Do you agree that there some things that are considered to be unusual for Black people”? Why or why not? 

Birding While Black to an external site.

Read the article and post your response to, “Do you agree that there some things that are considered to be unusual for Black people“? Why or why not

Your answer should be detailed, and use examples from the reading to support your thoughts. Your post must be 250-300 words, follow the standard English rules of grammar, paragraphs, punctuation, and correct spelling. 

Do you agree that there some things that are considered to be unusual for Black people“? Why or why not

You are not asked to use outside sources other than the week’s reading. Should you decide to use outside/secondary sources, you must cite the text and include a work cited. Failure to do so is plagiarism and will earn a grade of zero for the assignment.  


Respond to a peer’s post…the response post should be thought-provoking and be at least 150 words. 

LaKeisha’s Post:

Sight/Seeing is one of the best gifts given to us. You can capture moments and memories that will live on past the people in your life. Even after death and you are no longer able to physically see your loved ones you can still see them because you’ve been able to see them. Seeing allows you to connect with people, places, and things that no other senses do. To see a child being born was an ahh moment for me, to know that you can create life is only real once you see it because how do you have that much power? I often think of the saying seeing is believing but I have never seen someone I praise for my existence so maybe seeing isn’t always believing. I’ve had a few ahh moments when it comes to my spiritual journey and what I see God has done personally for me. I see that life is truly short, but we rush to see the weekend how do we wish to live longer but hope to speed that up by wishing the weekends come sooner instead of enjoying the time in the present? Whatever seeing/sight may mean to you I think we can all agree that it is important for the growth and development of intellectual interactions with everyone around us.

Responding to the Natural World – Essay #1

Write a 2 page essay in response to the natural world.  Include in your essay references to Annie Dillard’s “Seeing” and J. Drew Lanham’s “Birding While Black”.   

*Please do not summarize the readings, you are to discuss your understanding of what was read. 

Hello! I hope that you all are off to a good start to your Summer courses.

Two things: (1) this is an English course and therefore, you are expected to use standard grammar and format in your writing. Please use proper punctuation, spelling, and paragraphs.

(2) Discussion question assignments require in depth peer responses. Your response should add to or question the original poster. To get maximum points you have to respond with more than 1 sentence. “I agree with you” is not a sufficient response. 

When your grade posts, always check for my comments. I try to give constructive feedback that will help with the next assignment. 

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What was the target population for this program?

Consider programs you may have been involved in as a student, a community member, a parent, or in some other capacity. If you have never been directly involved in a program, think of one with which you are familiar.

What was the target population for this program?

350- to 700-w0rd pap3r responding to the following:

  • Describe the program you were involved with.  
  • What was the target population for this program?
  • What needs was this program designed to provide?
  • Examine the program from the following perspectives.
  • Community Perspective: Think about the people who receive services from this program. From their point of view, is the program effective? Why or why not?
  • Counselor Perspective: How would you rate the success of this program currently? If you were tasked with evaluating the program, what goals or concerns would you need to consider in your research development? 
  • Stakeholder Perspective: If you were a program stakeholder, how would you rate the quality of the program? 
  • What conclusions can you draw from analyzing the program from these perspectives? 

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Gun Violence: Guns should not be allowed in public places

Gun Violence

  • Gun should not be allowed to public places
  • Every authorized gun holder ought to satisfy he or she is of sound mind
  • The police should have the right to protect all citizens
  • People have a right to protect themselves from attack
  • Alternative measure to counter gun violence

The problem of gun violence has reached an all-time high over the history of our country. Since the enactment of the country constitution, the founding father saw it right to guarantee people safety by allowing them to own and carry gun for their safety. Nonetheless, their vision has not only thrived for over 200 years, but it has broken up almost every family in the US. Not a month goes without cases of mass shooting.

The right to own gum among citizens should be abolished because the state provides and is entitled to secure the people from harm. The establishment of the army, the police, and county sheriff across the country is to ensure that people are protected from attack within the shortest time possible. Therefore, individuals would live knowing that somebody is watching over them. Moreover, giving the state the role of securing our neighborhood removes gun ownership from criminals and people of unsound mind.

Given the increased casualties of gun violence, it begs the question where people should own weapon. Even if there is the compelling reason for issuing weapons to the members of the public, the authority needs to ensure that all people who apply for gun ownership pass a psychological test as well as another background check on their criminal record. Guns should only be issued to people with sane mind and blemish of criminal activities.

Nonetheless, a person’s life largely depends on how well he looks after her or himself. In addition, an individual has a right to defend from attaching and protect properties when police are not available. Therefore, owning a gun would help deter home breaking and attack on the highways. Moreover, the right to own a gun for hunting should not be taken away while trying to solve the escalating gun violence.

The problem of gun violence cannot be solved by restricting gun ownership alone, but by a multispectral approach, that addresses the social ill in society. For instance, given that radicalized individual who is at hell-bent to revenge for US military operation overseas has perpetuated most incidences of a mass shooting. Thus, the government needs to safeguard its porous borders as well as prohibit criminals from countries, which it is in combat with. The authority also needs to fund health institution to better deal with people suffering from mental illness and more so veteran, police officer and well people in poor residents.

Gun violence can also be addressed by providing unemployed youth with opportunities that can drive them away from crime into meaningful career. There are high cases of homicide in highly populated cities in the US, which have necessitated for drug dealing and crime. Therefore, improving the lives of people in the slum would minimize incidences of gun violence.   

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Gratification Theory

Gratification Theory

Gratification theory seeks to explain why people are actively involved in media to satisfy their specific needs. The theory is audience-centered and assumes they are always active. According to the theory the user of the media, seek to gratify their ideal self. Many reasons make individuals engage in media platforms. First, people use the media to pursue their needs such as promoting business. In fact, different media users have their unique motive why they engage with the media. These include activities such as playing video games, watching video clips, chatting, and reading news. The second reason why people require the media is to gratify their needs. Individuals need to find a media platform that can satisfy their desires. For example, as a student one may want to discuss a particular topic with his tutor or fellow classmate, so a school-based online platform or social site can facilitate learning. In addition, people use the media to seek influence. The media usually influence the desire of it viewers by putting attractive objects that are likely to attract the attention of their prospective users. Consequently, the media usually compete for time and attention of the user, so they usually try to perfect art. Lastly, people result to media for motivation. Therefore, the various reason can influence the user to be excessively obsessed to the use of the media.

Summary of Academic Article from SDSU Data Base on the Theory

The author tries to find out how the Social Virtual Worlds (SVWs) has influenced the education sector. He assessed contributions of the gratification theory to the increasing use of SVWs. According to him, SVWs has encouraged social interactions that use verbal and non-verbal communication cues. However, this has affected interpersonal communication so much. According to the author, Second life adoption has greatly influenced the majority of people in the last ten years. Thus, using the second life gives users the feelings of togetherness, but in the real sense, they are not (Gallego, Bueno & Noyes, 2016). Therefore, using gratification theory, second life influences education substantially. For instance, more than 500 universities, and colleges have adopted the use of social media platform in delivering both formal and non-formal education.

Personal Critique on the Theory

Gratification theory explains clearly, why people intend to use of media platform. The abundant use of media platforms including the Internet, newspaper, video games among other guided by the need to fulfilling people urge for information, business growth, and learning. However, the people excessively use the media for entertainment, passing the time, companionships, escape, social interactions, and relaxation (Griffin, Ledbetter, & Sparks, 2015). As stated by the theory, audiences are always active to fulfill most of their needs.

Personal Example Connected to the Theory

I engage through various media platform to socialize, read news as well as learning most of my course work online. Thus, gratification theory dictates most of what I do online. For instance, in our class, we have an online page where we interact with our tutors and fellow students. We usually use that page to ask clarification of any assignment, rescheduling of the class and any upcoming event. Moreover, one can have a live chat with a fellow student or chat directly with the lecturer. Am also very much engaged on Facebook when am free where I enjoy many stories that are shared by my peers. Consequently, I use the media not because of what the media can do for me but actually, what I want to do in the media.


Gallego, M., Bueno, S., & Noyes, J. (2016). Second life adoption in education: A motivational model based on uses and gratifications theory. Computers & Education, 100, 81-93.

Griffin, E., Ledbetter, A., & Sparks, G. (2015). A first look at communication theory (9th ed.). Boston: McGraw-Hill.

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Childhood Obesity

Childhood Obesity

Childhood obesity has become a big issue of concern across the globe with cases of obesity rising rapidly. The rapid rise in cases of child abuse predisposes children to serious health non-communicable diseases like diabetes and cardiovascular diseases at a younger age (Sahoo et al. 2015, p. 187). The prevalence of obesity has been rising in the United Kingdom. In 2015, one in every five children in the reception level was experiencing obesity while one in every three children in Year 6 was experiencing obesity (Health and Social Care information Centre 2015, p. 1). In 2013, it was established that the number of children experiencing severe obesity was rising with 1.9% of girls and 2.3% of boys aged between 4and 5 years experiencing severe obesity. The case was even worse among children between the age of 10-11 years with 2.9% of girls and 3.9% of boys in this age bracket experiencing severe obesity (Ells et al. 2015, p. 1). Childhood obesity is caused by various factors including environmental factors, lifestyle preferences, and cultural environment and genetic issues. The cases of obesity increase the risk of children being attacked by non-communicable diseases at their adulthood.

The society plays a vital role in shaping the life of a child. The environment created for a child at tender shapes most of his/her characters when growing up. The issue is similar to the case of obesity in the United Kingdom (Ells et al. 2015, p. 1). The body mass index is used to establish the weight gain of a child against his/her age and height. High consumption of foods with high calorie and fat concentration and low nutritional value has caused obesity among children. The prevalence of obese cases is increasing with increase in social and environmental factors that increase the vulnerability of children to uncontrolled diet choice.

Environmental Factors

Environmental factors have played a phenomenal role in the rise of cases of obesity in the society. The environment in which children grow has the potential of increasing the risk of a child getting obesity. School, community, and parents are important elements in the development of a child. The economic demands of the society force parents to spend much of their time in work hence they have limited time to spend with their children (Sahoo et al. 2015, p. 189). Consequently, children are left with no one to prepare him or her nutritious cooked meals. Therefore, children turn to fast foods that are highly rich in sugar and fats. Uncontrolled consumption of fast foods increases weight gain among children thus predisposing the child to the risk of obesity. Moreover, when a parent fails to spend much of their time with their children, the activeness of the children is affected. Lack of physical activity among children coupled with consumption of foods with high concentration of fats and sugar lead to cases of obesity (Sahoo et al. 2015, p. 190). Parenting style is one of the major factors behind the high prevalence of obesity cases among children.

On the hand, school policies have a role in determining the dietary choice for children and physical activeness of children. However, the lack of profound policies to control the eating habits of children predisposes them to the risk of obesity. High prevalence of fast food outlets near learning institutions is increasing the propensity of children consuming snack foods, sugary beverages, and other less nutritious foods. Moreover, lack of profound policies that encourage physical activities in schools put children at the risk of being obese. Additionally, increased academic demand in schools denies children time for recess thus limit their participation in physical education. Lack of physical activities does not cause obesity but also blood circulatory problems among children thus predisposing a child to the risk of cardiovascular illnesses. However, some research has suggested that physical education at school is not enough to mitigate the causes of weight gain and obesity among children. Subsequently, the parent should adopt physical activity routines for their children while at home to ensure their physical fitness.

Furthermore, mass media forms an integral part of the environment where the children are growing. The media has the propensity of airing junk food advertisements targeting children. Consequently, the desire for children to consume the advertised junk foods increases to the detriment of their health. Statistically, children spend about 5.5 hours on the various media available, and they consume about one food commercial advocating consumption of junk foods. Nutritional analysts argue that food commercials directed to children are deceptive and unfair since children are easily coerced for lack of information.

The community in which the child is growing has a greater determining factor in the lifestyle of a child. Lacks of facilities that encourage physical activities among children also play a role in the development of obesity. Safe parks, playing grounds, sidewalks, and bike paths encourage physical activeness among children (Karnik, & Kanekar 2012, p. 4). Moreover, lack of accessibility to healthy food in the community also increases the chances of developing obesity. According to Ells et al. (2015, p. 5), severe obesity prevalence in the U.K. varies significantly by “geography and is highest in the most deprived children and those from black ethnic groups.” Therefore, cases of poverty and lack of resources also play a major role in increasing cases of obesity in the society.


Flashy lifestyles increase the incidents of childhood obesity in the society. The incidents of obesity are more prevalent in developed countries indicating a relationship between economic wellbeing and obesity. In most cases, parents make choices the kind of food that their children consume (Karnik, & Kanekar 2012, p. 4). In most well up families, the children spend most of their time watching television, playing video games and interacting on social media platforms. A sedentary lifestyle increases consumption of energy-dense foods or snacks at the expense of physical activities. Therefore, spending much of their time in non-physical activities increase body weight and development of obesity. On the other hand, children copy the type of lifestyle that their parents lead thus parents with the propensity of consuming junk foods influence their children to consume similar foods. Studies have revealed that families with overweight mothers have a high prevalence of children with obesity (Sahoo et al. 2015, p. 192). Moreover, single parents’ households have the high inclination to childhood obesity and overweight among children. Moreover, in most modern societies, children are driven back and forth school by their parents. In the previous societies, most of the children used to walk or ride to their schools hence engaged their bodies in physical activities (Sahoo et al. 2015, p. 191). Consequently, the prevalence of obesity is higher in the modern society than it was in the past societies. On the other hand, there are parents who regularly control the choice of food and diet pattern of their children leading to limited consumption of junk foods. However, according to nutritional analysis, increased limitation on dietary choice increases a child’s desire to consume the restricted food. Consequently, the urge to consume the restricted food prompt the children to become overly attracted to their use hence putting their health at risk. Moreover, lack of child-parent interaction denies children the opportunity to expend the excess energy gained through consumption of excess sugar and fats.  

Genetic Factors

Obesity is viewed as a genetic problem in most families. Inheritance of genes that make the children gain weight faster is one of the reasons behind the prevalence of obesity in the society. The inherited genes affect the metabolism rate thus increasing the susceptibility of the child to obesity. However, the high rate of excessive body weight is worsened by increased appetite and consumption of sugary and fat rich substances. Moreover, susceptibility to weight gain is increased by medical factors such as low thyroid function, which is misinterpreted as a genetic issue. In this case, children with the low thyroid function have increased appetite for food, which leads to building up of excess fats in the body.

Effects of Childhood Obesity

Childhood obesity predisposes a child to numerous medical risks in his/her adulthood. One of the medical risks is that children with obesity are likely to develop obesity in their adulthood. Moreover, high intake of sugar and fats increase the susceptibility of the child to cardiovascular diseases such as high blood pressure due to high cholesterol levels in the blood (Reilly et al. 2003, p. 749). Furthermore, high sugar content in the blood can lead to impaired glucose tolerance, insulin resistance, and type two diabetes. Additionally, at their young age, obese children are likely to develop to suffer major orthopedic implications such as abnormal bone growth, degenerative disease, and pain (Wieting 2008, p. 547). In their development process, the obese children are likely to suffer low self-esteem, psychological disorders, and depression, which can affect their social and academic life. Obese children are likely to suffer bullying, anxiety, and depression (Reilly et al. 2003, p. 749). In most cases, depressed persons have the high inclination to the suicide ideation due to stigma.


The prevalence of obesity in rising rapidly globally due to improved standards of living. Parenting style plays an important role mitigating and increasing cases of obesity in the society. The family lifestyle shapes the dietary patterns of children. Thus, it is vital for pedants to offer the right guidance to ensure that children copy the right eating behavior.


Ells, LJ, Hancock, C, Copley, VR, Mead, E, Dinsdale, H, Kinra, S, Viner, RM and Rutter, H 2015, Prevalence of severe childhood obesity in England: 2006–2013. Archives of Disease in Childhood, pp.archdischild-2014.

Karnik, S, and Kanekar, A 2015, Childhood obesity: a global public health crisis. Int J Prev Med, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 1-7.

Reilly, JJ, Methven, E, McDowell, ZC, Hacking, B, Alexander, D, Stewart, L and Kelnar, CJ 2003, Health consequences of obesity. Archives of Disease in Childhood, vol. 88, no. 9, pp. 748-752.

Sahoo, K, Sahoo, B, Choudhury, AK, Sofi, NY, Kumar, R, and Bhadoria, AS 2015, Childhood obesity: Causes and consequences. Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care, vol. 4, no. 2, p. 187.

Wieting, JM 2008, Cause, and effect in childhood obesity: Solutions for a national epidemic. The Journal of the American Osteopathic Association, vol. 108, no. 10, pp. 545-552.

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Issue of Social Class and Inequality

Issue of Social Class and Inequality


Social class and inequality are one of the most prevalent topics that affect most people across the world. Inequality has affected both the developing and the developed countries of the world due to the rise in the gap between the rich and the poor in society today. The poor continue to suffer from heavy taxation at the expense of the poor in society. Although there are no models to success, education plays an important role in helping the poor live better lives. Federal governments worldwide have invested heavily in students loans to ensure that students from poor backgrounds can access quality education. Global recession, technological advancements, and economic globalization have played an important role in solving this issue of inequality today. Therefore, this paper will focus on various authors’ views on this issue of social class and inequality across the world today.

Reasons behind Poverty

According to Locke in her, article ‘Born poor and Smart,” the poor people will society will continue to be oppressed and remain poor until they rise and cooperate towards improving their lives. This means fighting for better wages at their places of work and working hours. She advises young people to gain technical skills, and white-collar jobs are overcrowded in society today. Intelligence is an important virtue that should emphasize to all young people so that they can be able to think outside the box and look for better opportunities and improves their standards of living. However, Yglesias in his article “Great Times to be Alive” argues that global recession has also increased social inequality in the world today. The heavy taxation system is the federal government in various countries worldwide continues to oppress the poor, increasing the gap between the rich and the poor. The advancements in the levels of technology, as well as economic globalization, have only benefited the rich in society. On the other hand, in the article “Middle of the Class” the poor people can be able to climb us the success ladder. They should ensure on their journey to success. He gives good examples of Benjamin Franklin and Bill Clinton on how they rose from poverty to become famous personalities in the world of politics. The author also associates the improved standards of living in the United States of America due to the rise in the minimum wage, and improved education and medical services by the federal government.

Stereotypes against the Poor

According to Locke, poor people are also smart. Most of them are intelligent, and that is how they can juggle between working and taking care of their families with the little earnings, which they make. She also argues that success among the rich is non-negotiable as compared to the poor people. Yglesias also points out that the only people who gain from the technological advancements and economic globalizations are only the rich in the society. The government tax system also tends to oppress the poor and compared to the rich especially in the US. The Economist in his article points out that the only way that the poor can get access to quality education is through getting students loans from the federal government.

How Poverty Influences the American Society

The poor in society have to juggle various jobs to make a living ton sustain their families and educate their children just like the rich people. According to Locke, her mother worked with various organizations to ensure that they had enough for school lead better lives. On the other hand, Yglesias states that the American federal government needed to deploy a better taxation system to ensure that all people are taxed according to their levels of income and wealth. Through this, the federal government will able to provide better social services to the citizens. An effective taxation system is a good method of reducing inequality in the country. The government can improve access to social goods and opportunities for all generations. This will also improve access to better education and medical services to all people. The Economist also notes that quest for better wages by the labor unions in the US has increased quality of life for American citizens. However, he insists that we should acknowledge that poverty and inequality exist in our society today and come up with ways of solving them


The three authors have used different scenarios to discuss the effects of poverty and inequality in society today. Although there are no models for success, everyone should be encouraged to rise against all the odds and lead better lives through hard work. The federal governments should also put in place better measures and policies to eliminate equality and poverty in their countries to improve the living standards of their citizens.

Works Cited

Locke, A, (2005). Born Poor and Smart: I was born poor and smart. If you’re poor, you must not be smart. If you’re smart, then why are you poor? According to our dominant culture, poverty confirms a personal flaw. Retrieved from:

The Economist (2005). Middle of the class: Equality of opportunity is under threat. Retrieved from: Yglesias, M, (2010). A great time to be alive? The twenty-first century has seen vast improvements in quality of life around the globe. But here at home, progress lags.Retrieved from:

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AT Assessment amongst African American Male Students

SAT Assessment amongst African American Male Students

Culture refers accumulative deposit of norms, values, beliefs, notions, and concepts followed by a collective social group. Different ethnic groups have unique cultural beliefs that act as a checkpoint of behavior and action for group members. Culture can allow or prohibit a person from participating in a specific function in society. Culture is inherited from generation to generation; current societal trends sometimes influence the culture. The common factors that have a great impact on culture for a long time is; political, social-economic and educational factors (Csikszentmihalyi, 2014). Many individuals struggle and conflict with personal norms and values instilled within by their culture. The minority African American ethnic group is a most important group in America that has a strong belief in their culture. They observe their culture in almost all the occasions and circumstances in their daily life. Ethics and culture influence African American males performance in Scholastic Assessment Test (SAT). SAT is the test given to junior and senior high school students in the United States before graduation. Failure or not doing the test lead to discontinuation of the curriculum.  

According to Thompson & Allen (2012), half of the minority group in the US delays in graduating from high school due to incompetence in writing skills and mathematics. Male African American students are among the minority group who fail in writing skills and mathematics, which tested in SAT. Their poor performance in SAT is due to the embryonic culture of African American people. African American males they do not involve in education like the Native Americans. The main causes that make them uncomfortable with US education are underrepresentation in teaching staff, culturally irrelevant institutional practices and unfair discipline practices (Thompson & Allen, 2012). These drawbacks in US education system make the African American males to have no confidence in US education system and the K.12 policy. Lack of confidence causes the majority to stop schooling before they do SAT. African American student who succeed in doing the SAT they are unable to attain good grades as the Native American students due to low morale instilled by unfavorable learning environments.  

African American male students they still have the sense of alienation in an American institution. Alienation affected African American mostly during the 18th and 19th centuries when they were serving as slaves in the fields of American settlers. The sense of alienation affects the performance of African American greatly. In most academic occasions, they feel inferior to their white counterpart. The sense of inferiority leads to low-esteem, which is very detrimental to the students’ performances. Low esteem is the key issue that makes the African- American male students have poor grades in SAT examinations. Wasserberg & Rottman (2016), state that minority group has negative judgments toward academic capability. This makes them have poor grades in the standardized score. The feeling of stereotype threat is the major cause of low performance among the African American male students. Individuals with low self-efficacy they have low self-aspiration and usually clinch on their deficiencies. Dwelling on cultural deficiencies is one of the major cause why African American male students continue performing poorly in SAT.


Csikszentmihalyi, M. (2014). Society, culture, and person: A systems view of creativity. Springer Netherlands.

Thompson, G. L., & Allen, T. G. (2012). Four effects of the high-stakes testing movement on African American K-12 students. The Journal of Negro Education, 81(3), 218-302.

Wasserberg, M. J., & Rottman, A. (2016). Urban high school students’ perspectives on the test-centered curriculum. American Secondary Education, 44(3), 56-71.

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Same-Sex Colleges are not obsolete; they are still an Alternative to Coed College

Same-Sex Colleges are not obsolete; they are still an Alternative to Coed College


Last few decades many of the women’s colleges that formed in the late 19th and early 20th century are transforming to coeducation colleges and universities. This transformation has become a controversy to many activists and raised challenging debates among many scholars. It is the highest time to change the colonial rationale in the system of education. Male and female colleges in America started on the ground of European imperialism, which disregards the female gender. Both male and female students are equal, and they should compete in the same environment and take the courses as per personal potential not because of sexism. Transforming women colleges to coeducation are the best initiative to end gender-based discrimination.

History, Facts & Statistics

The History of Women and Education state that in the 18th century the presence of women in school was an adventure. It was the era when women enter into school for the first time in the history of America. During this time, the women education was less regarded in the society. The education curriculum for the women had myriad of problems. The education system was not aimed at achieving academic excellence. Moreover, a single teacher used to teach the different subject as per their knowledge. The common subjects taught were craftwork, music, dressmaking, weaving, and dance (“The History of Women and Education” 3). Most of them interrupted their studies in the process due to teachers boycotting due to meager pay. In 1815, women started to fight for the same academic as the male counterpart, which increased their numbers in primary and secondary schools (“The History of Women and Education” 7). The first half of the 19th century, it was a challenge for women to get the higher education. The only post-secondary education for women was a seminary that mainly taught on the motherhood. In the 1850s, women entered in the teaching staff due to the shortages of teachers and their demand for less pay. During this time, there were more than 30000 shortages of teachers in schools and women were only paid a third of the salary paid to the male teachers (“The History of Women and Education” 9).The second half of the 18th century there was an influx of women colleges in the United States although they offered few courses. In 1962 women, the movement starts to fight for coeducation they were not successful due to sexism that existed during that time. African American women were more prejudiced in the 19th century, there were only 140 African American women in colleges by 1862, and they never graduated in time (“The History of Women and Education” 10).

Literature Review

The number of female gender colleges has significantly reduced in the last five decades. According to Burton, the number of female single-gender colleges in 1960 was 200, which reduced to currently 60 colleges for female only. The major cause of this reduction is the effort of reducing gender discriminations and biases. The legislature between 1960 and1970 forced many male gender specific colleges to go coed. Coed Colleges and female colleges in America led to gender inequality in higher education. The female students are now the majority of the university and college students. Female students in colleges and universities they are more than half of the total number of students in colleges. The women gender specific colleges they aim in promoting the quality of education to women to empower them. In spite of women excellence in education, they are normally underpaid compared to amount and condition of work.

Mount Holyoke College is a women college founded in 1837. It is among the few colleges that remain as exclusive female gender college. The College main campus is located in Massachusetts, United States and it mostly focuses on liberal arts courses. The college was initially seminary but incorporated academic studies in the process. It was given chatter in 1834 to become a college until 1888 it was a seminary and a college at the same time. The college was the first to admit African American female student who graduated in 1862 (Adamo et al. 212). For a long time, it has admitted bright female students from a poor background. The college has the aim of empowering all women in society irrespective of their social, economic backgrounds. The college is among the most selective colleges in the United States. In 2016 the college admitted only 598 students out of 3,858 applicants, the average SAT score for entry was 620 and an average high school GPA of 3.54 (Adamo et al. 230).

Vassar College is one of the colleges that were initially uni-gender female college the transform to coed. Vassar College is private college, established in 1861 and founded by Mathew Vassar (Rowe and McCleary 20). The college was the first in United States history to offer a female education comparable to the male’s education. It was the first education institution to get chatter to offer female degrees. For many years, the college admitted female students from the wealthy background. Initially, the college administrators were all male while the teachers were female. The college transformed to coeducation in 1969. In 2017, ranking the college was position 12in offering liberal arts courses. The colleges have a selective rate of 26.4% (Cowan 45).

Vassar College is a typical college that is changing with social changes experienced in the society. The majority of members of society are the knowledgeable end all the forms of gender discriminations. The college changed to coed to integrate both genders in its education system. Vassar College eliminated a situation of exclusively having a female gender, which is detrimental to society. Having the female gender only in colleges create an environment where the female-only focus on their gender, which is unproductive. Vassar College can create a competitive environment where both genders have an equal opportunity of pursuing their dream. Integrating both, genders in the same learning environment create a conducive environment for study since students can examine and define the strength and weakness of their gender through interactions.

The Case for Transgender Students

The case of transgender in the admission of the single gender schools raises a big concern on the criteria used to admit students. As much as they have right to education as per their physical challenge, such students are mainly excluded in single gender colleges. The majority of them they are forced to hide their gender during admission so that they can study alongside with females or males. A good example is Kevin Murphy who hides his gender all through his study in a Massachusetts women’s college until his graduation where he discloses to be male. The majority of the transgender faces discrimination in gender specific colleges. Morehouse College, which is all male school banned dress, purses, and pumps to all its students (Chen). This humiliates transgender who may be schooling in the school but may like to identify with female privilege.


During colonial era in America, women education was like a taboo in American society. Following the struggle of the women, they started getting elementary and high school education at the beginning of the 19th century. At the termination of the 19th century, few colleges and seminary started offering higher education to women. It led to an influx of women gender specific colleges and universities, which reached the climax in 1960. Feminism, which aroused in the 1960s has made significance drop in colleges specifically meant for women. Most of them have become coed. The majority of gender specific colleges and universities fail to address the cases of transgender amicably. There is a need of changing the few existing colleges, which are for a specific gender to coed to end the discrimination and bias that exist regarding gender.    

Works Cited

“NWHM Exhibit: The History of Women and Education.” NWHM Exhibit: The History of Women and Education. National Women History Museum, 1997. Accessed 13 Apr. 2017.

Adamo, Julie, et al. “Building Research Data Services at Mount Holyoke College.” 2017.

Burton, Brian. “The End of the Women’s College?” Harvard Political Review, N.p., 05 Nov. 2015. Accessed 13 Apr. 2017.

Chen, Stephanie. “Male, female or neither? Gender identity debated at same-sex colleges.” Cable News Network, 08 Nov. 2010. Accessed 13 Apr. 2017.

Cowan, Robert. “ACDC Agency: Food Politics with Community College Students at Vassar.” Radical Teacher, vol. 107, 2017, pp. 45.   

Rowe, David E., and John McCleary, eds. Ideas and Their Reception: Proceedings of the Symposium on the History of Modern Mathematics, Vassar College, Poughkeepsie, New York, June 20-24, 1989. Academic Press, 2014.

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Aspects of Australian National Identity

Aspects of Australian National Identity

Australia can be regarded as a young nation, which is culturally diverse. Australian humour can be traced back to the people’s origin as convict colonies. The aspect of national identity relates to a national sense of humour that eventually and quickly developed to respond to the conditions that the people went through. Australian humour is reflected because of the people’s national identity, and it is a unique sense of humour, which portrayed the world as being Australian.

The Australian identity is mainly reflected in the aspect of multiculturalism. This refers to ethnic and cultural diversities of the contemporary Australia. Several things that transgress and help shape their identity can identify the country’s identity. Multiculturalism is a key factor in this aspect. Australian national identity is reflected in Australian humour in that it shows the country as the ultimate joke. This argument is based on the aspects that things changed very fast during that period and one could not understand completely where he or she stood with the rest.

The issue of Australian humour was portrayed in that people advocated for multiculturalism while others embraced a monoculture. This shows that one would go surfing in the sea and return to find their houses burned by a bushfire. This Australian humour often served as a crucial source of unity and cohesion in the culturally and ethnically diverse societies (Moran 2011). The Australian humour is portrayed in that a person cannot be completely sure about something, one may talk well about something only for it to backfire and hit hard. These aspects of Australian humour shows that there are issues that threaten multicultural values, which people may not have planned for (Moran 2011). The aspect of multiculturalism leaves people confused about where they stand on the issue of national identity. Multiculturalism helps bring about the issue of unity and cohesion, but it does not lay the grounds on the issue of national identity.

Australian humour can be seen in the country’s use of slang and across multiple medias from sketches, a cartoon in print, and comedy in the televisions and witty things that happen in life. The argument about the Australian landscapes presents a sense of humour because it serves to show what the people relate to in their idea of national identity to what they live through. The argument in this situation is that the landscape is ever larger than it is (Carter 1994). The Australian humour is not only presented in interesting things but also things that can hurt.

 The aspect of Anti-authoritarian humour in Australia developed as a reflection of the past. The Australian legends show the importance of making those in power laugh. Theses presented a great difference between the harsh labour and freedom. A country’s national identity is often described depending on what stands out the most about the country. Australia is a vast land that has so much to offer, and it represents a nation that, like many other nations, has tales, myths, and legends about how the nation came to be (Ward 1958). This shows an aspect whereby the people are unwilling to settle in a certain place, and yet it is what represents it. The sense of Australian humour is determined by how the people want to relate.

Religion can also be effectively used to describe national identity. In Australia, the integration and inclusion of Muslim in multicultural Australia emphasize on Muslim identity, and this can be compatible with the Australian national identity (Busbridge 2013). There are people of diverse religions in Australia, and that is why each religion feels like they play a part in the country’s national identity. This is mostly seen when one puts into account the Muslims and the Islam-Christians. This created the need to have a unifying factor, people in Australia had to find a way to relate together, and thus it was important to develop humour.

The issue that exists about the indigenous and non-indigenous Australian relations about the public also serves to explain the issue of national identity (Healy 2008). People in Australia have often described the country’s identity about memories of the past, the issues that happened some time ago. These processes of memory and history makings come as a response to real violence and issues of dispossession of those inhabiting Australia (Healy 2008). This issue shows that national identity can be manipulated; this has helped the Australian people find a way to deal with these situations and often do so by the use of humour.

Australian humour has developed over the years, and it is not the same as it used to be in the beginning. However, it has its roots at the country’s national identity, and it was largely defined by the events that transgressed a long time ago. Australia was located in the vast, unexplored suburban tundra (Turnbull 2008). That argument still stands to this very day claiming that the land where the people should live marks to present their identity.

The issue of multiculturalism shows more aspect of Australian humour than Australian identity. There have been unofficial suggestions, which have led to the discussion that this could happen and portends to institute a two-tier nationwide identity among Australian (Woodlock 2011). Australians can make fun of their friends but it is because of their sense of humour and thus they do it without any bad intentions (Woodlock, 2011). This unique strain of humour can bewilder people because one may feel like the Australian people are making fun of him while they are just humorously doing it. This kind of humour was developed as a way of showing trust and building rapport; they may make fun of people’s bad habits, or play practical jokes, but it is all in a good will.

The idea of national identity in Australia is diverse, and mostly the aspect of multiculturalism highlights it. However, it is not definite and cannot be relayed in a single explanation. This issue will have conflicting explanations from different people. A certain group will describe the meaning of this term according to what they feel defines them while another group will have an entirely different definition. However, this issue of national identity has greatly influenced the aspect of Australian humour. Most of the aspects that came with national origin also contributed to the development of a unique kind of humour.

Therefore, these different aspects; ethnicity, religion, cultures, national heritage, and location among others show that Australia has diverse ways of describing their national identity. They also show how some aspect of Australian humour such as a black sagacity of humour, mocking the wowser, self-contemptuous, and anti-dictatorial was developed.


Busbridge, Rachel 2013, ‘“It’s Just Your Turn”: Performing Identity and Muslim Australian,’ Popular Culture Islam and Christian–Muslim Relations, Vol. 24, No. 4, pp. 459–477.

Carter, David 1994, ‘Future pasts’ in Headon, D, Hooton, J & Horne, D (Eds), The abundant Culture: Meaning and significance in everyday Australia, Allen & Unwin, St. Leonards, pp. 3­15.

Turnbull, Sue 2008, ‘Mapping the Vast Suburban Tundra: Australian Comedy from Dame Edna to Kath and Kim’, International Journey of Cultural Studies, Vol. 11, No. 1, pp. 15­32.

Healy, Chris 2008, ‘Chapter 4: The Spectre of Heritage’ in Forgetting Aborigines, UNSW Press, Kensington, pp. 100­131.

Moran, Anthony 2011 ‘Multiculturalism as nation building in Australia: Inclusive national identity and the embrace of diversity,’ Ethnic and Racial Studies, Vol. 34, No. 12, 2153­2172.

Ward, Russel 1958, Chapter 1: The legend and the task in The Australian legend, Oxford University Press, Melbourne, pp. 1­14.

Woodlock, Rachel 2011, ‘Being an Aussie Mossie: Muslim and Australian identity among Australian born Muslims’, Islam and Christian Muslim Relations, Vol. 22, No. 4, 391­407.

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Discuss your experiences working as part of a team this semester.

Address the following in a reflection of no more than 500 words.  Use paragraph format, single or double-spaced, APA format is not required.  Be sure to answer each question in detail to receive full credit.

  1. Discuss your experiences working as part of a team this semester.  What went well, and where was there room for improvement?  How will you use what you learned this semester in future courses and your future career?
  2. How have your views on your professional strengths and areas for improvement changed since the beginning of the semester?

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