Changes in Russia 1450-1750 Essay

Changes in Russia 1450-1750 Essay.

Western civilization changed significantly between 1450 and 1750. While Russia remained an agricultural society, the West became very commercially active and developed a strong manufacturing base. Many of the core areas of the West transformed; governments increased their powers, science became the focus of intellectual life. These changes resulted from overseas expansion. Russia, on the other hand, was heavily concerned with territorial expansion, eventually becoming the chief power of Eastern Europe. From there, Russian tsars began a course of selective Westernization which, despite imitating the West, kept them mostly outside the global trade system.

Russia’s early days had been shaped by the Byzantine Empire. When the Byzantine’s power faded, so did that of the early Russian Tzars. Before Peter the Great’s rule, Russians had had almost no contact with Europe. The feudalistic political and economic structure meant that tsars had trouble containing the boars, or Russian nobility, who often plotted against them. Partly because of this threat, the Tzars practiced absolutism, with the power of the Tzar backed by divine right granted by the Russian Orthodox Church.

Peter the Great’s reign became the turning point for Russia. Peter’s Russia was an enormous, cold empire with almost no transportation; no navy, a limited army, very few decent roads, and few warm water ports. Peter hoped to strengthen his country by westernizing it. After a long visit to England and Holland, he returned to Russia convinced that the empire could only become powerful by imitating western successes. The way he would do this was through military reform, reorganization of the bureaucracy, and relocation of the capital.

After the death of Peter in 1724, Russian territorial expansion continued. Catherine the Great took power. She was similar to Peter in a lot of her beliefs, such as her feelings toward Westward expansion. She also defended central monarchy. She flirted with the ideas of the French Enlightenment, often patronizing the arts and sciences. Russian nobilities gained new power over their surfs during her reign. Nobles became a service of aristocracy,
with the ability to inflict high levels of punishment on their serfs. By the time Catherine died, Russia had grown immensely. Borrowing from the West gave Russia’s culture and economy new elements to expand on.

Through Peter and Catherine the Great’s progressive imitation of Western successes in transportation, industry, military, and the arts, Russia was able to successfully expand its infrastructure beyond its agricultural orientation, allowing it to better manage its rapid territorial expansion efforts and remain a respectable super power among other western super powers.

Changes in Russia 1450-1750 Essay

Peter the Great and his reforms: DBQ type essay Essay

Peter the Great and his reforms: DBQ type essay Essay.

Peter the Great DBQPeter the Great was tsar of Russia from 1682 to 1725. During his reign, Peter the Great made many reforms to Russia socially, militarily, and economically. These changes proved to have a positive effect on Russia, making his reign one of the greatest.

As the tsar of Russia, Peter the Great enforced many social reforms. He was very influenced by Western European ideas and incorporated many of them into Russian society. Throughout their history, Russian males wore long beards. After viewing European styles, Peter declared that all men, except peasants and priests were to cut off their beards and if they refused, they were to pay one hundred rubles a year.

Peter also passed a reform of proper attire for Russians. Nobles originally wore long garments that had touched the floor but Peter abolished this and ordered them to be influenced by French style fashion and accessorize their clothing with gold or silver jewelry.

The rest of the men were told of the new fashions and were expected to follow these styles.

Women also had a change in appropriate appearance. The new chosen way of dress was very similar to the English. Jean Rousset de Missy writes in the Life of Peter the Great, “The dress of women was changed, too. English hairdressing was substituted for the caps and bonnets hitherto worn; bodices, stays, and skirts, for the former undergarments….” (Document 2) Peter also took the European idea of women choosing who they wish to marry rather than their parents assign their husbands for them. These social changes were some of the many that began to modernize Russia.

Peter the Great is credited with greatly improving Russia’s military. He established the first Russian navy in 1696. Before his rule, the Russian Army was very limited. He rearranged and enlarged the Russian army similar to that of European models. According to document 3, Russian Peter the Great and the Russian Empire, “Under Peter, the army drafted soldiers for lifetime terms from the taxpaying population, ands it drew officers from the nobility and required them to give lifelong service in either military or civilian administration.”(Document 3) He established the first Russian navy in 1696. This navy brought in many foreign exporters. By the year of his death, the navy had 48 ships and 800 galleys. Peter the Great felt very strongly about the Russian military and was very devoted to it. Paul Milikov describes Peter’s dedication, “In all of Peter’s activity we find nothing more deeply rooted, almost to the point of instinct, no other guiding idea other than this idea of service… the feeling of duty, without a doubt, helped Peter amidst all the fluctuations and vicissitudes of fortune, amidst his own impulses and caprices- to hold his will steady, to outlast his enemies, his allies, his helpers and his nation in the quest to attain the goals he had set.” (Document 4)

Most of the rule of Peter was consumed with war. He attempted to gain allies and capture ports. It is said that, ” Throughout his victories, Peter acquired a direct link with Western Europe. In celebration, Peter assumed the title of emperor as well as tsar, and Muscovy officially became the Russian Empire in 1721.” (Document 7)Throughout his rule of Russia in the 18th century, Peter the Great made many economic reforms. During his rule, he greatly tried to modernize the country. Before his reign, most people were assigned to a job based on blood lines. “In 1722, Peter introduced the Table of Ranks, which determined a person’s position and status according to service to the tsar rather than to birth or seniority. Even commoners who achieved a certain level on the table were ennobled automatically.” (Document 3)

Peter also allowed for the state treasury to increase revenue with taxation. He also increased education for the people of Russia. He built many new schools throughout the country. The style of this education was one based on Western Europe. Peter was also concerned with trade and commerce, in his will it reads, “Seek the alliance with England, on account of our commerce, as being the country most useful for the development of our navy (merchants) and for the exchange of our produce against her gold; keep up continued communications with her merchants and sailors, so that our s many acquire experience in commerce and navigation. ” (Document 7) Peter is also credited with reorganizing the government structure. This reorganization allowed the local government to maintain order and collect taxes.

After becoming tsar of Russia in 1682, Peter the Great established many types of reforms in Russia. These reforms proved to be positive in modernizing the 18th century Russia. Peter the Great’s rule of the country seemed to be one of the most influential.

Works Cited

History Learning Peter the Great. 29 September 2007., Pavel. Reforms of Peter the Great. (Document 4)Rousset de Missy, Jean. Life of Peter the Great. 1730. (Document 2)Russia Peter the Great and Russian Empire. The library of Congress Country Studies. (Document 3 and Document 7)Will of Peter the Great. (Document 6)

Peter the Great and his reforms: DBQ type essay Essay

3 Places that I would like to Visit Essay

3 Places that I would like to Visit Essay.

Come to think of writing a report on three countries, I haven’t traveled all that much…

When I started working on this topic in the beginning I found it uninteresting, but when I started doing an extensive research, I found this topic more and more inviting. Doing a research on countries was fun and a worthy experience. Every country has its own enriching and unique experiences with diverse cultures and backgrounds. The countries that I found most interesting to me are Armenia, Iceland, and Latin America.

The following paragraphs talks about the reasons why I found these countries fascinating.

A wide range of climatic zones have been recorded within Armenia. Armenia is located in the southern Caucasus and is the smallest of the former Soviet republics. It’s a land of rugged mountains and extinct volcanoes; its highest peak is Mount Aragats, which is 13,453 ft. (4,095 m). Armenia is acknowledged as one of the cradles of civilization. Numerous monuments and masterpieces of the Ancient era and Middle Ages can be found throughout the country.

Due to harsh and cold weather conditions, I was amazed to read how they do farming. The Armenian winters are so cold that farmers would dig up the grape vines and foods to prevent their freezing in order to be replanted in the spring.

The summers are long and warm and thus the harvests are plentiful. Vegetables such as squash, onions, tomatoes, garlic, cabbage, okra, green beans, peppers, cucumbers and eggplant are used quite broadly during the summer growing season. Armenians love vegetables and are very skilled at roasting them. The Armenians were the first Christians on earth and that had an impact on their diet because of their religious belief and their farming methods! The meat staple of the country is lamb and to a lesser amount, chicken and beef. No pork is used in the Armenian diet due to biblical belief that only animals that chewed their cud were to be eaten. It would be a very rare opportunity to go to a place like Armenia.

There are many fascinating places to explore in Iceland. Iceland is an island of almost 40,000 square miles and lies midway between North America and continental Europe. It borders the Arctic Circle in the North and has a total land mass of 103,000 square kilometers. The average height is 500m above the sea level. The country does not get that cold. Of course there is ice in Iceland but the only ice you will find (except in the wintertime) is on the glaciers and ice-caps which cover only about 120f the total land mass and the air is as clean and fresh as can be.

The weather in Iceland is however very unpredictable, it is common to have sunshine, rain and wind all on the same day. Ever since the last ice age, the largest lava flow that has occurred in Earth is at the end point of Þjórsárhraun lava, located at Árborg in Iceland! The Drepstokkur hill, which is the birth-place of Bjarni Herjólfsson, who discovered America in 985 AD, is also situated in Arborg. It is believed that ghosts with the blue scarf are the only inhabitants in the Einholtshellir cave in Hellisland. Personally, I think it would be an unique experience to travel around Iceland.

3 Places that I would like to Visit Essay

The Classic 1972 Summit Series Essay

The Classic 1972 Summit Series Essay.

The 1972 Canada-Soviet Hockey Series was perhaps the most dramatic sports event in Canadian history. Before the series came into being, the Soviet’s demonstrated that they were a tower of strength by winning 11 of 12 Olympic and World Championships from 1963 to 1973. However, Canadians believed that the Soviets would lose to Canadian professionals. The 1972 Super Series was the opportunity for Canada’s “best” to prove their dominance over the Soviets. Charles Hay (President Hockey Canada 1972) was quoted by saying, “At long last we are challenging the Soviets with a team of Canada’s best hockey players, and share with all Canadians our pride in being represented by this superb group of young men playing our national game.

” This series would put the Soviet “amateurs” against Canada’s professionals. It has made a huge part of history in Canadian hockey and will be remembered for years to come.

The spectacular series consisted of an eight game series with four games being played in Canada and four games in Moscow.

Unfortunately, the Soviets came out of Canada with a slight lead in the series and headed back to Moscow for the next four games with home advantage. After losing the first game in Moscow, this put Canada in a tough position to win the next 3 games to win the series. Brian McFarlane from Hockey Night in Canada quoted, “I still feel Team Canada has superior individual players. Their collective experience, and more than that their pride, will push them to victory. But they must not take foolish penalties. Fast line changes and consistent fore checking are the keys, especially against players like Kharlamov and Petrov.

I think we’ll hold a slight edge when it’s all over.” The Canadians did in fact win it and that is why this incredible series played by two great teams made it such a memorable event. How could people forget the great goaltending Vladislav Tretiak provided for the Soviets! Or even the vicious slash that Bobby Clarke laid on the Soviets star player Valeriy Kharmalov’s ankle! Also who could forget Phil Esposito threatening the referee with his stick! One memory that will never be forgotten would have to be when the Canadian players had to rescue Alan Eagleson from the unruly Soviet fans! All of these special moments that happened during the series assisted in making this event a special classic.

This 1972 Super Series was and still is a classic. Similar to a classic novel or movie, people remember the ending. Paul Henderson’s winning goal ended the eighth game winning the series for Canada. This made him a national hero. There are other examples that made this a classic series. Recently, the media took advantage of this series and made a special TV series about it. There is also a DVD made to promote the 1972 series. The one main thing that makes it a classic is that people still talk about it 35 years later just like it happened yesterday.

When one thinks of great international hockey, conversation usually comes up about the 1972 Super Series between Canada and the USSR. Charles Hay’s quote in the introduction paragraph talks about how Canadians had high expectations for the players that represented Canada. Canada did win the series, but it brought on a high respect for Soviet hockey that was not there before. The 1972 series was an electrifying spectacle ever to unfold in Canadian arenas and got countless millions to watch the two countries battle it out.

This series created an intense rivalry between Canada and Russia, which is still present to this day. Recently, the Canada/Russia rivalry continued with an eight game series between the best junior players from each country. There was an attempt to replicate the classic 1972 series, but the hype was just not there and most likely never will be. The Canadians won this series quite handily. As people had high expectations for the 1972 team to dominate the Russians, the 2007 team showed great skill and that they were the better team. Everyone knows that the 1972 Super Series is a classic, and always will be a great classic.


1. Littler, H. (1974). 1974 Canada Vs Russia. Toronto:C.A.H.A. Services.

2. 1972 Summit Series. (1972). Hockey Canada:C.A.H.A. Services.

3. Marsh, J. (1985). In The Canadian Encyclopedia (vol. 2, pp. 823-824).

Edmonton: Hurtig Publishers Ltd.

The Classic 1972 Summit Series Essay