Personality Paper Essay

Personality Paper Essay.

Why are some people shy and others are outgoing? Why are some people kind and gentle, while others are hostile and aggressive? The answer to these questions can be found in three of the theories that describe personality. These theories are; psychoanalytic, humanistic, and social cognitive. Founded by Sigmund Freud, psychoanalysis is a theory that “stresses the influence of unconscious mental processes, the importance of sexual and aggressive instincts, and the enduring effects of early childhood experience on personality.” (Hockenbury 2014) This theory states that a person’s behavior and attitude are a result of past experiences, unconscious thoughts, buried memories, as well as a desire for pleasure.

The second theory, based upon the potential that all humans have, is called the humanistic perspective.

Rather than focusing on negative personality aspects, humanists think of all people as good and completely self-aware. An important concept to be aware of within this area of self-awareness is passed on to children from their parents. This concept is known as conditional positive regard.

Hockenbury (2014) describes this as, “the sense that the child is valued and loved only when she behaves in a way that is acceptable to others.” While it is important to feel loved and valued, placing limitations on those feelings can be detrimental to a child, as they may end up in denial and never learn how to express their true feelings. The third theory is the social cognitive perspective.

This perspective focuses on how conscious thought affects the beliefs and goals that a person has. Hockenbury (2014) paraphrases a leading theorist, Albert Bandura by saying, “collectively a person’s cognitive skills, abilities and attitudes represent the person’s self-system… it is out self-esteem that guides how we perceive, evaluate, and control our behavior in different situations.” What gives this perspective more credibility is that there is a way to measure its’ success, unlike the other theories.

There are two widely known ways to assess personality, Projective testing, and self-report testing. One of the better-known projective tests born from the psychoanalytic approach is the Rorschach inkblot test. This test takes inkblot images and asks the person to describe what they see in that image. Because there is no specific or correct way to score that test, the answers are subject to the interpretation of whoever is issuing the test. One benefit is that the person taking the test can consciously decide how they want to answer it, and effectively predict the outcome. There are also more structured tests known as self-report inventories, which is a structured question and answer test that rates the findings against a compiled average scoring from others. According to Cherry (n.d.), “Self-report inventories are often an [sic] good solution when researchers need to administer a large number of tests in relatively short space of time. Many self report inventories can be completed very quickly, often in as little as 15 minutes. This type of questionnaire is an affordable option for researchers faced with tight budgets.”

Cherry goes on to say, “results of self report inventories are generally much more reliable and valid than projective tests. Scoring of the tests a standardized and based on norms that have been previously established.” Although there are valid benefits that can come from personality assessments, there are also concerns regarding how truthful the answers may be, and how the answers may convey thought rather than behavior. Flagg (2010) regards these tests as, “what people think and/or [sic] feel at any given moment. They do not reveal what someone can do.” An example of this would be answering yes to a question regarding a skill in a certain area, though there is no way to prove the possession of that skill.

Flagg goes on to say that the “test scores box people into a set of definitions based on gross generalizations, which make them about as effective and applicable as horoscopes.” The Myers-Briggs personality assessment is a self-report test that was purposely designed to “box” a person into a defined category. Based on the answers to questions a person is labeled as either: introvert or extrovert, sensing or intuition, thinking or feeling, and judging or perceiving. Many large companies today offer this assessment to their employees in order to achieve a more efficient and successful work environment. While these tests are an effective way to gain answers, the truth is that the best way to learn about someone is to get to know them.


Cherry, K. (n.d.). What is a self report inventory. Retrieved 9/27/14 from

Flagg, D. (2010). The problem with personality tests. Retrieved 9/27/14 from

Hockenbury, D. H., & Hockenbury, S. E. (2014). Discovering Psychology (6th ed.). New York, NY: Worth Publishing

Personality Paper Essay

Chrysalis Counselling Essay Essay

Chrysalis Counselling Essay Essay.

“Describe and evaluate Carl Jung’s theory concerning personality types and show how they might usefully help a therapist to determine therapeutic goals”.

For the purpose of this essay I will attempt to show an understanding of Carl Jung’s theory of personality types, evaluate his theory and show how the theory might help a therapist to determine therapeutic goals.

Carl Gustav Jung (1875-1961) was born in Kesswil, Thurgau in Switzerland, and studied Psychiatry, psychology, psychotherapy and analytical psychology at the University of Basel.

Jung’s influences were; Eugen Bleuler (19th century Swiss psychiatrist), Sigmund Freud (19th century psychologist), Friedrich Nietzsche (German philologist, philosopher, cultural critic, poet and composer), and Arthur Schopenhauer (18th century German philosopher).

Jung married Emma Rauschenbach who was the daughter of a wealthy Swiss family; Emma was also a psychotherapist and author in her own right. Jung had a good relationship with his father however Jung’s mother suffered with bouts of depression and was known as very eccentric.

Jung would often use his mother’s issues as reasons for his own difficulties in life.

Jung was the founder of analytical psychology and developed the concepts of extroversion and introversion; archetypes, and the collective unconscious. Jung’s work has been extremely influential within many fields including; psychiatry, study of religion, philosophy, archaeology, anthropology, and literature, Jung was also a prolific published writer. Jung was very religious by nature, and his work was based around this religiousness, he also held a fascination with philosophy and the occult. Because of Jung’s strange and unusual beliefs, many considered him to be a little mystic. Jung’s desire was to be seen as a “man of science”, his influence on popular psychology, the “psychologization of religion”, “spirituality” and the “new age movement has been huge.”

Carl Jung was one of the great personality theorists who was guided by and took inspiration from ancient models such as astrology. The study of personality has been going on for hundreds and possibly thousands of years, and Hippocrates himself (c. 460-377/359 BC) studied others characters and personality traits.

Jung founded a new school of psychotherapy called analytical psychology, referred to as “Jungian Psychology”. Jung’s theories included the following;

The concept of “introversion and extroversion”.
The concept of the “complex”.
The concept of the “collective unconscious”, this includes the archetypes. “Synchronicity” as a mode of relationship that is not casual, an idea that has influenced Wolfgang Pauli (with whom he developed the notion of “unus mundus” in connection with the notion of non-locality) and other physicists.

P.Reeve; City College, Norwich

Jung stated that a person’s psychological make-up works on two fundamental levels, the conscious and the unconscious. Jung believed that the conscious and unconscious worked in such a way that balanced each other out. For instance if a person’s conscious side responds in a particular manner, the unconscious will respond in such a way as to balance things out. Jung believed that we are all born with a natural and equal balance, and that if this balance was altered by external experiences or happenings, the mind would work to restore the equilibrium.

Jung saw consciousness as a product of rational and irrational systems of encountering and assessing reality. Jung developed a framework of “four functional types, consisting of two sets of pairs. These were described by Jung as being those from which “most differentiated function plays the principal role in an individual’s adaptation or orientation to life.” (From Psychological Types, 1921). By “most differentiated” Jung meant superior or dominant. Jung’s four functions are;


Jung stated that these functions enable us to decide and to judge, or “rational”.


Jung stated that these are the functions which enable us to gather information and perceive, or “Irrational”. Jung stated that each one of us needs to both perceive and judge, in order to survive and carry on “normal functioning behaviour.” Jung stated that each of us will favour one function from each of the pairs.

Definitions of the four functional types are;

What something is.
Meaning and understanding.
Analytic, objective, principles, standards, criteria.

Whether it is good or not.
Weight and value.
Subjective, personal, valuing intimacy, humane.

Jung called these functions “rational”. The functions are opposite, reasoning and judging functions. People consciously prefer one or the other.

Something exists.
Sensual perception.
Realistic, down-to-earth, practical, sensible.

Where it’s from and where it’s going.
Possibilities and atmosphere.
P.Reeve; City College, Norwich

Hunches, future, speculative, fantasy, imaginative.

Jung called these functions “irrational”, and stated that these functions enable us to “gather information” and “perceive” ( Jung’s personality types).

Jung stated that each person has a natural orientation towards one of the four functions, which would be their “superior” or most “differentiated” function. In this case the opposite function, “inferior” or “unconscious” function would be represented and compensated within the person’s unconscious. Jung stated that a personality would generally be represented by a conscious dominant function from each opposite pair: one of these dominant functions would be overall dominant or “superior” and the other dominant function would be the supporting or “auxiliary” function.

The four functions; thinking, feeling, sensation and intuition along with extraversion and introversion, make up Jung’s “eight types”, which are eight mental Functions-in-Attitude attitude. These eight mental functions in their particular attitude form the core of Jung’s “theory of psychological types”. These are the eight functions we all call upon to adapt to the world. What this means is that a person can be defined by which of the eight they are, for example;

Extraverted Feeling;
“Outward and active focus on bringing order to the objective world through
building and seeking harmony with others and alignment with openly expressed values.”

Introverted feeling;
“Inward and reflective focus on the subjective world of deeply felt values, that seeks harmony through alignment of personal behaviour, with those values and evaluation of phenomena in light of those values.

Jung explains this as being defined by our dominant function, or our most preferred mental function. If a person uses “Extraverted Sensing” more than any of the other seven mental functions, this is the more dominant function, and this person would be defined as an “Extraverted Sensing Type”.

Jung’s theory of the eight functions appears to work very well within practice, however does take considerable time to “get to grips” with the system, as there is much information to familiarise yourself with. This theory once understood can be applied to almost any situation or experience, and does seem to make complete sense.

Aelius Galenus, (c.130AD-200AD), better known as “Galen of Permagon” was a renowned Greek physician, surgeon and philosopher in the Roman Empire. Galen created a theory about personalities, and around the second century AD, published “De Temperamentis” which outlined his theory. Galen was inspired by the works of Hippocrates, and elaborated on his theory. Hippocrates identified the four fluids that lie at the base of Galen’s theory, which were: Blood, yellow bile, black bile and phlegm.

Galen, unlike Hippocrates (who studied the four fluids for medical purposes rather than the study of human temperament) stated that these four fluids were responsible for differing moods, behaviours and emotions. Due to the time since Galen’s theory was created, almost millennia, Galen’s theory has not withstood the test of time. (Galen’s Personality Theory-Psychology of Personality Period 6;

P.Reeve; City College, Norwich personality-theory).

Another, more recent psychologist known for his interest and work around personality types and intelligence was Hans Eysenck (1916-1997). Eysenck was born in Berlin, Germany although became a British citizen, and attended “UCL” University College London. Eysenck spent most of his life studying and working in Britain, which was very much as a result of his hatred of Hitler and the Nazis. Eysenck hated everything they stood for; he decided to leave his native country. Eysenck was the founding editor of the journal “Personality and Individual Differences” and authored more than 80 books and in excess of 1600 journal articles.

Eysenck’s model (P-E-N), was based on three personality dimensions; Psychoticism, Extraversion and Neuroticism. Eysenck meant that in terms of dimensions of temperament, these three dimensions are related to basic human emotions. In basic terms;

Psychoticism trait = a bipolar scale which is anchored at the high end by aggressiveness and divergent thinking, and is at the low end for empathy and caution. Extraversion trait = Enjoy positive/social events, a bipolar scale which is anchored at the high end by sociability and stimulation seeking, and at the low end by social reticence and stimulation avoidance. Neuroticism trait = a bipolar scale anchored at the high end by emotional instability and spontaneity, and by reflection and deliberateness at the low end.

Eysenck stated that “E and N” provided a 2-dimensional space to describe individual differences in behaviour. An analogy can be made to how latitude and longitude describe a point on the face of the earth. Eysenck acknowledged that these two dimensions were very similar to the four personality types first proposed by “Galen”. For example;

High N and High E = Choleric type
High N and Low E = Melancholic type
Low N and High E = Sanguine type
Low N and Low E = Phlegmatic type

The major strength of Eysenck’s model was that it provided data supporting a clear theoretical explanation of personality differences. Eysenck proposed that extroversion was caused by variability in cortical arousal, and introverts are characterized by higher levels of activity than extroverts and therefore are chronically more cortically aroused than extroverts. (

Although Jung worked with and was influenced by Freud, he had difficulties with the fact that all of Freud’s ideas and theories were based around sexuality. Freud saw Jung as his main ally and supporter, however Jung moved away from Freud in 1913 due to these difficulties.

Understanding Jung’s theory of personality types can help a therapist to better understand their client’s self-image and self-worth. It is crucial for the therapist to understand the client’s expectations of the therapy, so that achievable goals may be established. Sensible, achievable goals for the client are a must, if the client is to have a chance of succeeding in their therapy, achieving “wholeness” and potentially self-actualizing. P.Reeve; City College, Norwich

For a person to become “whole”, Jung considered “Individuation, a psychological process of integrating the opposites including the conscious with the unconscious, while still maintaining their relative autonomy, necessary for a person to become whole.” ( Jung’s personality types).

People who have advanced towards individuation tend to be harmonious, mature and responsible, and have a good understanding of life, human nature and the universe.

Jung believed that someone suffering “psychological disturbance” showed a level of psychic imbalance, for example, neurosis over-emphasizing the characteristic traits on a person’s personality. If a person suffers a traumatic event at some point in their life, there are likely to be difficult emotional issues. These traumas’ may have been consciously forgotten or placed within the unconscious, but they are still likely to prove problematic for the person, in the form of complex emotional and/or behavioural difficulties. Jung stated that these issues could then be displayed as anxiety, depression and other forms of emotional and psychological problems, leading to imbalance.

Jung believed that in order to redress this imbalance, all areas of the psyche must be investigated so that the very point of the imbalance could be identified. Jung’s theories do hold much weight in the world of psychology; however there are areas where Jung greatly differed from other personality theorist’s. Jung did not consider a client’s emotional aspect towards a situation. This conflicts with Eysenck’s theory, as he placed everyone on his scale of “normal to neuroticism.” Eysenck stated “neuroticism is a true temperament that should be regarded when looking into personality types.” Jung believed that the role of the therapist was extremely relevant for the client to overcome their issues, which is why Jung was often accused of being too self-absorbed, using his own personal experiences within many of his ideas and theories.


Understanding personality types is an extremely important element of a therapist skill set. The relationship between the therapist and client is all important, as the client must feel safe, valued and listened to by the therapist. If the therapist did not consider the client’s personality, the relationship would be unlikely to develop positively. The therapist must treat the client as an individual, based on the client’s personality, “for example; Does the client seem more introverted or extroverted, does the client seem to talk more logically or emotionally, is the client more cautious or compulsive?” (Counselling Philosophy; Role of the Counsellor;

In understanding the client’s personality and working with the client based on this personality, allows the client to feel understood, which will be more likely to result in the client being more open and honest within the therapy sessions. This will also help the therapist to determine appropriate, realistic therapeutic goals.

I have looked at and considered three “personality type” theorists, Jung, Eysenck and Galen, all from very different periods throughout history. Although all share a common interest, they are all very different people, from different historical periods, with different personalities themselves. All three arguably had different childhood and life experiences, which in itself potentially led to conflicting ideas/theories within the same interest and discipline. The idea that theorists for example can share a common interest or subject, which

P.Reeve; City College, Norwich

Result’s in varying answers and outcomes, goes some way to show the importance and relevance of the “personality”, and the different outcomes as a result.

Ultimately, personality types are arguably extremely relevant with regards to therapy and therapeutic goals. The patterns of the impact of client’s persona, ego and self-etcetera, will affect them in their everyday life, social and personal relationships. If the therapist does not consider the individual personality of the client, how can they possibly build a relationship with their client, based on the core conditions?

Understanding the client’s personality will be extremely useful to the therapist, and will help the therapist in assisting the client to achieve positive therapeutic outcomes, and to enable them to reach their therapeutic goals.

P. Reeve; City College, Norwich

Course hand-outs/notes
Chrysalis Psychotherapeutic Counselling- Year 2-Module 3. 2-3 01/2014 SC Page 4 Chrysalis Psychotherapeutic Counselling- Year 2-Module 3. 2-3 01/2014 SC Page 9 Chrysalis Psychotherapeutic Counselling- Year 2-Module 3. 2-3 01/2014 SC Page 11 Chrysalis Psychotherapeutic Counselling- Year 2-Module 3. 2-3 01/2014 SC Page 14 Chrysalis Psychotherapeutic Counselling- Year 2-Module 3. 2-3 01/2014 SC Page 15

Jung’s psychological types – the four functional types.

Galen’s Personality Theory – Psychology of Personality Period 6. personality-theory).

Hans Eysenck.

Counselling Philosophy; Role of the Counsellor.

You may also be interested in the following: counselling essay examples

Chrysalis Counselling Essay Essay

Freud’s Theory of Personality Essay

Freud’s Theory of Personality Essay.

Sigmund Freud’s theory of personality is both relevant and non-relevant in today’s society. His theory of consciousness is very important as a foundation for understanding human thought and behavior. Freud looked beyond the effects of behavior and explored the unconscious. He significantly changed the way the world views behavior by explaining certain levels of consciousness, the components of the unconscious mind, and different developmental phases. Freud believed that many of our conscious thoughts and actions are motivated by unconscious fears and desires.

Sigmund Freud is best known for his development and use of psychoanalysis. The theory of psychoanalysis focuses on the concept of how our unconscious thoughts, feelings, and emotions play an active role in our daily lives. The id, ego, and superego are the three mental zones and each has a specific function. The id functions on the pleasure principle; the ego on the protection of the individual; and the superego on protection of society. Every individual is composed of different amounts of each mental zone.

The ultimate goal is to achieve the perfect balance of the three areas by understanding how each works alone and contributes to make the whole. The basis of psychoanalysis is that the unconscious mind determines behavior.

One of the biggest concerns in Freud’s psychoanalytic theory is the inability to explain behavior in our modern culture. Freud lived in an era where women were believed to be inferior to men. Freud based his theories on his case studies and direct observations. These observations had limitations because his subjects were Viennese upper-class women; a small portion of society. He focused mainly on the male development; as he was part of a male dominated era which led to half of the population’s development being insufficiently accounted for. Freud lacked an understanding of women which suggests that his theories involving women are not accurate. The prevalence of same-sex parents raising children in homosexual homes or single-parent households raises questions that psychoanalysis fails to answer and is not relevant in today’s society.

Freudian theory suggests that as children develop they progress through a series of psychosexual stages. Each stage has a pleasure-seeking energy that is focused on a different part of the body. The successful completion of each stage leads to a healthy personality as an adult. However, if a conflict remains unresolved at any particular stage, the individual might remain fixated or “stuck” at that particular point of development. A fixation can involve an obsession with something related to that phase of development. Signs of an oral fixation might include an excessive reliance on oral behaviors such as smoking, biting fingernails or eating.

In these modern times, there are over 45 million Americans who smoke and based on Freud’s theory it is a direct result of the way a child went through the teething phase. The idea that a parent who let their child teeth for too long could somehow lead to an individual developing an oral fixation is something that has lost credibility and not relevant today. There are millions of smokers in the United States and very rarely does the blame rest upon the parents who left their kids with a pacifier for too long.

Defense mechanisms are a major aspect of psychoanalysis and are relevant in today’s society. When someone seems unwilling to face a painful truth, you might accuse them of being “in denial.” When a person tries to look for a logical explanation for unacceptable behavior, you might suggest that they are “rationalizing.” These things represent different types of defense mechanisms, or tactics that the ego uses to protect itself from anxiety. Today we recognize denial as the first and foremost defense mechanism which helps professionals understand an individual’s denial of addictions; such as drugs/alcohol, gambling, and shopping.

In conclusion, the profession of psychology would not be where it is today without Sigmund Freud. His contributions to psychology are perhaps some of the most important. Freud’s early work on psychoanalysis as a treatment for a “sick” mind paved the way for modern-day psychologists, psychiatrists, theorists, and analysts who are developing this treatment even further. However, he based his theories on events that were exclusive to his time period. In today’s society we have different stressors and live different lifestyles than those living in the 19th and early 20th centuries. They did not know road rage, chemical explosions, pollution, etc. Some changes to consider are focusing on the development of women, study of homosexual and single-parent households, variety of ethnicities/cultures, and environmental concerns just to name a few.

Feist, J., Feist, G., & Roberts, T. (2013). Theories of personality. (8ed., p.19). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Companies. Lothane, Z. (2006). Freud’s legacy–is it still with us? Psychoanalytic Psychology, 23(2), 285-301. doi:10.1037/0736-9735.23.2.285 Psychoanalysis. (2013). Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6th Edition, 1-2.

Freud’s Theory of Personality Essay

Adler Case Study Essay

Adler Case Study Essay.

1. What is Mark’s attitude, according to Jungian theory? Provide evidence for your answer.

Mark is “outgoing and happy. He loves life and lives it to its fullest. He isn’t an introspective person.” According to the Jungian theory, Mark is an extrovert. He is defined as such by his excited behavior while being active, socializing, and the center of attention. In addition, Mark’s job is consumed by constant activity and danger.

2. What is Mark’s superior function, according to Jungian theory? Provide evidence for your answer.

Mark states that at work he “does not feel fear, but rather caution.” As such, Mark’s superior function is the irrational functional of sensing. He uses his intuition to perform his job as a firefighter and, ultimately, to experience the world.

3. According to Jung’s theory, what archetype has mark been influenced by? How do you know this? How does it influence his behavior? Is Mark aware of its influence? Explain.

Mark’s career path of choice offers insight into that he was influenced by archetypes of strong courageous heroes.

This would lead one to believe he has been influenced by the hero archetype. Mark feels a need to save others, and by acting on this desire he believes he is making a difference. Expanding on that thought, as he is aware that helping others comforts him and offers him a purpose in his life, it can be inferred that Mark is aware of this influence and that he is aware that the praise makes him feel good about himself.

4. At what stage is Mark presently, according to the Jung theory? Specify sub stage if appropriate, if appropriate. What types of events should be occurring at this stage?

Presently, although Mark is twenty-eight years old, his actions present the possibility that he is still in the childhood stage of development: Mark is in the youth stage, according to Jung’s terminology. It is possible that Mark falls into the monarchic stage of childhood development: he seeks thrill, but shows the development of logical and abstract thinking.

5. At what stage, in Jungian theory, was Mark when he was pretending to be a superhero? Specify sub-stage if appropriate.

Under the Jungian theory, whilst Mark was pretending to be a superhero, he was most likely in the archaic sub-stage of the childhood stage. This would explain his constant pretending of being a superhero.

Theory Comparison Questions

1. Use another theory, besides Jung’s, to explain Mark’s career choice. For the purpose of this question, I will be using the theories of Sigmund Freud. As such, Freud would delve into and further elaborate the influence of Mark’s childhood. Freud would view Mark’s childhood experiences of playing superhero games to explain his behavior later in life. In conclusion, Freud would believe that these experiences meant Mark was likely already predestined to obtain a career such as being a firefighter.

2. How could environmental factors, such as reinforcements and punishment, explain Mark’s career choice? What are some reinforcements that encourage this behavior? How is the focus of this explanation different than that of Jung’s theory in explaining Mark’s career choice? In the form of the multiple “thank you’s!” and the continuous praise he receives as a firefighter, Mark’s behavior of acting like a superhero is reinforced. These beliefs of his awaken his unconscious belief that he needs thanks and praise in order to achieve the high-esteem of manhood.

3. How could Eysenck’s concept of extraversion explain Mark’s career choice? What other behaviors could this concept explain? Eysenck’s explains that extroverts are sociable and active, both of which are present in firefighting. Even as a young child, Mark attained very extroverted qualities. As such, he continued down an extroverted path, per say, which lead him towards firefighting. Mark’s other behaviors that exhibit a need for constant activity, renovating the kitchen of the fire station during his free time, explain this concept.

Adler Case Study Essay

The movie “Sybil” Essay

The movie “Sybil” Essay.

The psychoanalytic theory tells us about the causes of behavior. Freud’s theory has three parts: id (largely unconscious), ego (largely conscious) and superego (largely unconscious). These theoretical psychological concepts are “useful aids to understanding” the mind’s dynamics according to Freud. Id: has a reservoir of unconscious psychic energy constantly striving to satisfy basic id operated on the pleasure principle. If not constrained by reality, it seeks immediate gravitation. It is something that would pleasant us by doing it at the moment.

The Sybil

In the movie “Sybil”, Sybil had different personalities. One of the personalities, Marcia’s mind was only controlled by id. She felt guilty for having wished her mother dead. This guilt resulted in her depression and suicidal tendencies. She only thought that if she was dead it would be better, so since it would please her she tried to do it. According to Vicky, Marcia felt what Sybil felt, and she relieved her anger. Ego: it teaches the young child to manage and deal with the real world.

The ego functions on the reality to bring long-term pleasure rather than pain or damage. It is part of the mind that tries to satisfy the ids need for pleasure while limiting the consequence. It has the same idea that the id has but in a way with less consequences. Super ego: the voice of conscience that forces the ego to consider not only the real but the ideal, and that focuses solely on how one ought to behave.

The superego strives for perfection, judging actions and producing positive feelings of pride or negative feeling of guilt. It forces the ego to think beyond immediate pleasure and consider ideal long term aspirations. It gets the ego not to do something that would have bad consequences and would only pleasant the person at the moment. (Text book pg. 580, movie and notes)According to the DSM-IV, Dissociative Identity Disorder is “characterized by the presence of two or more distinct identities or personality states that recurrently take control of the individual’s behavior accompanied by an inability to recall important personal information that is too extensive to be explained by ordinary forgetfulness.” This disorder is most likely to be a fragmentation personality rather than different and separate personalities. Dissociative Identity Disorder fails to put together different aspects of identity, memory, and consciousness. Each personality can be experienced as if it has a different personal history, self-image, and identity, or even a separate name. The different identities usually have different names and characteristics that differs the real identity.

Some identities may have different age, gender, vocabulary, general knowledge, or main affects. The identities may deny knowledge of one another, be the critical of one another, or appear to be in open conflict. Sometimes, one or more powerful identities assign time to the others. The more passive identities tend to have more limited memories, and the more controlling, or “protector” identities have more complete memories. According to DSM-IV, the time that is required to switch from one identity (personality) to another is usually a matter of seconds, but it can also be switched slowly and gradually. The behavior that is connected to the identity switches include rapid blinking, facial changes, changes in voice or demeanor, or disruption in the person’s train of thought. In the movie, Sybil has 16 different personalities. All of her personalities deny that they are all the same person. Vicky, one of the personalities, has access to all of Sybil’s memories. She was the only one who was aware continuously of Sybil’s life. She could also communicate with the other personalities.

She was the exact opposite of Sybil; she had a very loving parent with many lovely siblings. She was a visitor from Paris who was visiting “Sybil’s family” (personalities). In addition the general knowledge of the personalities was different. For example, Vanessa was very artistic and played piano; however the other personalities were not able to do that. Also when the different personalities saw them selves in the mirror they had a totally different self-image and would not see how they actually all looked like and how they were all the same person with different personalities. The best example of changing personalities in some seconds and the facial change can be when Sybil is having lunch with his father at the restaurant. In one second her facial expressions all changed and she started acting like a totally different person. Also in the sessions that she had with Dr. Wilbur, sometime she would start talking differently with different vocabulary and different thinking all of the sudden, which showed that she, had changed her personality. (DSM-IV, textbook pg 641, movie)There are 3 methods that are used to treat the DID patients.

Sigmund Freud is the person who came up with these methods. The first one is free association. In this method, you tell the patient to sit somewhere and relax, where you can see them but they can’t see you. Then you tell them to say whatever that comes to their mind, no matter how embarrassing or trivial it is. In the movie, Dr. Wilbur tells her to sit on a chair or couch and tell her whatever that comes to her mind. Sometimes when Sybil or her other personalities feel uncomfortable, Dr. Wilbur sits behind her so she doesn’t see her and Wilbur can observe about her while she would watch her. Freud believed that by having a free association with the patient, it helps to know the trouble of the patient’s past to present. It also would help to release painful and unconscious memories, which are usually from childhood.

There is another technique, called Hypnosis. Dr. Wilbur would show Sybil a statue and start talking to her. She would focus her attention this way and let her to experience changes in sensations, perceptions, thoughts or behavior. Another way of the therapy is Dream Analysis, which you describe what the dream is and what it actually means. It can be a symbolic representation of the unconscious mind. In the movie Dr. Wilbur used a cat that Sybil dreamed of as a symbol of her mother who she was following her and Sybil wanted her dead. These three methods are called Psychoanalytic therapy. Sybil had repression, which is when something harsh happens to you, you totally forget about it and it goes in your unconscious mind. However it affects you behavior a lot.(movie, textbook pg. 578-582, 668-669, notes)Scientific valid theory is when you can test your theory and find 100% answer.

We should be able to examine out argument to get the right conclusion. However Freud’s theory was not examinable. Psychoanalytic is an open argument that is not provable. The psychologists make observations, form theories and then refine their theories in new observations. They have a hypothesis but it can never be completely right because everything works different on different people. According to the book, the psychological theory is testable but in my opinion you can never get the exact right conclusion from your test in psychology. Also in Psychoanalytic, Freud’s ideas are not testable. There are reasonable hypothesis.

His theory might work on some people and not work on some others. In the movies Sybil, Dr. Wilbur uses Freud’s Psychoanalytic theories to make Sybil to relieve her painful memories of childhood. She was successful to bring all of Sybil’s personalities together. However this hypothesis can have a false conclusion. There is no evidence to show what exactly worked on and helped Sybil, and which techniques works and which one doesn’t or if these techniques was actually the matter that helped her or something else.(opinion, textbook pg. 20-24)Citation: Psychology text book. Barron’s book. Notes given in class. The movie, the Sybil.

The movie “Sybil” Essay