Environmental Security: Bangladesh Essay

Environmental Security: Bangladesh Essay.


While reading International Relations I got acquainted with many contemporary issues which are really important to deal with for the competitive survival of Bangladesh in this age of globalization. Bangladesh is a developing country. It has to perform very carefully in order to continue a healthy and sustainable economic system. Bangladesh suffers from both internal and external threats which are both military and non-military. Among them Environmental Security (ES) is a matter of great importance. Because environmental calamities are great threat to economic development and are means of creating dependency on the donor countries.

It is also controlling relation between states and also creating tension between them. So, time has come to take this issue more significantly and take necessary steps accordingly. This research paper contains how environment is having power over the matters of our country; creating balance of relationship with the donor countries; and what Bangladesh should do in order to overcome the problems to establish better economics.


In order to provide a valid research paper, I have taken information from the lecture shits given by the department of International Relations. Internet has been a great source of information which I have mentioned in the part of bibliography. Moreover I have taken information from BANGLADESH: Non-traditional security, By Jyoti M. Pathania, and used speeches of George Kennan, Collin Powell in some relevant area. I am grateful to Dr. Qazi Kholiquzzaman Ahmed (Chairman, Governing Council, Dhaka School of Economics (DScE); Chairman, Governing Body, Palli Karma-Sahayak Foundation). He has given me some clear view of the issue of Environmental Security. I have used some information in this research paper from his presentation on The Outcome OF Cancun Climate Change Conference (COP-16) and Bangladesh. My work has also been encouraged by Dr. jashim Uddin, General Manager, Palli Karma-Sahayak Foundation, who has great experience in the field of development in Bangladesh.

1.0 Introduction

There have been two approaches to Security Studies: 1) Traditional Approach, i.e., Realist Approach and Non-traditional Approach, i.e., i) Widening Approach and ii) Deepening Approach. Since the end of the Cold War, there has been renewed interest in what is now called ‘non-traditional’ security issues. Among the non-traditional approach to security studies, the widening approach includes that states are functionally like units; states are not like units in terms of capability/power. Some are strong and some are weak. Inter-state relationship is governed by this power differentiation. As a result, anarchy is the ordering principle of international politics.

States are bound to adapt to this anarchic system for their survival. However, in widening approach the referent object of security is state; state wants to secure state sovereignty, physical base of state (territory, resources and population) and political system. It simply includes a wide range of non-military threats to state security: both external and internal and military and non-military. The Environmental Security can be referred to this non-traditional approach of security, which is an internal and external non-military threat to a state that causes huge loss to the physical base of a state, demolishes economic situation and threats the sovereignty of state in this age of globalization.

Hence the Environmental Security has become a matter of great importance in today’s world. Environmental security involves assessing the ways in which the quality of environmental systems relate to or impact the overall health and well-being of a state or society. It also refers to the relative protection of the environment from injury or degradation by manmade or natural processes due to accident, negligence, ignorance, or design from causes that cross national borders and endanger the livelihood or health of humans, the functional integrity of a state, or the stability of the international community.

Most environmental threats to national and international security can be traced to man’s activities interfering into natural processes or the natural ecosystem. Some serious threats, however, may have natural origins, but become exacerbated from man’s activities. Examples of these include hurricanes, earthquakes and floods.

Environmental Security (ES) is a matter of great importance since it also controls international relations between states. As late as 1985, the old cold warrior George Kennan Wrote in foreign affairs:

Affairs concerning international relations and national interests in foreign countries. , identifying the threat to the world environment as one of the two supreme dangers facing mankind. But it was really in the post Cold War era that the world saw a dramatic increase in international activity around environmental issues. The United Nations Environmental Program has reported that about 170 treaties have been negotiated in recent years on various issues of the global environment. (1)

2.0 Importance of ES can be understood further by the following statement:

“Few threats to peace and survival of the human community are greater than those posed by the prospects of cumulative and irreversible degradation of the biosphere on which human life depends. True security cannot be achieved by mounting buildup of weapons (defence in a narrow sense), but only by providing basic conditions for solving non-military problems which threatens them. Our survival depends not only on military balance, but on global cooperation to ensure a sustainable environment.” Brundtland Commission Report, 1987

In 1999, Collin Powell stressed the importance of ES saying:

“Sustainable development is a compelling moral and humanitarian issue, but it is also a security imperative. Poverty, environmental degradation and despair are destroyers of people, of society, of nations. This unholy trinity can destabilize countries, even entire regions.”

We are dependant upon the globe’s life-supporting eco-systems generating water, food, medicine, and clean air etc, but we actually did nothing to maintain this ecosystem. As a result the current and future generations will confront severe environmentally induced changes. The change has already started and is testing our traditional concepts and understandings of security, both national and beyond boundaries. In many cases conflicts are direct results of environmental degradation. Another important dimension of Environmental security is that it knows no state boundary. It affects humankind and its institutions and organizations anywhere and at anytime, which cannot be defended by any means of military defense or political negotiation.

3.0 VARIOUS INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS international relations, study of the relations among states and other political and economic units in the international system. Particular areas of study within the field of international relations include diplomacy and diplomatic history, international law, ….. Click the link for more information.


A number of International Relations Theories can be applied to the issue of environment. Many of these theories only deal with the environment indirectly, yet it is useful to review the expanding literature of international-relations theory as it relates to the environment.

Realism: The two central concepts of Realist theory are power and the national interest. The international society is an anarchical state-system. The system is therefore a self-help one. Realism assumes that states and their populations need natural resources to survive. There is a competition between states for these scarce resources. War is often the result of such competition and conflict. It leads to “the struggle for power and peace,” as Hans Morgenthau put it.


Extreme versions of Realism such as the geopolitical some see President George Bush’s intervention in Iraq as an attempt to secure the oil resources of the Middle East.

3.1 Malthusianism:

Thomas Malthus, an 18th century English cleric, believed that because population grew in geometric progression and food production followed arithmetic progression, there would come a time when population growth would inevitably outstrip and will cause starvation. Thus it will threat the socio-economic security of a nation.

3.2 Liberalism:

Liberalism focuses on cooperation. While liberalism sees people and states competing for scarce environmental resources, it does so in a more orderly way. Thus, “a liberal philosophy applied to global environmental politics tends to treat states as competitive participants–not unlike corporations–in markets they have established among themselves.” (8)

Private enterprise and the market produce efficiency and save nature. For example, the Stockholm Declaration of 1972 forbids states from inflicting environmental damage on each other, because this would be a violation of the state’s sovereignty.

3.3 Institutionalism:

This approach also focuses on cooperation. Here the states have a broader sense of self-interest. They focus on the public good. Their enlightened self-interest includes norms, values, principles and expectations which are the ingredients of International Regimes. The states seek mutually acceptable compromises through international negotiation. The building of International Regimes can benefit the global environment. The Kyoto Protocol of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change is a good example of international regimes.

3.4 Ecoanarchism:

This philosophy is humanistic and leftist, and Murray Bookchin is its leading proponent. Ecoanarchists believe that “the state and ‘big’ capital are inimical to the autonomy of humans and nature.” (9) Thus to preserve nature it is necessary to break society into “small, relatively self-sufficient units.” To help nature these units must practice altruism and mutual aid.

3.5 Social Naturalism:

This view sees “culture and nature as bound together” in a kind of social community. Community is used in a very broad sense that includes people, animals, plants, ideas, language, history and the ecosystems. Cooperation between humans and nature is a given. The objective of social naturalism is “the creation of a cooperative ecological society found to be rooted in the most basic levels of being.” (10) This philosophy strongly resembles the worldview.

3.6 Sustainable Growth:

The growth of incomes results in economic development. As the 1990s World Bank President Barber Conable put it: “market forces and economic efficiency were the best way to achieve the kind of growth which is the best antidote to poverty.” (12) So according to the neoclassical economist’s dictum “a rising tide lifts all boats” is associated with the idea that improvements in the general economy will benefit all participants in that economy. The proponents of this theory believe that when the poor of the developing countries become richer then it will reduce pressure on the environment. For example, they will be more able and willing to pay the costs of keeping air and water clean. (13)

3.7 Sustainable Development:

This phrase first appeared in a 1980 report issued by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) or World Conservation Union, international organization founded in 1948 to encourage the preservation of wildlife, natural environments, and living resources. (14) This approach focuses on the “needs” of the world’s poor and calls for a sufficient transfer of wealth from the rich countries to the poor, so that the developing countries can deal with the problem of poverty and environmental damage.

3.8 The Steady-State Economy:

Herman Daly proposed this alternative approach which focuses not on more goods, but on the durability and longevity of goods. More goods are wasteful and cause environmental degradation. It calls for recycling and the minimal exploitation of biological and physical resources. Daly’s unit is the nation-state, and each country must seek to be self-sufficient and spend only its own natural resources. (15)

3.9 Radical Redistribution:

This theory believes that environmental degradation is the result of excessive wealth, the injustices of capitalism and the income inequality between the rich and the poor nations. In 2005, a typical American consumed 51 times as much energy as a typical Bangladeshi. (16) Consequently, two things need to be done. First, the rich must drastically reduce their consumption so as not to burden the earth’s resources and environment. Second, the rich much transfer massive amounts of capital and technology so that the poor countries can grow economically and preserve the environment.

3.10 Ecosocialism and Eco-Marxism:

Not surprisingly, ecosocialists and ecomarxists blame capitalism for environmental degradation. Capitalism is seen as inherently anti-ecological and anti-nature. For seeking cheaper raw materials and fatter profits they impose wastes onto nature. Thus the mode of production matters for the environment. They “emphasize people’s collective power as producers, which directly involve local communities (particularly urban) and increase democracy, which enlist the labour movement and which are aimed particularly at economic life.” (17)

3.11 Ecofeminism:

Although many ecofeminists are not Marxists, they are all leftists or liberal in their philosophical orientation. For ecofeminists “the domination of women and nature are inextricably linked.” (18) “Feminine suffering is universal because wrong done to women and its ongoing denial fuel the psycho-sexual abuse of all Others–races, children, animals, plants, rocks, water, and air.” (19)

3.12 Ecocentrism:

Ecocentrists believe that humans cannot survive without nature. Many ecocentrists are advocates of wilderness or “wildness.” As Henry David Thoreau noted: “In wildness is the preservation of the world.” (20)

3.13 Biopolitics:

The origins of biopolitics can be found in the writings of Michel Foucault. According to Mitchell Dean, a follower of Foucault, biopolitics “is concerned with matters of life and death, with birth and propagation, with health and illness, both physical and mental, and with the processes that sustain or retard the optimization of the life of a population.” (21)

These are some of the basic environmental philosophies that take to mean the global environment and structure practices and policies. Many of these conflict with one another and have diverse explanation of the reasons for environmental degradation.

4.0 A case of Bangladesh:

The first part of this research paper dealt with the security agenda and the philosophies involving ES. Scarcities of renewable resources can generate civil violence and conflict; the degradation of renewable resources causes environmental insufficiency; powerful groups take over precious resources while trivial groups move around to ecologically sensitive areas. Moreover environmental scarcity proves the difference between social groups. Such situation affects governmental institutions and states by making it economically weak. Even environmental scarcity can cause ethnic conflicts. Accordingly the International community can be indirectly affected by these conflicts produced by environmental scarcity. (22)

In the second part I will focus on Bangladesh regarding the issues of environment security. Ours is a country which has to face both external and internal, and military and non military threats. Bangladesh achieved its independence through a devastating war against Pakistan which resulted millions of death and around ten million refugees to India. Even after the war Bangladesh has been facing military threat from the Shanti Bahini of Chittagong Hill Track (CHT).

Guerrilla warfare between the rebels and armed force of the government in CHT and civil conflicts between the Bengali and Non-Bengali residents of this place continue till today. The most recent armed conflict between the Bengali and Non-Bengali residents happened on 19th January 2011; where 6 (six) were killed. Such situation threatens the stability of a state. Circumstances become more vulnerable when environmental degradation doubles the pain. The independent Bangladesh has been facing environmental calamity since 1974. In 1974 famine raged over and was further aggravated by a flood. Later on, the degradation only increased and in recent years Bangladesh has seen devastating cyclones and floods.

The security of Bangladesh must depend on sustainable environment in many ways. Environmental degradation will badly affect economic development, erode social cohesion. Even political institutions face threat. Population growth and lack of economic opportunity will cause demographic displacement both within the country and outside. Migration in other country can cause bilateral conflict Bangladesh is also bearing the result of environmental problems of neighbor countries.

Such situation in water sector is already exacerbating regional tension with India. It can lead to harmful progress towards regional security and can instigate regional cooperation on the other hand. We have to remember that the linkage of environment and security in Bangladesh is through economics and politics. The greater the environmental degradation in Bangladesh the greater will be the political and economic deterioration, thus leading to more national and international insecurity.


Bangladesh posses a horde of security problems, which are no longer of conventional nature but have non-conventional nature i.e. Non-traditional security issues which are in the state of constant evolution. These are economic, environmental, political and territorial threats.

5.1 Population

The greatest problem that Bangladesh faces is an unusually large population in a small land area. The population grew from 42 million in 1951 to about 147 million in 2005. (23) It is projected to reach 166 million in 2015. (24) The population density is 1019 per square kilometer. When one compares this with 2 persons per sq. km. in Australia, 3 in Canada, 31 in USA, 191 in Pakistan and 324 in India, one becomes aware of the tremendous crush of population in Bangladesh. The faster the population increases, the more would be the negative effects on its environment. Zero population growth could serve for the environment in Bangladesh.

5.2 Land and Soil

As noted earlier, Bangladesh covers a small area of only 144,000 square kilometers, but 63% of the total land is arable because it is located in the largest delta in the world. Formed by the three mighty rivers–the Ganges, Brahmaputra and the Meghna–it is also “the youngest and the most active delta in the world.” (27) Although Bangladesh is a flat alluvial plain, it does have complex soil condition and land pattern.

Erosion of land by rivers is a serious problem in Bangladesh. Every year due to strong summer winds, powerful waves and shifting rivers thousands of acres of land are eroded away, leaving thousands of families homeless and contributing to the pattern of wholesale migration towards the urban areas, mainly to the capital city Dhaka. But it only creates instability in the society.

5.3 Deforestation

Many decades ago Bangladesh had rich tropical forests. But due to population growth and the need for firewood and timber, the forests have become rapidly depleted. Currently the forest area comprises 13,000 square kilometers, about 10.2% of the total land space, which is much less than the universally accepted minimum of 25%. (28) Located in the southwest of Bangladesh, the Sundarbans is a mangrove, large tropical evergreen tree, genus Rhizophora that grows on muddy tidal flats and along protected ocean shorelines. It is the home for of the famous Royal Bengal Tiger as well as other rich flora and fauna.

The United Nations has declared the Sundarbans as a world heritage site because of its rich biodiversity. Besides, the tropical rain forests in the Chittagong Hill Tracts, home to high value timber, rich vegetation and wild animals. Many animals are being rapidly depleted due to demand from both agriculture and industry. The Chokoria Sundarbans in the southeastern part of the country near the port-city Chittagong were completely destroyed in the 1980s and 1990s in order to facilitate shrimp farming.

5.4 Drought & Floods

It is ironic that during the monsoon season Bangladesh has too much water and during the winter months too little water when no rainfall occurs. Thus the country is subject to both floods and drought. Barendra Bhumi of the northern part of our country is an example for drought affect. Because of drought people are unable to continue agricultural work and suffer from monga (unemployment). It also causes huge migration towards the capital city and other cities. Heavy drought also causes desertification in this area.

On the other hand, in the rainy season Bangladesh suffers from too much water. About 1360 billion cubic meters of water is discharged annually through the GBM system, 93% of which flows through Bangladesh. If all the water did not flow into the sea, the country had been under 32 feet of water. The 230 rivers with their numerous creeks and rivulets attempt to drain the water into the Bay of Bengal But the situation of rivers, the low river gradients in the flat plain and strong backwater effects slow the passage to the sea, giving rise to the overflowing of the riverbanks. Every year there are floods, in some years it becomes extreme due to extra heavy rainfall.

5.5 Storms & Cyclones

Bangladesh faces huge destruction due to storms and cyclones. The cyclones mainly hit the coastal region. Several severe cyclones emerge from the Bay of Bengal and the Indian Ocean. The funnel shape of the Bay increases the intensity, often blowing in excess of 240 km per hour and creating tidal bores 9 km high. One of the worst cyclones occurred on November 12, 1970, killing an estimated 300 hundred thousand people in addition to major damage to livestock, poultry, crops and vegetation. (30) The most recent examples can be SIDR (2007) and AILA (2009).

Environmental Security: Bangladesh Essay

Federal Agency Security Practices (FASP) Essay

Federal Agency Security Practices (FASP) Essay.

Network Perimeter Security Policy – Computer Security Resource … csrc.nist.gov/…/network_security/ipdmms-perimeter-security.d…File Format: Microsoft Word – Quick View The Department Interim Network Perimeter Security Standard (INPSS) specifies the … NIST Special Publication 800-18, Guide for Developing Security Plans for … The firewall will be configured using Industry “best practices” including but not … [PDF]

NIST SP 800-97, Establishing Wireless Robust Security Networks: A … csrc.nist.gov/publications/nistpubs/800-97/SP800-97.pdfFile Format: PDF/Adobe Acrobat by S Frankel – Cited by 25 – Related articles entities, materials, or equipment are necessarily the best available for the ….

. WLAN Security Best Practices ……………………………………………………………………………8-1 … Learn from NIST: Best practices in security program management searchsecurity.techtarget.com/…/Learn-from-NIST-Best-practi…

This tip gives best practices for implementing such mandates and others. … challenges behind operational integration of security and network management. NIST Updates Computer Security Guides – Government – Security – www.informationweek.com/…/security/nist…security…/24000…Jul 30, 2012 – Guidelines focus on wireless security and protecting mobile devices … how federal agencies and businesses can deal with network attacks and malware.

… revised to reflect the latest in security best practices: NIST’s Guide to … The Best Guides for Information Security Management

www.crypt.gen.nz/papers/infosec_guides.htmlA list of the best guides available online for Information Security Managment. … NIST SP800-48 Wireless Network Security (802.11, Bluetooth, and Handheld … Why do systems administrators need to use guides, practices, and checklists?
US-CERT: Control Systems – Standards and References

www.us-cert.gov/control_systems/csstandards.htmlCyber Security Policy Planning and Preparation; Establishing Network … NIST SP 800-53 Rev 3, Recommended Security Controls for Federal …. Rakaczky, E. “Intrusion Insights Best Practices for Control System Security,” July 2005. Catalog of … Cyber security standards – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cyber_security_standards1 History; 2 ISO 27002; 3 Standard of good practice; 4 NERC; 5 NIST; 6 ISO 15408 … provide network security administration while still supporting best practice … ICT Security Standards Roadmap – Part 5

www.itu.int/ITU-T/studygroups/com17/ict/part05.htmlJun 6, 2011 – The following work on best practices has so far been identified for inclusion in this section … European Network and Information Security Agency … 800-12 An Introduction to Computer Security: The NIST Handbook · 800-100 …

Federal Agency Security Practices (FASP) Essay

Sally Jameson Valuing Stock Options Essay

Sally Jameson Valuing Stock Options Essay.

1. If we ignore tax consideration and assume that Sally Jameson is free to sell her options at any time after she joins Telstar, which compensation package is worth more?

First scenario, if Sally chooses stock options and hold until maturity date. Ignoring the taxation and other constraints, the future value of cash compensation at the end of the 5th year will be 5000 * (1 + 0.0602) ^ 5 = 6697.44. We can easily form the equation 3000 * (P – 35) = 6697.44, where P is the future stock price of Telstar, so the stock price must increase to at least 37.

23 at the end of 5th year to get the same amount of the cash compensation and if the stock price where to stay below 35, Sally’ option would be worth nothing. The stock, which pays no dividend and is not expected to pay one in the foreseeable future, is trading at 18.75.

It seems significant difference between the exercise price and the spot price. As shown in Exhibit 2, Telstar stock price has increased higher than $35 only once and 10-year average stock price is around 20.

Therefore, the chance that the value of option is greater than the cash compensation is very rare. Second scenario, assume Sally is free to sell options at any time after her joining Telstar, she may sell her option immediately after receiving. Then we try to price the value of stock option by using Black – Scholes Model.

We know that the stock is currently trading at $18.75 and the exercise price is $35. We take the 5 year T-bill rate 6.02% as the risk free rate. From the Exhibit 2, we can calculate the volatility of Telstar stock return is around 27.65%. Plug them into the formula, the call option price will be 2.53. At this amount, Sally’s options would be presently worth 2.53 * 3000 = 7590. She is better off taking the option.

2. How should we factor in the complications ignored in question 1? How would they affect the value of the option to Ms. Jameson? What should she do? Why?

In considering taxes, transaction costs and difficulty of option liquidity, we conclude that cash package is worth more than stock option package and therefore, it is suggested that Sally choose cash package. The tax impact calculation:

Taking account of the calculation above and following uncertainties that exist if Sally selects stock option, we consider it is better for her to choose signing bonus. The likelihood that stock price exceeds USD 37.28 is low. From the exhibit 2, we note that ceiling of Telstar Common Stock seems to be nearly USD 35. Uncertain factors from the time value and other risk points in the future. If Ms. Jameson leaves Telstar during the vesting period ( salary reaches a certain level, they need more training as rewards. Because training can provide better career developments and labor value.

4. What if Ms. Jameson decided that the option was a better deal, but she did not want to have all her financial wealth (as well as her human capital) tied to the fortunes of Telstar? Assuming she works at Telstar and accepts the option grant, is there anything she could do to untie some of her financial wealth from Telstar? Although the option sounded a good choice, if Sally did not want to have all her financial wealth (as well as her human capital) tied to the fortunes of Telstar, she had better choose the cash rather than the option. Because the option was a better deal depended on a fact that the volatility was computed on the base of 10 years.

There was a very big chance that in less than 5 years or even only 1 or 2 years, the volatility would much less than the number we computed before, as the year 1988 had contributed the biggest volatility because of economy reasons. It means that the value of the option tended to be valueless in short time if the stock price happened to performance steadily. Assuming Sally works at Telstar and accepts the option grant, she can sell some of her options when the price exceed 5000/3000=1.67 or execute some of her options when the stock price is above $35. Sally could keep a portion of the stock options and trade some in the market. That would somehow untie some of her financial wealth from Telstar.

Sally Jameson Valuing Stock Options Essay

Snort and Wireshark Essay

Snort and Wireshark Essay.

1. When running Snort IDS why might there be no alerts?

There are couple reasons when running Snort IDS there might be no alerts. The first one could be related to settings because the administrator has to set Snort IDS to its optimum settings in order to get any alerts. Since Snort works by ruleset, it can be mistakenly set up to a port other than what the network is using. The mistake can be done by either keeping the Snort default settings, or when users try to adjust them to their own network requirements.

The point is when changing Snort default settings to rules other than what the website provided, the administrator might have disabled a packet sniffing on a specific port that needed to be enabled, therefore producing no alerts on that specific port. Also the ranges of ports that are set by the administrator to be scanned by Snort IDS for sniffing and incoming traffic may not be passing through any of those ports, therefore causing no alerts on the network.

2. If we only went to a few web sites, why are there so many alerts?

Typically, an Intrusion Detection System (IDS) is designed to monitor all inbound and outbound network activity and identify any suspicious patterns using techniques such as packet sniffing. There would be a lot of alerts because Snort is public domain intrusion detection system which would monitors traffic by examining every packet on a network using a process called packet sniffing. Since Snort is a rule-based IDS, when a packet comes in, its source and destination IP addresses and ports are then compared to the rules in the ruleset. If any of them are applicable to the packet, then the options are compared to the packet. If all of these comparisons return a match, then the specified action is taken

3. What are the advantages of logging more information to the alerts file?

The advantage of logging more information in the alerts file is that it would lay out in details the attacks and the weaknesses of the network. Also having more information would help the network administrator prevent future attacks or apply necessary patches within the network. Finally, gathering all this information would enable the network administrator adjust the IDS to attacks specific to the network.

4. What are the disadvantages of logging more information to the alerts file?

The disadvantage of logging more information to the alerts file is that it would reveal all the weaknesses and defenses of the network to an attacker. Also having that information, the attacker can tailor his attack by using all other ports that are not being scanned by the IDS. Worst the system can be compromise without anyone noticing.

5. What are the advantages of using rule sets from the snort web site?

The advantages of using rule sets from the Snort website is that Snort has a very flexible rule sets configuration which can enable the administrator to write his own rule sets based on previously seen vulnerability. This flexibility therefore can help the administrator insert new rule sets into the rule base for a newly found attack. Also each rule is developed and tested using the same rigorous credentials and standards the VRT uses for Sourcefire customers. 6. Describe (in plain English) at least one type of ruleset you would want to add to a high level security network and why? Couple of rules that can be added to a high level security network could be:

Exploit Rules:

This Rule is to detect direct exploits and generally if we are looking for a windows exploit, such as Veritas, etc, they will be here. Attack-Response Rules:
These are designed to catch the results of a successful attack. Things like “id=root”, or error messages that indicate a compromise may have happened

Web-SQL-Injection Rules

This is a large ruleset that intends to catch specific attacks on specific applications. There are some general SQL injection rules that work pretty well to catch most of Web-SQL-Injection attacks. But these rules are much more specific to apps and web servers.

7. If a person with malicious intent were to get into your network and have read/write access to your IDS log or rule set how could they use that information to their advantage? If a person with malicious intents gets a read/write access to an IDS log and/or rule set, would have the same right as an administrator, therefore having the right to modify, adjust and re-write rules, in order to be able to lunch new attacks on the network.

Also the person can adjust the ruleset to have his identity not being capture by the IDS. This can be done by altering for example ports that should be used for packet sniffing and intrusion detection, giving him a perfect map for future attacks on the network. Worst he can disable the IDS.

8. An intrusion prevention system can either wait until it has all of the information it needs, or can allow packets through based on statistics (guessed or previously known facts). What are the advantages and disadvantages of each approach?


Stops trigger packets
Can use stream normalization techniques
Sensor issues might affect network traffic
Sensor overloading impacts the network
Must have a well-thought out security policy
Some impact on network (latency,jitter)

9. So, the “bad guy “decides to do a Denial of Service on your Intrusion Prevention System. At least two things can happen; the system can allow all traffic through (without being checked) or can deny all traffic until the system comes back up. What are the factors that you must consider in making this design decision? If the IPS allows all the traffic through, it would then expose the whole network system to all sort of vulnerability which can be exploited later on. This would give for example an open door for an attacker to launch attacks, have access to sensitive data, inserting malware to the network and even leave a backdoors for future access when the system comes up.

On the other hand, denying all traffic would ensure that nothing bad can compromise the network security but at the same time would restrict the traffic to even genuine traffic coming through the network. Both decisions have inconvenient so therefore the final decision should be a consensus between the security team and the senior management because they have to take in consideration both consequences of denying communications to the network, and an attacker being able to compromise the network.

10. What did you find particularly useful about this lab (please be specific)? What if anything was difficult to follow?

What would you change to make it better? Snort’s flexibility, ease of configuration, raw packet analysis and the fact that we could create and insert new rules sets into the rule base make it a powerful intrusion detection device even though it is free. However I think the questions were not directly related to what I have experienced doing the lab, Even though the questions enabled me to do a lot of outside research. Meaning that performing the lab did not help me to answer the questions as much I thought it should.

CSEC 630 Lab2 -Intrusion Detection System and Protocol Analysis Lab (n.d.). University of Maryland University College. Retrieved from: https://learn.umuc.edu/d2l/common/viewFile.d2lfile/Database/NzkyMzkw/CSEC630_lab2_LEO.pdf?ou=33745

Caswell, Brian. “Snort-The Open Source Network IDS : More info about Snort” URL: http://www.snort.org/about.htm

Cisco Systems, Inc. Cisco IOS Intrusion Prevention System (IPS): Cisco IOS IPS Supported Signature List in 4.x Signature Format, http://www.cisco.com/en/US/partner/products/ps6634/products_white_paper0900aecd8039e2e4.shtml

The NSS Group “Snort 1.8.1. Questionnaire” 25 November 2001 URL:http://www.nss.co.uk/ids/snort/snort_questionnaire.htm

Andrew R. Baker “Deploying Snort” 17 April 2000. URL:http://www.dpo.uab.edu/~andrewb/snort/deploying.html

Snort and Wireshark Essay

Organizational Behavior Essay

Organizational Behavior Essay.

This paper will describe what are believed to be the important elements of organizational behavior and how these elements challenge the effectiveness of a private security agency. Organizational Behavior (OB) is the study and application of knowledge about how people, individuals, and groups act in organizations. The purpose of the behavior is to build a better relationship and have objectives in the business. In both private security agencies and the criminal justice system it will establish important matter with an effective organizational behavior to operate their job duties correctly.

The primary objective and the goals of private security agencies were to make sure that the safety of the customers were met. This mean to satisfy the needs, wants and demands of the customer in a successful manner. The private security sectors have the elements and combine them to build a great model and be able to organize the business and operate from that model. Managers in private security use the details in the organizational behavior policy to help make the decisions that will affect the company.

This policy will help direct the employees and their attitudes as well as the performance of those very employees. The OB will also allow the managers to better understand the best way to allocate resources for the betterment of the company. In the private security agency and through the use of the organizational behavior plan and policy communication is going to be the key in achieving the goals that are set for the company. Management needs to focus on the employees and be able to predict which employees are productive, dedicated employees and the ones that lack those qualities. Preventing adverse actions against the company and the employees from happening is the primary job and goal of the private security manager. The manager’s main responsibility at a private security agency is to have an impact on the performance of the employees. This is often done through the monitoring of the behavior skills as a team and productivity. Every company will have a diversity with people they hire, as they will all come from different backgrounds and cultural values.

The other issue that a company will have when dealing with diversity is a variety of views on personalities and the way that things need to be done. In most cases there will be some that will be extremely hard working and take their duties very serious, and then another may do a little as possible to simply get the job done or appear to be busy. The work ethics of the employees are not factors that should play a role in the environment that the employees are expected to work, and it is not unfair for the employer to expect the employee to complete the duties of the job with effectiveness and efficiency. There are challenges that a private security agency will face, and hopefully handle to the best of their ability.

The management needs to be ready to step in and be persistent and be able to work to lower the employee turnover rate. There are also going to be some employee turnover when there is a management change because of a conflict in personalities. The last thing that a manager wants to happen is the loss of employees due to changes in policy. As a manager one should be able to motivate the employees and have growth in job performance, satisfaction which will lead to less absenteeism, human resource issues and improve the trust between the employees and the management.


In conclusion the behavior of the people is based on what is important to themselves. Management teams need to be observers of their employees and their behaviors, the managers are going to see things differently than the employees. The last thing that management will want to do is down play the employee’s feelings on any given situation. As with any company a group of employees are going to act differently in the same situation, because they are all different. The manager must be aware of the differences and develop a platform that will be the same for all employees and the situations that may transpire. The organization behavior will help managers see the employee’s behavior and reform them or to simply remove them and their behavior. Organization behavior is something that should be in place in all areas of the criminal justice system as well as private security agency to have a safe work place, and behavior environment with employees and the customers.


Manager-Solve-Practical-Problems-at-The Pervez,
Organizational Behavior Retrieved from: http://wikieducator.org/Organizational_Behavior

Ashraf, T. (n.d) Organizational Behavior Retrieved from: http://www.unesco.org/education/aladin/paldin/pdf/course02/unit_14.pdf

Google, 2013 Leadership and Organizational Behavior Retrieved from: http://www.nwlink.com/~donclark/leader/leadob.html

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Organizational Behavior Essay

Cyber security threats Essay

Cyber security threats Essay.

Cyber threats are constantly evolving thus increasing the need to hedge and tighten the security measures to ensure that one is protected while using the cyber space. Cyber threats are made more complex especially due to the increasing globalization and use of cyber space in most of the parts in the world. This has caused a major security threat which calls for better security measures installation to counter some of the threats which are well organized by some individuals.

Some of the major cyber threats include phishing, adware also known as spyware, cyber shopping and browsing, data safeguarding and also threats a user faces while using networking sites (AnonIC.

org, 2004). Common cyber security threats, how to recognize and how avoid them One of the major cyber security threats is referred to as phishing which refers to the attempt to get access to sensitive information which may include passwords of other users, their user names and even credit cards.

This is a criminal offense and is usually carried by individuals who purport to be working with a renowned electronic communication entity which is trusted.

Phishing is usually used to obtain credit card and bank account information of a person thus enabling the attacker to obtain money from a person in a fraudulent manner. Installing security and spyware prevention software can help in reducing phishing (Warren, S2005).

Spyware also referred to as adware is another cyber security threat that faces the cyber space users. Spyware refers to a form of software that once installed in a computer; it may send an advert which redirects a cyber space user’s browser to some selected web sites. Once one logs into such webs, this enables the attacker to monitor the sites which are visited by the cyber space user. These are usually used by attackers mostly for malicious purposes.

Some the symptoms which indicates that a computer has been installed with spyware include pop up windows which are endless, redirection to a web site which is not the original one a person had previously typed in the browser, unexpected toolbars which are new to a web browser of your computer, change of search engine, error messages which are usually random start appearing in the window of a computer and sudden changes in the home page of a browser among other symptoms. To avoid spyware installation to a computer, one should avoid clinking links which appear on pop up windows.

This is because most of them are spyware products which once clicked their install the spyware system in a computer. Closing the pop up windows would be essential in avoiding spyware installation. At times, unexpected questions may be posted in the pop up windows. Clicking “no or cancel” buttons would help in reducing the risk of spyware installation in a computer. Adjusting the preferences of the browser may also be helpful in reducing the pop up windows as well as cookies in the computer (McKenzie, 2008). Social networking sites are also mostly targeted areas by attackers hence they pose great cyber security threats.

Instant messaging (IM) and chat rooms are highly targeted networking sites which are used in obtaining personal information about a person. IM is mostly used within companies by employees to ensure constant communication. While IM usually involves one on one communication, chat rooms are more wide and can be used by more that one person simultaneously. As such, while chatting, it is possible somebody else is following your conversations thus posing greater risks of impersonification and also the information is not protected.

For a person to hedge himself from such risks, he should install security measures in his browser system. One of the way one can ensure safe chatting, messaging or even browsing is by constantly adjusting the default security setting in his computer. Disabling all automatic downloads and limiting certain interactions to only some users may help in reducing the cyber security threat. A person should also avoid revealing sensitive and vital information to strangers. Verifying the person one is chatting or messaging is also important in ensuring that the information one shares is made confidential.

However, this may not be applicable especially in public chat rooms which are not restrictive. Updating the security software frequently is also vital in ensuring safe use of cyber space (National Cyber Alert System, n. d). While using social networking sites, one should remember that internet is usually public and unrestrictive. A person should thus give minimal information about his confidential information like addresses and bank accounts. Being skeptical about some information on the mail is also important in ensuring one is safe while using the networking sites.

Some of the stories in the cyber space are usually false thus taking precautions is vital. Online shopping has grown tremendously especially due to globalization and the subsequent introduction of e-commerce by most corporations. Online shopping gives attackers a chance of obtain information about a person. Financial position of a person is usually targeted by attackers who use such information to make their own financial gain by selling the information or making other purchases using the information of buyers.

Computers which are not protected from viruses are the most vulnerable to manipulation by attackers. It is easier to gain access to a computer which is not protected and obtaining vital information regarding a person. Fraudulent sites and also messages in the emails are also used in obtaining financial information of online shoppers. To ensure safe online shopping, a person should ensure that an up to date anti virus software is installed as well as an anti spyware software. This would ensure that Trojan horses and also viruses do not take away data or modify it in a person’s computer.

Updating web browser regularly by installing software patches would help in reducing the vulnerability of being attacked (National Cyber Alert System, n. d). To reduce the risks of password alteration and monitoring by attackers, one should ensure that he evaluates the computers software settings regularly to ensure that the default settings are still in operation. Securing the web browser is also vital in ensuring safer cyber space usage by a person. Sensitive information sent via the cyber space should be protected with a password only known to the users.

Passwords should also be updated and reviewed regularly to ensure they are secure and that the information contained in the computer is also secure (AnonIC. org, 2004). Practicing good home computing habits may also help in reducing the risk of cyber security threat. This may be done by ensuring that the computer is locked always when one is using it. This would ensure that no unauthorized person is capable of tampering of with the information contained in the computer. Internet disconnection while not in use at home reduces the risk of virus attacks which are usually to monitor and modify a computer.

The home security setting should be updated regularly as well as software updates. One should also ensure that the password being used for computer is not easy to guess by other people. Ensuring that there are no people in the vicinity keying in the password to the computer would help in protecting information contained inside the system (AnonIC. org, 2004). Conclusion Cyber crimes have been on the rise with more and more cases being reported daily. It is thus to take essential precautionary measures to ensue that one is protected from cyber attacks.

High technology being used by cyber attackers has also necessitated constant upgrading of the security measures one uses to protect his or computer system and network. Ensuring that a computer is always protected and have updated securing and passwords would help in reducing cyber security threats in the country. Reference: AnonIC. org (2004): Computer Security. Retrieved on 25th March 2009 from, http://www. anonic. org/computer-security. html. McKenzie, G. (2008): Recognizing and Avoiding Spyware. Retrieved on 25th March 2009 from, http://www. nationalcybersecurity.

com/articles/144/1/Recognizing-and-Avoiding-Spyware/Page1. html. National Cyber Alert System (n. d): Cyber Security Tip: Good Security Habits. Retrieved on 25th March 2009 from, http://www. us-cert. gov/cas/tips/ST04-003. html. National Cyber Alert System (n. d): Cyber Security Tip: Understanding Hidden Threats: Corrupted Software Files. Retrieved on 25th March 2009 from, http://www. us-cert. gov/cas/tips/ST06-006. html. Warren, S. (2005): 12 steps to avoid phishing scams. Retrieved on 25th March 2009 from, http://articles. techrepublic. com. com/5100-10878_11-5818568. html.

Cyber security threats Essay

Cyber-security Essay

Cyber-security Essay.

The internet is no man’s land. The whole world has been melted into a global village as the Internet pervades the homes, offices and even phones. The internet has become closer to our thoughts and feelings every day as chat engines can now express feelings and depict thought patterns. Information about self, plan of work, career, and family are also speedily available and sent via the internet. Most, if not all, companies own a website where the clients/customers can access their information.

In fact, financial institutions run transactions through cyber space. Security outfits have private and confidential data on Networks that can easily access the Net. All these point to on pellucid fact: the cyberspace cannot be ignored. It cannot be ignored because of the risk associated with such move. This underscores the need for cyberspace security. The responsibility of government is not just for the internal and border security of her people; it also includes security across the internet.

Although the internet belongs to no one, government can take certain steps to promote her people from Internet fraud, spyware and other security threats. As the world shrinks, the Internet will definitely be a means for evil doers and enemies of progress and freedom to use to perpetuate their obnoxious. This is another reason why the government must take the issue very seriously. This is why the collaboration between Symantec and National Cyber Security Alliance is commendable.

This provides statistics about security issues on the Internet: it postulates that only about one-fifth of computer and internet users have adequate security protection although most believe they are protected. This means there is a gap: most believe what is not. Bridging the gap is an important aspect of the work of Department of Homeland Security and NCSA. It is not enough to have statistics although they are fundamental facts upon which decisions are based. I believe these figures are even worse than what is said.

The report does not show how many users were used for the research and how reliable that percentage can be. If this is the case, vigorous mass publicity and campaigns will help. This will involve state and federal agencies, and private organizations that provide internet and computer service. The article titled ‘Americans confused as ever over cyber-security’ gives a clear picture of what the challenge is. The question is who is responsible for this confusion?

The users of cyberspace have a big chunk of this confusion as they need out information about how to safeguard themselves from internet threats. It is likely they would have tried but the information is not accessible. This means that information on cybersecurity is not user-friendly; this is a field where they really have to work. Besides, staying safe online appears daunting for many users. Since antivirus, antispyware and firewall software are the frontline basic protections Americans should have, information should be readily accessible.

Cybersecurity is obviously will continue to be important. Efforts have to mad now to safeguard computer and Internet users. This can be achieved first through information made available at the point of purchase; tell people about security. Then, computer accessories Unit should have also succinct information for their customers. Internet service providers have a big role to play: they need to prepare a package on cybersecurity like FAQs that can be used by their clients. Regular updates should also be made available.

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Cyber-security Essay

Advantages and Disadvantages of CCTV Cameras Essay

Advantages and Disadvantages of CCTV Cameras Essay.

CCTV Monitoring

CCTV for Surveillance
CCTV camera system is being widely employed as a security system for surveillance in offices as well as homes. It is used for monitoring purposes to keep a close vigil. Not only in closed or private places; CCTV camera system extends as a security system in public and crowded places like traffic intersections, malls, shops, etc. As with the case of any technology or security system device, a CCTV camera system has its own pros and cons.

Advantages of CCTV Camera System

1. Deters Crime

The presence of CCTV camera system for surveillance will reduce petty thefts and vandalism in shops, malls and other public places. Since the activities are being monitored, fewer nuisances are likely to be created. It also reduces the losses due to shoplifting.

2. Helps Maintain Records

The images and videos captured by a CCTV camera system are often recorded and stored into a database. These are helpful in maintaining records so that they can be easily retrieved later, when needed.

3. Protects Employees

This is particularly helpful in customer service centers. The employees providing customer service may sometimes be subjected to verbal abuse or physical attacks. CCTV camera system helps to identify such instances and act immediately. It is also helpful to keep a tab on the activities of the employees.

4. For Evidence in Lawsuits

In legal cases of thefts and other forms of crime, videos and images provided by the CCTV camera system can serve as a valid proof and evidence against the defaulter. This assists in making legal claims as well. Disadvantages of CCTV Camera System

1. Do Not Work Always

CCTV camera system cannot monitor every area of your office or home at all times. Hence it cannot be considered as a foolproof method for crime prevention.

2. Privacy Concerns

Invasion of privacy is the major issue when it comes to any security system device like the CCTV camera system. It lowers the employee morale and hampers productivity at times. Constant monitoring of every activity might put the workers ill at ease.

3. Initial Costs

The initial costs incurred per camera are high. The installation may also increase the initial expenditure. It depends upon the complexity of the CCTV camera system as well.

Advantages and Disadvantages of CCTV Cameras Essay

Airport Security Essay

Airport Security Essay.

Every upstanding individual who lays a foot onto the airport floor wants to remain safe. Consequently, that devastating day of September 11, 2001 instilled the fear of flying in many Americans. This gave our nation the need to reevaluate airport checkpoints in order to secure the safety of the people of our country from those who are not sympathetic to our American ways. Some find that the measures the Transportation Security Administration (TSA) has taken in the recent years are unjust and a violation of many rights that we have by living in our free country.

The reason that some of these rights have been taken away is only beneficial to the protection of our homeland. I propose that in order to give passengers a better experience, the up and coming technologies such as Thermal Lie Detection and “all in one screening” need to be implemented as soon as they become available. With these new methods, passengers will become more understanding of the safety the government is providing rather than viewing it as a violation of privacy.

The sole purpose of this writing is to persuade and inform the society on the necessity of the security equipment, despite the hassle, and to educate those about the rising developments. Presently, high tech x- ray machines, metal detectors, body scanners, and pat downs are the methods implemented in order to greatly decrease the possibility of anything catastrophic happening within the airports or on board the aircraft. I have personally had to partake in this bothersome process, and I’m going to have to deal with the annoyance more often after I graduate as a Hospitality Management major.

The annoyance of the current process is not only cumbersome to me but especially to frequent flyers, nonetheless it remains extremely necessary. The aim of my extended argument examines the possible changes within airports so they can further protect us, the people, and lead to a more satisfactory client base. My proposition will mainly be directed towards my ENC1102 professor and my fellow classmates, as well as other common travelers, school teachers, adults, and our upcoming generation.

After extensive research for my exploration of both sides of the argument, I have found many reasons as to why we must partake in the elongated processes of airport check-ins, however, I foresee more effective, simpler, less violating new systems that are currently birthing. An airline officials reveals that “prior to 9/11, an average of 350 people would normally go through a checkpoint in an hour. Now the number is down to about 150 in one hour” (Jim Barnett). This background knowledge shows how evident of a change that needs to be instilled in the TSA’s methods.

The up and coming technology on the horizon is thermal lie detection which has the ability to detect different facial temperatures towards those who seem suspicious. Another enhancement is the “all in one” screening, a series of detectors equipped with eye-scanners, x-ray machines, metal and liquid detectors, which will surely speed up the process. These innovations will further be explained in detail in my upcoming extended writings. My further works will start off with explaining the controversy over airport security and its benefits and disadvantages.

First, there will be brief overview of the entire subject and an explanation as to why people are angered by this subject. Then, I will lead into further investigation on the topic and go into detail about the two different advances that will better help our airports. I will use research articles and descriptions of the product to better inform my reader. Finally, I will persuade readers that with less compromising systems travelers will soon turn understanding and be thankful towards the officials trying to keep them safe. This brings me to the conclusion of this plan leading to a better-rounded more satisfied consumer base.

This paper encumbers a full understanding of why a percentage of the population feel like their civil rights are being stripped away. In the past I would have agreed with them, but our world is a dangerous, frightening place, and all citizens must stand up to the plate and understand the actions taken by our government, like our parents, they do whatever they must do to protect us, their children. This act actually ensures us our freedom, to cross boarders freely with piece of mind; it definitely doesn’t take away our freedom or take away our civil rights. One must get off their high horse and face reality.

If we can implement this technology to make our processing time through the airport, more convenient, less harassing, less time consuming, and less degrading, most individuals will not feel so violated anymore. Eventually the process will be so simplistic and common that the negative feelings towards the TSA and our government will disappear and travelers will soon accept that the extensiveness of security and come to the realization that it’s only for their own good. With these security measures just on the horizon, we will no longer feel compromised and therefore become more comfortable and accustomed with the measures that need

to be taken in today’s world to continue living in the land of the free. The goal is to work towards a safer tomorrow for us and generations to come yet still maintaining the integrity given to us by our forefathers. Works Cited “American Civil Liberties Union. ” American Civil Liberties Union. N. p. , n. d. Web. 14 July 2013. Bajoria, Jayshree. “The Debate Over Airport Security. ” Council on Foreign Relations. Council ….. on Foreign Relations, 28 Dec. 2010. Web. 16 July 2013. “BalancedPolitics. org. ” – Civil Liberties/Patriot Act in Wartime (Pros & Cons, Arguments For ….. and Against, Advantages & Disadvantages). N. p.

, n. d. Web. 11 July 2013. Barnett, Jim. “A Speedier Trip through Airport Security Could Come within a Decade. “CNN. ….. Cable News Network, 01 Jan. 1970. Web. 22 July 2013. “Flying With Fish The Blog for Those Who Fly & Those Who Want to Fly Smarter. “Flying With ….. Fish RSS. N. p. , n. d. Web. 22 July 2013. PBS. Drastic Changes in Airport Security After 9/11 Stir Controversy. PBS, n. d. Web. 11 July ….. 2013 Shachtman, Noah. “Passenger Screening Policies Violate Privacy and Do Not Ensure ….. Security. ” US Airport Security. Ed. Margaret Haerens and Lynn M. Zott. Detroit: ….. Greenhaven Press, 2013. Opposing Viewpoints.

Rpt. from “Has Airport Security Gone Too ….. Far? ” Wall Street Journal 17 Nov. 2010. Opposing Viewpoints In Context. Web. 10 July ….. 2013. “The Patriot Act: Security Tool or Big Brother 2011. ” Berkeley Political Review. N. p. , n. d. Web. ….. 14 July 2013. “The Usa Patriot Act, a Controversial Public Policy, Julius Taka. ” – Term Papers. N. p. , n. d. ….. Web. 16 July 2013. Webster, George. “The Future of Airport Security: Thermal Lie-detectors and Cloned Sniffer ….. Dogs. ” CNN. Cable News Network, 25 Nov. 2011. Web. 22 July 2013 “Where Do You Stand on the Usa Patriot Act? ” – Essay. N. p. , n. d. Web. 16 July 2013.

Airport Security Essay

Freedom VS Security Essay

Freedom VS Security Essay.

Many theories and assumptions have been fabricated upon the basis of man’s desires and beliefs. H. L. Mencken wrote, “The average man does not want to be free, only to be safe. ” However, this observation does not correlate with what has been witnessed over the course of contemporary society. Since the 18th century, man has sacrificed safety for a reward that is much more paramount, freedom. Patrick Henry, an orator for freedom in the middle to late 1700’s, knew that liberty was a vital necessity in every man’s life, and that one must do whatever it takes, including sacrificing their security, in order to achieve it.

In his speech to the Virginia House of Burgesses, he is most memorably quoted for his concluding antithesis, “Give me liberty, or give me death! ” Henry conveyed to his audience, as well as the entire nation, that freedom is a virtue worth dying for.

Mencken’s allegation fails to attribute this instance, even though Patrick Henry was able to convince a whole nation that their liberty was worth dying for. In the past we have had many examples of security vs. freedom. During the civil war we had soldiers and people fighting to be free.

They risked their own life everyday stepping out on the battle field just so they could have their own rights. This also happens in the American Revolution; people fight and risk their lives for freedom. Many events in history show how much people truly care about their freedom. Our Founding Fathers created this nation so we wouldn’t have to be living in a society full of regulation. Freedom vs. Security is a non-stop debate in our country. However, freedom is unalienable. Freedom is what keeps the common man happy. Freedom allows us to treat every day as a new day, knowing that we can do and accomplish anything because we are free.

On the other hand, while safety is what keeps man calm and secure, it is not what our nation thrives off of. Security is a blanket, while freedom is a threshold. Therefore it is desired, while security is expected. No man cries out for safety, but the same cannot be said about freedom. Freedom gives us hope and excitement, while security gives assurance. Both are essential, yet only one is craved. Mencken’s presumption of what man wants, and what man deserves are in disarray. Freedom is everything, and not even safety can over shadow it.

Freedom VS Security Essay