Should Social Media, Including Facebook, Assist in Law Enforcement Essay

Should Social Media, Including Facebook, Assist in Law Enforcement Essay.

We all know what happened to Jill Meagher. What some of you may not know is that social media played an integral role in solving her murder. Without the use of social media, Jill Meagher’s case may have remained unsolved. Unfortunately, we usually associate social media with negative connotations; however what we haven’t thought of is the positive contributions it could make to our society. One change that we should make that would benefit us incredibly is to use social media, including Facebook, to assist in law enforcement.

I don’t have to define to you what social media is, we all use it on a daily basis. If I was speaking to an older audience I may have to explain, but to be honest most of you are going to go home and log onto Facebook. It has always been a part of our world and it probably always will be. Sadly, one part of social media that we are very aware of is that it is often used to harm, to hurt – this is clearly evident in the numerous accounts of cyber bullying.

I do not intend to pretend that there aren’t negative aspects of social media; I am simply trying to emphasise the enormous power and influence that it holds.

If we could harness this power and rather use it to protect and assist in law enforcement the advantages would be tremendous. So, how can social media help us? One enormously beneficial aspect of social media is in the locating of missing persons. In Australia, one person goes missing every 15 minutes. The police simply do not have the resources to locate all of these people. However, hundreds of media sites have already been set up with the sole intent of finding missing persons. Crimestoppers have a mobile application to help connect the community to the police in reporting crime.

Assistant Commissioner Peter Barrie of the New South Wales Police said “It is a great way for people to send us a message and support it with a picture, anywhere, anytime,” The new tools offer the community an opportunity to assist in a way that is beneficial to us all. It makes sense to harness social media’s power for good – to solve real life problems such as finding missing persons. More importantly however, social media cuts down those crucial minutes when finding a missing person – the minutes that determine whether a person has hope of being found.

A powerful real life example of the effectiveness of this method occurred in November 2011 when 13 year old Allie Loftis ran away from her home near Boston. Thanks to social media, her father Tony found her 12 days later, with a 42-year-old sexual predator. After coverage of his Facebook, YouTube and Twitter campaign, local papers and TV stations followed the story and eventually found her. Mr Loftis said that “…the more people there are looking; the more likely you are to find them,” that is really just basic common sense.

Without the aid of social media, who knows what could have happened to his daughter. Secondly, social media not only provides a way of locating people, but also assists in gathering evidence on suspects. At its core, social media is an online database of personal information, and once it is online, can never be taken down. This method was used in Canada after the 2011 Vancouver Stanley Cup riot. The police admitted to being overwhelmed by the sheer volume of evidence provided by social media, enabling them to convict a number of rioters.

The frequency of cases being solved through evidence found on social media is large and growing as it is becoming gradually more prevalent and helpful to law enforcement. A survey conducted by the International Association of Chiefs of Police in 2012 found that 86% of agencies use social media to review profiles and the activities of suspects. This statistic shows how increasingly reliant law enforcement is becoming on social media. Of course, this is not the only way that the police can gather evidence on suspects. Many people today have online identities.

This makes it that much easier for investigators to create fake online profiles to track or befriend suspects in order to gain new information and insight into their crimes. They will also be able to gain an understanding of the suspect’s mentality through monitoring their posts, giving them the ability to secure an accurate conviction. The knowledge that the law enforcement agencies are policing the social media pages for potential criminals should provide those who use them for innocent pleasure and chat, a sense of reassurance.

Lastly, social media is one of the most effective means of communication when it comes to sending out messages on a large scale. This is why it is such a great platform to inform the public. I guarantee you that every single person in this room will have access to social media right now. Virtually all phones come with internet access; we can get onto Facebook at the touch of a button. How much easier could it get? While users are checking their messages and accepting friend requests, they surely have enough time to look at that missing person picture their friends shared.

Within seconds of the Police posting that picture, a user can share it with their entire network of friends, family and co-workers who then can share it within their own networks. A further advantage of using social media to inform the public is the relationship it will create between the police and community. Through the more personal style of communication, social media is likely to help create a climate of trust and foster better interaction with the general public. The police officers seem more “human” and therefore the public would have more trust in them.

People want to be able to talk to the police in whatever way they can, wherever they can. This can be done through social media. Through this it can be seen quite clearly that social media is highly capable of informing the public for the interests of law enforcement. I can understand that some people may have reservations due to the current unregulated nature of social media. However, the answer is not to say that we shouldn’t use it but rather to implement appropriate safeguards in order to refine and regulate these sites.

Like all new and revolutionary developments, it may take a while for it to be perfected, but soon using social media to solve crime will be no more unusual than the old fashioned pen and paper. Change is hard to accept, however resisting the use of social media to assist in law enforcement is as useless as it would have been to resist the demise of the horse and cart when cars were invented. Society naturally evolves; we need to focus on the positive and strengthening change this will have on our nation.

Our generation have embraced this technology, unlike our parents. It is natural that we should see it as part of the future of law enforcement. As many people say, the youth is the hope for our future. Younger generations do not respond, like our parents, to the traditional media such as newspapers or radio, we respond to a unique function of communication – social media. Our most important priority should be our safety, Social media is not the answer to all our problems, but it will bring us one step closer.

Should Social Media, Including Facebook, Assist in Law Enforcement Essay

Women’s Status in Colonial Society Essay

Women’s Status in Colonial Society Essay.

For many of the settlers coming to America they, obviously, had formed their own views and beliefs on the world, including the thought on the way of life and what it was intended to be. For most colonists in America they already shared a common opinion about women being inferior. However, the value of women has a slight increase due to scarceness. The status of women in the colonies, the roles women had taken with the religion aspect, and the required daily chores known as “women’s work” would eventually require a second look into the their contributions.

Once many colonists became established and figured out the ways to live and survive in this New World also came forth many formed opinions on what the purpose of women would be in the colonies. John Winthrop insisted that a woman’s role was solely to adhere to her husband, obey his authority and find contentment within this. One Minister even stressed, “the woman is a weak creature not endowed with like strength and constancy of mind.

” (Tindall and Shi 2010, 113) Due to social custom and legal codes women had little to no rights.

The few exceptions for women to have any type of right or gain respect were if and only, it seemed, family circumstances required a woman to continue on the family reputation, business, or social standing. An example would be Elizabeth Lucas Pinckney (Tindall and Shi 2010, 114) who was highly educated and left to take care of her family while her father was absent. This led her to be known as Americas most enterprising horticulturist. Religion in the colonial era still had similar views about women within the Puritan denomination. As for Puritans they considered women to be “weak vessels” and also cited biblical passages that god required “virtuous” women to submit to male authority and remain silent in congregational matters. (Tindall and Shi 2010, 115) Unlike Quakers, who during this time considered women to be equal to men and allowed women to have a voice within the community. Women were even allowed to preach within the Quaker religion, but with that, no denomination allowed women to be ordained as ministers. It became apparent by the ministers that woman were the mass of the congregation, which worried them and led them to believe that a feminized church was a church in decline.

This was argued by a Boston Minister, Cotton Mather (Tindall and Shi 2010, 115) who proclaimed that women were not the weaker of the sex, and that childbirth pain woman endured was not as punishment that woman paid for Eve’s sinfulness, was in part the reason and motivator for women to commit their lives to Christ. Thus showing how he came to this conclusion which was after his observation that there “are far more Godly women in the world rather than Godly men”. Women’s work in the eighteenth century, as for the same in the world today, never seemed to end. During the colonial time “women’s work” ” included the duties, as some might say, would be to maintain the house, garden and farm. (Tindall and Shi 2010, 117) Other than taking care of the children and men, tending to the garden, cleaning the house and providing three meals for the day, some women went above and beyond their womanly duties.

Women also found a way to accumulate the required necessities for living. They would make their own clothing, knit linen and cotton, make quilts, hem sheets, make candles and soap, haul water and they even chopped wood to ensure that they would have their firewood needed to provide a source of warmth when the time came. In the southern colonies, female indentured servants worked as field hands, weeding, hoeing and harvesting. (Tindall and Shi 2010, 117) The lack of men and being able to provide the labor needed in the colonies provided an opportunity for many women, despite the laws and traditional beliefs about woman being inferior or incapable.

Due to the scarcity of women and the effects it made on creating instability on high orders in the past, led to laws protecting women. Such laws were created for protection from physical abuse, and permission for divorce. Other laws help maintain control over property they had tended to, property they had earned. While in this era woman played many roles. Showing their strength by doing what was expected and surpassing the “superior sex” by picking up the slack they always seemed to leave behind. Not only within the colonies, the religious conformity they maintained, or the daily tasks they endured for sake of the house hold, they opened a door, made a statement, by executing what needed to be done.

Tindall, George, and David Shi. America: A Narrative History. Volume I, 8th Edition.
New York: W.W. Norton, 2010.

Women’s Status in Colonial Society Essay

Starbucks and Corporate Social Responsibility Essay

Starbucks and Corporate Social Responsibility Essay.

Starbucks, an international coffee store, began in Seattle in 1971 as a collaborative of three business partners. In the 1980’s Starbucks began to expand beyond Seattle and the chain began to go internationally. It is reported that as of August, 2012, Starbucks is now located in 58 countries making it an extremely viable force in the coffee industry. Starbucks mission, according to its website, is “to inspire and nurture the human spirit – one person, one cup and one neighborhood at a time.”(Starbucks Website). As mentioned in lectures (Wyatt, 2012) and readings (Waddock, 2008), Corporate Social Responsibility needs to be comprehensive and considerate of a wide range of stakeholders and three specific spheres. These spheres include economic, political and civil society.

Starbucks has grown a lot in the past several decades and has worked to respond to issues that have arisen in several of these spheres. Starbucks has, as part of its CSR report, information about Environmental stewardship: Community involvement and Ethical Sourcing. In terms of community giving, Starbucks thrives both locally and abroad, including provisionfinancial support after the Tsunami in 2010.

Starbucks also has developed ethical standards for supporting farmers and employment opportunities. Politically, Starbucks also strives to participate in global human rights issues and to be transparent in its political contributions. (Starbucks Website). Environmentally, Starbucks established its first environmental mission in 1992. And then, after pressure to consider labor practices, wrote a Framework for Code of Conduct in 1995. (Waddock, 2008).

Criticism continued about practices with labor and environmental issues, so Starbucks upgraded various programs in 2001. Global Exchange, for example, continues to urge Starbucks to do a better job with Fair Trade, the environment and wage issues. (Global Exchange). In 2011, Starbucks had 75% of all new buildings meet LEED standards. In terms of stakeholders, Waddock describes several layers of stakeholders and how these stakeholders may develop positive relationships with the company. These relationships can be 1) mutual, 2) interactive, 3) consistent over time, and 4) interdependent. (Waddock, p. 12). At Starbucks, leadership believes that interdependence is the heart of its mission and that its serves to create connection in the stores, communities and through the internet of those its serves.

Similar to the article by Robert Allio and Nike, Starbucks is working to help co-create with the consumer to create a partnership value. For Starbucks, the focus on relationship extends to customers and to suppliers. Customers have control over “creating” the product they consume for example thus creating that unique experience. Starbucks has also shown willingness to listen to concerns like those of Global Exchange, and work toward creating better conditions. The article by Duesterberg failed to inspire any concerns of stakeholders or global thinking, but rather one that was only focused on profit of companies and working to reduce corporate responsibility to employees in the form of health benefits.

Being as large a company as it is, Starbucks will always have outside individuals and organizations working to keep the company above board in all three spheres. CSR reports, such as the ones Starbucks provide, are great, and there is always room for improvement. Hopefully Starbucks will continue to listen to all stakeholders when making critical decisions.


Allio, R. (2008). C.K. Prahalad heralds a new era of innovation. Strategy & Leadership, 36:6 pp. 11 – 14. Retrieved from

Duesterberg, T. J. (2008). Looking Ahead to Manufacturing’s Future. Industry Week/IW, 257(9), 12. Retrieved from

Starbucks Campaign. Global Exchange [website]. Retrieved from

Waddock, S. (2008). Leading Corporate Citizens: Visions, Value, Value Added (3rd ed.). New York, NY:McGraw-Hill. Retrieved from CKFXXPD&credential=ZQZV7HY8

Wyatt, J. (2012). Module One: Foundations of Corporate Responsibility [lecture]. Retrieved from [pic][pic][pic]

Starbucks and Corporate Social Responsibility Essay

Deschooling Society Essay

Deschooling Society Essay.


This term paper is about De schooling Society which is a book written by Ivan Illich. The book is more than a critique – it contains suggestions for changes to learning in society and individual lifetimes. Particularly striking is his call for the use of advanced technology to support “learning webs”. In this paper, we will first see what is meant by de schooling society and then what is the need for de schooling and is it necessary to disestablish a school.

After seeing the reasons for de schooling, we look at the phenomenology of school which gives the phenomenon of school. Then we will see the rituals in the current school system and discuss about them. Later we look at the model for evaluating institutions and then propose the idea of learning webs and thus conclude with the requirements of a good education system and what an educated person should be able to do.

What is De schooling Society?

The process of receiving education or training especially done at School is called Schooling.

The main goal of Schooling is to learn things from what is taught by teachers in the school. Here learning, education, training, guidance or discipline is derived from experiences and through lessons taught by teachers. De schooling society is a critical discourse on education as practised in modern economics. It is replacing school with natural learning. It specifically refers to that period of adjustment experienced by children removed from school settings. It is the initial stage where one gets rid of schoolish thoughts about learning and life in general. If one is given time to adjust to the freedom of no school routines and not being told what to do every minute of the day, then they have lots of time to relax, try new things, to discover their interests and rediscover the joy of learning. This is the idea of de schooling. It is like a child recovering from school damage. “SCHOOLING IS THE SYSTEM DESIGNED FOR TEACHING……. ……. DE SCHOOLING IS THE SYSTEM DESIGNED FOR LEARNING.”

Why we must disestablish a school (why de schooling???)

Ivan Illich feels that there is a need to disestablish school by giving examples of ineffectual nature of institutionalized education. According to Illich “Universal education through schooling is not feasible. It would be no more feasible if it were attempted by means of alternative institutions built on the style of present schools. Neither new attitudes of teachers toward their pupils nor proliferation of educational hardware or software, nor the attempt to expand teacher’s responsibility will deliver universal education. The current search for new educational funnels must be reversed into the search for their institutional inverse: educational webs which heighten the opportunity for each one to transform each moment of his living into one of learning, sharing and caring.

“ The present school system believes that more the treatment, better are results and leads to success. It confuses teaching with learning, grade advancement with education, a diploma with competence and fluency with ability to say something new. Medical treatment is mistaken for health care, social work for the improvement of community life, police protection for safety, military poise for national security, the rat race for productive work. Illich shows that institutionalization of values leads inevitably to physical pollution, social polarization, and psychological impotence and most of the research now going on further increases in the institutionalization of values and we must define conditions which would permit precisely the contrary to happen. He believes that care only makes students dependent on more treatment and renders them increasingly incapable of organising their own lives around their own experiences and resources within their own communities.

With the present system poor children lack most of the educational opportunities which are casually available to middleclass people. To solve this they started a program “Title One” which is the most expensive compensatory program ever attempted anywhere in education, yet no significant improvement can be detected in learning of these disadvantaged children. Special curricula, separate classes or longer hours only constitute more discrimination of poor. Thus this system has failed to improve the education of the poor. Advantages of rich over poor range from conversation and books in the home to vacation travel and a different sense of oneself and apply for the child who enjoys them both in and out of school. So a poor student will generally fall behind so long as he depends on the school for advancement or learning. Poor needs funds to enable them to learn.

Neither in North America nor in Latin America do the poor get equality from obligatory schools but in both the places, the mere existence of school discourages and disables the poor from taking control of their own learning. All over the world, school has an anti educational effect on society: school is recognized as the institution which specializes in education. The failures of school are taken by most people as proof that education is very costly, very complex, always mysterious and almost impossible task. Education disadvantage cannot be cured by relying on education within school. Neither learning nor justice is promoted by schooling because educators insist on packaging instruction with certification. Learning and assignment of social rules are melted into schooling. The major illusion on which the school system rests is that most learning is the result of teaching. Teaching only contributes to certain kinds of learning under certain circumstances.

But most people acquire most of their knowledge outside school. Most learning happens casually, and even most intentional learning is not the result of programmed instruction. For example, normal children learn their first language (mother tongue) casually, although faster if their parents pay attention to them. But the fact that a great deal of learning even now seems to happen casually and as a by-product of some other activity defined as work or leisure does not mean that planned learning does not benefit from planned instruction and that both do not stand in need of improvement. Illich illustrates the idea of learning with a practical example. “In 1956 there arose a need to teach Spanish quickly to several hundred teachers, social workers, and ministers from the New York Archdiocese so that they could communicate with Puerto Ricans.

Gerry Morris announced over a Spanish radio station that he needed native speakers from Harlem. Next day some two hundred teen-agers lined up in front of his office, and he selected four dozen of them-many of them school dropouts. He trained them in the use of the U.S. Foreign Service Institute (FSI) Spanish manual, designed for use by linguists with graduate training, and within a week his teachers were on their own-each in charge of four New Yorkers who wanted to speak the language. Within six months the mission was accomplished. Cardinal Spellman could claim that he had 127 parishes in which at least three staff members could communicate in Spanish. No school program could have matched these results.”

Further experiments conducted by Angel Quintero in Puerto Rico suggest that many young teen-agers, if given proper incentives, programs, and access to tools, are better than most school teachers at introducing their peers to the scientific exploration of plants, stars, and matter, and to the discovery of how and why a motor or a radio functions. Opportunities for skill-learning can be vastly multiplied if we open the market. Schools are even less efficient in the arrangement of the circumstances which encourage the openended, exploratory use of acquired skills. The main reason for this is that school is obligatory and becomes schooling for schooling’s sake. Most skills can be acquired by drills, because skill implies the mastery of definable and predictable behaviour.

Education is the exploratory and creative use of skills, however, cannot rely on drills. It relies on the relationship between partners , on the critical intent of all those who use memories creatively, on the surprise of unexpected question which opens new doors. It is now generally accepted that the physical environment will soon be destroyed by biochemical pollution unless we reverse the current trends in the production of physical goods which is possible by de schooling. Instead of equalizing chances, the school system has monopolized their distribution. Equal educational opportunity is indeed both a desirable and a feasible goal, but to equate this with obligatory schooling is to confuse salvation with the church. A de schooled society implies a new approach to incidental or informal education. Thus he says that not only education but society as a whole needs de schooling.

Phenomenology of School

In order to make the schooling process better and to search for alternative methods in education, we must start with an agreement on what do we mean by “school”. We need to have clear idea on what a “school” is and what is the difference between “teaching” and “learning”. We can do this by listing the functions that are performed by modern school systems, such as custodial care, selection, indoctrination, and learning. We could make client analysis and verify which of these functions render a service or a disservice to teachers, employers, children, parents, or the professions. We could survey history of western culture and information gathered by anthropology to get an idea of schooling.

And we could recall the statements made by many people before and discover which of these the modern school system most closely approaches. But any of these approaches would oblige us to start with certain assumptions about a relationship between school and education. Hence we begin with phenomenology of public school. We can define the school as the age-specific, teacher-related process requiring full-time attendance at an obligatory curriculum. Age: School groups people according to age. This grouping rests on three unquestioned premises.

Children belong in school. Children learn in school. Children can be taught only in school. Illich thinks that these unexamined premises deserve serious questioning. If there were no age-specific and obligatory learning institutions, childhood would go out of production. The disestablishment of school could also end the present discrimination against infants, adults, and the old in favour of children throughout their adolescence and youth. Institutional wisdom tells us that children need school. Institutional wisdom tells us that children learn in school. But this institutional wisdom is itself a product of schools because common sense tells us that only children can be taught in school. Teachers and Pupils: Here children are pupils. School is an institution built on the axiom that learning is the result of teaching.

And institutional wisdom continues to accept this axiom, despite overwhelming evidence to contrary. Illich says that most of the learning is without teachers. Most tragically, the majority of men are taught their lessons by schools, even though they never go to school. Everyone learns how to live outside school. We learn to speak, to think, to love, to feel, to play, to curse, to politick, and to work without interference from a teacher. Even orphans, idiots, and schoolteachers’ sons learn most of what they learn outside the educational process planned for them. Half of the people in our world never set foot in school. They have no contact with the teachers, and they are deprived of the privilege of becoming dropouts. Yet they learn quite effectively the message which school teaches. Pupils have never credited teachers for most of their learning. Schools create jobs for schoolteachers, no matter what their pupils learn from them.

Full-Time Attendance: The institutional wisdom of schools tells parents, pupils, and educators that the teacher, if he is to teach, must exercise his authority in a sacred precinct. This is true even for teachers whose pupils spend most of their school time in a classroom without walls. School, by its very nature, tends to make a total claim on the time and energies of its participants. This, in turn, makes the teacher into custodian, preacher, and therapist. In each of these three roles the teacher bases his authority on a different claim. The teacher as custodian sets the stage for the acquisition of some skill. Without illusions of producing any profound learning, he drills his pupils in some basic routines. The teacher as moralist substitutes for parents, god, or the state.

He instructs the pupil about what is right and what is wrong, not only in school but also in society at large. The teacher as therapist feels authorized to enter into the personal life of his pupil in order to help him grow as a person. Defining children as full-time pupils permits the teacher to exercise a kind of power over their persons. A pupil who obtains assistance on an exam is told that he is an outlaw, morally corrupt, and personally worthless. Classroom attendance removes children from everyday world of western culture and plunges them into an environment far more primitive, magical, and deadly serious. The attendance rule makes it possible for the schoolroom to serve as a magic womb, from which the child is delivered periodically at the end of the day and end of the year until he is finally expelled into adult.

Ritualization of progress:

Illich sees education as being about consumption of packages where the distributor delivers the packages designed by technocrats to the consumer. Here teacher is the distributor and pupils are the consumers. Thus in schools, children are taught to be consumers. Illich’s criticism of school is a criticism of the consumerist mentality of modern societies; a model which the developed nations are trying to force on developing nations. In this view a country is developed according to indices of how many hospitals and schools it has. In terms of school Illich criticises the system which offers a packaged education and awards credentials for the successful consumption of the packages. The packages are continually being re-written and adjusted but the problems they are supposed to address remain same.

This is much more than simply a racket to produce more textbooks and exam syllabuses; this is a commercial activity mirroring the marketing processes of the industry. Children are the obligatory recipients of these marketing efforts. As the teacher is the custodian of rituals of society so schools as institutions are the places for the promotion of myths of society. Illich is especially concerned with this in developing nations where he sees a wrong direction being taken as these countries adopt the consumerist model of the west/north. Education is the means by which these societies get sucked into the consumerist way of doing things.

More schooling leads to rising expectations but schooling will not lift the poor out of poverty; rather it will deprive them of their self-respect. Most basic schools operate according to the notion that “knowledge is a valuable commodity which under certain circumstances may be forced into the consumer”. Schools are addicted to the notion that it is possible to manipulate other people for their own good. For Illich, schools offer something other than learning. He sees them as institutions which by requiring full-time compulsory attendance in ritualised programmes based around awarding credentials to those who can consume educational packages and endure it for the longest. It is thus training in “disciplined consumption”.

Institutional Spectrum:

In this chapter Illich proposes a model for evaluating institutions. He contrasts convivial institutions (which mean friendly, lively and enjoyable institution) at one end of a spectrum (left side) with manipulative ones at the other (right side) to show that there are institutions which fall between the extremes and to illustrate how historical institutions can change colour as they shift from facilitating activity to organizing production. In line with the theme which occurs throughout the book that his criticism of schooling is more to the point than some traditional Marxist challenges to contemporary society Illich points out that many on the left support institutions on the right of his scale i.e. manipulative ones.

Of all “false utilities,” school is the most insidious. Highway systems produce only a demand for cars. Schools create a demand for the entire set of modern institutions which crowd the right end of the spectrum. A man who questioned the need for high-ways would be written off as a romantic; the man who questions the need for school is immediately attacked as either heartless or imperialist. Just as highways create the impression that their present level of cost per year is necessary if people are to move, so schools are presumed essential for attaining the competence required by a society which uses modern technology. Schools are based upon the hypothesis that learning is the result of teaching.

Irrational Consistencies:

He argues that educational researchers and thinkers are more conservative than in other disciplines. He argues that without a new orientation for research and a new understanding of the educational style of an emerging counter-culture the educational revolution will not happen. Our present educational institutions are at the service of the teacher’s goals. The relational structures we need are those which will enable each man to define himself by learning and by contributing to the learning of others. A key theme in this work is the criticism of the idea that learning is the result of teaching. In Illich’s analysis education is a funnel for educational packages.

Illich opposes this with an idea of ‘learning webs’ which are about “the autonomous assembly of resources under the personal control of each learner”. In this chapter Illich criticises some of the ideologies of schooling which he sees in apparently radical initiatives such as the free-school movement and the lifelong learning movement. He points out that free-schools still ultimately support the idea of schooling as the way of inducing children into society. Illich sees manipulative institutions as being those where “some men may set, specify, and evaluate the personal goals of others”. It is very clear that Illich means it when he calls for the de schooling of society.

Learning Webs:

Illich’s practical vision for learning in a de-schooled society is built around what he calls ‘learning webs’. Illich envisages 3 types of learning exchange; between a skills teacher and a student, between people themselves engaging in critical discourse, and between a master and a student. Illich also considers the de-institutionalisation of resources. He proposes that resources already available in society be made available for learning. For example a shop could allow interested people to attempt repairs on broken office equipment as a learning exercise. He suggests that such a network of educational resources could be financed either directly by community expenditure.

Whether he is talking about skills exchanges or educational resources Illich envisages non hierarchical networks. The professionals in Illich’s vision are the facilitators of these exchanges not the distributors of approved knowledge packages in the school system. He envisages two types of professional educators; those who operate the resource centres and facilitate skills exchanges and those who guide others in how to use these systems and networks. The ‘masters’ we have mentioned above he does not see as professional educators but rather as people so accomplished in their own disciplines that they have a natural right to teach it.

Illich’s programme is practical and thought out. He proposes new institutions of a convivial nature to replace the manipulative ones of the current schooling system. In these new institutions there is no discontinuity between ‘school’ and the world; (though this is most definitely not ‘lifelong learning’ which seeks to extend schooling throughout adult life). There is no ritual of induction of the next generation into the myths of society through a class of teacher-preachers. Illich is interested in learning as a human activity carried out for obvious purposes – to gain the benefits that learning the new skill brings.

Educational resources are usually labeled according to educators’ curricular goals. Illich propose to do the contrary, to label four different approaches which enable the student to gain access to any educational resource which may help him to define and achieve his own goals:

Reference Services to Educational Objects – which facilitate access to things or processes used for formal learning. Some of these things can be reserved for this purpose, stored in libraries, rental agencies, laboratories, and showrooms like museums and theatres; others can be in daily use in factories, airports, or on farms, but made available to students as apprentices or on off hours.

Skill Exchanges – which permit persons to list their skills, the conditions under which they are willing to serve as models for others who want to learn these skills, and the addresses at which they can be reached.

Peer-Matching – a communications network which permits persons to describe the learning activity in which they wish to engage, in the hope of finding a partner for the inquiry.

Reference Services to Educators-at-Large – who can be listed in a directory giving the addresses and self-descriptions of professionals, paraprofessionals, and freelancers, along with conditions of access to their services. Such educators, as we will see, could be chosen by polling or consulting their former clients.


Illich argued that the use of technology to create decentralized webs could support the goal of creating a good educational system. A good educational system should have three purposes:

It should provide all who want to learn with access to available resources at any time in their lives;

Empower all who want to share what they know to find those who want to learn it from them;

Furnish all who want to present an issue to the public with the opportunity to make their challenge known.

An educated child should be able to:   

Read, write, and communicate effectively; Think creatively and logically to solve problems; and Set and work toward goals.



Deschooling Society Essay

Social Issues in Taiwan Essay

Social Issues in Taiwan Essay.

In recent years, many serious social issues keep happening constantly in Taiwan, causing a lot of people depressing and frustrating. According to the page of Dajiyaun published in 2009/08/29, the rate of happiness in Taiwan ranks at the bottom among seven Asian countries. People in Singapore, Vietnam, China and Korea live happier than Taiwanese. Besides the law rate of well- being, the rate of committing suicide stays at a high level as well, showing no trend of decline. Taiwanese seems having miserable lives.

Nowadays, more and more people come across some difficult social issues, which are the high divorce rate in Taiwan, the problem of school bullying and the unemployment of freshman of society.

According to the page of Dajiyaun in 2006/11/06, Singapore, Thailand and Malaysia all come across the problem of rising of divorce rate. The divorce rate in Taiwan is the highest among all Asian countries. The number of couples divorced in 2003 has hit a record of 61213. In 2006, the number of divorced couples has hit 64540, according to statistics released by the Ministry of the Interior.

Recently, many people prefer being single to married. Thus, many couples ended their marriage in divorce because of three main causes, which are lack of communication between couples, the financial hardship and the changing of conceptions.

One of the courses of divorce is lack of communication between couples. According to Lihpao Daily in 2010/04/22, lacking for communication has become the main cause of divorce. Because most couples do not communicate with each other properly, they lead to divorces with issues unresolved from small turning into big. The most common situation is that the wife asks the husband to spend more time with the family. However, the husband still hangs out with friends frequently after getting married.

This kind of little event often brings about getting divorce. In addition, the problem of lacking of communication happens frequently in double incomes family. They are both busy and working during the day and taking care of housework after work. I come from a double incomes family. My parents often argue for little things. For example, My father thinks that having bathtub is useless but my mom insists having a bathtub. At first, they argue for the little decision. After few minutes, their topic changes from bathtub to the problem of living habits.

Another common cause of divorce is financial hardship. Couples will divorce if they cannot afford daily expense and huge debt. A traditional saying in Taiwan: Poverty and deprivation forever bring miseries to marriage. Constant quarrels will bring about divorcing of the family always in debt. According to the page of the Liberty News in 2009/07/18, Lin and Wang was a married couple and they relied on few wages to raise a kid. They didn’t have enough money to rent a house and raise a kid. Therefore, this young couple lived in the Internet café and let their child sleep on the motorcycle. After the couple was founded by the police, they decided to divorce and agreed with the police to send their child to another fine family.

Another example was reported in the page of Apple Daily in 2012/05/19, a man who lived in Tainan sued his wife because he wanted to divorce with her. His wife spent 28000000 within 15 years and used his name to borrow 500000 from the bank. In addition, the man worried about financial problems all the time and was diagnosed with melancholia. He can’t help but ask to divorce. Though money is not everything, you cannot live without money. Regardless of how much the couple love each other, they will end in divorce and the family will be destroyed if they cannot afford to pay the daily expenses.

The third cause of divorce is changing of conceptions. Nowadays, people tend to focus on the quality of marriage. Today’s society is different. In earlier society, people emphasized the stability of marriage. People get married for having next generation. For example, my grandparents obeyed the order from their parents and got married. They wouldn’t divorce easily because they would consider for the kids and the whole family. Following the change of conceptions, many young couples get married without thinking. Taiwan national university professor- Doctor Wang has expressed that the couples divorce easily within a year. Today, young couples will divorce if they find out that love no longer exists between them. They focus on the quality of marriage. Nowadays, couples are brave to express their thoughts to maintain a happy marriage.

People divorce for many reasons. Not all marriages fail for the same reason. In my opinion, the three main causes bring about having the highest divorce rate in Taiwan among Asian countries are lack of communication between couples, financial hardship and the changing of conception. To avoid regretting for your decision, we should probably think of the problems carefully and take everything into consideration before we decide to get divorced.

The second social issue in Taiwan is the problem of school bullying. There is a saying: When you look at your life, the greatest happiness is family happiness. ~Joyce Brothers. Home ought to be our harbor to avoid the storm outside and the family should act as a strong back-up system when we are down. Generally speaking, home should be a place filled with joy. However, according to the statistics releasing from the World Health Organization, the relationships between parents and kids are immiscible. In addition, there are approximately 210000 children unsatisfying their families. Therefore, school bully becomes a severe problem nowadays because of some children lacking of attention from their parents, the wrong system of education and the affection of media.

In Taiwan, most children spend their time staying at school and most parents have to work until 8 or 9 o’clock at night. As a result, both children and parents are tired and exhausted. They don’t want to talk to each other after a busy day. In this situation, parents do not have extra time to ask their children to behave properly or act as well-mannered kids. For sake of being bullied, some kids use violence to resolve everything because that is the only way they have learned to keep a safety. Reported in the in 2009/04/16, there was a school bully happened in a junior high school in Hualien.

Twelve students hit a learning-disabled aboriginal student in school and the whole process was filmed by one of the bullies. Other classmates watched the whole filming process but no one helped the poor student. Even the principle of the school tried to destroy the video and pretended as nothing had happened. Moreover, the parents of those bullies sent a politician to force the victim to shut his mouth. Instead of punishing their children, the parents of the bullies tried to protect their kids. In other words, the parents agree with their children’s improper behaviors and they did not pay attention on their morality at all.

The second cause of school bully is the wrong system of education. Nowadays, our education emphasizes on persuading rather than punishing. Therefore, some teachers would not brave enough to expose school bullying. According to the reported in 2009/12/12, a boy who studied in the first year of junior high school was shaved as a bareheaded by his classmate. The bully dragged the skinny boy into the bathroom and took two shavers for shaving his hair. Other bystanders refused to give a hand to the skinny boy and they laughed happily while watching the process of shaving hair. The most shameful thing is that the whole process was filmed by their teacher. The teacher regarded the whole bulling process as a comedy and did not stop his students. The parents of the victim were so angry that they sued the teacher immediately. Viewing this event, we can see that the education of system have a lot of problems to resolve and many places to improve.

The third cause of school bully is the affection of media. In recent years, dramas and online games spread widely and quickly. Many students learn violent behaviors through TVs and computers. That is, the public media set an extremely bad example for children. Few months ago, a notorious school bullying in Hsinchu infuriated Taiwanese and the film spread expeditiously on facebook. People tried to find out those evil girls who had bullied a small girl by using a lot of violent behaviors that were invented by Taiwan’s dramas. Instead of regretting for their unforgettable behaviors, the girls flaunted what they had done and were proud of themselves. The bullies imitated the plots from the dramas and regarded themselves as superwomen. Taiwan’s media should take this event into consideration and decide which kind of shows that is suitable for students and kids.

School bullying makes me worry about the future of those bullies. They beat other classmates when they were teenagers. When they grow up, they might use weapons instead of using hands. This issue links to other social problems. The government in Taiwan should pay more attention on school bullying and try to prohibit any violence happening again.

The third social issue in Taiwan is the rate of unemployment keeps staying at a high level. With the advent of June, many students turn into the freshmen of society. They are filling of passion to devote to their first jobs. However, finding a job seems to be more difficult than entering a university. According to the investigation from the Human Resource Agency, there are half of the freshmen of society having unstable jobs such as temporary workers on assignments and contract workers. Moreover, some people depend on their parents because they cannot find a satisfying job. In my point view, the downturn of the industries in Taiwan, the companies need people who have bountiful experiences and the wrong attitudes toward college students are three reasons causing the high rate of unemployment.

Recently, economic crisis brings a lot of negative affections toward Taiwan’s industries. Although stock market seems prosperous and the prices of real estate keep rising, most people are hard to make a living. In M society, prosperous stock market is useless for most office workers because they earn not so much. They worry about their budget all the time because prices keep climbing. In this condition, companies do not have extra money to hire new employers. Therefore, the rate of unemployment still stays in a high level, showing no trend of decline.

The second cause is that the most companies in Taiwan require people who have experiences. Taiwan focuses on small and medium-sized enterprises for a long time. Human resource is not the most important elements of managing a small company. These enterprises tend to hire the employees who don’t need to be trained. That is, the degree doesn’t play an important role. However, there are still some companies are willing to offer good salaries for hiring talents. Viewing whole situation, people who major in non-mainstream subjects are hard to make a living in Taiwan. Therefore, there are still a lot of graduated students cannot find stable jobs.

The third cause of high rate of unemployment is the wrong attitude toward college students. According to the statistics releasing from the National Policy Foundation, 56.26% employers regard the passion as the most important factor when interviewing a job. Most industries prefer employee willing to learn, working hard and having high pressure resistance. But nowadays many college students refused to work hardly but receiving less salary. They would rather keep studying to avoid the pressure of finding a job. In addition, many freshmen of society change their jobs randomly because they want to find the easiest one. Attitude determines altitude. The wrong attitude toward college students is definitely the main reason causing the high rate of unemployment.

Finding a job is not easy but it does not mean it is difficult. Everything is good for something. As long as you devote yourself to do everything, you will get something good in return. As a college student, I have set my goal and I am working hard on it now. No matter my goal will be achieved or not, I will try my best to make it come true.

In my opinion, the high divorce rate in Taiwan, the problem of school bullying and the high rate of unemployment are three main social issues in Taiwan. Besides these serious issues, there are still many problems happening in our country all the time. I am not ashamed of being a Taiwanese. To make our country become a peaceful and happy place, Taiwanese should be honored of being Taiwanese and unite our strength to get through all the hardships.

Social Issues in Taiwan Essay

Failure Of Socialization Essay

Failure Of Socialization Essay.

Socialization is the process through which one learns his or her culture and how to live within it. Failure in socialization therefore means that one does not learn his or her culture and ultimately how to live within it. This is a source of problems of all nature and scope. Socialization imparts an individual with moral norms, motives, values, attitudes, language, symbols, and social roles.

These are crucial aspects to any individual’s life and they represent all key fields that guide one’s entire life.

The failure of a convenient and effective socialization process could therefore lead to a whole host of problems and complications to the subject in question. Socialization agents are responsible for an individual’s self concept, emotions, behavior, and attitudes. (Chinoy 1961)

There are equally important agents responsible for socialization or failure of socialization of an individual. These agents include the family, education, peer groups, the media, religion, work place and the state. The family is arguably the most important agent of socialization and is usually responsible in determining one’s career goals and religion.

Failure of socialization at the family level could have the most severe effects to an individual and the course of his life. (Clausen 1968)

Failure of Socialization

Fetus socialization

Recent study has suggested that the socialization process starts at the womb as opposed to earlier when socialization was thought to begin when a child is conceived. This therefore means that failure of socialization (if it occurs) starts at the mother’s womb. Doctors earlier believed that the process that a fertilized egg follows until it becomes a baby had a definite genetic path. This however has been proved not to be true. Doctors now believe that fetal development is a complicated affair between the genes of the baby and the information relayed to it by the mother. The mother transmits signals to the fetus and the fetus chooses one path over another.

This multiplicity of choices leads to long time changes to the baby’s body organs as well as to the level of brain sensitivity. (Warren 2009) Although this kind of research is at its earlier stages, there is substantial evidence to prove that indeed the interactions of the fetus within the first nine months have major effects on life after birth. A baby’s days in the womb and the nature of his experiences influences his emotional and physical make up for the rest of his years. For instance, if the mother is stressed and anxious during her pregnancy maybe because of financial constraints or a troubled marriage, the stress hormone cortisol may reach the baby (fetus).

The fetus develops fewer brain receptors to sense cortisol presence because it does not need many. Having fewer receptors does however change an individual’s ability to cope in life at a later stage. When hormone cortisol reaches a certain point in the bloodstream, the system ceases producing the hormone and everything returns to normal. The problem is that, people with fewer receptors do not sense the right time to stop hormone cortisol production. High levels of the hormone in the body create a wear and tear in the body. It also makes it difficult for a person to handle strong emotions without withdrawing or lashing out.

The inability to handle strong emotions may result to the person getting depressed or much stressed. In a study that targeted women in England, those who had high levels of anxiety during pregnancy gave birth to children with twice the rate of behavioral and emotional problems at the age of ten. (Chamberlain 2009)

Robert Harris, a convicted murderer executed in the State of California gas chambers, was born almost three months early when his father kicked his mother brutally in the abdomen. Harris would be subjected through many other violent experiences by his parents, violence he later on turned on innocent people.

When Harris was twenty five years old, he shot dead two teenagers, laughed at them as he calmly ate some hamburgers they had bought for lunch. Recent research has suggested that criminals have poorly functioning brains. Research has also suggested that there is substantial evidence to justify labeling violent and criminal behavior as a disorder resulting from impairment of the prefrontal area as well as other dysfunctions and brain injuries. For instance, a study conducted on juveniles on death row found a consistent pattern of paranoid misconception, neurological impairment, and low intelligence quotient among these juveniles. These brain based origins of violence start when the child is still in the womb of his mother.

Having an impaired brain means that one would have a more difficulty life, more frustration, and little self control. This gives rise to misery, violent and criminal behavior and even death. (Chamberlain 2009)


Attachment is the reciprocal process through which emotional connection is developed between an infant and a caregiver. It is a binding psychological and emotional tie that an individual forms and that lasts over a period of time. Infants develop attachment to their main care givers especially mothers, fathers, day care workers, grandparents, and other siblings. Reciprocal socialization is a bidirectional socialization process. For instance, children interact with their parent and their parents give them feedback. A mother-infant interaction is at times symbolized as a dialogue in which subsequent actions of the both parties are closely coordinated.

The mother and the infant can match each other’s actions, as in when they both engage in mutual smiles. The parent also serves to support a child’s efforts therefore allowing the child to be more skillful. This is all part of the attachment process. According to attachment theorists, attachment is necessary if a child is to have a normal social and emotional development. A secure relationship with adult caregivers is necessary for the survival and healthy development of a child. Attachment influences an infant’s physical, psychological and cognitive development. It is also the basis for a child’s development of either trust or mistrust.

Attachment is imperative to a child’s development because it shapes how a child learns, relates to the world, forms, and maintains relationship throughout his entire life. It is necessary for infants to stay near familiar people because this brings safety advantages to their early adaptation environment. Secure attachment takes place when an infant experiences constant care and gets emotional essentials from a caregiver. When the process of attachment is disrupted, the infant may fail to develop a secure base needed for a healthy survival and development. Factors which impair or harm a healthy or a secure attachment include;

·         Multiple caretakers.

·         Hospitalization.

·         Painful medical processes.

·         Inadequate prenatal care.

·         Prenatal drug and alcohol abuse.

·         Neurological problems. (Moss 2008)

Poor attachment causes the child to have inner feelings of insecurity, intense anger, and self hate. Below are some common causes of attachment problems:

Sudden separation of the infant from the main caregiver either through removal, death, illness etc.
Abuse (physical, emotional or sexual) by an adult.
Infant pain or medical condition that a caregiver cannot alleviate.
A depressed caregiver.
Inadequate or inconsistent attention and care.

Separation is a physical as well as an emotional experience for an infant and can take place either before birth or after birth. Separation is usually accompanied by violence from the child. The connection between a baby and the mother during gestation is total and holistic. Attachment demands that a child be constantly and consistently taken care of by one person. A baby has his own mechanism of knowing whether he is taken care of or is being rejected and neglected. (Johnson 1961)

In a study conducted in Sweden, Finland, and Czechoslovakia for more than thirty years, mothers were denied abortion and compelled to give birth and raise their children. As the children grew older, they demonstrated a greater risk for not only social but also psychiatric problems compared to stable subjects. Majority of those unwanted children turned out to be delinquents and had a three times higher chance of being in the criminal register.

 Research has shown that children who never had a consistent close relationship with anyone (attachment) lack conscience even when they grow up. They have a probability of becoming psychopathic killers because they have no affectionate emotions. Because of going through an early life unattached, they lack empathy, guilt, and trust and can even kill without caring.

Psychologist Andrew Feldmar observed four teenagers who were repeatedly trying to commit suicide at the same time each year. When he did research on those four cases, he realized that their mothers had attempted abortion at the same time of the year that those adolescents were attempting suicide. (Carlie 2002) Any traumatic separation of the infant from the mother or the primary caregiver due to illness, injury, or any other traumatic cause follows the child throughout his life until it is dealt with in the proper manner.

Until this traumatic separation is confronted and dealt with, there is a possibility of detrimental psychosis to occur which will impact the person negatively. Such detrimental impact can be manifested in several ways such as troubled relationships, and trouble with authority in general. Individuals who lack proper socialization during attachment have a higher risk of finding themselves in prisons. (Moss 2008)

Children who have experienced problematic attachment exhibit some observable behaviors. These behaviors include;

When children with problematic attachment develop into adulthood, they become unable to engage in reciprocal relationships. They feign charm and are superficially engaging. They also show indiscriminate affection to strangers unintentionally. They rarely have direct eye contact with whomever they are communicating with. They are poor in forming lasting peer relationships and have a low esteem. They can be very demanding at times.
Children who have experienced problematic attachment have poor cause and effect thinking. They have
a.       It is difficult for them to learn from mistakes.

b.      They experience learning problems.

c.       They have poor control of impulses.

They have an emotionally disturbed development. For instance they;
a.       Have abnormal speech patterns

b.      Have abnormal eating behavior. (Moss 2008)

They have puerile fear, anxiety, aggression, and rage. Their conscience develops poorly. They may become chronic liars, thieves, and generally cruel to other people for no reason. They may become destructive to themselves as well as others without caring much about their actions and behavior. They may also destroy property maliciously.
A negative attachment cycle. The child is likely to have difficulties fitting in the family because;
a.       He engages in negative behavior that cannot escape the parents’ and siblings’ notice.

b.      Due to the nature, extent, and consistency of negative behavior the parents are constantly engaged in quarrels with the child hence aggravating the situation.

c.       The distance and the connection between the parent and the child is severed

There is a direct correlation between the effects of failure of socialization in attachment and antisocial personality disorder. Failure of socialization during attachment not only causes relationship failure throughout a person’s life but also produces criminals. (Moss 2008)

Anti-social personality disorder

Antisocial personality disorder is a persistent pattern of disregard and violation of other people’s rights that begin in early years (childhood or adolescence) and continues into adulthood. For a person to be categorized as having this condition, he must have attained the age of eighteen and must have a history of conduct disorder. Individuals with this type of condition are sometimes labeled as psychopaths or sociopaths.

This condition is characterized with general lack of conscience and a weak capability to control aggressive urges and defer gratification. It does not necessarily lead to criminal and violent behavior in itself but rather individuals with this condition are more prone to violent and criminal behavior. Individuals with antisocial personality disorder differ in their control abilities and general desires.

Some researchers though indicate that these labels are not synonymous with the antisocial personality disorder. As indicated earlier, the socialization process is responsible for imparting an individual with moral norms, motives, values, attitudes, language, symbols, and social roles.

Failure Of Socialization Essay

Society Has Now Entered a New, Postmodern Age Essay

Society Has Now Entered a New, Postmodern Age Essay.

In this essay I plan on explaining the reason for why we do and why we don’t need new sociological theories in postmodern society. Postmodern society is rich in choice, freedom and diversity, this has caused society to fragment and this has led to secularisation. Postmodernity has caused things such as globalisation. Globalisation refers to the growing interconnectedness of societies. As we are now living in a postmodern society many sociologists believe that we need new theories as traditional theories such as Functionalism and Marxism are outdated and are deemed irrelevant to many sociologists.

Functionalism and Marxism are often described as ‘modernist’ as they explain the findings of modern society, where it follows the industrialisation of the western world. Postmodernists reject the views of the modernist theorists as they claim that they are metanarratives. They believe that sociology needs to develop new theories so we can fully understand postmodern society.

Postmodernity has brought changes from modernity these changes include freedom and choice.

There is also less focus on science, postmodernists reject scientific research methods in their research. Although postmodernists are criticised for being subjective, as they gain meanings. Postmodernists also believe that the truth is relative and a social construction, they are also more political than modernists. Society has changed through the increase in globalisation. Globalisation has created more opportunities for crime to be committed. The dramatic advances in technology has made many different crimes available, this includes fraud. Technology has led postmodernity changing, it has caused changes in the economy as corporate crime is now easier to commit. Postmodernity has also brought political changes and diversity has caused changes in culture and identity. Postmodernity has entered the western culture and this has changed from the Enlightenment Project.

Harvey developed a macro theory of socio-economic change, he believed that this was responsible for the emergence of postmodern society. Harvey analysed the labor market and then argued that Fordism set clear bounds of consumption. Harvey claims that postmodernism is another phase of capitalism. He also goes on to say that capitalism has entered a period of adaption where cultural changes the arised. The growth of the mass media has also led to the postmodern world becoming more controlled. The mass media is an ideological function, which manipulates what their audience is able to know. An example of this is in North Korea where the civilians are restricted to certain information. The mass media is now vital in everyday life as it constantly keeps people updated on what is happening the globe.

Baudrillard believes that postmodern society exists by an exchange of images, he named this simulacra. The images are images of things which do not or never existed. He argued that political leaders become themselves through simulacra as they don’t actually possess any power or have the ability to change things from happening. Baudrillard claims that reality has died and that we are left with images. He also sees society as being meaningless, he agrees with Lyotard’s view that society is made up by diversity and boundaries. Beck argues that ‘modern society’ faces new dangers. He claims that society is now in a period of growing industrialisation. He argues that all most all of the threats to the ecosystem are human made rather than from natural disasters.

He claims that the increase in production in modernity has created manufactured risks. However Beck is still sceptical of science, he believes that political action can reduce these manufactured risks. An example of political action is environmentalism. Environmentalism is the concern of preserving the physical environment due to the effects of industrialisation. Marxist theories of the latest stages of capitalism have been explained by Marx and Strachey. Marx’s theory of accumulation fits better than Strachey’s idea that the bourgeoisie are a ‘vision of perfect competition’, however this deviates from the truth. marx’s research failed because there was an error, which is objective.

Stracey believes that capitalism is in a new stage of development, which is characterised by the states management of ownership. In conclusion i believe that the older outdated theories are still relevant to sociology as a whole. The older theories are beneficial as they can be compared. Some of the the research may correlate with postmodern society. It is important to be able to analyse the other theories as they are there for a reason. However I also believe that sociology needs new theories to be able to fully understand postmodernism. There are things that the older theories are not able to explain and that is one of the reason for why we need new sociological theories. Therefore new theories should be developed but that isn’t to say that sociologists can not expand the research of other sociologists.

Society Has Now Entered a New, Postmodern Age Essay

Understanding Health And Safety In Social Care Setting Essay

Understanding Health And Safety In Social Care Setting Essay.

1.1 Legislation relating to health and safety in a social care setting are: Health and Safety at work Act 1974
Management of health and safety at work regulation 1999
Health and Safety (first aid) Regulations 1981.

Reporting of injuries diseases and dangerous occurrences regulations 1995(RIDDOR) Control of substances hazardous to health regulations 2002 (COSHH) 1.2 To ensure the health, safety and welfare of people at work. To protect others from risks arising from the activities of people at work. To control the use and storage of dangerous substances.

To control the emission into the atmosphere of noxious or offensive substances. 1.3 The main health and safety responsibility for a social care worker is to take reasonable care not to put other people including employees and members of the public at risk by what you do or not do at work. Make sure you have had all the correct training and you understand and follow your organisations health and safety policies. Report any injuries or illnesses you suffer as a result of doing your job.

Do not interfere with or misuse anything that has been provided for your health, safety or welfare. Do not undertake any health and safety tasks that you have not been trained for. Employer’s responsibilities are to provide a safe work place.

Give information on health and safety. Provide free training on health and safety. Make sure you can enter and leave your work place safely. Individual’s responsibilities are to follow the health and safety advice that was given to them. Cooperate with you to use appropriate equipment safely. Take reasonable care of their own health and safety. 1.4 Situations which the responsibility of health and safety lies with the individual when the individual does not comply with assessments and procedures. They do not take reasonable care of their own or others safety.

1.5 Tasks that cannot be carried out without training relating to health and safety are, moving and handling, administering medication. 1.6 Information on health and safety and legislation including advice and support can be found on the health and safety executive’s website 2.1 It is important to assess health and safety risks so that you can prevent any danger happening to yourself, other staff or the service user. You can do this by carrying out a risk assessment of the situation.

2.2 The health and Safety risk assessment is completed by the manager when they initially visit the service user. There is a scoring system that is used and this identifies any risks. This risk assessment is then kept in the service users personal file that staff have access to. 2.3 If you identify a potential health and safety risk then you need to stop what you are doing and address it. You should never put the service user or yourself at risk or danger . 2.4 An individual still has the right to take the risk if they want to. A risk assessment can be can be used to advise them of the dangers and risks involved. It could also highlight something they hadn’t thought of. It can also be used to reduce the risk and make as safe as possible.

2.5 You can promote Health and safety at work within the social care setting by making sure all staff are fully trained and qualified. Have regular staff meetings to discuss any hazards you have noticed. Make sure everyday risk assessments are carried out. 3.1 An individual could slip or trip. They could burn themselves with hot water or drink. Sickness diarrhoea, colds and flu’s. 3.2 If an accident or sudden illness should occur then you should contact your supervisor to advise them of the situation. Follow your companys procedures. If needed call for doctor or ambulance. Complete an incident form to record what’s happened. And if required contact the next of kin. 3.3 First aid should only be carried out by a qualified first aider as you might cause more harm or damage to the injured person. 3.4 If first aid is not administered then the patient can suffer severe complications, worse injuries or death before the paramedics can get there. Also, in the workplace, a designated first aider who refuses to help somebody (unless it would be unsafe to do so) can be brought up on disciplinary or even legal charges for negligence.

4.1 The routes by which an infection can get into the body is by touch air-bourne and bodily fluids. You can prevent this by washing your hands, having good personal hygiene and keeping your surroundings clean. 4.2 Hand hygiene- wash your hands thoroughly under warm water and put soap on the palm on the hand. Rub your hands together to make them lather. Rub palm of one hand along the back of the other and along the fingers then repeat with other hand. Rub in between each of your fingers on both hands and around your thumbs and nails. Rinse off soap and with clean water then dry thoroughly. If preformed correctly this should take around 15-30 seconds. Own Personal Hygiene- By making sure your nails hair and body are clean every day. Always wear clean clothing and the correct protective aprons when required. Encourage the individual to shower or wash regular. Change their clothing regularly. Encourage them to keep their home as clean and tidy as possible.

4.3 Different types of Personal Protective equipment (PPE) are gloves, aprons, masks. You have to wear gloves to stop any cross infection. Aprons to protect clothing and masks to prevent air-bourne virus’s. 4.4 In my role I keep my hands clean. Always wash them after preparing food and toileting and wearing gloves. 5.1 Legislation that relates to moving and handling is the Manual Handling Operations Regulations 1992 (known as MHOR) is designed specifically to eliminate or reduce a manual handling risk to an acceptable. Lifting operations and Lifting Equipment Regulations 1998 (known as LOLER)-This has specific requirements relating to equipment at work which is used to lift and lower people. It requires an employer to ensure that lifting equipment is installed to prevent risk or injury. Provision and Use of Work Equipment Regulations 1998 (known as PUWER) this ensures that the equipment the employer provides is suitable for the intention and safe for use. Only used by people who are trained to use it and maintained in a safe condition. The Workplace Regulations 1992 (health, safety and welfare) (known as WHSWR) ensures employers provide suitable working conditions for employees.

5.2 Principles for safe moving and handling are think before lift/handle by planning it, adopt a stable position feet should be apart with one leg slightly forward to maintain balance. Start in a good posture, slight bending of back hips and knees. Avoid twisting your back or leaning sideways especially when back is bent. Move smoothly, the load should never be jerked. Put down then adjust. 5.3 Sometimes when assisting someone to move you might need additional support for example a second or third member of staff to assist. Especially if the person is resistant to help. You also need to have two members of staff when hoisting. 5.4 You need to specialist training before assisting, moving and handling as you could cause an injury to yourself, work colleague or service user. 6.1 You need specialist training before assisting and moving an individual so you do not cause any injury to them and so you also know the correct way you should support a person to move.

6.2 If you assist or move someone without specialist training then you are putting yourself and them at risk. You could cause them injury to their arm, shoulders or back. 6.3 You need to always follow an individual’s care plan no matter what. The care plan has been completed after risk assessments have been carried out therefore it states what assistance the service users needs. You need to always talk to the service user and inform them of what you are doing and what will be happening next when you are assisting to move them. They need to feel safe with you and trust you to assist them. 7.1 Hazardous substances that could be found in our place of work and cleaning materials for example bleach. 7.2 Safe practices for storing hazardous substances is to make sure the room is well ventilated. That you are not storing more than you are allowed to. Make sure you have checked there is no fire risk. When using hazardous substances you need to wear personal protective clothing. Always work from dirtiest area when cleaning up spillages. Use warning signs when needed. When disposing of hazardous substances biological waste must be incinerated. It needs to be disposed of in yellow or orange bags. It also needs to be disposed of separate from household waste.

7.3 The dangers associated with not following these safe practices are cross infection, fire risks and spilages. 8.1 To prevent a fire all washing and tumble drying needs to be completed during the day. It is also recommended not to leave any electrical appliances on over night as people are in bed, and will be harder to raise the alarm. Also encourage services users to have a free home check for smoke alarms and advice about fire risks. To prevent gas leaks make sure all gas cookers and fires are turned off safely and correctly. To prevent floods always checked that taps are shut off and washing machines are working correctly and not leaking. To prevent intruding always check that house is secure when leaving, especially at night time. Check all doors are locked and windows closed To prevent a security breach if person has a key safe never disclose it to anyone or write it down. Always keep your paperwork on you and never leave in a place like your car.

8.3 One way to encourage others to adhere to environmental safety procedures is to explain why the procedures are in place. Often if a person knows why something should be done, they are more likely to follow the rules 8.4 You need to have an emergency plan in place to deal with unforeseen incidents so that if an incident happens no one panics. If the service user has an accident then you need to keep them calm. If you know the correct procedures then you will remain calm which will help deal with the situation. 9.1 Common signs of stress are poor concentration, over sensitivity, insomnia, forgetfulness, negativity, tiredness. 9.2Circumstances that can trigger stress are repetition, loneliness, and financial problems, poor communication at all levels.

9.3 You can manage stress by slowing down and doing one thing at a time. Take up a new hobby, don’t clock watch, take up some exercise. 10.2 Medication must only be handled after you have completed the Medication awareness course as you will learn on the course how to complete paper work eg: MARS Charts and re-ordering medication. This is also for insurance purposes and meet’s UKHCA and department of health guidelines. 10.3 Handling medication without training can be dangerous. You will not be insured to handle the medication or give it to the client. You will not know the correct way to document what medication you have given. 11.1 Always wash hands before and after handling meat. All equipment and surfaces used for meat should be disinfected after use. Keep raw and cooked food separately. Always have hair tied back. Report any illness to your manager.

11.2 When storing food, you need to rotate the stock by putting the new items to the back of the cupboard or fridge. Always ensure fridge is kept clean and freezer regularly defrosted. To maximise hygiene when handling food always make sure you wash hands prior to touching food and after handling meat and clean surfaces. Dispose of food by putting in correct bin. If it something the client has asked you to dispose of but doesn’t need to be, then record in service record book in case of any confusion. 11.3 The consequences of not following the food and safety standards are causing your service user food poisoning, sickness and diarrhoea. Stomach cramps dehydration. All of this could cause them to be admitted to hospital.

Understanding Health And Safety In Social Care Setting Essay

Understand The Role Of The Social Care Worker Essay

Understand The Role Of The Social Care Worker Essay.

1.1 A working relationship is different from a personal relationship by : Working relationship – building a relationship on a professional manner, which involves working within a team, working to achieve a goal/task and working within set standards/guidelines. This also refers to working with an individual to ensure they receive care in a respected, dignified manner. Personal relationship – building a relationship with friends and family in a social environment. To which you can share personal information and experiences and establish an emotional connection with others.

1.2 There are several different working relationships they are:

Care worker to care worker
Care worker to nurses
Care worker to manager
Nurses to advocates
All staff to relatives

All of these relationships enable each individual to receive a high quality of care and receive any needs required, all of these different relationships are required for effective team work and good communication. 2.1 It is important to adhere to the agree scope of the job role as this refers to your contract and your defined roles and responsibilities your expected to fulfil.

It sets out your legal responsibility, and demonstrates a clear understanding of what your expectations are from your employer.

2.2 Agreed ways of working refers to policies and procedures that are set out from your employer and how they expect you to abide by them.

2.3 The importance of full and up to date agreed ways of working starts with your induction, job description and policies and procedures. It is important to keep up to date with these as it allows you as an individual to know what is expected of yourself on a daily basis, this also informs you of any changes to policies and procedures that affect you job role and aids to give you a clear understanding of them. If there was no agreed ways of working in place then your job role would become difficult as you would not be aware to what was expected of you and what policies and procures to adhere to.

3.1 It is important to work in partnership with others to ensure the individual gets the highest quality of care. Working with others refers to nurses, doctors and any other advocates the individual requires. There are several occasions on where you will require an additional carer to complete care for certain individuals this can be for moving and handling purposes.

3.2 Ways of working that can improve partnership working are:
Attending training session
Be aware of your expectations
Aware of your own areas of weakness
Good communication
Giving honest, unbiased opinions and information
3.3 The skills and approach needed for resolving conflicts are:
Remaining calm
Having a good knowledge of verbal and non-verbal communication
Controlling emotions
Avoid threatening behaviour
Being aware of others body language
Respecting differences
Active listening
Aware of gestures
Clear communication

3.4 You can access support and advice about partnership working and resolving conflicts from your senior, manager or other social care bodies. Their experience can offer guidance and advice on the situation and suggest steps to which you can carry out yourself to resolve the situation, if you have already carried out these measures then speaking to your senior about concerns you have they can address them.

Understand The Role Of The Social Care Worker Essay

Social Contract Essay

Social Contract Essay.

Is the aim of the social contract to establish freedom, equality or merely ‘peace’? How far is it successful, and at what cost? (Hobbes, Locke, Rousseau) The Social Contract is a theory that originated during the Enlightenment, which addresses the questions of the origin of society and the legitimacy of the authority of the state over the individual. Social contract arguments typically posit that individuals have consented, either explicitly or tacitly, to surrender some of their freedoms and submit to the authority of the ruler or the decision of a majority, in exchange for protection of their remaining rights.

Its main proponents were Hobbes, Locke and Rousseau. However, while they all advocated a social contract their formulations and ideas about it do differ to some extent. This essay will attempt to argue that Hobbes hoped his social contract would establish peace, amongst naturally competitive men; whilst Rousseau valued securing freedom and Locke wanted it to secure rights for people and stop them living in fear.

However, all of these do come at some price, namely the cost of some liberties, however, as Locke agreed what was important was that relative to the state of nature, man now lived in a better, freer, more equal and peaceful society.

The first modern philosopher to articulate a detailed contract theory was Thomas Hobbes (1588–1679). According to Hobbes, the lives of individuals in the state of nature were ‘solitary, poor, nasty, brutish and short’ (Leviathan. Ch13. p89), a state in which self-interest and the absence of rights prevented the ‘social’, or society. Life was ‘anarchic’, without leadership or the concept of a sovereign. Individuals in the state of nature were apolitical and asocial. Thus for Hobbes the state of nature is necessarily followed by the social contract.

He believed the social contract would involve individuals ceding some of their individual rights so that others would cede theirs. This resulted in the establishment of the state, a sovereign entity like the individuals now under its rule used to be, which would create laws to regulate social interactions, in the hope that human life would no longer be ‘a war of all against all. ’ (Leviathan. Ch13. p89). Thus Hobbes attempts to prove the necessity of the Leviathan for preserving peace and preventing civil war, thus he is most concerned with securing a safe, protected state for man.

This is necessary because Hobbes has a negative view of man. He claims we are merely motivated by what he calls ‘aversion’ and ‘appetite. ’ (Leviathan. Ch6. p38) due to his belief that humans are all ‘self-seeking individuals, with no pre-disposition to cooperate with others or help them unless it is within their own interests. ’ (Trigg. 1988. ) Thus the ‘general inclination of all mankind (is) a perpetual and restless desire of power after power, that ceaseth only in death’ (Leviathan. Ch11. p70) and that ‘men are continually in competition for honour and dignity. (Leviathan. Ch17. p119) Thus the social contract becomes necessary as a way of reducing such competition and securing peace. Furthermore, Hobbes believes it is possible to mitigate this competition with reference to his laws of nature.

The first that we ‘seek peace, and follow it’ (Leviathan. Ch14. p92) as it would clearly never be advantageous for us to reside in an insecure society, where we constantly feared being destroyed and competed with, as Hobbes writes, ‘that every man, ought to endeavour peace, as far as he has hope of obtaining it. ’ (Leviathan. Ch14. 92) This is successful and Hobbes has a strong point here, we can agree that we are stronger as a group and that it is prudent to ‘confer all power and strength upon one man, or upon one assembly of men, that may reduce all their wills, by plurality of voices into one will’ (Leviathan. Ch17. p126) This is clear in the modern day, we elect those people we wish to represent our will, we do not all feel a need to self-govern. So although we are defined by our power and competitiveness in the state of nature, we will value peace and security so necessarily opt for this contract.

Furthermore Hobbes second fundamental law of nature is ‘that a man be willing, when others are so too, as far as for peace and defence of himself he shall think it necessary, to lay down this right to all things; and be contented with so much liberty against other men as he would allow other men against himself’ (Leviathan. Ch14. p92). This idea of mutual contracts concords with the ideas of Locke’s and Rousseau’s social contracts, that people would choose to live in society to maintain or create freedom and uphold natural values.

However, for Hobbes, men cannot know good and evil, and in consequence can only live in peace together by subjection to the absolute power of a common master, thus a cost of Hobbes’ social contract is that man is now subjected to absolute rule and appears to lose more of his freedoms than either Locke or Rousseau deemed necessary, yet for Hobbes this is the only way to ensure peace, despite it seeming that such controlled rule would only engender disagreement and revolt.

Hobbes theory has implications and his work emphasises some important aims of humanity, especially that peace is worth having at any cost, ‘a view Hobbes wants us to adopt after his reasoning in Leviathan. ’ It is common sense that without the base instinct of survival and survival itself, nothing else would be truly possible. (Bagby. 2009. p47) Furthermore Hobbes discusses fear as the basis of the existence of the state and although our world is a very different context to the world Hobbes experienced, Professor Ginzburg ‘does not see any change in the fear factor that sustains authority. (Kumar. 2007)

However, John Locke, although another social contract theorist, his conception differed from Hobbes’ in several fundamental ways, retaining only the central notion that persons in a state of nature would willingly come together to form a state. Locke believed that individuals in a state of nature would be bound morally, by the Law of Nature, not to harm each other in their lives or possession, but without government to defend them against those seeking to injure or enslave them; people would have no security in their rights and would live in fear, rather like Hobbes suggested.

Locke argued that individuals would agree to form a state that would provide a ‘neutral judge’ (Locke. 2003) acting to protect the lives, liberty, and property of those who lived within it. While Hobbes argued for near-absolute authority, Locke argued for inviolate freedom under law in his Second Treatise of Government. Locke argued that government’s legitimacy comes from the citizens’ delegation to the government of their right of self-defence of ‘self-preservation; (Locke. 2003).

The government thus acts as an impartial, objective agent of that self-defence, rather than each man acting as his own judge, jury, and executioner, the condition in the state of nature. In this view, government derives its ‘just powers from the consent (delegation) of the governed. ’ (Locke. 2003) Furthermore, for Locke peace is the norm, and should be the norm. We can and should live together in peace by refraining from molesting each other’s property and persons, and for the most part we do.

Yet it is clear in Hobbes that he believes man is naturally self-interest and will compete for resources. Locke’s fundamental target is political absolutism, understood as the exercise of power unconstrained by law or by any procedures for settling disputes between rulers and ruled. (Boucher. 2003. p. 184) Where Hobbes argued that absolute power was necessary to keep the peace between humans; instead Locke insists the point of political institutions is ‘to avoid, and remedy those inconveniences of the State of Nature, which necessarily follow from every Man’s being judge in his own case. (Locke. SecondTreatise. 2003) as Locke believed humans were born free and that by nature human beings are one another’s equals, so should not be dominated or restrained to the extent of Hobbes. These inconveniences, such as a social atmosphere of miserable uncertainty are not solved by subjecting all but one person in society to the rule of law. Thus Locke believed that people would be worse off under absolute power than they would in the uncertain mercy of other’s judgement, so he did not advocate this.

Locke’s contract aims to benefit individuals, it is an individualised functionalism. Thus for Locke an institution that is detrimental to individuals, relative to what they might secure on their own without government, is illegitimate, as ‘no rational creature can be supposed to change his condition with an intention to be worse. ’ (Locke. Second Treatise. 2003) Furthermore, Rousseau (1712–1778), in his influential 1762 treatise The Social Contract, outlined a different version of social contract theory.

Rousseau’s social contract can be summarised as, ‘each of us puts his person and all his power in common under the supreme direction of the general will; and in a body we receive each member as an indivisible part of the whole. ’ (Rousseau. Social Contract. 2002). For Rousseau the fundamental aim of the social contract is to establish freedom, believing that liberty was possible only where there was direct rule by the people as a whole in law making, where popular sovereignty was indivisible and inalienable.

However, people also desire the advantages of living in a society, because it is only as a citizen that man can fulfil himself and become virtuous. ‘Man was born free, but he is everywhere in chains. ’ (Social Contract. p. 141). Thus Rousseau aimed to create a political and social order where this contradiction would be resolved, the key purpose being ‘to find a form of association that defends and protects with all common forces the person and goods of each associate, and by means of uniting with all, nevertheless obeys only himself, and remains as free as before. (Social Contract. p. 148).

For Rousseau the answer lay in the social contract. Thus everyone entering into civil association must give up his rights to the whole community; this is the ‘cost’ for Rousseau. Yet there are benefits too, as Rousseau argued ‘this passage from the state of nature to the civil state produces quite a remarkable change in man, for it substitutes justice for instinct in his behaviour and gives his actions a moral quality they previously lacked. ’ (Social Contract. p. 150).

This is successful because the whole citizen body is the sovereign, thus is cannot have interests contrary to the individuals who comprise it (Boucher. 2003. p. 247) as ‘the sovereign need give no guarantee to the citizens ‘the sovereign by the mere fact it exists, is always all that is should be. ’ (Social Contract. p. 150). Additionally, Rousseau rejected Hobbes’ view that man is self-seeking and competitive by nature. (Boucher. 2003. p. 240) However his notion does have similarities with Hobbes.

For Rousseau, in contrast with Locke, the state of nature is neither a social nor moral condition (Boucher. 2003. p. 241) and in fact nature gives us no sanction for legitimate authority, rather it is the condition where no one has a right to rule over another. There is no justice or injustice, man is merely solitary and self-sufficient. Furthermore Rousseau is hoping to diminish the dependence of man, however this cannot be done in its entirety; rather one form of dependence can be substituted for another. Boucher. 2003. p. 251) Rousseau’s political theory differs in important ways from that of Locke and Hobbes. Rousseau’s collectivism is most evident in his development of the ‘luminous conception’ (which he credited to Diderot) of the general will. Rousseau argues a citizen cannot pursue his true interest by being an egoist but must instead subordinate himself to the law created by the citizenry acting as a collective.

Rousseau’s striking phrase that man must “be forced to be free’ (Social Contract) reveals that the indivisible and inalienable popular sovereignty decides what is good for the whole, then if an individual lapses back into his ordinary egoism and disobeys the leadership, he will be forced to listen to what they decided as a member of the collective, as citizens. Thus, the law, in as much as it is created by the people acting as a body, is not a limitation of individual freedom, but its expression. Moreover, Rousseau believed that the laws that govern a people helped to mould their character, so law is a civilizing force.

Laws represent the restraints of civil freedom; they represent the leap made from humans in the state of nature into civil society. Thus enforcement of law, which may seem a ‘cost’ in his contract theory, is actually not a restriction on individual liberty, as the individual, as a citizen, explicitly agreed to be constrained. Ultimately the social contracts of Hobbes, Locke and Rousseau are successful for the conception of man in the state of nature that each held; however due to this they all had varying aims.

For Hobbes, man begins as necessarily competitive and unsocial, thus his contract must aim to establish peace and thus requires absolute rule. However, for Locke, man is by nature a social animal and not purely self-interested, thus securing peace primarily is less important, rather man here retains the right to life and liberty, and gains the right to just, impartial protection of their property, as this is more prudent than each trying to protect their own and living in constant fear.

Yet for Rousseau the fundamental aim of the social contract was to establish freedom, as man was naturally free, but was restrained and this freedom needed realising and maintaining. Overall, the social contract of the three thinkers is markedly different, however each is justifiable given their different views of the state of nature and man’s inherent nature, nonetheless there are costs to man’s total freedom as he must give up rights to the rulers and follow new laws, to varying degrees. Fundamentally, the society posited by all three is seen to be an improvement on the state of nature in terms of its freedom, equality and peacefulness.

Social Contract Essay