring, the therapist will lead Bethany through the process of self-assessment. Thought logs will be used to record events that occur prior to Bethany’s depressive symptoms. The therapist will also help Bethany to analyze and interpret these recordings.

2. Therapist will use the “ABC” model with Bethany to assist her in identifying the consequences that typically evolve from her sadness. ABC work sheet will be used with Bethany to address her resulting behaviors after feeling depressed. Therapist will help her walk through it and create new ways to handle these emotions.

3. Through the use of cognitive coping, the therapist will assist in teaching Bethany new and more productive ways to deal with her depression. Therapist will rehearse these techniques with Bethany so that she may eventually use them on her own.  

Projected Date of Completion By week 2 of treatment

  By week 4 of treatment

  By week 6 of treatment





Justification: – this section should include the client’s strengths and risks determined from the client assessment. Discuss specifically how the strengths will be used in treatment relative to the theory you are applying, and how the risks will be addressed in treatment relative to the theory you are applying. This section also contains your rationale for choosing the intervention strategies, goals, and objectives to address the client’s problem using the specific theory.


The goal to help Bethany increase her coping related to her depressive symptoms comes from the qualitative assessment and Beck depression scale implemented during the quantitative assessment. Bethany has indicated to the therapist that her feelings of depression interfere with her functioning at school, home, and in her social life.  By identifying and learning how to cope with her symptoms, Bethany can become more functional which can in turn begin to reduce her depression. Through assessment, it is clear that Bethany’s cognitive functioning could use some improvement, but for the most part she has great potential for improvement with cognitive behavioral therapy. Bethany’s high level of cognitive functioning will increase her chances of being productive in treatment, as well as being able to successfully restructure her thoughts.


Bethany has several strengths that can be used in her treatment. At this point in time, Bethany demonstrates a great deal of willingness to change her past behaviors, which is evidenced by her self-report and compliance with scheduled appointments with the therapist. She expresses a high interest in furthering her education after high school and has set future goals for herself. Bethany’s ultimate goal right now is to remain drug free and limit her alcohol consumption, since these were previously problematic behaviors. Bethany is also extremely bright. This is demonstrated by her ability to perform well on her SATs and her grades in school. The fact that Bethany has set goals and is so eager to change will promote success in treatment. Bethany may also be more likely to do well with identifying ways that she can alter her negative thought patterns.


In addition, Bethany recognizes that her father’s actions over the years have contributed a great deal to her depression. Bethany has now come to the conclusion that in order for her to overcome her sadness, she needs to understand that she cannot change her father’s behaviors. In addition, Bethany realizes that her depression has been a serious and detrimental problem for her and reports that she wishes that she did not have to take medication for it any longer.


There are also several risks uncovered in the assessment of Bethany.   Over the years, Bethany has exhibited a low sense of self-esteem. When her mother began dating her stepfather, Bethany reports that she “began to feel insignificant”. She felt like she was disregarded and after moving in with her father, Bethany grew to feel even more worthless. Bethany believes that no one cares for her or will ever want her, since no one stays in her life. These distorted feelings contribute to Bethany’s depressive symptoms and could present as a challenge in treatment because she may feel that the therapist will also abandon her. This could potentially hinder the therapeutic relationship and make Bethany feel like she is unable to trust the therapist.


  During the assessment, Bethany reported that she experiences feelings of depression every day, but that the feelings wax and wane throughout the day. Depending upon where she is and what she happens to be doing, Bethany might feel more or less depressed. If Bethany is in school, with her friends, or abusing drugs and alcohol, she feels less depressed than she does when she is in the house or arguing with her mother. Since Bethany frequently feels depressed, this needs to be taken into consideration when planning for treatment and intervention. In treatment, it is important that the therapist focus on reducing the intensity and frequency of Bethany’s depressive symptoms. These interventions should be initiated immediately with Bethany and built upon during every session. Through the “ABC” model in cognitive behavioral therapy, the therapist will be able to assist Bethany in identifying the activating events of her depressive feelings, the beliefs and thoughts she has, as well as the emotion or action that occurs as a result of these preceding patterns.


The CBT interventions that the therapist will use with Bethany will help her identify and come to terms with her current coping methods regarding her sadness and depression. These interventions will be useful for helping Bethany to learn innovative and healthy ways that she can relieve her depressive symptoms. The thought logs that Bethany will use to record events that occur prior to becoming depressed will assist her and the therapist in pinpointing what exactly causes it. Treatment goal #1 is suitable for clinical work with Bethany, since she rated her depression at a level 7, on a scale of 0-10 (with 0 being least depressed and 10 being most depressed) and these symptoms are something that we want to reduce in Bethany.


Theory 2 (name of theory used)


Treatment Goals, Objectives, Interventions, and Justification


Treatment Goal

















Projected Date of Completion









Justification – The rationale for using the intervention strategies must be theory specific. Your discussion of the strengths and risks may be different for   theory 2 based on the theoretical perspective.




In this section, discuss why each perspective fits the needs of your client, given his or her presenting problem, age, ability, sense of self, etc. Also, discuss how each perspective “fits” with your personal and professional self.


Do ONE summary section to address the entire paper.




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Poetry: Its Universal Appeal and Merits Essay

Poetry: Its Universal Appeal and Merits Essay.

Poetry was born out of the basic human desire to communicate meaning and feelings. The reading of poetry is a matter of both pleasure and enlightenment. It serves as one’s escape from life’s dullness, drudgery, and oppressive influences. Poetry appeals to our sense of beauty, thus giving us aesthetic pleasure. Thus, it is capable of evoking a range of different emotions; laughter, tears, sighs, nostalgia, etc. , in its audience. At the general and universal level, poetry recollects the actual experiences of mankind – joys, sorrows, misfortunes, love, hatred, etc.

It is hard usually to distinguish among these complex emotions. However, poetic interpretation helps us distil these complex emotions. When it comes to interpretation, a poem can be seen in many ways: simply as an aesthetic object, a work of art to look at and be entertained by, or a new way of looking at the ordinary things. Or we may consider the poem to be a ‘new experience’.

Poetry is all this and more. What I personally like about poetry is how it liberates the mind, opening my eyes to newer possibilities and meanings.

It gives a broadness and richness to my life, perceptions, and imagination. Its study and appreciation is important because it enlarges one’s vision of life and broadens one’s sympathies and spectrum. Initially, a poem may look hard to crack through, but I have learnt that understanding a poem is a matter of time, and it requires patience, a certain frame of mind, and perspective. As I continue to read and re-read it, different layers of meanings begin to unravel. Thus, there is something new to be discovered every time I read a poem: a new revelation, a new insight, a new appreciation.

I cannot help but awe and wonder how poets are able to convey the most extensive, in-depth meaning and images through the fewest words, and weave a web of the most intricate images and symbols. It is this brevity what makes poetry distinct from other genres of literature and forms of knowledge. It is not uncommon for students of Science to look down upon poetry or at least feel baffled by it. I, however, don’t share their sentiments. Poetry definitely stands out in terms of its merit when compared with Science and Prose.

It can be said that if prose is the language of reason, poetry is the language of emotions. Similarly, the imaginative and emotional appeal of poetry distinguishes it from Science. Science teaches us knowledge and appeals to our minds. The aim of both is the same i. e. , to arrive at truth. While Science derives from facts and owes nothing to the extra mundane forces; in contrast, poetry seeks to express truth in the most concrete and pictorial form possible – in the form of images or pictures in which meaning can be seen with the mind’s eye.

In Science and Mathematics, generality, abstraction, and impartiality are appreciated. But in poetry, particularity and novelty are marvelled at. Unlike Science, poetry operates in the sensory dimension, and thus acts as the third eye. A poet helps us see deeper into the truths of nature and life; and thus, poetry relies a lot on intuition and imagination. It teaches us the knowledge of the human heart, by appealing to our senses. However, in distinguishing poetry’s importance among other disciplines, we must understand that one cannot be substituted for the other.

We should remember that although the Romantic Movement was a reaction against Science and reason and propagated the need for emotional intensity, yet others like the Victorians sought for a compromise, a balanced approach. Indeed, poetry seeks to coexist in harmony with other disciplines. I understand that life is complex, and one needs to approach it from all realms of knowledge in order to understand it. Thus, a wholesome approach to life contains a balance between both faculties: the rational as well as the emotional.

One major criticism against poetry is that it is art for art’s sake. It is believed that poetry is divorced from real life and the poet is living in an ivory tower in isolation from real life. Some of this criticism is valid when it refers to the escapist form of poetry that it provides an escape to the reader by transporting him/her to an imaginary and seemingly perfect world. However, the appeal of this sort of poetry is momentary and very transient. The enduring form of poetry is one which talks about the universal issues and themes, relevant to all times.

This why Shakespeare and others’ poetry have endured the test of time and continue to be revered. When we read poems, we not only have our emotions aroused as the poems entrain us, but we also have a chance to have an insight into the poets’ perceptions. A poet doesn’t merely use the poem to express his philosophy. He, above all, wants to help us experience things in the way he has experienced them. Hence, we are able to connect with the poet and his vision and the larger microcosm of the universe through that vision.

We can also say that poetry is the result of divine inspiration, which doesn’t come easy and to just about every one. Therefore, a poet is a seer, and his method is insight, intuition, and a vision, which enables us to see what we may generally miss. A poet has a rich and vivid imagination; it travels far and wide and gathers exotic images, whether he is describing something farfetched or mundane. The poet chooses to describe the ordinary into the most extraordinary way. Poetry’s novelty lies in giving a new meaning to common place words, thus giving them new associations.

Let me elaborate my point of view through examples. For instance, a poet may see the sun sinking and the shadows growing larger. This might remind him of the passage of time and the approaching of death. This common place observance may give him an idea for a poem. As he puts pen to paper, the product of this process would become a poem. Through his unique ideas, experiences, and opinions to a common observance, he gives a fresh perception of the world around us, relates it to and make it part of a larger whole. Thus, the poem begins to have larger and universal implications.

Similarly, poetry lets us appreciate the beauty in woods on a snowy evening, and helps us resonate with the common sentiment of finding a moment of peace in an otherwise busy life. Likewise, a mathematician would tell you that one tablespoon equates to near about 25 grams, but only a poet like Eliot would use ‘coffee spoon’ as an appropriate device for measuring Prufrock’s life in his poem ‘The Love Song of J Alfred Prufrock’. While other disciplines inform us about facts; it’s only the poets who can seek the connection between two unlikely things and situations.

The poet thus makes connections between two unlikely things. For me, lyrical poetry is the most enjoyable form because of its intense emotional and richly imaginative appeal. Literature’s primary purpose is to give us pleasure, and poetry embodies this sentiment. It is a source of keen delight for me to read the lyrical poetry of Shelly, the sensuous ideas of Keats, the narrative poems of Coleridge and Byron, the sweet and musical verse of Tennyson, the Nature poetry of Wordsworth, and the melancholy mood of Mathew Arnold.

All this is a source of solace and peace, wonderment and bafflement. In a volume of poetry, there is something to be read daily, to suit the pensive mood and vexed mind. The technical elements in a poetic piece, like the syntax, meter, rhyme, rhythm, etc. , make its structure, but ultimately, the metaphors, the imagery, the depth and range of emotions, the expression, the novelty of the subject and the poet’s ingenuity are what give the poetic piece its appeal.

Wordsworth (as cited in Davie, 1972) has rightly said: “Poetry is the first and last of al knowledge – it is as immortal as the heart of man” (p. 9). Hence, one may argue that the best of the poetry is created out of life, belongs to life, and exists for life. A poet constantly ponders on ways to live and live well: in a beautiful and natural way, which happens to be my goal in life too. Work Cited Davie, D. (1973). Thomas Hardy and British poetry. Great Britain: Taylor & Francis.

Poetry: Its Universal Appeal and Merits Essay

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