The importance of advertising

The importance of advertising


Advertising or marketing is arguably one of the most crucial pillars of any business or entity. It has, throughout the years, proved to be an effective method for selling new products. In fact, advertising has a bearing on the relevance of any business or enterprise in the market thanks to its capacity to determine its profitability (Lasch, 34). Advertising has quite a number of advantages for any economy. First, advertising is known to generate wealth for the economy. This is accomplished through taxes that are paid on goods that have been sold as a result of advertising. This has a trickle-down effect as the government uses such finance to provide essential services to the nation, including healthcare and education. In addition, a large number of jobs are created through marketing, servicing and producing these goods thereby reducing unemployment. Needless to say, advertisement has undergone a lot of changes in the recent times. Advertising strategies have evolved tremendously in the recent years. Of course, this is all aimed at enhancing the effectiveness of adverts in a world that is undergoing rapid changes. However, questions emerge as to whether advertising influences individuals to buy things or people will merely buy things simply because they need them. As Gloria Steinem (176) states, the editorial copy that targets women is informed by things other than the wishes of the reader. It has been an open secret that present-day adverts promote consumerism in the society.

Thesis statement: Present-day adverts are closely tied to consumerism.

The importance of advertising is recognized as lying in its ability to increase the consumption of goods, which in itself is economically-viable. In essence, market players have sought the help of marketing and advertising in an effort to convince consumers to increase their consumption. Lasch (45) states that the economy relied on creating new consumer demands as it had reached the level where its technology had the capacity to satisfy the fundamental material needs. In essence, it aimed at convincing people to purchase goods for which the people were unaware of the need until the mass media brought it to their attention (Lasch, 47). Consumerism breeds a number of myths as seen in the advert presented.


The advert above seeks to promote Tummy Tuck jeans from Elle. It is worth noting that the denim jeans in the advert are meant for women only. However, it is evident that the advert has been carefully crafted as to have certain effects on the (potential) consumer so as to drive up sales. This is accomplished through the incorporation of thinly-veiled cultural myths in the advert.

One of the myths that are incorporated in the advert is that the consumer’s body is not satisfactory or perfect enough. It is worth noting that the women incorporated in the advert have slim and perfect body proportions and figures, as well as incredible beauty. On the other hand, the consumer is bound to be out-of-shape, smelly and too fat, although her friend and acquaintances do not tell her that forthrightly. Consumers are trained to worry, for example, that their acquaintances will not tell then in case they look pathetic as that brand of criticism is simply embarrassing. This advert triggers the thought that the consumer jeans would give the consumer that “cool” look. The portrait on the foreground is the person that the consumer is being promised to become (Solomon and Maasik, 5). Of course, the advert does not imply that, but that is exactly what it wants the consumer to think since that is a more effective method of getting her to make the purchase. Denotation is a less powerful stimulant than connotation or suggestion. However, suggestion is often deliberately covered in the indicators that are presented in the ads. The advertisers, therefore, use this portrait to enhance their ability to identify and exploit their potential consumers’ fantasies and wishes. It is worth noting that the portrait propels the process where lifestyle images are given priority over and above the presentation of facts pertaining to the product (Kilbourne, 45).

In addition, the advert seems to propagate the myth that happiness, sex appeal and satisfaction are imminent and can be obtained with the next purchase. This is clearly expressed in the wording of the advert presented. The advert states that the “Tummy Tuck jeans have been specially designed to lift the woman’s butt, flatten her butt and make her look and feel a size smaller”. The woman is bound to be “pleasantly surprised” once she tries one of the Tummy Tuck Jeans. The message here is that as much as people may have everything they need there is always something missing. The portrait and the message imply that consumers are virtually on the verge of becoming happy. The woman in the advert is gleefully happy. In addition, the group of women on the left is virtually leaping into the air as they experience rapturous joy. The combined message in this case is that happiness, sex appeal and satisfaction are within the reach of customers especially once they make the purchase (Kilbourne, 65).

Moreover, the advert promotes the myth that corporations and businesses are concerned about or have  the welfare of the public in mind. It goes without saying that no advert can pass a negative message about the corporation or business for which it is bound to market. This is especially considering that the corporate images that appear in the adverts are placed by the business itself, in which case it has to carry a relentlessly positive message (Himmelstein, 17). The message incorporated in the advert above is that the business behind Tummy Tuck jeans is concerned about the image, figure and shape of women (potential customers), in which case it aims at improving their shape and the shape of their bodies.

Lastly, there is the myth that a wholesome life consists of purchasing possessions that cost a lot of money. The portrait incorporates beautiful women in immaculate clothing, shoes and even more immaculate furniture exhibiting highlife lifestyle. These are all part of the luxurious lifestyle that is, apparently, available for the consumers’ enjoyment but only if they can afford it (Himmelstein, 13).

The advert used in the paper outlines the fact that the American society is a consumer society. This explains the reason why adverts are aimed at triggering dissatisfaction in American people with the things that they have thereby making them yearn for more. The exposure to products that customers do not have produces dissatisfaction and frustration, thereby triggering a desire to purchase the item that is being advertised. In addition, this advert underlines the material nature of the American culture. It underlines the fact that people place too much importance on material goods.

Works cited

Kilbourne, Jean. Deadly Persuasion: Why Everyone Must Fight the Addictive Power of Advertising. New York: Free Press, 1999. Print

Lasch, Christopher. The Culture of Narcissism: American Life in an Age of Diminishing Expectations. New York: Norton, 1991. Print

Steinem, Gloria. Sex, Lies & Advertising. Ms Magazine, 1972. Print

Himmelstein, Hal. Television Myth and the American Mind. New York: Praeger, 1984. Print

Solomon, Jack and Maasik, Sonia. The Semiotic Method. Signs of Life in the USA. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 1994. 4-9. Print

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Advertising men’s and women’s shoes

Advertising men’s and women’s shoes

Advertisers have the knowledge to appeal to people’s emotions, both men, and women, to make them buy the goods they sell. Women have been appealed to through the woman’s body shape and thin, skinny body. On the other hand, men have been appealed to through the need for power and prominence, as well as autonomy and satisfaction of curiosity. This paper will argue that, in advertising shoes, men are appealed to through the need for prominence, affiliation, and autonomy,. In contrast, women are appealed to through the need for satisfying aesthetic sensation, attention, and cooperation.

Advertising men’s and women’s shoes

The need for affiliation is so strong that it is an a peal applied in both men and women. This need easily commands the aspect of human beings that is composed of emotions. Concerning the fifteen basic appeals of advertising, Fowles (38) connotes affiliation that advertisement applies the need for an association to a great deal, and in most cases, it is the best appeal. The advertiser uses famous men in the nation or the world to advertise their shoes by appealing t the need for men to be affiliated. On the same note, they use celebri y women to advertise women’s shoes. In need to feel associated with these people, both men’s and women’s emotions are appealed to, and they buy the shoes.

The need for prominence is much applied in men. Men will always lie to be associated with prominence. Many societies in the world regard en as being the head of the family. They a e regarded as symbols of authority. The symbols of authority n the society are prominent people. By using prominent people, the advertisers are sure that they will capture some men who would like to wear the same shoe as a prominent person. To take it even further, advertising companies give gifts of their shoes to prominent people s that they can wear them in public. When other men see this, they are appeal d to and are attracted to the shoe. The men buy the shoe when this is backed up with a media ad. Further, autonomy and class are characteristic of men. They would like to wear that shoe that separates them from those they regard as junior in society. For this reason, advertising companies will try to show men how wearing a particular shoe will differentiate them from others in society.

The need for satisfying aesthetic sensations and attention is app ied much in the women than the men. Advertising companies knows this and how well it works for them, and they will pply it at the fastest opportunity. For example, an advertising company will use an image of a beautiful, skinny, thin lady we ring the shoe they are advertising. This is because their understanding of the psychology of a woman points to thei ease to be appealed by body shape. Almost every woman in th world is appealed to such a shape. Upon watching the image, the women will be appealed o, and will end up buying the shoe. Again, the company can decide to use the television to advertise the shoe, it is most probably going to use a thin-body shaped woman to walk across systematically wearin the shoe that is being advertised. Women will associate these aesthetics with the woman and buy the shoe.

On the other hand, aesthetic satisfaction is not as strong a appeal in men like it is in women. For this shoe advertiser, they will major more on aesthetic sensations when argeting the women and not the men. However, every human loves cleanliness and smartness, and men love to be as ociated with the beauty of a woman. This is the best way that the advertiser can appe l to aesthetic sensations in a man. For example, in a television ad, the advertiser can run a clip of a slim, beautiful married woman buying the shoe in adv rtisement for her handsome husband. At the same time, the handsome man can b y the shoe foe his beautiful woman. Through this ad, the advertiser will have used it to appeal to the aesthet c sensations of both men and women. Fowles (37) agrees that; even though aesthetic sensations are very strong in the women, the advertiser can play with the psychology of a man to appeal to his aesthetic sensation, to some degree.

The appeal that commands the need for durability and reliability is mostly used by the advertiser in men and not the women. Fowles (39) assert that the advertisers use the appeal because m n value durability and reliability. Men are not the people who will like to go to the s opping Centre now and then to shop. For this reason, they will like to associate with a durable and reliable item. They feel safe rough consumption of such product.  On the other hand this appeal is different in women. Women are the type of people who will like to pass by the shopping Centre now an then to keep to date with fashion. To appeal to men about the shoe, the advertiser will convince them that the shoe is durable, while to the ladies, the advertiser will try to appeal to their need for keeping up to date with fashion.

The use of sex has for a long time promoted fashion advertising. This is an appeal that is ve y applicable to both men and women. For example, an ad for advertising men’s shoes may be made wit shoe lace that looks like a breast. Then the wording following the ad reads thus: everything a man desires in shoes”. By looking at this advertisement, men are appealed to in a gre t deal concerning sex and the shoe. They will tend to associate the satisfaction that comes throu h sex with the wearing of the shoe. For this reas n, they may end up buying the shoe. Similarly, a woman can be enticed easily using s x and associating it with the shoe. For example, in the advertisement, a man can be shown buying the shoes to the lady, and then the ad is developed in a romantic scene, where the lady receives the shoe gift with some exchanges of kisses. Upon watching such a clip as an ad, women are appealed to, and they ay make a decision to buy the shoe. Sex appeal, therefore, induces strong sensations and can be used in the advertisement of many items including shoes.

In conclusion, advertisement uses appeals to conf se people’s decisions to buy items. Some appeals work better in a particular gender than the other. Some appeals like autonomy and domi ance work better in men than women. On the other hand, aesthetic sensation, including body shap and beauty, works better in women. Going by these facts, advertisers choose their targeted audienc carefully.

Work Cited

Fowles, Jib. “Advertising’s 15 Basic Appeals.” Common Culture: Reading and wri ing about American Popular Culture. Ed. Michael Petracca, Madeleine Sorapure. Uppe Saddle River: Prentice Hall, 1998. Print.

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Negotiation Role Play & Summary. Negotiation & Report. You will engage in a negotiation for a celebrity endorsement advertising campaign. negotiation communication log is attached.

Your Task

You will engage in a negotiation for a celebrity endorsement advertising campaign.

Assessment Description

You may be nominated to represent the advertising corporation and will receive email instructions from the company CEO including:

1. Appointment to represent the company as their agent for the negotiation of the endorsement contract;

2. Specific instructions about the desired endorsement contract fee and advertising campaign timeframe;

3. Information about the projected revenue to be raised from the advertising campaign;

4. Contact details of the agent appointed to represent the celebrity.

Alternatively, you may be nominated to represent the celebrity and will receive email instructions from the celebrity’s manager including:

1. Appointment to represent the celebrity as their agent for the negotiation of the endorsement contract;

2. Specific instructions about the desired endorsement contract fee and advertising campaign timeframe;

3. Information about the projected revenue to be raised from the advertising campaign;

4. Contact details of the agent appointed to represent the advertising company

Assessment Instructions

Stage 1: Pre-negotiation (700 words)

You must answer the following questions:

1. What is your client’s BATNA? What is your client’s reservation value?

2. What is the other party’s BATNA? What is the other party’s reservation value?

3. What is the ZOPA range? What is your strategy for creating value?

Include at least fifteen academic references in your answers to the above questions with a minimum of five references coming from academic journals. .

Stage 2: Negotiation (300 words)

You must:

1. Enter negotiations with their counterpart for the endorsement contract;

2. Maintain a communications log that captures the date, method, items discussed, and outcomes of each communication. .

Stage 3: Post negotiation (400 words)

You must prepare a 1 page letter to your client advising the outcome of the negotiation.


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The elaboration likelihood model applied to internet advertising

Running Head: The Elaboration Likelihood The Elaboration Likelihood Model Applied to Internet Advertising In just a few years, the Internet has established itself as a very powerful platform that has changed the way we communicate. The Internet, as no other medium, has given an international or a “globalized” dimension to the world. It has become the universal source of information for over 1,463,632,361 people. Cisco conducted a study, which predicted that traffic on the world’s networks would increase annually 46 percent from 2007 to 2012, nearly doubling every two years.

These results don’t come as a surprise considering that with a small investment almost anybody can have access to the World Wide Web. Among the many segments of the Internet, advertising is becoming the one with the greatest growth with an estimate of $21. 1 billion for U. S. Internet ads in 2007, a 25 percent increase over 2006. (According to two reports on the size of the Internet advertising market released in February 2008 by The Interactive Advertising Bureau). The Kelsey Group provides a global estimate of $45 billion for Internet advertising in 2007, which is 7. percent of the total $600 billion global advertising market. That compares to a 6. 1 percent share of global advertising for online ads in 2006. Researcher The Kelsey Group also has projected that online advertising will hit $147 billion by 2012. That’s worldwide advertising and it’s part of their report, “The Kelsey Group’s Annual Forecast (2007-2012): Outlook for Directional and Interactive Advertising. ” There are fundamental differences between Internet advertising and traditional advertising.

The main difference is the way Internet media is more able to be tracked in terms of success for an advertising campaign. Internet advertisers can easily track ad views and click through rates to the desired location which is usually a Website. While there are ways to track a campaign in traditional advertising methods, the Internet makes tracking results close to 100% accurate. Additionally Web users have more control over their viewing environment than television or radio.

In traditional television and radio, viewers and listeners are almost forced into watching and hearing advertisements. Internet advertising allows for ads to be placed by Web content or search results creating a more inviting advertisement environment for the user already engaged in a particular subject. The Internet has allowed advertising to also further target an audience by IP addresses pinpoint in order to place ads that offer more relevance to the potential customer.

With the introduction of the World Wide Web as a new advertising medium, understanding how people process advertising on the Internet has become the critical demand of Web advertisers. But there has been little research on advertising processes on the Web. This paper examines the Elaboration Likelihood Model of Persuasion and then explores how this theory can help explain information processing of Web advertisers. Elaboration Likelihood Model

The elaboration likelihood model of persuasion is a theory about the processes responsible for yielding to a persuasive communication and the strength of the attitudes that result from those processes. In an advertising context, the model holds that the process responsible for the effectiveness of ads is one of two relatively distinct routes to persuasion that differ according to “the extent to which the attitude change that results … is due to active thinking. ” (Petty & Cacioppo, 1996).

The first is known as the “central route,” and is “controlled, deep and systematic” (Petty & Cacioppo, 1986), and it involves effortful cognitive activity, by which individuals focus their attention on message relevant ad information, and draw on prior experience and knowledge to evaluate and develop on information that was presented. When elaboration likelihood is high, the favorability of cognitive responses generated in reaction to the ad influences the strength of attitudes.

Support arguments enhance attitude favorability, while counter arguments reduce attitude favorability. Two types of processing may occur when elaboration likelihood is high. Objective processing takes place when the individual is motivated and able to examine the message for its central merits. Biased processing occurs when the individual holds a strong previous opinion concerning the message subject and, therefore, responds to message arguments with attitude consistent cognition instead of scrutinizing the message for its quality.

If the message is consistent with prior attitudes, the individual will draw support arguments, while counter arguments will be brought forth if the message is counter attitudinal. The other route to persuasion is known as the “peripheral route” and it is “automatic, shallow, heuristic, and mindless” and “based on affective associations or simple inferences tied to peripheral cues…” (Petty & Cacioppo, 1986). When elaboration likelihood is low, individuals do not think much about message content; instead, they use noncontent elements associated with the message as a basis for attitude formation.

Peripheral cues can be the number of message arguments, music, affective reactions generated by the ad and so on.. Whether an individual will follow the central or peripheral route to persuasion is determined by the likelihood of elaboration, which, in turn, is influenced by the individual’s motivation and ability to process. Petty and Cacioppo (1986) define motivation and ability in terms of their antecedents. Some antecedents are situational factors, whereas others are individual factors.

Some variables influence the extent of information processing, whereas others tend to influence the direction of thinking. Factors that boost processing motivation include perceived personal relevance, need for cognition, and personal responsibility for evaluating the message. Similarly, factors that enhance the ability to process include low levels of external distraction, message repetition, and high message clarity. Petty and Cacioppo make it clear that they see peripheral processing as a weak advertising route, only effective if tied in to high levels of repetition.

The high involvement “active thinking” central route is favored, because “Attitude changes via the central route appear to be more persistent, resistant, and predictive of behavior than changes induced via the peripheral route” (Petty & Cacioppo, 1986). In other words, this academic model states that emotions and unconscious process may have a part to play, but they are always subsidiary in importance to information processing and rational argument. Elaboration Likelihood Model Applied to Internet Advertising Karson and Korgaonkar (2001) tested the Elaboration Likelihood Model principles online.

Specifically, they manipulated involvement to determine if it moderated the effects of arguments and peripheral cues included in Internet advertising. The study did not find support for the Elaboration Likelihood Model principle that proposes higher levels of involvement augment the effectiveness of strong arguments in the persuasive setting and reduce the relative effect of peripheral cues. Also, it also did not support the postulate that in low involvement situations, peripheral cues are more important than argument strength.

However, an examination of Karson and Korgaonkar’s study revealed that the methodology might not appropriately reproduce offline Elaboration Likelihood Model studies. In traditional offline Elaboration Likelihood Model studies, peripheral cues activate rules of thumb to help individuals make judgments concerning attitude objects. The attractiveness of the message source is a typical cue utilized in Elaboration Likelihood Model studies. In Karson and Korgaonkar’s study, the complexity of the wallpaper of the website is used as the study’s peripheral cue.

Although background design may be an important element in the online context, similar variable operationalizations should be used when seeking to validate Elaboration Likelihood Model for Web persuasion. Additionally, the manipulation of involvement does not appear sufficient. Specifically, the difference in the participants’ high level of involvement and low level of involvement was small. Nonetheless, perhaps the manipulation of involvement was appropriate, because the Internet is a more active media environment, which increases the overall involvement of users in any situation.

Also, maybe advertisements on the Internet are not processed peripherally. In contrast with Karson and Korgaonkar’s results, Cho (1999) suggested that individuals do process peripherally while on the Internet. Furthermore, he postulated a modified elaboration likelihood model that takes into account the interactivity of the Internet. Particularly, his model suggests that if one does not have the ability or motivation to process an online ad, they will likely process the message peripherally. However, during the peripheral processing, the individual is not entirely passive.

Rather, the user interactivity is driven by cues. Particularly, if the ad has favorable cues that can maintain the curiosity of the individual, the ad may persuade the individual to interact with the banner. Such interaction will lead to a peripheral attitude change based on cues, which is not as resilient as a central attitude change. Nevertheless, perhaps an attitude shaped online utilizing cues is more resilient than a peripheral attitude change in a non-interactive environment because it is to some extent more active.

Cho’s study looked at several variables influencing banner ad click-through. Similar with the Elaboration Likelihood Model and Cho’s modified Elaboration Likelihood Model proposal, higher levels of involvement with the product forecasted higher click-through intentions when compared to those reporting less product involvement. However, when participants were less involved with the product and a cue was present like a larger banner ad or animation, lower involvement forecasted higher click-through intention than if the cue was not present.

Cho’s study testing Elaboration Likelihood Model online also sustained many of the findings previously reviewed – relevance of website content and attitude about website. Specifically, when the banner ad was relevant to the site’s content individuals were more likely to respond. Cho also found that participants’ attitude toward the website in which the banner was placed affected whether or not individuals will click-through. Cho continued his research regarding online persuasion focusing on the effect of peripheral cues.

Defining cues as banner ad size and animation, he sought to determine if the cues relationship with low involvement participants would be stronger than with high involvement participants. Utilizing 751 participants recruited from ListServ, Cho sent an actual movie review website with real banner ads randomly selected from top search engines and manipulated to adjust size and add animation. Controlling for any previous exposure to the featured advertisements in the real world, Cho found that larger versus smaller banner ads and animated versus static banner ads were clicked-through more often in low involvement conditions.

The differences were significant; the difference in the click-through rate between the banner size and animation was not significant in the high involvement condition. In the same way, Li and Bukovac (1999) determined banner size and animation affected banner ad click-through. However, their study also considered the user’s goal (information seeking and web-surfing) while online as a potential moderator of the participants’ click-through rate.

The researcher created four versions of a Levi’s ad, a brand that evoked moderately interested feelings during a pretest. Besides the manipulation of banner size and animation, all ad elements were identical. The participants in the information-seeking mode were instructed to search for something specific online while those in the web-surfing mode were asked to surf the web as they normally would. The target banner as was positioned on the home page of the test computers. Li and Bukovac found a noteworthy relationship between user mode and banner size.

Furthermore, the effect was about 23% greater for those in the web surfing condition versus the information seeking condition. Cho (1999 & 2003) as well as Li and Bukovac (1999) have contributed substantially to the literature and understanding of how the Elaboration Likelihood Model applies to the online advertising context. This will boost the case for Elaboration Likelihood Model’s application to the Internet. Petty, Cacioppo and Schumann (1983) conducted the first study applying Elaboration Likelihood Model to advertising.

This study manipulated involvement by instructing participants that the product advertised was either going to be released in a close immediacy and in the near future or vice versa. Arguments were either supported by scientific fact or anecdotal. The peripheral cue was the message source and was celebrity athletes. To that end, the peripheral cue tested was related to content not execution. In comparison, the online Elaboration Likelihood Model studies utilize execution (banner size, animation) versus content (message source) to manipulate the peripheral cue.

In my opinion, though the executional elements are important factors to consider when designing an advertising campaign, banner size and animation may capture attention more than stimulating meaningful interest suggesting that banner ads processed peripherally have little hope of affecting attitude. What is more, after such tactics to get users’ attention as banner size and animation wear out, consumers may begin to look for more substantial content when deciding to take the time to click-through a banner.

Hence, future studies are needed to apply Elaboration Likelihood Model cue operationalization to the online advertising context to further confirm the appropriateness of Elaboration Likelihood Model for the Internet. References Cho, C. (1999). How advertising works on the WWW: Modified elaboration likelihood model. Journal of Current Issues and Research in Advertising, 21, 33-50. Cho, C. (2003, April). Factors Influencing Clicking of Banner Ads on the WWW. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 6(2), 201-215. Retrieved December 8, 2008, doi:10. 089/109493103321640400 Cho, C. (2003). The effectiveness of banner advertisements: Involvement and click-through. Journalism and Mass Communication Quarterly, 80(3), 623-645. Gallagher, K. , Foster, K. D. & Parsons, J. (2001). A tale of two studies: Replicating Advertising effectiveness and content evaluation in print and on the web. Journal of Advertising Research, 41, 71-82. Karson, E. , & Korgaonkar, P. (2001, Fall2001). An Experimental Investigation of Internet Advertising and the Elaboration Likelihood Model.

Journal of Current Issues & Research in Advertising, 23(2), 53. Retrieved December 8, 2008, from Communication & Mass Media Complete database. Li, H. & Bukovac, J. L. (1999). Cognitive impact of banner ad characteristics: An experimental study. Journalism and Mass Communication Quarterly, 76(2), 341-353. Pacheco, E. (2008, February 25). Interactive Advertising Revenues to Reach US$147 Billion Globally by 2012, According to The Kelsey Group’s Annual Forecast. Retrieved December 02, 2008, from The Kelsey Group Web site: http://www. kelseygroup. om/press/pr080225. asp Petty, R. E. , Cacioppo, J. T. & Schumann, D. (1983). Central and peripheral routes to advertising processing: The moderating role of involvement. Journal of Consumer Research, 10,135-146. Petty, R. E. , & Cacioppo, J. T. (1986). Communication and persuasion: Central and peripheral routes to attitude change. New York: Springer-Verlag. Petty, R. E. , & Cacioppo, J. T. (1996). Attitudes and persuasion: Classic and contemporary approaches. Boulder, Colo: Westview Press. Petty, R. E. , & Wegener, D. T. (1999).

The elaboration likelihood model: Current status and controversies. In S. Chaiken & Y. Trope (Eds. ), Dual-process theories in social psychology (pp. 41-72). New York: Guilford Press. Shamdasani, P. N. , Stanaland, A. J. S. & Tan, J. (2001). Location, location, location: Insights for advertising placement on the web. Journal of Advertising Research, 21, 7-21. Xavier, D. & Zufryden, F. (1998). Is Internet ready for prime time? [Electronic Version]. Journal of Advertising Research, 38, 7-19. Retrieved December 04, 2008, from Infotrac database.

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Read about influence of advertising on children

Advertising affects children and commercials influence children which can be seen in their constant demands for products advertised on television. There can be many negative effects of advertising on children if parents are not careful. Although advertisements help us to become aware of the products in the market, they have their negative effects also. Children today are exposed to all types of advertisements on the various media like the television, print media and internet as well. In fact, everyone is bombarded by advertisements everywhere nowadays.

Children in general are more susceptible and get easily influenced by advertisements. Children are Defenseless Children are innocent and not so mature. When a marketer advertises a product on television, they do not understand that it is a business and their main aim is to sell. They do not understand that advertisers try to push their products and market in such a way that children want to buy it. Children take everything at face value and believe without a doubt the messages in the advertisements. Advertisements are made in such a way as to attract the attention of children. Children do not understand it to be marketing strategy.

Children are an extremely vulnerable target audience and get easily carried away. Junk Food Advertising and Children Research has shown that Junk food advertisements influence children greatly leading to an increased demand for Junk food by children. When children watch young adults in good shape eating Junk foods in the advertisements they assume that it is good for the health. They do not know that Junk food is not good for health. They are unaware of the fact that Junk food does not contain nutritional value. They may even think that by eating these Junk foods they might become like the thin and fit models in the advertisements.

A research conducted has shown that children increased their consumption of Junk foods after seeing these advertisements. They are seen to be so influenced by these ads that they almost doubled their consumption of these unhealthy snacks and foods. In a study conducted they exposed children to candy commercials. It was seen that those children who were exposed to the candy commercials were highly influenced. In fact, these children chose candy over fruits as snacks. They preferred candy rather than a healthy food like fruits. When the commercials were eliminated and the children watched them less it had a positive effect.

It encouraged them to pick the fruits over the candy. Recent statistics show that obesity of children under the age of five is increasing at a high rate. Childhood obesity is on the rise and one of the main reasons for this has been seen as excessive consumption of fast foods and Junk foods. Not surprisingly, it has been seen that childhood diabetes is also on the rise. Resulting in the Nag Factor Children may pester their parents for the products advertised. They may insist on a particular pair of branded Jeans only and be against the other brands of clothing in the store. They may also insist on living a life as portrayed in advertisements.

Children may make excessive demands on their parents for the products they see in the advertisements. At times, they cry, pinch, pull and will not keep quiet till the parents purchase the product. Some parents who cannot control their children may give in to the tantrums of children left with no choice. When children see these advertisements it gives a wrong impression on their young minds and they start giving a lot of importance to materialistic Joys. What Parents Can Do? Nowadays, with so much openness and exposure in media and commercials parents re often worried about what all their children are watching.

It has been noticed that children are often able to remember messages targeted towards adults also. Kids remember the content in advertisements aimed at adults. A few countries have banned marketing and advertising targeted at children below the age of twelve. One country has banned advertising of toys before 10 p. M. As it is at this time that children are mostly awake. Previously advertisers marketed children’s products towards parents. Parents were their target audience for these products. But nowadays, marketers aim their messages directly at children.

Advertisements are made specifically in such a way that they draw the attention of children. The marketing messages are aimed directly at the children. Parents should teach their children of how to be critical of ads and how to become less influenced by the messages in the ads. Parents need to teach their children the importance and value of money. The advertising industry spends $12 billion per year on ads targeted to children, bombarding young audiences with persuasive messages through media such as television and the Internet. The average child is exposed to more than 40,000 TV immemorial a year, according to studies.

And ads are reaching children through new media technologies and even in schools–with corporate-sponsored educational materials and product placements in students’ textbooks. But the buck stops here, if PAP and its Task Force on Advertising and Children have it their way. In February, Papa’s Council of Representatives adopted the task force’s policy and research recommendations to help counter the potential harmful effects of advertising on children, particularly children ages 8 and younger who lack the cognitive ability to recognize advertising’s persuasive intent.

With this latest move, PAP Joins the American Academy of Pediatrics, the Kaiser Family Foundation and several other organizations that have recently suggested similar policies. And, PAP has been making strides in getting some of the task force’s recommendations put into action. Among its recommendations, the task force calls for advocacy efforts for legislation to restrict advertising targeted to children 8 years old and younger and for conducting more research showing the influence advertising has on young children (see sidebar for the full list of recommendations).

So far, Papa’s Public Policy office has met with embers of Congress, the Federal Trade Commission and the Federal Communications Commission to address advertising’s effects on children. PAP also plans to co-sponsor a briefing in Washington, D. C. , this month with Children Now and the American Academy of Pediatrics about child-oriented ads delivered through digital media and multicasting technologies.

The task force report, with its empirically based recommendations, is helping to guide such advocacy efforts and to do the same for research–both major goals, says PAP Board of Directors member Barry Anton, PhD, who is also a member of Papa’s Council of Representatives. We can use it to advocate to state legislators, organizations and foundations, and we can use the task force report as a way to request funding for research,” says Anton, who chaired a subsequent task force on children and adolescents.

Ultimately, such efforts aim to spotlight the question of fairness in child-directed advertising, says Dale Sunken, PhD, senior author of the task force’s report and professor of communication at the University of California, Santa Barbara. “Is it fair to allow advertising to an audience that is too young to recognize commercial messages are biased and have a persuasive intent? Advertising effects Certainly the messages’ power of persuasion is compelling, the task force found. Studies cited in the report have shown that after Just one exposure to a commercial, children can recall the ad’s content and have a desire for the product.

Some messages may influence children’s behavior too, says Brian Wilcox, PhD, chair of the task force, which formed in 2000 to conduct an extensive literature review of advertising’s effects on children. For example, research has shown that child-directed ads for healthy foods can lose their effectiveness when children view ads for snack foods in the same sitting. Indeed, some researchers speculate that advertising geared to children–which largely consists of ads for sugary cereals, candy and fast- food restaurants–may be contributing to the increase in childhood obesity by promoting unhealthy foods.

Plus, studies suggest that eating habits formed during childhood can persist throughout life, according to the report. Also of concern is the “appropriation” in children’s media consumption, with a growing number of young children using the Internet and watching televisions in their bedrooms, where no one is present to explain what they are viewing or reading, according to the report. That ace of adult interpretation is a concern because young children tend to accept ads as fair, accurate, balanced and truthful, Sunken says. “They don’t see the exaggeration or the bias that underlies the claims,” he says. To young children, advertising is Just as credible as Dan Rather reading the evening news is to an adult. ” For children to critically process ads, they must be able to discriminate between commercial and noncommercial content and identify advertising’s persuasive intent, the report notes. Particularly alarming to the task force is that commercials also often use psychological research to make their messages more powerful. For example, they draw from developmental psychology principles to build campaigns that persuade children they need a product and to nag their parents to buy it.

In addition, advertisers often use characters and celebrities–such as from shows like “Sponge Squarest” or “Blues Clues”–or premium gimmicks to reel in children. Increasing efforts Psychologists can help parents and their children get wise to such advertiser strategies–particularly in the schools, says task force member Edward Palmer, PhD, who has been studying advertising’s effects on children for the past 30 years. In fact, even as schools themselves have become a venue for advertisers, little research has explored whether school-based ads distract students from learning or intensify pressure on them to buy, he adds. Psychologists are also needed to help educate educators about this problem,” says Palmer, a professor of psychology at Davidson College in Davidson, N. C. For example, he says, psychologists can create media literacy interventions to help children understand the persuasive intent of ads. “l hope psychologists mount a public-information campaign so that the various takeovers understand these issues–especially parents, teachers and legislators,” adds task force member Joanne Cantor, PhD, professor emeriti at the University of Wisconsin-Madison.

Advertising has changed tremendously in the past few decades as it has increasingly turned to younger audiences, Wilcox notes, such as using the Internet to reach children in subtle ways like through the games they play. “The user is sometimes not even aware of the marketing effort and advertising undertaking,” Wilcox says. “Advertisers and marketers are very sophisticated in using advertising to reach children. However, virtually no research exists on the use of Internet interactivity to reach children, he says.

He notes that a growing number of parents support psychology’s involvement in filling that gap–in exploring the effects of such ads and curbing them. “When I talk to parents they are quite concerned about advertising’s effects on their children, says Wilcox, professor of psychology and director of the Center on Children, Families and the Law at the University of Nebraska. “They have to live with children making unreasonable purchasing requests from the advertisements they see–toys they want, food that is not good for them.

This can be difficult for parents to manage. ” Child psychologist Allen D. Canner, PhD, who consulted with the task force and played a part in its formation, agrees. Canner says he has noticed more of his young clients interested in money and asking parents for products they see advertised. “The materialistic shift happening in our society is having an enormous impact and major influence on children’s lives that is highly psychological in nature,” Canner says. “It needs to be a focus of our profession right now. Advertising is hardly a recent human endeavor; archaeologists have uncovered signs advertising property for rent dating back to ancient Rome and Pompeii. Town criers were another early form of advertising. As an industry, advertising did not take off until the arrival of the various mass media: printing, radio, and television. Nevertheless, concerns over advertising targeting children preceded both radio and television. The British Parliament passed legislation in 1874 intended to protect children from the efforts of merchants to induce them to buy products and assume debt.

Commercial appeals to children, however, did not become commonplace until he advent and widespread adoption of television and grew exponentially with the advent of cable television, which allowed programmers to develop entire channels of child-oriented programming and advertising. Opportunities to advertise to children further expanded with the explosive growth of the Internet, and thousands of child- oriented Web sites with advertising content have appeared in the past few years. Compounding the growth in channels for advertising targeting children has been another development: the appropriation of children’s media use.

A recent study found that a majority of all U. S. Hillier have televisions in their bedrooms. Many children also have unsupervised access to computers, meaning that much of the media (and advertising) content that children view is in contexts absent parental monitoring and supervision. These two trends-?the growth in advertising channels reaching children and the appropriation of children’s media use-?have resulted in a dramatic increase in advertising directly intended for the eyes and ears of children.

It is estimated that advertisers spend more than $12 billion per year to reach the youth market and that children view more than 40,000 commercials each year. These figures represent dramatic increases over those from the sass. The Task Force on Advertising and Children, responding to its charge, began by reviewing research on the impact of advertising on children, 2 with particular attention given both to the implications of children’s cognitive development for understanding the potential effects of exposure to advertising and to specific harms that might result from exposure to advertising.

There is a substantial body of scientific evidence addressing all of these basic issues. In contrast, concerns about advertising that have emerged as a result of new and hanging technological capabilities, such as interactive forms of advertising and commercial Web sites targeting children, have yet to attract almost any empirical study. Consequently, our research review and conclusions are largely confined to more traditional advertising approaches, although we identify the issues in need of further research investigation within our final recommendations.

The task force reviewed research addressing two important types of questions regarding the effects of advertising on children. First, does advertising affect children’s commercial recall and product preferences? If not, the $12 billion spent annually by advertisers in commercial appeals to children would represent a surprisingly poor investment. Second, does exposure to advertising result in consumption of products that are inimical to the health and well-being of children? For example, does advertising play a role in the overcompensation of candy and sugared cereals or in underage drinking of alcoholic beverages?

Research on children’s commercial recall and product preferences confirms that advertising typically achieves its intended effects. A variety of studies using differing theologies find that children recall content from the ads to which they’ve been exposed. Product preference has been shown to occur with as little as a single commercial exposure and to strengthen with repeated exposures. Most importantly, studies have shown that product preferences affect children’s product purchase requests and that these requests do influence parents’ purchasing decisions.

The more fundamental concern regarding the effects of advertising on children relates to questions of potential harm resulting from exposure. A variety of research findings are relevant to this issue. Several studies, for example, have found that parent-child conflicts occur commonly when parents deny their children’s product purchase requests that were precipitated by advertising. Considerable research has examined advertising’s cumulative effect on children’s eating habits.

Studies have documented that a high percentage of advertisements targeting children feature candy, fast foods, and snacks and that exposure to such advertising increases consumption of these products. While consumption of nutritious foods per SE may not be harmful, overcompensation of these products, particularly to the exclusion of healthier food, is inked to obesity and poorer health. Several studies have found strong associations between increases in advertising for nutritious foods and rates of childhood obesity.

A variety of studies have found a substantial relationship between children’s viewing of tobacco and alcohol ads and positive attitudes toward consumption of such products. Children find many such commercials attractive (e. G. , Joe Camel, the Budweiser frogs) and consequently have high brand awareness of such products and positive attitudes toward them. These products and their spokes-characters have men found to be featured in programming and publications frequently viewed by minors, and reviews of this research (including the Surgeon General’s analysis) conclude that advertising of them contributes to youth smoking and drinking.

Critics have also expressed concern regarding the prevalence of advertising of violent media, such as movies and video games, targeting children. Three reports by the Federal Trade Commission found considerable support for such charges, and while studies have not directly assessed the impact of such advertising, it is highly likely that such ads do affect children’s media preferences.

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The role of advertising in internet marketing

1. Introduction and Background

The years succeeding the dotcom crisis have been distinguished by a phenomenal enhancement in the global spread and utilisation of the internet. Aided by an amazing expansion in the World Wide Web, the Internet revolution has swiftly and extensively changed the strategic orientation and development of major as well as minor business firms in both the industrialised and the developing economies.

The remarkable accomplishments of online businesses like, EBay and illustrate the rising import of this business conduit. Augmentation in the management of the Internet, sharp technological advances, and greater progression in Internet marketing methods and skills are steadily overcoming commonly held reservations about online misuse of data and credit cards. The spread of broadband and wireless technology has also been instrumental in greater use of the online medium for commercial transactions, for purposes and buying and selling, in the advanced nations. The increasing proliferation of PCs and laptops, along with progressively simpler user technology, is leading to the emergence of new segments, especially among women and older individuals, who are able to surf through millions of choices and take pleasure in the comfort and ease of home shopping. Internet retail sales in the advanced countries have shot up sharply during the course of this decade.

Whilst companies like and EBay and led the way in Internet marketing, the online world is now seeing the market jostling with hundreds of thousands of diverse companies who are exploiting the power of the net to convey their messages and market their goods in far and near locations.

The Internet is one of the most important marketplaces of modern day business; with online managers busy optimising their marketing mix, creating niches, generating brand value and satisfying online customers. Marketing stratagems have rapidly become extremely intricate and multifaceted, experts using their online presence with a planned mix of acuity, flair and sharp technical expertise to attract visitors and draw them into trying and purchasing products. (Harris & Dennis, 2002)

Introducing innumerable avenues of opportunity and nurturing competition, the online space continues to be affected by far reaching change in the ways and means adopted by managers to market their products and services.

The enormous clutter evidenced in the marketing space calls for the adoption of carefully thought out advertising strategies for successful online marketing. With there being a wide variety of options for online marketers to convey their messages to their target market, the choice of appropriate online advertising strategy will undoubtedly play a major role in optimising the marketing mix and ensuring marketing success.

2. Aims and Objectives

The Aims and Objectives of the research proposal are set out as under:

Aim: To investigate the effectiveness of advertising in online marketing.


1.      To investigate the role of advertising in online marketing.

2.      To investigate the benefits and shortcomings of various advertising options available on the Internet.

3.      To ascertain the method for designing a suitable Internet advertising plan.

3. Literature Review

a. Online Advertising and its Role in Marketing Strategy

Reaching the website advertising message to current and potential customers through effective online advertising techniques is considered to be one of the most important tasks of online marketing (Harris & Dennis, 2003).

The adopted online marketing strategy should enable the organisation to target its market in a measurable and definitive manner and position the business in such a way that people looking for its services can find them easily (Steinbock, 2000)

It also needs to be understood at this stage that whilst it is not difficult for companies to drive existing customers to websites through a mix of targeted emails, direct mailers and telemarketing, the task becomes far more challenging when businesses wish to draw the attention of new clients to their web messages (Harris & Dennis, 2003).

b. Online Advertising Strategy

It is important to stress, whilst initiating a discussion on online advertising to note that  whereas internet marketing is usually associated with cheap costs and good Return on Investment (ROI), inappropriate advertising decisions can lead to low site hits, meagre business, and, (apart from disenchantment with the marketing channel), underutilisation of time, effort and money (Harris & Dennis, 2003).

Internet advertising starts with proper service definition, it being widely accepted that (a) absence of clarity in definition of service and in detailing of specific benefits provided to clients, or (b) fuzziness about the target market can well undo brilliant design and dazzling graphics (Collins, 2000). The contents of a website, especially with regard to testimonials and other indicators of service expertise, play a major role in attracting prospective clients (Collins, 2000).

Whilst much of internet marketing focuses on the most appropriate way of conveying organisational marketing messages to its target market, the final effectiveness of internet marketing strategy, especially its success in converting hits on websites to actual enquiries and sales, also depends significantly upon the content, design, and user friendliness of organisational websites (Collins, 2000). Apart from such fundamental objectives, websites need to be expertly prepared to facilitate client-organisation interaction and encourage discussion and idea exchange (Collins, 2000).

With organisational websites acting both as carriers of advertising/information messages and as facilitators of  interaction between clients and service providers, online advertising works at delivering web advertising messages to vast numbers of potential customers through two distinct channels; search engine optimisation and paid advertising (Harris & Dennis, 2003).

c. Search Engine Optimisation

Search engines, because of their critical role in taking internet searchers to their desired information destinations on the World Wide Web, play a pivotal role in formulation of online advertising strategy and have become integral to the marketing mix. .

Optimum effectiveness of search engine usage is achieved through the adoption of search engine optimisation (SEO) techniques, an assortment of complex and ever changing methods that deal with (a) determination of nature of search for the product or service (generic, brand, service, or locality), (b) usage of relevant keywords in the website text, (c) site commands and (d) basic site content (Plummer & Others, 2007). With search engines like Google, Yahoo and MSN using robot like crawlers/spiders to locate web pages, (via algorithmic processes), effective SEO techniques enable organisations to climb up the hierarchy of listings in these engines and attract user attention (Plummer & Others, 2007).

The core configuration of the website needs to be worked upon by companies at the time of website design to optimise search engine compatibility and minimise costs of website reconstruction, which could otherwise occur later. Adding to the complexity of search engine optimisation is the constant change and evolution in the usage of algorithms by search engines (Janoschka, 2004). With many search engines now incorporating an array of factors, both hidden and disclosed, to protect against overly aggressive and unethical link manipulation, (Google, for example, supposedly ranks sites through approximately 200 different indicators (Plummer & Others, 2007), search engine optimisation is becoming an increasingly demanding task and the company should contract this job to an experienced and competent SEO company.

Online advertising strategies require businesses to register their websites with chosen directories and search engines (Plummer & Others, 2007). Despite some experts recommending the comprehensive optimisation of a site before its submission for registration, it is also widely accepted that search engine optimisation tends to be an ongoing process and is difficult to achieve in one attempt (Plummer & Others, 2007).

Directory registration, which needs to occur before registering of websites with search engines, comprises of two steps, the choosing of directories most likely to drive site traffic, and the subsequent registration of the website with such directories. This is a simple task that can be done by the firm on its own or through various companies that offer such services (Plummer & Others, 2007).

Despite there being an extensive choice of available directories, some of them (like Yahoo! Directory, Alexa Directory,, ODP and AOL Search) are more likely to drive website business than others. Registration of directories needs to be followed by search engine registration. The table provided below gives information about the traffic achieved by the major search engines in 2008. (Pollock, 2008)

Search Engine
Millions of Viewers
Double Click

Apart from registering of websites with important search engines, it is important to draw the attention of the advertising message of the company to the notice of users, as and when they search for their requirements. Such objectives are facilitated through two channels, namely (a) the use of links and (b) paid advertising.

Site designers drive online traffic towards their websites through usage of links from other sites with associated or complementary content and/or offerings (Harris & Dennis, 2002). Organising these links (at the time of website design) is important for the company because they can (a) draw the attention of people who visit such sites, (b) play an important role in creating awareness and (c) increase the chances of site traffic. The fact that these links are viewed by people who visit sites with similar or allied products or services, and consequently have greater seriousness of intent than casual visitors, also increases the chances of conversion.

d. Paid Online Advertising

Online advertising strategies need to account for the fact that (a) search engine rankings, (by and large), tend to move up slowly and that (b) link led response is finally dependent upon the popularity and traffic of other websites.

Paid online advertising options provide businesses with the means to achieve prominence in different search engines without having to wait for the results of search engine optimisation. Advertising tools like Cost per Click options provide search engine exposure against word combinations through a process of bidding against other companies, (which again are interested in the same word combinations for positions on the search engine) (Dholakia & Others, 2002).

In CPC, also known as Pay per Click, advertising, businesses pay to be placed under appropriate listings in a chosen category, their position on the list being determined through competitive payment bids for each actual click on listings that are linked to their organisational websites (Dholakia & Others, 2002). In Google Adwords, for instance, this takes place on the right hand side of Google pages.

Making optimum use of Google Adwords is a complex process and needs to be handled with care; with attention being provided to extant Google rules and practices (Plummer & Others, 2007). Although the selection of search engine/s for pay per click advertising could depend upon local preferences, the overwhelming lead of Google over its competitors (see table on page 2) makes the choice simple. Again whilst Yahoo offers the same sort of pay per click advertising options, preferring to call such entries as sponsored listings, its viewership is far lesser than that of Google.

CPC advertising is becoming increasingly popular and more expensive and whilst it offers a sure route to get noticed in the enormous clutter that exists on the web, clicks need not necessarily translate into customer queries (Dholakia & Others, 2002). Clicks are free in the hands of searchers and could take place out of misinformation or lack of understanding (Powell, 2003). Such listings could even become financial liabilities if clicked indiscriminately by pranksters or competitors. Inward traffic thus needs to be analysed regularly through the use of web metrics. Known also as site statistics, usage of metrics helps in analysing customer behaviour by providing information on the origin of visitors, usage of keywords, navigation processes, click paths from a page, most popular links, and conversions, thus allowing companies to fine-tune their web offerings, modify their CPC strategy and improve the effectiveness of online advertising (Dholakia & Others, 2002).

Apart from using search engine listings, web advertisers place ads of various kinds, e.g. floating, pop-ups, and the like in popular websites (like those of news channels) to attract eyeballs. Such options are however more suited for products and services aimed at large population segments (e.g. automobiles or insurance) and would be too expensive for small companies with geographically restricted operations.

Lastly, the creation of an e-mailing list of existing clients and its use to drive referrals to the website through promotional and gift/reward schemes could be immensely helpful, and lead to cascading enquiries from local residents. Site visitors are for this purpose encouraged to join mailing lists with offers of something of value (e-zines/ audio downloads) related to the offered service.

4. Research Design

The finalisation of research methodology and design depends primarily upon the nature of the research project, and its aims and objectives. With research methodologies, by and large, being either quantitative or qualitative in nature, the subject and character of the research assignment plays a major role in design of research procedure (Darlington & Scott, 2002).

Quantitative methods are commonly adopted when the research assignment involves the objective investigation of behaviours of large populations in order to arrive at generalisable statements (Darlington & Scott, 2002). They involve the utilisation of structured questionnaires, large numbers of surveyors, and the use of sophisticated sampling techniques (Darlington & Scott, 2002). Researchers are expected to be neutral and impartial observers who are uninvolved in the subject under study (Darlington & Scott, 2002).

Qualitative methods on the other hand are used when topics of research have an element of subjectivity that can not be met through the utilisation of purely objective quantitative techniques (Darlington & Scott, 2002). Used for assignments that need answers to questions that involve “what”, “how” and “why” elements, quantitative techniques use 121 and focus group interviews, which are often extensive and involve open ended and close ended questions (Darlington & Scott, 2002). Researchers, especially interviewers, need to be skilled in their task for the success of qualitative methods (Darlington & Scott, 2002).

The research topic dealing with an issue that is more suitable for subjective and interpretive research, it is proposed to adopt the qualitative method of research for conducting the research assignment.

Apart from deciding upon the basic methodology, research design involves decisions regarding sources of information. Information for the purposes of research involves primary and secondary data, primary data relating to data collected directly from organisations or individuals through information provided through organisational websites, reliable media interviews or through conducted surveys and interviews, and secondary data referring to the information related to the subject under discussion in the public domain (Darlington & Scott, 2002).

 It is proposed, for the purpose of this research study, to access both primary and secondary data. Taking up the issue of secondary data, the attached bibliography contains details of information sources already collected for the purpose of this proposal. It is proposed to access as much relevant information possible both in hard and electronic form. With online advertising being topical in nature, substantial information is available on the subject from various paid and free internet sources and it is proposed to make best use of the same.

Apart from detailed study of secondary sources, it is also proposed to study the websites of at least three organisations in different industries to ascertain their advertising strategy and conduct detailed structured 121 interviews with two experienced marketing professionals to obtain their inputs on Internet advertising.

Information obtained from secondary sources, which will form part of the literature review, will then be analysed and validated with collected primary information to arrive at the final findings and conclusions of the study.

5. Timeline

The schedule for completion of the study is provided below.

Details of Activity
1st Month
2nd Month
3rd Month
4th Month
5th Month
6th Month
Sourcing of Secondary Information Sources for Lit Review

Accessing data from Secondary Information Sources

Analysis of Secondary Information and preparation of Literature Review


Obtaining Material from Websites


Construction of Interview Questions


Fixing Interview Appointments


Conducting Interviews


Analysis of data obtained from websites and interviews


Preparation of Study


Revision and Submission


6. Resource Utilisation

The resources needed for the successful conduct of the dissertation are by and large manageable. With the subject being widely written about it will not be difficult to obtain enough secondary information on the subject. The websites proposed to be studied for purposes of analysing advertising strategy have already been identified. A certain amount of time may be needed for locating suitable respondents for the interviews and in taking appointments, considering the ongoing economic crisis, but the researcher is confident of arranging for them. The availability of suitable authorisation from the institution will help in this purpose.

The assignment should take six months to complete and whilst finances are not expected to be a constraining factor, finances may be needed for short time subscriptions to a few good online libraries and databases.

7. Ethical Considerations

It is proposed to follow the ethical requirements of the sponsoring institution in letter and spirit.

The researcher has zero tolerance towards plagiarism and all sources used will be acknowledged appropriately.

Interviewees will be informed in detail about the purposes of research, and their permission for the interview obtained in writing.

Confidentiality of interviewee identity will be maintained, if requested.


Collin, S. (2000). E-Marketing, New York: Wiley

Darlington, Y., & Scott, D., 2002, Qualitative Research in Practice : Stories from the Field /. Crows Nest, N.S.W.: Allen & Unwin.

Dholakia, N., Fritz, W., Dholakia, R. R., & Mundorf, N, (2002). Global E-Commerce and Online Marketing:  Watching the Evolution. Westport, CT: Quorum Books

Harris, L., & Dennis, C. (2002), Marketing the E-Business. London: Routledge

Koch, T. (1996), The Message Is the Medium: Online All the Time for Everyone. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers

Plummer, J.T, Plummer, J, Rappaport, S, Hall, T and Barocci, R, (2007), The Online Advertising Playbook: Proven Strategies and Tested Tactics from the Advertising Research Foundation, John Wiley and Sons


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Create the first part of the advertising portion of the Marketing Communications Plan using the business

Create the first part of the advertising portion of the Marketing Communications Plan using the business.

Media Strategy and Advertising

Review the readings and lectures for this week.

Create the first part of the advertising portion of the Marketing Communications Plan using the business and information presented in the case study. Meet the following requirements:

In 750-1250 words, explain the creative media strategy that will be used for the plan for television, direct marketing, magazine, newspaper, and/or other media discussed this week. Choose at least two media. Provide a rough sketch, blueprint (use ClipArt), or detailed explanation of the premise of the ads. (pdf files will be accepted) Using feedback, update and make changes to the previous section of the plan. Adhere to the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, (6th ed., 2nd printing) when writing and submitting assignments and papers.

The requirements below must be met for your paper to be accepted and graded:

Use font size 12 and 1” margins. Include cover page and reference page. At least 80% of your paper must be original content/writing. No more than 20% of your content/information may come from references. Use at least three references from outside the course material, one reference must be from EBSCOhost. Text book, lectures, and other materials in the course may be used, but are not counted toward the three reference requirement. Cite all reference material (data, dates, graphs, quotes, paraphrased words, values, etc.) in the paper and list on a reference page in APA style. References must come from sources such as, scholarly journals found in EBSCOhost, CNN, online newspapers such as, The Wall Street Journal, government websites, etc. Sources such as, Wikis, Yahoo Answers, eHow, blogs, etc. are not acceptable for academic writing.

A detailed explanation of how to cite a source using APA can be found here (link).

Download an example here


PACT: Positioning Advertising Copy Testing. (1982). Journal of Advertising, 11(4), 3-29. (HERE) Ewing, M. T. (2013). The good news about television: Attitudes aren’t getting worse: Tracking public attitudes toward TV advertising. Journal of Advertising Research, 53(1), 83-89. doi:10.2501/JAR-53-1-083-089 (HERE) Romaniuk, J. (2012). Lifting the productivity of TV advertising. Journal of Advertising Research, 52(2), 146-148. doi:10.2501/JAR-52-2-146-148 (HERE) Nyilasy, G., Whitehall King, K., & Reid, L. N. (2011). Checking the pulse of print media. Journal of Advertising Research, 51,167-175. (HERE) Miller, R. K., & Washington, K. (2013). PART V: PRINT MEDIA: 21. NEWSPAPERS. Entertainment, Media & Advertising Market Research Handbook, (13), 135-139. (HERE) Baek, T., & Morimoto, M. (2012). Stay away from me. Journal of Advertising, 41(1), 59-76. (HERE) Dominiak, M. (2007). Creating Powerful Media Ideas. Television Week, 26(20), 14. (HERE) Dominiak, M. (2008). The Right Moment for the Message. Television Week, 27(18), 10. (HERE) Dominiak, M. (2005). Map Behavior for Brand Messaging. Television Week, 24(17), 65-66. (HERE) Dominiak, M. (2008). Don’t Just Go With the Flow Chart. Television Week, 27(30), 32. (HERE) Dominiak, M. (2007, November 26). Break Out of Conventional Approach. Television Week. p. 12. (HERE) Dominiak, M. (2007). When Good Plans Go Wrong. Television Week, 26(14), 14. (HERE) Dominiak, M. (2006). Mixed Messages Hurt Your Brand. Television Week, 25(41), 34. (HERE) Grading Criteria Assignments Maximum Points Meets or exceeds established assignment criteria 40 Demonstrates an understanding of lesson concepts 20 Clearly presents well-reasoned ideas and concepts 30 Uses proper mechanics, punctuation, sentence structure, spelling, and APA style 10 Total 100

Create the first part of the advertising portion of the Marketing Communications Plan using the business

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Define ‘Corporate Advertising and briefly explain the reasons why organizations use this strategy in most of their communication campaigns?

Define ‘Corporate Advertising and briefly explain the reasons why organizations use this strategy in most of their communication campaigns?.

Define ‘Corporate Advertising’ and briefly explain the reasons why organizations use
this strategy in most of their communication campaigns?

Question 1
Briefly explain the FOUR (4) basic characteristics of a crisis. (10 marks)

Question 2
What are the TEN (10) truths about skeptical employees and suggest FIVE (5) ways
on how organizations can succeed with them? (15 marks)
Question 3
Define ‘Corporate Advertising’ and briefly explain the reasons why organizations use
this strategy in most of their communication campaigns? (15 marks)
Section B – Essays (Total: 60 marks)
Answer any TWO (2) out of three questions. Each question is worth 30 marks. You
are advised to spend 1.5 hours in this section.
Question 1
Corporate Identity management is very crucial for many corporate organisations.
Explain and discuss the SIX (6) methods which have been successfully used by
many corporate organisations to manage the identity process. Provide relevant
examples. (30 marks)

Question 2
Organisations must take the time to build better relationships with members of the
media. This task is usually handled by the company’s media relations department.
Explain thoroughly on how an effective internal communication program should be
implemented. (30 marks)
Question 3
An effective internal communication program is required to understand that the
internal audience could be even more important to a company than the external for
all the right business reasons. Explain and discuss the steps to implement an
effective internal communication program. (30 marks)

Define ‘Corporate Advertising and briefly explain the reasons why organizations use this strategy in most of their communication campaigns?

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Sexist stereotypes and biases associated with the female nursing model in advertising communication.

Sexist stereotypes and biases associated with the female nursing model in advertising communication..

Nursing Professional Essay

The professional image of nurses is critically important for seeking respect and attracting literate personnel towards the field. Nursing is a complex and multifaceted profession. It is not easy to broadcast its intricacies in a cursory manner such as TV. Stereotypes often arise of mystery. Negative stereotyping can adversely impact the nursing profession. It can result in regulatory changes, healthcare cutbacks, and nursing shortages. It damages the public imagery of the profession of nursing because portrayals shape public attitudes and actions. Such incomplete and inaccurate depictions of the profession can overshadow the real skills that nurses possessed.

Efforts must be made to address the adverse impacts of these negative stereotypes. First of all, the mindset must be changed. Nurses have a range of imagery in the minds of the patients, i.e., from a merciful angle to a sexual stereotype from a work of fiction (Calvo, 2014). The Center for Nursing Advocacy was founded in 2001. It focuses on improving the portrayal of nurses in the media. Additionally, the face of nursing plays an important role in developing its image in public. Nursing has an overwhelmingly female face. Therefore, attracting more men towards the profession is currently difficult. It can be resolved by running campaigns and targeted recruitments (Johnson and Johnson Nursing Campaign). Male nurses will become mentors and role models for others. Thus, more and more men will look at the nursing profession as a career choice.

Furthermore, serious steps must be taken to address negative stereotypes in the media. For instance, nurses must act professionally 24/7 without exception. It is an effort of behavior outside the workplace which will support positive imagery of the profession on the media. Similarly, more and more nursing’s accomplishments must be posted, circulated, and advertised on the media. Ongoing announcements can be made in the local newspapers as well.


Calvo-Calvo, M. Á. (2014). Sexist stereotypes and biases associated with the female nursing model in advertising communication. Texto&Contexto-Enfermagem, 23(3), 530-537. Available at: 24th February 2018).

Sexist stereotypes and biases associated with the female nursing model in advertising communication.

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Effects of Advertising on Children Essay

Effects of Advertising on Children Essay.

Overall view on advertisingAdvertising is the communication relayed from companies to persuade an audience to purchase their products. This communication is usually through various forms of paid media — TV and radio commercials, print ads, billboards and more recently, product placement. Ads are placed where advertisers believe they will reach the largest, most relevant audience. Commercial businesses use advertising to drive the consumption of their product, while non-profit organizations may place ads to raise awareness or encourage a change in behavior or perception.

Advertising is the form of communication by fresh ways that the ad-filmmakers used to encourage, persuade or entice the consumers to buy their products. If an advertisement for a product attracts the consumers, they tend to purchase it frequently or at least give it a try. If a company has to survive in this competitive world, it has to project the image of its products in such a way that, they pick up the maximum sales. Nowadays, advertising plays an important role in the society, and since children form the major parts of the target group for advertisers, many advertisements focused on children are a proof of this fact.

Today, children are watching more television than years ago, and thus viewing more advertisings. Many books have been written and many studies and reports done on the effects of TV advertising on children. In this presentation, we will look at some different positive and negative effects of TV advertisement on children, and give some suggestions as a solution to limit negative effects of advertising on children.

I. Positive effects of advertising on children

– Advertising makes the kids aware of the new products available in the market. It increases their knowledge about the latest innovations in the field of technology.

– Alive and flashy images with short messages like a motto, and charming models stimulate children’s imagination and their intelligence. – Certain advertisements, with strong messages motivate the kids in chasing their future prospects such as becoming a doctor, scientist or an engineer. They generate the passion in children, regarding their future and makes them realize the importance of education. – Some advertisements inculcate good habits in children, as all the toothpaste companies create strong awareness regarding dental hygiene in kids.

II. Negative effects of advertising on children

-Children may make excessive demands on their parents for the products they see in the advertisements. At times, they cry, pinch, pull and will not keep quiet till the parents purchase the product. Some parents who cannot control their children may fall in anger with them.

-Junk food advertisements influence children greatly, leading to an increased demand for junk food by children. When children watch young adults eating junk foods in the advertisements they assume that it is good for the health. They are unaware of the fact that junk food does not contain nutritional value. They may even think that by eating these junk foods they might become like the thin and fit models in the advertisements. These unhealthy eating habits lead to diseases, such as obesity, heart diseases, high-blooded pressure. It even influences the way the kids think about the actual taste of food.

– Children often tend to misinterpret the messages conveyed in commercial advertisments. They end up having wrong believes about many problems. Sometimes, they imitate the acts of models in the ad-films. For example, they can try smoking, drinking wine or beer. – As more and more advertisments are becoming animated, children are unable to understand the difference between real world and fantasy. They tend to have difficulties in doing tasks such as solving puzzles and reading. III. Solutions to limit negative effects of advertising on children

– Parents play a major role in this case. Parents should teach their children of how to be critical of ads and how to become less influenced by the messages in the ads. Parents need to teach their children the importance and value of money. – Parents also need to instill good habits and help children to differentiate between right and wrong – Parents should limit the time of watching television of their children and spend more time playing with them or organize more outdoor activities for them. – Solutions from government: A few countries have banned marketing and advertising targeted at children below the age of twelve.

One country has banned advertising of toys before 10 p.m. as it is at this time that children are mostly awake. Previously advertisers marketed children’s products towards parents. Parents were their target audience for these products. But nowadays, marketers aim their messages directly at children. Advertisements are made specifically in such a way that they draw the attention of children. The marketing messages are aimed directly at the children.

– Advertisers on the other hand, can also try to put their message across creatively and target the entire family rather than just children. With a balanced approach, the negative effects of advertising can surely be controlled.

I.Overall view of advertising 1. What is the advertising? – A form of marketing. – A method of mass promotion. – Purposes of advertising: + To introduce new products + To persuade the audience to purchase the product. + To cultivate brand identity

2. How does the advertising affect to people’s mind? – By the language – By the design – By the image and music

II. Positive effects of advertising on children – Making the kids aware of the new products available in the market. – Stimulating children’s imagination and their intelligence. – Generating the passion in children and making them realize the importance of education. – Inculcating good habits in children.

III. Negative effects of advertising on children -Making excessive demands on their parents for the products in the advertisements. – Increasing demand for junk food in children. – Misinterpreting the messages conveyed in commercial advertisments and imitating the acts of models. – Hardly differentiating the difference between real world and fantasy in the ads.

III. Solutions to limit negative effects of advertising on children – Solutions from parents: +Teaching their children of how to be critical of ads and how to become less influenced by the messages in the ads and the importance and value of money. +Instilling good habits and helping children to differentiate between right and wrong. +Limit the time of watching television of their children and spending more time being with them. – Solutions from government:

+ Banning marketing and advertising targeted at children (related to time and the age of children) + Asking advertisers to target their messages to the entire family rather than just children.

Advertising is all around us, it is an unavoidable part of everyone’s life. Some people say that advertising is a positive part of our lives while others say it is a negative one. Discuss both views and include your own opinion. Give reasons for your answer and include any relevant examples from your own knowledge or experience. You should write at least 250 words. Advertising is all around us, it is an unavoidable part of everyone’s life. Some people say that advertising is a positive part of our lives while others say it is a negative one. Discuss both views and include your own opinion. Give reasons for your answer and include any relevant examples from your own knowledge or experience.

You should write at least 250 words. Of Course for several reasons: firstly, it motivates the psychological point in everyone, especially women. They will run to buy this advertised product especially if it’s from cosmetic roof, just to show their beauty to men, which will lead to more offender and raped cases. Secondly, you can sit comfortably with your family and suddenly the telephone is ringing, but it’s nothing important, it’s just another company try to convince you to buy one of their products. It is a real intrusive example of advertisement. Lastly, sometimes you do not have the financial ability to buy something, but with these new methods of advertisement, you will run to buy it, which will affect your budget.

On the other hand, there are some good sides to advertising. For instance, it compares the prices of many companies which benefitthe consumer. Besides, it really opens our vision to see more products which we do not knowit unless the TV or Radio advertised them. In addition to, it breaks our daily routine and allows us to see new faces and learn the language better with the help of the daily updates they deliver through advertisement. In conclusion, as we can see there are many aspects to this essay. I feel that we gain no benefits at all from advertisement, it playson minds of people buy more things that they do not need it at all.

Advertisements are all around us, and they vary greatly in their attempts to attract consumers. Some ads highlight the product’s features, while other ads’ content seems to be completely unrelated to the product they’re trying to sell. It’s the latter type of ads that shoppers need to be most wary of, according to a new study. Researchers at the University of California, Los Angeles, and George Washington University focused on two different types of advertisements. The first type of ad, called “logical persuasion,” or LP, presents facts about the product, such as, “This car gets 42 miles to the gallon.”

The second type of ad is referred to as “nonrational influence” (NI) because it circumvents consumers’ conscious awareness by depicting a fun, vague or sexy scene that seems to have nothing to do with the product. In the study, researchers showed advertising images to 11 women and 13 men while recording the electrical activity in their brains using electroencephalography (EEG). Each participant viewed 24 ads that had appeared in magazines and newspapers. The ads contained either LP or NI images. LP ads showed a table of facts and figures in a cigarette ad and suggestions about selecting food for dogs on the basis of their activity level in an ad for pet food.

The NI advertisements included a liquor ad featuring an image of beading water and a cigarette ad showing a woman leapfrogging over a fire hydrant that is spraying water as a man grins behind her. The researchers found that the brain regions involved in decision-making and emotional processing (including the orbitofrontal and anterior cingulate regions, the amygdala, and the hippocampus) experienced significantly higher activity levels when participants looked at the LP ads. These brain regions have been shown to help inhibit a person’s response to certain stimuli, such as preventing an impulse purchase.

When participants viewed the NI advertisements, however, these regions of the brain did not show activity levels that were as high as what the individuals experienced when they viewed the LP ads. “Watch your brain and watch your wallet,” study researcher Ian Cook, a professor of psychiatry at the Semel Institute for Neuroscience and Human Behavior at UCLA, said in a statement. “These results suggest that the lower levels of brain activity from ads employing NI images could lead to less behavioral inhibition, which could translate to less restraint when it comes to buying products depicted in the NI advertisements.” The study is published in the current edition of the Journal of Neuroscience, Psychology, and Economics.

Effects of Advertising on Children Essay

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