Blue Collar vs. White Collar Work Essay

Blue Collar vs. White Collar Work Essay.

Throughout history the lives of the people in the working class have not always been easy. People always work hard to earn money and support their families; however, people don’t always work in a suitable working area. The term “Blue Collar” is jobs that require manual labor from people. The problem with these kinds of jobs is that the places the people work in can be extremely unsanitary and may cause a bad working environment for the people in it.

Blue collar work is also the work most people do not want to do but it is needed for the people who do white collar jobs to prosper. Also blue collar workers are known as people who did not do well in school or people that aren’t smart. Well that is not the case with these workers because without them we wouldn’t be able to do some of the things we do now or be able to survive.

Also some blue collar workers are called undocumented workers in which they don’t have any documents to prove that they can work or are from this country but help the country in doing jobs that are needed for a low wage.

Therefore blue collar workers are a very important part to society and we need them to thrive. For example in “Made in L.A” there are 3 young Latina immigrants who work in Los Angeles sweatshops they do manual labor for an extremely low wage. Even though they did the same work as others they got paid less because they are immigrants, it is hard work with low wages but they continue to do it to support themselves and their family just like the blue collar workers do nowadays. With the little voice they had, they protested and tried to make a difference for all future immigrant workers not to be treated inferior to them. People in blue collar jobs get paid less than white collar workers which are office work but they enjoy their job other than others even though it is dirty. Even though the U.S has strict policies on immigrants, they are actually needed because they do many of the blue collar jobs that are needed in the country. For example in the article “Putting a Stop to Slave Labor” it says that”

If we required good documents starting tomorrow, the nation would plunge into an instantaneous economic crisis” (p156). This would happen due the fact that they do most of the jobs that people don’t want to do and get low wages also which are blue collar jobs. There are many instances of unsanitary work places. In the article “Migrant Farm Worker,” by Studs Terkel shows the conditions of the working place and also shows child labor. He says the animals were being treated better than the workers themselves. “Veterinarians tend to the needs of domestic animals but they can’t have medical care for the workers.”(p133) this shows that the bosses who supply these people with blue collar jobs are being taken advantage of and that the animals are living better than the workers. Also this goes to show what little care the bosses had for their people and that they only cared about the money instead of the needs of these people.

People need to see the working class as people rather than machines that do something over and over again. Just because someone has to work hours in front of a machine and have a dirty job does not mean that the person is not a human being. There are many people needed in the world to do some jobs that which most people would not do. If we didn’t have those kind of people and if everyone wanted to do the same thing as everyone else than we would have a hard time surviving since it is needed to be done. “The case for working with your Hands,” states “More fundamentally, now as ever, somebody has to actually do things: fix our cars, unclog our toilets, and build our houses.”(18) This goes to show that if no one does those jobs there would be a lot of problems and that we always are going to need blue collar workers perhaps more than white collar in most cases.

“The Case for Working with Your Hands,” also states “The trades suffer from low prestige and I believe this is based on a simple mistake. Because work is dirty, many people assume it is also stupid.”(19) The thing that people don’t realize is that not every job is going to appeal to them because we are all different and different people do different things, just as some people like to sit behind a computer everyday some people will not do that. The treatment of workers is a growing issue and it’s going to keep on growing and growing if people don’t realize what these big companies are doing and put a stop to it. For example the shoe company Nike employs many people but the thing people don’t know is that there are 12,000 young women in Indonesia making the lowest amount of money and working long tiring shifts.

Every $80 sneaker Nike makes it only costs them 12 cents for the labor. This shows the unfair treatment of these workers and how the company is taking advantage of them and it is not only Nike doing this but any major company uses the same force of labor. In “Who Makes the Clothes We Wear?” it says “Government officials raided a sweatshop filled with immigrant Thai women laboring as little as 59 cents per hour.”Also not only were they being taken advantage of the discipline was enforced by threats of rape and beatings.(26)

This goes to show the little care they have for these workers and the actions that are being taken against them. It also shows a dark side to these companies in which the workers are being treated worst than dogs. In the article “Reapers” by Jean Toomer it says that “Black horses drive a mower through the weeds and there, a field rat, startled, squealing bleeds, His belly close to ground. I see the blade, Blood-stained, continue cutting weeds and shade.” (37) This article shows tough field work for black people back around the 60s. They were bleeding but their determination was too great and they continued to go and do their work.

Slavery could be identified as blue collar work also. In the article “What to the Slave is the Fourth of July?” Frederick Douglass says “There is not a man beneath the canopy of heaven who does not know that slavery is wrong for him.” (140)This shows that everyone knows that slavery is wrong but they continue to do it disregard the health of the workers but the financial health of a company or a person. Slaves have to endure much pain and long haggard days with little to no pay working out on the fields and any other job that another man won’t do. Just like the slaves do these kinds of work the women in Indonesia could be compared to them because of the long working hours and the little pay with strict discipline. There is a growing problem with Third World women and how they are being used.

The companies get young girls and give them work usually being blue collar work with bad working conditions and poor pay. In the article “Life on the Global Assembly Line,” it says “Older” women, aged 23 or 24, are likely to be laid off and not rehired. The lucky ones find husbands. The unlucky ones find themselves at the margins of society-as bar girls, “hostesses,” or prostitutes.”(29) This displays the women as disposable workers; once they get too old they are thrown out and out of a job.

After that these women don’t have anywhere to go, some get a husband and are being taken care of and others have to resort to whatever that is needed to be done to get by. Although the problems to these blue collar workers are plain to see, the fact is that the country needs them for the economy to thrive. Even if blue collar workers are needed to have a successful economy it doesn’t change the fact that they need to be treated like people and not like dogs on the street.

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Blue Collar vs. White Collar Work Essay

The Causes and Consequences of the Atlantic Slave Trade Essay

The Causes and Consequences of the Atlantic Slave Trade Essay.

The Atlantic slave trade was present between the seventieth and ninetieth century and mainly involved Africans being sold to European slave owners who shipped them over the Atlantic to America and the Caribbean, to work in plantations principally sugar, tobacco, coffee and cotton. The Atlantic slave trade affected more than twelve million African slaves and has left a huge imprint on today’s society.

There were several major causes for the Atlantic slave trade, such as high demand for cheap labour, the growing economies of the European colonial powers and the desire to make money.

The demand for cheap labour was tremendous and the European workers did not survive the conditions on the plantations. Labour was needed to harvest crops to provide raw materials for products in Europe.

The economy of Europe was rapidly growing and going through a commercial and industrial revolution, and needed natural resources to ship to Europe. In this economic climate there was a lot of money to be made.

Greed was a major factor towards the Atlantic Slave trade. Plantation owners and merchants profited and contributed significantly to the economic growth. Slave traders became very rich from exploiting African slaves and thriving of other people’s misery.

The Atlantic Slave trade also had a lot of consequences including the effect on the African slaves, the European economy and the profit made by the slave traders.

The slave trade hugely impacted the Africans because they suffered, worked in appalling conditions and were treated inhumanly. Somewhere in the region of eight to twelve million slaves died, because of this it also greatly affected the development and population of Africa.

The European economy also was affected by the Atlantic slave trade as it grew vastly and was successful from the Europeans point of view. Luxury products such as sugar, tobacco, coffee and cotton were in high demand and use of slaves helped enabled them to obtain these products. Cities such as Liverpool, Amsterdam and Bristol became rich.

The final consequence was that the slave trade also led to a protest movement against slavery. A few individuals believed that slavery was inhumane and barbaric, and wanted abolish slavery. An example of this was William Wilberforce, an English politician and philanthropist. Slavery was eventually abolished in the ninetieth century but has still left a huge impact on today’s society.

The Causes and Consequences of the Atlantic Slave Trade Essay

Compare and Contrast of Slavery Essay

Compare and Contrast of Slavery Essay.

Intro: During 18th century slavery, three regions of the country had slight to very different lifestyles as well as small to very common similarities. Slavery during the 18th century influenced how slavery went forth for the next century and a half. In this essay I will compare and contrast 18th century slavery in the Chesapeake, Low Country (South Carolina and Georgia), and the Northern colonies.

1. Chesapeake Region

a. The early years of slavery in the Chesapeake region were lax. There were few black slaves at first and there were only a few slaves in the labor force.

The first set of slaves in Virginia and Maryland were more indentured servants than true slavery. Before the late 1600’s there was a very thin line between black slavery and white freedom. In the early 1600’s slaves that had “Christian” names such as Pedro or Isabella were considered Christians so they were considered indentured servants and allowed to work off the price that was paid for them and then freed.

They worked alongside white indentured servants. As time went on the slave, population there grew through natural reproduction.

b. As some of the British planters became more successful and held more land in an effort of their own interest introduced the “Unthinking decision” (Chattel Slavery) which officially drew a line in the racial divide between Africans (Blacks) and Whites. The Chesapeake region was the first to have and enact “Slave codes” which would eventually carry across all regions partially and in its entirety. Bills of sale for slaves in regards to children of Black female slaves was instituted in the Chesapeake region saying that the children born to these women would be slaves for life because their mother was a slave. As the slave, codes kicked in slaves were deemed no more than livestock and inferior and could no longer become converts of Christianity taking away completely indentured servitude. It went on this way until slavery ended.

c. Tobacco was the main source of prosperity in the Chesapeake region slaves worked in gangs in the tobacco fields because the owners thought it made them work faster. d. The slaves in this region lived in log cabins.

2. Low Country (South Carolina and Georgia) e. Slavery in the low country was somewhat different in the aspect that the slaves that arrived there were already Chattel. The slaves in the low country were mainly Black and Indian slaves and eventually all black as time progressed. The slaves in low country grew through the constant new arrivals of slaves from Africa. Slaves in the low country had a very high mortality rate due to disease, overwork, and poor treatment. Slaves in the low country retained more of their African heritage because there were so many of them and always fresh Africans coming in the ports. By the 18th Century, the low country had almost a 70 percent ratio of black slaves compared to white slave owners. Charleston was North America’s leading port of entry for Africans. f. The main crops in the low country were rice and corn compared to the Chesapeake region. g. The slaves there developed their own broken languages called Geechie and Gullah.

h. Low Country showed a great deal of Creolization. This is the first sign of distinct classes between slaves. The creoles stayed in the same areas as whites because they were mixed race they had social and economic advantages over slaves that were on plantations but they were still watched all the time by whites. i. The slave houses in low country were made of tabby (a form of a concrete mortar mixture). j. In contrast to the slaves in the Chesapeake region, the slaves in low country had certain independence in their daily routines. Once they were done with their chores, their time was free to do what they chose without supervision. Although the slaves had this independence, the white people still had a “Negro Watch” to enforce curfew on the black people there.

3. Northern Colonies k. The Northern colony slaves were perhaps the least like slaves of the three regions. One of the main differences was organized religion. There was also the fact that during the 18th century there slave population in the Northern Colonies was a mere 4.5% compared to the 40% and higher in the south. Slavery was less oppressive due to the Puritan religious principles of the Northern region.

l. The slaves lived in the house with their master and his family. The slaves also worked along side the master, his family, and the other slaves on the small farms. Most had two slaves per household on the rare occasion there some estates that had 50 or 60. m. Slaves in the Northern colonies were allowed to become Artisans, Shopkeepers, Messengers, Domestic Servants, and General Laborers. New England slaves had a huge advantage over slaves in the other regions they could legally own, transfer, and inherit property. They also had the least opportunity to preserve their African heritage because of their easier conditions. They also had the highest amount of mulattoes.

4. The commonality between Chesapeake, Low Country, and the Northern Colonies is the fact that no matter what slaves were still deemed less than whites. They still had to abide by the “Slave Codes”. Miscegenation was banned and strictly enforced everywhere.

Conclusion: In comparing and contrasting the three regions there are more differences than commonalities when it comes to their areas. The commonalities are very strong in the fact that no matter how well or badly they were treated they were always deemed inferior to whites even the “mixed”, “Creoles”, or “Mulattoes”. In essence, slaves everywhere were under the same “Slave Codes” with the difference between the regions being how strictly they enforced.

Compare and Contrast of Slavery Essay

Plantation Crops and the Slavery System Essay

Plantation Crops and the Slavery System Essay.

Plantation crops and the slavery system changed between 1800 and 1860 because of the industrial revolution. After the Philadelphia Constitutional Convention, the Southern states were granted freedom to decide about the legality of slavery. At this point in time, the cotton production was very low and there were around 700,000 slaves in the whole country. Cotton changed the course of the American economic and racial future, because of the mass production of textiles. The cotton quantities increased considerably. The South was producing and exporting over sixty- seven percent of the world’s cotton by 1840 which gave the region strong economic power.

As the cotton production continued to grow it required more manpower or slaves. The supply of slaves needed for growing of such production was restricted, making slaves more valuable resulting in the domestic slave trade.

The domestic slave trade emerged as a crucial commercial enterprise during the 1800 and 1860, which resulted in white planters looking for new slaves in the upper South states. (Henretta, Edwards, and Self 2012, 352-359) “For white planters, the interstate trade in slaves was lucrative; it pumped money into the declining Chesapeake economy and provided young workers for the expanding plantations of the cotton belt.

For blacks, it was a traumatic journey, a new Middle Passage that broke up their families and communities.

“Arise, Arise and weep no more, dry up your tears; we shall part no more,” the slaves sing hopefully as they journey to new lives in Tennessee.” (Henretta, Edwards, and Self 2012, 358) The domestic slave trade emerged as a crucial commercial enterprise operating through a coastal and inland. The coastal system sent slaves to the sugar plantations in Louisiana and the inland to cotton plantations. The domestic slave trade was crucial for the prosperity of the southern economy. It was an important resource to raise money and help support the economy of the Upper South. (Henretta, Edwards, and Self 2012, 352-359)

References

Henretta, J. A., Edwards, R., Self, R. O. (2012). America: A Concise History, Volume One: To 1877, 5th Edition. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin’s.

Plantation Crops and the Slavery System Essay

History SBA Essay

History SBA Essay.

Statement of Aim

Throughout this research paper, the reader will have a better understanding of the different forms of resistance. Also the reader will have the ability to compare the two types of resistance which were active and passive. And finally the reader will be able to tell which type of resistance was most effective and most common between active and passive.

Rationale

The reason topic being chosen is to better elucidate the different forms of resistance and how effective it was in the Caribbean.

As for a historian, this topic allowed me to open my mind by analyzing the types of resistance and interpreting it in the SBA. Resistance of slaves was a great part of Caribbean history which is currently still the most debated topic. With that being said, I felt a need to choose this topic.

INTRODUCTION

Resistance of slaves was a great part of Caribbean history. There were two types of resistance practiced by slaves: passive (day by day) and active resistance.

In this research paper I will show different types of resistance and their level of effectiveness in battling slavery.

FORMS OF RESISTANCE & ITS EFFECTIVENESS

The most common form of resistance available to slaves was what is known as “day-to-day” resistance, or small acts of rebellion, most popularly known as passive resistance. This form of resistance included sabotage, such as breaking tools or setting fire to buildings. Striking out at a slave owner’s property was a way to strike at the man himself, albeit indirectly. Other methods of day-to-day resistance were feigning illness, playing dumb, or slowing down work. Both men and women faked being ill to gain relief from their harsh working conditions. Women may have been able to feign illness more easily–they were expected to provide their owners with children, and at least some owners would have wanted to protect the childbearing capacity of their female slaves. Slaves could also play on their masters’ and mistresses’ prejudices by seeming to not understand instructions. When possible, slaves could also decrease their pace of work.

Women more often worked in the household and could sometimes use their position to undermine their masters. Poisoning the master was very popular .In general women may have used birth control or abortion to keep potential children out of slavery. Many slave owners were convinced that female slaves had ways of preventing pregnancy. Throughout the history of Caribbean slavery, Africans resisted whenever possible. The odds against slaves succeeding at a rebellion or in escaping permanently were so overwhelming that most slaves resisted the only way they could, which was through individual actions. Slaves also resisted the system of slavery through the formation of a distinctive culture and through their religious beliefs, which kept hope alive in the face of such severe persecution. The other form of resistance was active resistance, which consisted of running away and conducting rebellions. Slaves who ran away most often did so for a short period of time.

These runaway slaves might hide in a nearby forest or visit a relative or spouse on another plantation. They did so to escape a harsh punishment that had been threatened, to obtain relief from a heavy workload, or just to escape the drudgery of everyday life under slavery. Others were able to run away and escape slavery permanently. Running away was difficult; slaves had to leave behind family members and risk harsh punishment or even death if caught. Many of the successful runaways were only successful after multiple attempts. Runaway slaves would often choose holidays or days off to give them extra lead time (before being missed in the fields or at work). Many fled on foot, coming up with ways to throw off dogs in pursuit, such as taking to water or using pepper to disguise their scent.

Slave rebellions all over the Caribbean region were common. There is documented evidence of uprisings in at least 20 islands. In many of the territories multiple revolts occurred. Furthermore, there are many cases when conspiracies were put down before there was any violence. The slaughter of the native population by the early 18th Century left the colonist landowners without a work force for the great sugar, coffee, cocoa and cotton plantations that formed the backbone of the region’s economy. African slaves were brought in to work the land. By the 1720s the population of the Caribbean ranged from a low of about 30 % in Cuba to more than 90 % in other islands. Most whites, however, lived in cities; in the countryside the racial makeup favored Blacks 50 to 1. None-the-less, all economic, political and social power was in the hands of the Europeans.

There is no need to discuss the many evils of slavery suffice it to say that revolts began before long. Initial revolts took place in Hispaniola and Puerto Rico in the late 16th Century and, Barbados, Jamaica and Antigua early in the 17th. By the middle of the 18th Century, Antigua, Guadeloupe, Sainte Domingue (Haiti), and Dominica had experience various degrees of violence. Newly brought slaves – those that had been free in Africa – were more likely to revolt than the ones born in captivity. In some islands, rebellion was instigated by opposition colonial powers during European wars; an uprising in a Spanish colony could be prompted by French agents; or British agents could bring about a rebellion in a French colony and so forth.

The Berbice Slave Uprising was a slave revolt in Guyana that began on 23 February 176and lasted into 1764. It is seen as a major event in Guyana’s anti-colonial struggles, and when Guyana became a republic in 1970 the state declared 23 February as a day to commemorate the start of the Berbice slave revolt. In 1762, the population of the Dutch colony of Berbice included 3,833 enslaved Blacks, 244 enslaved Amerindians or indigenous people, and 346 whites. On 23 February 1763, slaves on Plantation Magdalenenberg on the Canje River in Berbice[ rebelled, protesting harsh and inhumane treatment. They torched the plantation house, and then went to other plantations to mobilize other enslaved Africans to join the rebellion. Cuffy, a house slave at Lilienburg, another plantation on Canje, is said to have organized them into a military unit.

As plantation after plantation fell to the slaves, the Dutch settlers fled northward and the rebels began to take over control of the region. For almost a year, the rebels held on to southern Berbice, while the whites were able to hold on to the north. Eventually only about half of the white population that had lived in the colony remained. The rebels came to number about 3,000 and threatened European control over the Guianas. Other key figures among the rebels include Atta, Accara and Accabre. The insurgents were eventually defeated in the spring of 1764 with the assistance of troops from neighbouring French and British colonies and from Europe.

Cuba with seven documented significant insurrections in the 19th Century is second to Jamaica, which had 14 verified slave rebellions from the mid 18th Century to the mid 19th. The greatest slave revolution in Jamaica was the Baptist War of 1831-1832. It began simply as a general strike during the Christmas season. The slaves, led by one Samuel Sharp, wanted liberation and decent paid. It is not clear why it turned into a fully fledged revolt, but the landowners considered so from the beginning. About 14 Europeans were killed and thousands of acres of crops burned. Within 10 days, it was put down. Anywhere from 20,000 to 60,000 slaves participated in the uprising. Between 200 and 400 die in the fighting and similar numbers were later hunted down. Sharp was executed by hanging. Promises of freedom for the slaves which put an end to the fighting were not kept. British forces landed in the island and hung close to 3,500 slaves. Many additional Africans received other kinds of punishment. The revolt known for its connection to a couple of Baptist parishes was over.

The most successful slave revolt to take place in the Caribbean Basin was the Haitian Revolution of 1791 to 1804. The uprising by the slave population in the western part of Hispaniola was influenced by the ideals of the Enlightenment and French Revolution – which had been launched just two years before. The leader of the revolt was Toussaint L’Ouverture. The whole process of liberation involves a complex combination of the slave’s revolts; European politics which resulted in the slaves allying themselves first with the Spanish and British and later, with the French; and total control of the island. Eventually, the government of Napoleon Bonaparte would send troops to re-conquer Saint Domingue and would send L’Ouverture in chains to France, where the Haitian leader would die in 1803. However, L’Ouverture’s second in command, Jean-Jacques Dessalines, would declare Haiti a sovereign nation the following year. Haiti thus joined the United States as the only former American territories to gain independence before the 19th Century and the first former European colony liberated by slaves.

CONCLUSION

From what was explained, it is clear passive resistance was more successful than active resistance. The only level of success achieved actively was the few slaves who ran away and were not caught and the Haitian Revolution. Passive resistance was tolerated for the most part because I feel it didn’t affect productivity on the plantation unlike active resistance that affected production negatively so the masters focused on it strong and stopped them.

BIBLIOGRAPHY
1. Caribbean: Caribbean Story Book Bk. 1 (Caribbean Story History) February 6, 2002 by William Claypole (Author), John Robottom (Author) 2. Ford, Lacy K. Deliver Us from Evil: The Slavery Question in the Old South. New York: Oxford University Press US, 2009. 3. Franklin, John Hope and Loren Schweninger. Runaway Slaves: Rebels on the Plantation. New York: Oxford University Press US, 2000. 4. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Slave_rebellion

5. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haitian_Revolution

History SBA Essay

The History of the World in Six Glasses Essay

The History of the World in Six Glasses Essay.

How did beer lead to the development of cities in Mesopotamia and Egypt? Grains grew widespread in the Fertile Crescent (The crescent shaped area which had an ideal climate and soil for growing plants and raising livestock, it stretches from Egypt, up the Mediterranean coast to Turkey, and then down again to the border between Iraq and Iran.) causing the unintentional discovery of beer. The Fertile Crescent’s extremely rich soil was suitable for the growth of cereal grains after the last ice age, which occurred around 10,000 BCE.

Hunter-gatherers were drawn to the cereal grains and, the ability to keep the grains for long periods of time stimulated them to stay. If they hunter-gatherers could thrive of off the wild grain if they were willing to stay near it and harvest at its peak.

After the hunter-gatherers had spent so much time collecting the grain they would have been reluctant to leave the grain that they had collected nor could they travel with it.

For this reason hunter-gatherers began to settle on the land. These settlers soon found that the grain could be stockpiled for long periods of time without spoiling. The technology of these settlers was still in development so storage spaces were not usually watertight, and when the water got into the stockpile of the collected grains they started to sprout and acquired a sweet taste.

Thus becoming malted grains. When gruel, which is made of boiled malted grains, was left to sit for a couple of days it undertakes an interesting transformation. It becomes a pleasantly intoxicating and slightly bubbly liquid, as the yeasts from the gruel turn it to alcohol. The cereal grains used to make beer was often used as an eatable currency, because everyone needed it. People traded and sold it, causing the development and expansion of cities.

Describe the role that wine plays in Greek or Roman society in relation to social status. Wine had become available in Mesopotamia in very small quantities in 870 BCE. The cost of transporting wine from the mountains down to civilization, in the plains, made it extremely expensive. Almost ten times more expensive than the more common drink- beer. Wine was considered an exotic and foreign drink. Only the exclusive few could afford to drink and the main use was religious. When it was available, its high price and scarcity made it a drink worthy of the gods. Most people never tasted it. Wine became more fashionable in Mesopotamian society, but it never became wildly affordable outside wine-producing areas. For the Greeks wine drinking was synonymous with civilization and refinement. What kind of wine you drank, and its age, indicated how cultured you were. Wine was preferred over beer, fine wines were preferred over ordinary ones, and older wines over younger ones.

What mattered even more was how you behaved when you drank it. The Greek practice of mixing wine and water was thus a middle ground between barbarians who over-indulged and those who did not drink at all. The difference between wealthy and lowly Romans was in the contents of their wine glasses. For wealthy Romans, the ability to recognize and name the finest wine was an important form of conspicuous consumption; it showed that they were rich enough to afford the finest wines and had spent time learning which was which. The richest Romans drank the finest wines and poorer people drank lesser vintages. Appreciation of different wines began with the Greeks, and the link between the type of wine and the social status of the drinker was strengthened by the Romans.

Explain how Alcohol is related to the African slave trade. African slaves were traded in exchange for European goods. The most pursued good was alcohol in addition, other goods were needed and useful. People liked the feeling they got from the consumption of alcohol, not because of the taste. Spirits became popular because the consumption of spirits got people more drunk faster. Another reason spirits became popular was because they contained a higher alcohol content which acted as a preservative that allowed the spirits to be kept for long periods of time. They could also be shipped in slighter packages. The colonists needed slaves to work on the farms that grew the ingredients for spirits. Colonists first tried to capture their own slaves, but failed. They then decided to import African slaves. Sugar and grain industries, the main industries involved in making alcohol, were greatly dependent on on slave labor.

Most slave traders drank imported alcohol; they didn’t even drink Western beers. It was more notable than their own grain based beers and palm wines and it soon became a distinction of slave traders. Slave traders preferred alcohol, specifically spirits, but also often accepted textiles, bowls, shells, jugs, and sheets or copper in exchange for slaves. More and more slaves were bought as more and more spirits were in demand. The slaves grew and harvested the materials to make alcohol- sugar and barley. Being slaves they were not paid, which saved lots of money for the farmers. Having slaves instead of paid workers allows for more profit, which put more money into the economy. This allowed Europe to become more modern, industrial, and expanded.

Compare and contrast coffee’s acceptance in society in its early stages to beer, wine, or spirits. Beer wasn’t necessarily accepted in society, more that it built society leading to its acceptance. People came together to grow the ingredients of beer. When beer was first made it was highly accepted among the majority of people. It was the first alcoholic drink; People enjoyed the buzz it gave then and thought of it as a brand new class of drinks. Wine however, was not as quick to become popular. It was highly expensive so common citizens couldn’t afford it. If beer was available most people would drink it over wine because of the cost. Only the exclusive few could afford to drink and the main use was religious.

Spirits (modern day liquor) however were wildly accepted. People loved spirits. They were in such high demand that people were buying them faster than they were being made. Unlike beer or wine people could get drunk on smaller quantities of spirits. Spirits were also somewhat addictive, to the point where people would take a shot with breakfast every morning. Coffee was accepted in a different way. People liked coffee because it was an alternative to alcohol. They could drink it in the morning with their breakfast instead of alcohol or water. Water was unsafe to drink because it had a tendency to be contaminated. Coffee was known as the great soberer because unlike alcohol its effects made you more awake and alert as opposed to alcohol’s intoxicating effect. Most of these drinks were accepted because it was a new non-alcoholic sensation.

Describe the role of coffee houses in society in Europe. Coffeehouses, unlike the illicit taverns that sold alcohol, were places where respectable people could afford to be seen. Some authorities didn’t approve of coffee houses, they said that were, “hotbeds of gossip, rumor, political debate and satirical discussion. They were popular venues for chess and backgammon, which were regarded as morally dubious. Although coffeehouses were originally accepted as meeting places and sources of news, they were soon banned by Muslin scholars. They argued that coffee had intoxicating effects and therefore was against the teachings of the prophet Muhammad. After a few months, higher powers lifted the ban in some areas because no law was actually being broken, but they were still socially frowned upon for being places of lay-a-bouts of gossips associated.

In other areas, coffee was considered an exotic novelty and coffee houses spread extremely quickly. Coffeehouses began to move west from Great Britain to Amsterdam to The Hague and in that movement it regained its name of an intellectual tavern of peoples who were above alcoholic consumption. As the coffee houses regained their respectful image, they began to spread across Europe rapidly. Where coffee houses burned in the great fire of London in 1666, twice as many were rebuilt as a plan for commercial business. Coffee houses attracted people of the working class because coffee had medical benefits of preventing drowsiness, sore eyes, and coughs which improved business production. Even though people were lenient of coffee houses at first, they grew to become a key factor in society.

Explain why the Industrial Revolution began in Britain. Richard Arkwright invented a new and more efficient approach to manufacturing, thus the industrial revolution began in Great Britain. Arkwright thought to use machine workers instead of human workers. This was a genius idea, because machines never tire but humans get tired eventually, no matter their age. This also provided a new job to replace the job that the machines replaced: running the machines. Arkwright created a way for less time and effort to be used to do more work. Many important exporting industries liked and adopted Arkwright’s philosophy soon after he presented it. One of the main industries was tea.

Tea was originally a drink used to symbolize Great Britain as a civilizing, and industrious power. But after Arkwright’s philosophy was put into action in the tea industry it quickly became the prime export for Great Britain. So much teas was traded that it funded the building of British companies in India. Are you even still reading this because this is extremely boring. Tea was the fuel of workers in these British factories, and was being produced in mass quantities.

In a short amount of time, tea became the second most consumed beverage in the world, with only water above it. With the amount of tea being sold, Great Britain was quickly able to fund more and more factories to be built. These industuries went world-wide and expanded trade farther across the globe. Great Britain soon became the main center of industry in the Eastern hemisphere. More factories lead to more tea which lead to more workers which lead to more money, that was the philosophy being used. All of these industries-including tea- aided Great Britain in becoming a world industrious power.

Discuss how World War Two impacted the globalization of Coca-Cola. In 1886 John Pemberton “invented” Coca-Cola. Pemberton initially sold Coca-Cola as a medicinal syrup that eased headaches. This syrup sold, but it was more of a local remedy, and not quite as popular vas he would have hoped. Pemberton was a tinkerer, and he mixed this syrup with ‘bubbly water’ in order to create what is now known as the drink of America. By the end of 1895 annual sales had reached 76,000 gallons and Coca-Cola was being sold in every state in America. Although Coca-Cola was being sold in several other countries by the time of the outbreak of World War Two. As America mobilized the president of the Coca-Cola Company issued an order saying “every man in uniform gets a bottle of Coca-Cola for five cents, wherever he is, and whatever it costs the company.”

When he president of Coca-Cola said this it automatically linked Coke to patriotism and support for the war effort. Shipping bottles of Coca-Cola halfway around the world would be expensive and inefficient. So special bottling plants and soda fountains were established in the field. During the World War Two no less than sixty-four bottling plants were established around the world and served around ten billion drinks. Coca-Cola was made available to civilians near American bases overseas, many of whom developed a taste for the drink. People around the world from Polynesians to Zulus, tasted Coca-Cola for the first time during World War Two. The “Coca-Cola Colonels” helped spread Coke across the world through World War Two.

Describe the role of Prohibition in the United States in the creation of Coca-Cola. In 1887, America was going to experiment with a prohibition of alcohol. This was an incentive for Coca-Cola to get itself established so that its sales could explode. Alcohol was an extremely popular American beverage, but without alcohol, people would be in search of another beverage to drink as a substitute. This would have been a great opportunity for Coca-Cola had it actually happened, but the prohibition experiment was discontinued in November 1887. Initially, Coca-Cola had advertised itself as a drink with amazing medicinal benefits, for hard working mean. The businessmen at Coca-Cola soon realized that working me could just go out and drink alcohol if they were tired, so they changed their advertisements to show how Coca-Cola was family friendly and refreshing.

They decided that this could show how it was an any-time of day drink, which women and children could drink as well as working men. This helped establish the Coca-Cola business because it was now geared toward a larger margin of buyers. With all of this happening, Coca-Cola was a well-established business when the prohibition was actually enforced in the year of 1920. During these thirteen years of prohibition, the Coca-Cola sales tripled. With no alcohol to consume, people turned to the bubbly refreshing Coca-Cola drink as a substitute. After the prohibition was ended, people still continued to consume Coca-Cola because they had developed a taste for it during the thirteen years that America was dry. To most Americans the Prohibition was a bad thing, for the Coca-Cola Company it was a very profitable thirteen plus years.

1. How do the six drinks chosen by Standage help to explain world history? A History of the World in 6 Glasses tells the story of humanity from the ancient times to the 21st century through the view of six beverages. All of the drinks Tom Standage chose symbolized important changes in world history. Beer was first cultivated in the Fertile Crescent and by 3000 B.C.E. was extremely important to Mesopotamia and Egypt, it was even used for currency. In Greece wine became the main export, helping spread Greek culture abroad. Spirits such as rum and brandy fueled the Age of Exploration, fueling the malicious slave trade.

Coffee encouraged revolutionary thought in Europe during the Age of Reason, when coffeehouses became centers of academic conversation. And hundreds of years after the Chinese began drinking tea, it became popular in Britain. Finally, carbonated drinks became a 20th-century phenomenon, and Coca-Cola in particular is the leading symbol of globalization. 2. Describe morality in the Islamic World. The Islamic people were restrained by law from drinking alcohol- and coffee for a period of time- because it was considered immoral according to the Torah.

3. Tom Standage offers his opinion for the next era’s defining drink- water. With supreme wealth, technology, and resources at our generation’s fingertips, more effort must be devoted for all mankind to have clean drinking water. It’s an amazing disproportion when millions of Westerners are fanatical about bottled water when there are hundreds of millions around the world who must walk more than 10 miles to get clean drinking water (if it is available at all).

The History of the World in Six Glasses Essay

Black Rage-Book Report Essay

Black Rage-Book Report Essay.

The pages of human history daubed in bloodshed and thickly coated with ethnic, racial conflicts ask a crying question. How to make this Planet Earth heaven -like? The answer is simple and direct. Eyes full of understanding, heart full of love and the life that refuses conflicts—these alone are enough! When an individual or a people of a particular race are constantly nagged and abused, condemned and ostracized by the society, they become bitter and cynical individuals. Heartfelt care and concern, an understanding approach and tender regard for their feelings are necessary pre-requisites to heal their inner wounds.

Adequate opportunities need to be created for their ‘reformation’ and ‘rehabilitation’ into the mainstream of the society. The authors feel that it is not an easy task. Each and every molecule of the Negro race is surcharged with the hidden grudge as for the inhuman treatment meted out to them in all walks of life, from the cradle to the grave and from the womb to the tomb and this process continued for centuries.

They were branded from birth as ‘niggers. ’ This insult on their personality is difficult to condone. Brief summary of the book: This is a classic work on black identity.

This is also criticized as one of the sexiest books. Slavery is no ordinary crime against humanity. The book explains the race relations and its dynamics in the day to day living of the blacks vs. whites. How at each step of the ladder the blacks were pulled down, how they were made to stumble at deliberately created hurdles by the whites, how slavery dynamics deeply impact the cross-racial sexual relationships etc. It is one thing to have freedom and protection for the essential human dignity of the individual legally. It is good to have uniform constitutional rights for whites and blacks.

But what mattes is the interpretation of the laws and their applicability to the ground level situations, concerning the blacks. The book is an authentic source of inspiration to the educated younger generation of blacks, and for the African psychologists of the day. The book cites case studies and they are properly dealt with. The point by point analysis of the “intra-psychic” dynamics of Black life in every day America is extremely informative and an eye-opener. Blacks, in many parts of the world where the whites were the dominating community, suffered, and in USA they suffered intensely.

The authors are psychiatrists by profession and they are eminently suited to treat this subject. The inner conflicts and the desperation of back life, how they carry on with their back to the wall existence—all these have been highlighted, with the zeal of pursuing the truth. As the black race is exposed to various social situations related to the individual growth through education, employment, achievement of status in life, the intra-racial problems have begun to crop up with great intensity. The authors cite the case of an educated school teacher, marrying a laborer. They explain: “…She was embarrassed by his poor education.

He felt that she and her friends were “phony” and that she was preoccupied with maintaining senseless appearances. Their mutual hostility led to verbal and later physical assaults. Divorce was the result. This pattern is so common in Negro marriages that it deserves special study, which might shed light on the broader problems of how in America choice of mate and marriage in general is influenced by a person’s blackness. ”(p. 75) The authors put forth strong arguments that black people living in a racist, white dominated society have suffered and are suffering psychological pressure by the effects of racist oppression.

This sometimes, has the telling effect in on the day to day disposition and black people act in unpredictable manner. The thesis of the book: Will the country ever awake in to that heaven of freedom, and when it will be free from the division of narrow domestic walls created by race prejudices? What you do to mitigate the mental barrier of racial discrimination on so many counts is not important. How you do, what you do is indeed important. More acts and legislations have helped to create a stir in the minds of whites and blacks. But the problem eludes permanent solution.

This is so, because the feeling of superiority within the minds of the whites has to change. When the thought process will change, the action process will also change! When the thoughts are changed, the mind is changed; when the mind is changed, the man is changed; when the man is changed, the society is changed; when the society is changed, the Nation is changed. Then only we can way that plenty and prosperity engulfs USA, not otherwise! The contents and arguments in the book contain too much sex, much more than required by the literary standards.

But some times, these issues are beyond the control of the authors. Firstly the book must sell. This is the prime objective of the publisher. Fortunately or unfortunately, sex sells. If it is handled well, it sells well. This could be one of the reasons for the extra dose of sex in the book—this may not be as well! This book has about 230 pages with 10 chapters, Who’s angry, the shadow of the past, achieving womanhood, acquiring manhood, marriage and love, character traits, the “Promise” of education, mental illness and treatment, and how come there’s so much hate and black rage.

In a nutshell, the contents of the book discuss and analyze the bitter past of slavery in USA, the tension-ridden race relations in USA today, and the future of black and white race relations which have the possibilities to turn worst, on the slightest provocation, when the black race is making its presence felt strongly, in political, social, and economic spheres. In sports, blacks are dominating! The blacks accepted the domination of the white race-will the whites accept the domination of the black race in times to come? Will the law of divine retribution work in this context?

Identify the evidence used by the author to support his/ her thesis That which is evident requires no introduction, elaboration, or appreciation. Light is bright and it is evident. Milk is white and it is evident. Simply say black race in America, and everything is evident. The saga of suffering of the Negro race, the era of slavery, violence and cruelty to subdue their legitimate aspirations rotates on the curtain of one’s mind. The authors of Black Rage do not mince words when it comes to condemning the atrocities committed on the black race.

“The voice of black America has been heard in the explosions of Watts, Newark, and Detroit,” they warn. (p. 3) They assert their aspiration in strongest terms. “Black people continue to revolt against laws and customs that are deadly and humiliating…Aggression leaps from wounds inflicted and ambitions spiked. It grows out of oppression and capricious cruelty. ”(p. 3). The younger generation of Negroes is not willing to wait and accept ‘the tactful handling of the situation’ by the whites when their interests matter.

The white race is not willing to travel in the boat where the rudder is controlled by the black. The blacks are aware, by their bitter past experiences that the whites will go to any extent when their own interests matter. This causes more frustration and apprehension in the black community and adversely affects their psyche. The example cited in the text is that of Jimmy, a twelve year old boy. “His face was jet-black, and his expressions ranged from somber to sad. Whether relating stories of home, school, or the streets, he disguised his true feelings.

At twelve he had learned one of his first lessons–always play it cool. As much as possible, he worked to hide his inner life. One day he stared long and hard at his fist and said: “I want to hit a white man. ”(p. 59) State your own opinion and ideas about this book. The book contains tough opinions about the white race. To tell a black youngster to forget the past, say that he is constitutionally protected and enjoys equal rights as applicable to whites or any ethnic group is as good as telling him a story.

The suffering of the Negro race is something very special and closely linked to the destiny of America. The black can condone the past; they can not ignore or forget it. The whites are not obliging the blacks by the present stance of understanding them. They have no other alternative. They must accept their newfound social position—equal in every respect as compared to the black people and it is their duty to say that the black-brother is first among the equal. They must attempt and secure the transformation within. The writers put it crisply and authoritatively.

“After all, the thoughts begin, the Negro is also an American and if he is different it is only matter of degree. Cliches are brought forth and there is a lengthy recitation of the names of famous Negroes. Long association has bred feelings of familiarity which masquerade as knowledge. But there remain puzzles about black people; all is not understood; something is missing. ”(p. 23) “It is better to have a world united than a world divided; but it is better to have a world divided, than a world destroyed,” said Sir Winston Churchill at the time of II World War.

Presently, does this quote apply to the solution for the race problem in USA? USA will never be divided in geographical terms, the Constitution of USA is strong enough, the political leaders have enough foresight, but the example given in the book is shocking and is the definite pointer, how the division of the hearts is complete. How Come There’s So Much Hate? “When the man died, his wife of forty years was pitied by her friends. The widow was a stern New Englander; her dead husband was a black. In spite of strong social disapproval of their marriage, they had raised children and prospered.

There had been some discord between them, but they handled it discreetly and the children had never heard them comment on racial matters. Even when a racial incident was prominent in the news, not a word was said about it. The children assumed that their mother had long since accepted the realities of marriage to a black man. They were completely unprepared for her words when her husband died: “Thank God that nigger is gone! “(p. 181) Spirituality, not religion, seems to be the only answer to this vexed problem of race relations. Once a human being crosses the mind barrier, all differences all tensions, cease!

Mind is a bundle of negative and positive thoughts. The usual methods of suppressing the thoughts and emotions are not going to bring permanent peace. If the Negro race has to surrender at any point, it has got to be the dynamic surrender, of a supreme and brave human being. They should not accept the supremacy of the white race, nor demand the pound of flesh for the historical misdeeds of the whites. If the revengeful attitude persists, it will take them and the Nation nowhere. If the Nation does not survive how will the black and white races survive?

Black Rage-Book Report Essay

Problems faced by the sugar industry Essay

Problems faced by the sugar industry Essay.

Topic: Problems faced by the Sugar Industry in the British West Indies specifically Jamaica.

Research Question: The problems faced by the Sugar Industry affected the British West Indies during the period of 1838-1876.

In light of those problems to what extent did this result in the decline of sugar and the economic state of Jamaica.

Rationale/ Aim

It is believed that the problems faced by the sugar industry were caused due to the fact that the planters had a very negative and spiteful attitude towards the apprentices.

Also these problems were caused due to the fact that now that the slaves became newly freed, they did not want to return to the estate work. Due to the abolition of slavery the sugar industry saw a rapid decline in the production of sugar.

Reading and researching this topic sparked much interest in the researcher. To see that something so successful become unsuccessfully so quickly showed that anything is possible. The essay being done will hopefully give the researcher and society a better insight to the struggles in which the British Sugar Industry faced during the period of 1838-1876.

Introduction

Topic: Problems faced by the Sugar Industry in the British West Indies specifically Jamaica.

Thesis statement: The problems that the sugar industry faced led to immense problems in the British West Indies.

This essay examines the problems in which the sugar industry faced during the period of 1838-1876. The Planter’s in the British West Indies Acquired Large sums of money from the ever rowing and popular sugar industry. Due to the abolition of slavery in 1838; Labour that was needed for the production of sugar decreased rapidly and so did the profitable income the planter’s once received.

Soon because of the lack of labour estates became encumbered. There are specific factors that contributed to the problems that the sugar industry faced. These factors are; Capital, Labour, Technology and Free Trade.

Labour:-Now that slavery was abolished, there was an increase in the price of slaves and this caused an uncompetitive rise in the price of sugar. Due to this labour became scarce and expensive. Some planter continued and hired ex-slaves to work for them and they had to pay them wages. These wages accounted for as much as two thirds of the total cost of production. Some slaves did not return back to the estate in which they worked on instead they got land for themselves and cultivated their own crops. This caused a number of territories to experience e a significant decline in the production of sugar in the first thirty (30) years of emancipation. These territories were:-

Territories

Percentage Reduction

St. Vincent

25%

British Guiana

40%

Grenada

50%

Jamaica

Decreased three times the pre-emancipation level

Capital: – The planters lacked capital in which they needed for wages and labour saving equipments and equipments. Up until the end of this period Majority of estates still used the same old techniques. The wage level was considerably high in territories where land was available and where peasantry was developing well. Two territories associated with this are: Trinidad and British Guiana who were in the expansion and establishment process.

By 1854 a number of estates became encumbered due to the fact that the planter’s were filled with debt. The lack of capital forced them out of production because they could not repay their debts. Jamaica and Grenada had the highest amount of abandoned estates. The fact that these estates were encumbered their value fell tremendously. In some cases estates owed their taxes and because of this government workers could not be paid the salaries.

Technology: – emancipation gave rise to the use of Machinery. Some of the planters tried items of machinery such as the centrifugal systems the plough, harrow and vacuum pans on their estates. Others introduced the railways. Trinidad, British Guiana and St. Kitts introduced steam mills. Also some planters being in debt could not be able to afford the machinery they needed for production. The enslaved also would abuse and destroy estate equipment which is known as industrial sabotage.

Free Trade: – Before equalization there was no help to the West Indian interest. The price of sugar fell almost immediately from 33-25/10d per 50 kg. Due to the fact that the English would not lend money to any companies and banks that specialised in Caribbean issues, by 1847, 13 leading West Indian companies became bankrupt. The Planters Bank in Jamaica and the West Indian Bank both closed for good and because of these planters could not borrow money to cover their losses.

Around 474 sugar and coffee plantations went out of business in Jamaica between the years 1846 and 1852. By the year 1858 Grenada’s sugar production was half that of the last year of slavery and Montserrat, St Vincent and Tobago were two thirds. After the Equalization act was passed, Planters tried to reduce cost by cutting wages by half, to this the labourers did not sit still. Due to the many protests that were occurring on the planters’ estates they tried to compensate the workers for the loss of their earnings.

CONCLUSION

There were many problems in which the sugar industry faced and they had very negative effects on the Caribbean. These problems made the researcher realise that anything successful can really be unsuccessful and it doesn’t matter what time it is. Although the sugar went through a lot of problems after the year of 1876 and the planter’s were allowed to get immigrants to work for them on their estate, the sugar industry would try to make a comeback through this.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

www.notesmaster.com

Caribbean Revision History for CxC- Peter Ashdown and Francis Humphreys

Caribbean History: Foundations Bk1- Claypole, William and Robottom, John

Caribbean History Theme Text

Adjustments to Emancipation: 1838-1876- Veta Dawson

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Problems faced by the sugar industry Essay

Harriet Tubman’s Great Achievements Essay

Harriet Tubman’s Great Achievements Essay.

Harriet Tubman was a hero that completed many brave and selfless acts. She was born in Maryland in 1822 and by the age of 5, she was already working. She got married in 1844, to a free black man, but she was still a slave. Finally, in 1849, her master died and she decided to escape. That is when her great achievements began. Her first great achievement was operating the Underground Railroad. Her journeys to grant other slaves were hundreds of miles long. She traveled from Maryland all the way up to St.

Catherines, Canada on foot. She took them all the way to Canada to get them away from the danger of the Fugitive Slave Act which was an act that made Northerners turn in runaway slaves.

Harriet was 28 when she made her first rescue and 38 when she made her last. All of the 23 fugitives were collected in Dorchester County, Maryland. To avoid capture, Harriet took trips at night in December, took slaves on Saturday nights (Sunday was a free day and they wouldn’t be needed until Monday), and never met the fugitives at plantations.

This was a great achievement because doing this was very long and had many dangers that were all avoided by Harriet even thought she had up to 11 people with her.

The next great achievement of Harriet was when she was a spy and rescued 800 slaves in one night. One year after the start of the Civil War, Harriet Tubman was asked by the government of Massachusetts to join the Union troops in South Carolina. She there lead a team of eight black spies to operate behind the enemy lines and provide information for a Union raid to free slaves. The Combahee River raid took place on June 2, 1863. This was a great achievement for “Moses” ,(Harriet’s nickname, given to her because she was leading slaves to freedom), because she helped 800 slaves in one night.

Harriet’s next achievement was becoming a nurse for the Massachusetts 54th Volunteers , an all black group of solders. These solders attacked Fort Wagner in Charleston Harbor and Harriet was there to care for the wounded. While working, Harriet never got paid by the army so she had to sell baked goods and root beer to the solders. Even thought Harriet worked so hard, her actions were never recognized by the army. She never received pension and only took her rations 20 times. This was a great achievement.

Finally, Harriet’s last great achievement was taking care of poor and sick people. Harriet took the 48 years from the end of the Civil War to her death to taking care of poor and sick people in her home. She typically had six to eight people that she was caring for. In a quote from her, she states that she took care of the old, paralyzed, blind, and people with other sicknesses. These achievements were all great, but I feel that Harriet Tubman’s greatest achievement was when she was a spy for the Union and helped free 800 slaves. Compared to the other achievements, I think this one is definitely more heroic and deserving of more praise. Harriet Tubman was an amazing hero that will never be forgotten because of her compassion and bravery.

Harriet Tubman’s Great Achievements Essay

US History DBQ Essay: New England and Chesapeake Essay

US History DBQ Essay: New England and Chesapeake Essay.

The New England and Chesapeake region developed differently by 1700 mainly due to differences in religious backgrounds. These two regions may have shared the same origin and spoke the same English language, but they hardly ever came to an agreement. Because of this culture barrier, a separated north and south was created, causing two distinctly different societies to evolve. New England was a refuge for religious separatists leaving England, while people who immigrated to the Chesapeake region had no religious motives. As a result, New England formed a much more religious society then the Chesapeake region.

While religion shaped the daily life in New England, money, gold, and tobacco farming dominated the Chesapeake.

Puritans fleeing religious persecution in England settled in New England. They were a highly religious group of people. The Englanders who saw the opportunity to take advantage of the popularity of tobacco they had discovered settled the Chesapeake area. These “gold diggers” were mainly coming to the New World to create a large profit.

These colonists were not fleeing England seeking religious or social freedom, but evidently only to gain prosperity. The New England settlers were longing to find a more appropriate land of opportunity where they could improve their lives and gain religious freedom. They basically wanted to create a society where they could focus on their families, religion and education. Where as the Chesapeake settlers, they were obviously encouraged to the riches in the New World. In New England, Puritan values created close- knit communities (congregationalism). In these communities, schools were established and trade flourished in contrast with the south.

Also, New England was founded by families, not single men looking to get rich quick (influenced societal values.)In Governor John Winthrop’s, A Model of Christian Charity, he states that their goal was to form “a city upon a hill”, which represented how the Puritans wanted to create a colony that would be a model for all the world to see and follow. John Winthrop used words from the Bible to describe their colony as “a city upon a hill.” In many ways their dream came true. Massachusetts Bay Colony had began with about 700 people in 1630.

Ten years later, the population had grown to over 20,000. Massachusetts Bay had one of the largest populations of any European colony in North America at that time. And despite differences in social status, or power, John Winthrop wanted the people to be knit together. They were very close-knit people, they traveled as big families and from time to time as communities. [Doc B] In contrast, Immigrants destined for Virginia were traveling not as families, but were grouped as men and woman. [Doc c] In the Articles of Agreement in Springfield Massachusetts 1636, it is shown their towns were very planned out with everyone having a share of the meadow whether rich, or poor.

Another key factor in the differences between the north and the south was how the northerners stood firm to their belief that every man shall be equal and no one should be enslaved, while the southerners in the Chesapeake area strongly believed in the use of slavery. The tobacco industry required extensive labor which initially was not available. To solve the labor shortage issue, various methods were attempted. One of them were indentured servitude, the headright system, and slavery. Indentured servants would work on the plantations for about four-seven years in return for land. At the end of there work period, they were gained their freedom and either worked for wages or obtained land of their own to farm. The headright system was a method used to attract people to Virginia which were offered 50 acres of land to each immigrant who paid for their own passage to the Americas. Slavery was different from indentured servants in that they had no end to their work. Labor wasn’t much needed in the north due to land differences. Due to swampy land in much of the area, towns were not part of the landscape or lifestyle as they were in the north.

Two established churches were enacted in 1775, the Anglican and the Congregational. The Church of England, Anglicans, became the official faith in Georgia, North and South Carolina, Virginia, Maryland, and a part of New York. The College of William and Mary was founded in 1693 to train a better class of clerics for the Anglican Church. The Congregational Church had grown out of the Puritan Church, and was formally established in all the New England colonies except independent minded Rhode Island. Presbyterianism was never made official in any of the colonies. Religious toleration had made tremendous strides in America. There were fewer Catholics in America; hence anti-Catholic laws were less severe and less strictly enforced. In general, people could worship or not worship as satisfied.

Education was important to the Puritans who believed that people should be able to read the Bible. The Puritans built schools that were free to all the children of the community. Free education was unheard of in Europe at that time. Geography of the Southern colonies differed as well. In the early 1700s, agriculture was the major way of life in the English colonies. The hot, humid climate and good soil of the South was well suited to growing crops. They grew and exported tobacco, rice, and indigo to England. In the rocky soil of New England, farmers barely grew enough crops to fee themselves. As a result, many New Englanders turned to the thick forests or the sea to make a living. Waters off the coast of Massachusetts were among the richest fishing areas in the world. In the north the population of enslaved people remained small. Most farms in New England weren’t very large. Without a lot of land, farmers did not use many workers to run their farms. In the south, small farms and plantations made up the largest part of the Southern Colonies’ economy. Planters brought Africans to send important cash crops, such as tobacco, and rice.

Different causes lead to different effects. These two regions of the New England colonies and the Chesapeake region did in fact share the common truth that their settlers were all of English origin. Of course when they first set sail, even before they reached the New World, they began to separate into two distinctly different societies already. The clearly evident reason is because these “pilgrims” came to the New World each pursuing something different. The New England settlers were longing to find a more suitable life style and free religious persecution. However, the Chesapeake settlers, they were clearly hoping to “strike gold” in the New World. Clearly religious backgrounds played a crucial role in the diversity of New England and the Chesapeake region.

US History DBQ Essay: New England and Chesapeake Essay