King Philip ii of Spain Essay

King Philip ii of Spain Essay.

The son of the Charles V, the Holy Roman Emporor and Princess Isabella of Portugal, Philip II was born on May 21, 1527 in Valldolid, Spain. He was a shy young boy and mostly a loner. It is because he was an only child and his mother died when he was only 12 years old. And Emperor Charles V was mostly away to look after their very vast empire in the whole of Europe. So the young Philip II was mostly left with his tutors and teachers.

He was tutored and educated in the sciences; French, Italian and Latin languages; mathematics; architecture; sculpture and painting.

He was likewise trained in horseback riding, fencing, sword fighting and lancing. When he turned 16 years old, Philip II was arranged to be married to Infanta Princess Maria of Portugal – who was also 16 years old. The marriage was held in November 1543 in Salamanca, Spain. It is however a big blow of sorrow to Philip II that his wife died after giving birth to their son, Don Carlos, in July 1545.

It was said that Don Carlos turned out to be mentally incapacitated and this forced Philip II to incarcerate Don Carlos which caused his death in 1568.

On July 25, 1554, Philip II took the hands of Queen Mary I of England in marriage. The Queen is 11 years his senior and was truly besotted to Philip II. This was considered a “political marriage” because Spain has become part of the influences in England’s Catholicism. And, because of this deep love, it was Philip II who was able to convince Queen Mary I to patch up differences and reconcile with her sister, Princess Elizabeth of England. Charles V decided to retire and abdicate his throne as King of Spain in January 1556 and thus passed the crown to Philip II.

By that time, he has already been endowed with kingship over the other parts of the empire of Charles V such as Naples, Netherlands, Sicily andMilan. Two years after he assumed the kingship of Spain, his wife, Queen Mary I died in November 1558. King Philip II proposed marriage to his wife’s sister, Queen Elizabeth I – but his proposal turned down. For this reason and due to the death of Queen Mary I, the relationship between England and Spain was severed. Again after two years, King Philip II offered to marry Elizabeth of Valois, France, in 1560. She is the daughter of Henry II.

Queen Elizabeth of Spain gave King Philip II with two daughters: Isabella Clara Eugenia, born in 1566 and Catherine Micaela, born in 1567. Queen Elizabeth died after a miscarriage in 1568. In 1570, King Philip II married his fourth wife, Anna, the daughter of his cousin, Emperor Maximilian II of Austria. They had 4 sons and one daughter. Sadly, 3 of their sons and their only daughter all died in their very young age. Only one son lived to adulthood to become the future King Philip III. From the time he assumed the throne, it was known to be the golden years of Spain as it achieves supremacy, prestige and power.

King Philip II dedicated himself to defending the Catholic faith all over the world. He was very opposed to heresy. The two pillars of his reign concentrated on the strength and propagation of the Catholic faith all over the world and the suppression of heresy. His campaign in the propagation of the Catholic faith included the persecution of the Christian moors in Spain on January 1567. In that same year, King Philip II quashed the Protestant uprising in Netherlands with the strength of his Spanish army. In South America, he conducted an inquisition in 1569.

The Spanish navy defeated the Turkish navy in the Mediterranean seas in 1571. King Philip II truly “was determined to support the Catholic Church” as he believes it to be a solemn duty entrusted to him by his father. BIBLIOGRAPHY Kurth, Godefroid. Philip II The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 12. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1911. 15 Apr. 2009 <http://www. newadvent. org/cathen/12002a. htm>. Hilliam, David. Philip II: King of Spain and Leader of the Counter- Reformation The Rosen Publishing Group, 2005

King Philip ii of Spain Essay

The Uprooted Essay

The Uprooted Essay.

It is historian Oscar Handlin’s thesis that the demand that immigrants assimilate and surrender their separateness made them adjust to the American way of life; but they were treated immorally and were condemned under the shadow of consciousness that the immigrants were strangers and outsiders that would never belong.

Immigrants would come with minds and spirits fresh for new impressions; and being in America would make Americans of them. The sense of being welcome gave them the assurance that their struggles to build a new life would be regarded with sympathy.

The expression of doubts that some parts of the population might not become fully American implied the existence of a settled criticism of what was truly American. There were attempts to distinguish among the natives between those who really belonged and those who didn’t.

All critics expressed that some hereditary element had given form to American culture, but they provided no means of social recognition and offered no basis on how the true Americans could identify themselves as such.

The experience of life in the United States had not broken down the separateness of the elements mixed into it. Long after the great immigration of Irish and Germans, these people had not become indistinguishable from other Americans; they were still recognizably Irish and German. The conclusion was inevitable: to be Americanized, the immigrants must conform to the American way of life completely defined by the way they lived.

The boldness of such judgments testified to the voluntary nature of immigration adjustment. The adjustment had depended on the immigrants’ ability as individuals in a free society to adapt themselves to their environment through what forms they chose. The demand by their critics that the adjustment take a predetermined course seemed to question their right to a place in American society. Acting as an American was not a step they would’ve taken at home. To subscribe to a newspaper was one of the acts of a citizen of the New World.

People changed their names. August Bjőrkegren decided to be called Burk, and Andry Blumberg, Kelly. There were matters in which they wished to be like others, undistinguished from anyone else, but they never hit upon the means of becoming so. In truth, these people found it difficult to know what were “American forms” they were expected to take on. What they did know was that they had not succeeded, that they had not established themselves to the extent that they could expect to be treated as if they belonged where they were.

The Immigrants were constantly treated immorally and blamed for the disorders in the country. They were first accused of poverty. Indeed to citizens, the ghettos were altogether alien territory associated with filth and crime. American social scientists approached their subject through the analysis of specific disorders such as criminality, intemperance, poverty, and disease. Everywhere they looked, they found immigrants somehow involved in these problems. They concluded that immigrants were responsible for every evil that falls upon the country: pauperism, economic depressions, and the low birth rate of natives, class divisions, prostitution and homosexuality, and the appearance of city slums. A violent anti-Chinese movement had developed in California in 1873 and categorized Chinese with Blacks and Indians, which led to the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882.

The newcomers were also accused of congregating together in their own groups and of an unwillingness to mix with outsiders. Employment advertisements like “NO IRISH NEED APPLY” were common in limiting immigrants’ belonging to America. In politics, also there were occasions on which the activities of the new citizens met the hostility of the old natives. Immigrants felt an undertone of acrimony in every contact with an official. Men in uniform always found them unworthy of respect; the police were their capital fear of the law; the postmen made foreign writing on their letters; the streetcar conductors laughed at their requests for directions. The U.S. would move in new directions of its own because its people were a new people.

The Uprooted Essay