Alessandra Strozzi Letter Analysis Essay

Alessandra Strozzi Letter Analysis Essay.

Alessandra Strozzi wrote many letters to her children which can convey to us the importance of family in Florence during the Renaissance. Alessandra’s husband Matteo died, and so these letters are written from the perspective of a widow, not a married woman. In Women of the Renaissance by Margaret L. King, it states that widows of the Renaissance could dispose of the family wealth themselves and were also able to carry on their husband’s trade. In this case, Alessandra took on the responsibility of finding spouses for her children.

The following letter is written from Alessandra to her son Filippo concerning finding him a wife and shows how much thought was put into finding a spouse during this period. Alessandra states that it is her deepest wish to live with Filippo and that nothing could give her more comfort. This statement shows us how important family unity was as Alessandra states just how much she wants to live with her son.

She then says that if she did live with him it would be a much bigger comfort to her than it would be to him because she needs him more than he needs her.

Alessandra then states, “And the reason is because I can only do badly without you, but you can do everything without me. ” These two similar statements show just how important Filippo is to Alessandra and how she believes that he no longer needs her help to succeed in life. In the next paragraph Alessandra begins addressing the topic of finding Filippo a wife. She states that if Francesco di Messer Guglielmino Tanagli were to give Filippo his daughter, then they would be a good match. Alessandra believes that she is the best option available.

This is clearly important as it tells us who Alessandra wishes for her son to marry. Alessandra then mentions the da Vernia match, but that from what she’s heard she is clumsy and looks like a peasant. This shows how honest Alessandra is with her son about potential wives, which once again speaks to the importance of finding the correct spouse in Renaissance Florence. She returns to discussing the match with Francesco’s daughter and states that she likes the fact that Francesco has participated in government, even if his positions have not been important ones.

This statement conveys how much of a factor status and power were when considering a spouse and the spouse’s family. Next, Alessandra answers the question of why Francesco would give his daughter to an exile. The first reason she mentions is because there is a shortage of young men from good families who have abilities and money. This is another statement that shows us how status, power, and money were all much bigger factors in finding a spouse than they are today. Her second reason was that she only has a small dowry. Once again, this statement speaks to the importance of money in the Renaissance period.

The third reason that Alessandra gives is that Francesco has a big family and that this would help them get settled. This statement once again shows the importance of family unity to Renaissance Florence families. In the next paragraph Alessandra mentions that she saw Mona Lucrezia di Piero had sent him a nice letter for thanking him for the flax that he sent to her. Alessandra then says she should reward him with kind words about Filippo to Piero. This is basically saying that Alessandra thinks Mona should put in a good word for Filippo. This shows us just how much power the Medici family had during this period.

In the last paragraph, Alessandra mentions that two gentlemen from Don Federigo’s retinue visited her and praised Filippo a lot. She then says that she is letting him know so that he can thank them when he has the opportunity. This shows us the sense of community that they had during the Renaissance period in Florence. Overall, Alessandra Strozzi’s letter to her son Filippo can tell us quite a lot about Renaissance Florence and also about the situation that the Strozzi family was in at the time. The major themes of this letter are the importance of family unity and how carefully calculated spouse selection was at the time.

Alessandra Strozzi Letter Analysis Essay

Renaissance Essay

Renaissance Essay.

We mark Italian society’s rebirth from the medieval period with the changes that occurred during the Italian Renaissance. Civilization was changing and what we consider the modern world was about to begin. The renaissance activity that happened in Europe outside of Italy is called the Northern European Renaissance. Italy’s humanist ideas and values moved out of Italy and throughout Europe, which spurred on the Northern European Renaissance. The Renaissance period began in the early 14th Century and lasted until the late 16th Century.

Renaissance” comes from the French word that means “rebirth. ” This time period is named and studied because of its unique art, literature, and music. It is also known as society’s modern age. The Renaissance was a period of great cultural and technological changes which swept Europe from the end of the 13th century. It was integral in developing Europe was subjected to different changes there were two primary renaissance which were most notable. They were the Italian and the Northern renaissance.

Both of the renaissance had a profound impact on Europe.

But they also had some typical differences among them and each was unique in its own way. Early in the 14th Century, Italian scholars started to study the ancient cultures that preceded them, like those of Greece and the Roman Empire. This scholarly interest would lead to the Italian Renaissance. Italy and Europe was ready for change after the harrowing destruction of the Black Plague in the Middle Ages. Florence, Italy, was the home of the start of the Renaissance. After the collapse of the Roman Empire, culture, politics, and the arts had only been in decline.

Petrarch advocated learning about Italy’s Latin and Roman history. The Pope and the royalty liked this idea, so other scholars begun to study in the same vein. These scholars valued the accomplishments of the Romans, but they wanted to improve on their society instead of blindly trying to recreate the same thing. These scholars wrote books that would stimulate Italians’ thinking and give them a new purpose. Italy was divided into distinct city-states, which gave them a more modern, and regional, cultural outlook. The city-states thrived, banking increased, and trade became more important.

As Italian society became wealthier, they could strengthen their culture and their ideologies became entrenched. Wealthy people had the means to patronize and fund artists. Scientific development spurred Humanism as well as some of history’s most important artists. Architecture evolved beyond the Gothic. The Renaissance period is considered the intellectual birth of modern society. Most thinkers were concerned with humanity and how to become a good and honorable person. The European, but not Italian, renaissance period is called the Northern European Renaissance.

Similar growth in society and culture happened in Northern Europe as occurred in Italy during this time. This architecture did not change munch in the beginning, and did not stray far from the Gothic style that preceded it. Humanist changes resembling those in Italy also happened in the culture of Northern Europe. The Italian Renaissance focused its questions on humanity and man’s ability to grow and develop. The Northern European Renaissance, though, focused on the secular reform of society and government.

As Italian society changed as a result of their Renaissance, the people of Northern Europe became uneasy with Rome and the Pope’s control of their church. They thought that Italian powers had slipped away from traditional, strict, Christian belief and dogma. They began to strive to reform the church. The Italian Renaissance and the Northern European Renaissance did not happen in exactly the same ways. Italy grew and prospered with their city-state governance, while an aristocracy still controlled Northern Europe.

Wealthy Italians patronized the arts, while in Northern Europe the arts were funded by the rulers and the church. Renaissance period art was bright and realistic, and the art of the Northern European Renaissance also followed this Italian style. Artists in Italy tended to work on paintings, sculpture, and architecture. In Northern Europe, artists created furniture, tapestries, and manuscripts. Europe’s wealthy had a lot of homes; they needed a lot of furniture and decorations. Literature in both regions was concerned with humans and humanity.

Italians explored the idea that man was rational and decided rationally how to be a good person. Literature in Northern Europe was more concerned with the Catholic Church’s humanity and how to reform the church. Both areas wanted to reform the church – Northern Europe was more concerned with religion. Art in the Italian Renaissance was paid for by wealthy people. This art was concerned with nature. This art used a contrast between dark and light, 3D perspective, and human images. Northern European art used similar methods as Italian artists, but they were more concerned with depicting religion.

Italian art used scenes from religion, mythology, the natural world, and eroticism. Northern European artists made portraits, scenes from the Bible, and tapestries. Aristocrats and the church owned most of the artwork. Below and to the left is a tapestry woven during the Northern European Renaissance called The Wedding Dance. This tapestry was made by the artist Peter Brueghel from the Netherlands. Not many pieces focused on the lives of everyday people as this one did – most were religious in nature instead. The work below and to-the-right is emblematic of the Italian Renaissance. It was pained by Giorgio Vasari.

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Renaissance Essay

Ideal Renaissance Man Essay

Ideal Renaissance Man Essay.

An ideal renaissance man or woman in the fourteenth and fifteenth century, a time when people aspired to be skilled in numerous areas and humanistic education was customary, meant you would have to stand out from the rest. Pico della Mirandola theories in Oration on the Dignity of Man sum up the ideal Renaissance man. He proclaimed that individuals face no limits to their development except those that are self-imposed (Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia).

In theory only one can hinder their own success.

The ideal renaissance man had a broad base in knowledge or was highly skilled in the arts, music or literature. Some lived up to being ideal just because they were bold or unique. The ideal renaissance man was respected by his peers and his knowledge and abilities were often required by the patrons of this era. Ingeniously, some individuals happened to be masters of art, engineering, and even anatomy all at the same time.

Mostly men, renaissance contributors did not normally encourage women to participate during this time.

Women were encouraged to fit the profile of wives and mothers and their political rights at this point were still kind of limited. Nevertheless, there were many that fit the description of an ideal renaissance women. One unique women of this time was Laura Cereta. A writer who struggled with heavy criticism from her cohorts because of her scholarly pursuits.

In response to both the men and women who were judgmental of her, Laura wrote two letters “that were penned to answer both critics: a defense of learning aimed at male humanists and a defense of her vocation directed toward her female critics” (Cunningham 289). Laura’s heated verbiage in these letters won her great recognition and respect. In describing an ideal renaissance man Leonardo Davinchi owned up to that title for his many achievements. He donated to us many chemical theories, the air balloon, the telescope, and trigonometry. He was a plethora of knowledge.

He was also recognized for his many works of art known all around the world today, The Mona Lisa and The Last Supper for example. He was diverse in his thinking and saw many of his ideas through. He was a living example and true to Leon Alberti’s (1404–72) quote: that “men can do all things if they will. ” The Renaissance is understood as a historical era of cultural movements. Its contributors are termed “Ideal Renaissance Men and Women” for making it possible. Even so, they continued to pursue more knowledge and abilities. For this, they were ideal renaissance people of their time.

Ideal Renaissance Man Essay

Man and Nature in the Renaissance Essay

Man and Nature in the Renaissance Essay.

As the word Renaissance means “rebirth of knowledge,” Debus (1978) tries to examine how this knowledge, which is often scientific, originated. On his book “Man and Nature in the Renaissance,” Debus (1978) critically presents the history of scientific Renaissance that occurred from 1450 to 1650. Here, he narrates how humanism has influenced the development of two concrete areas of knowledge – medicine and science.

He goes far on discussing and analyzing the impact of the works of some renowned Renaissance scholars such as Descartes, Galileo, Borelli, Boyle and Newton on the development of medicine and science.

Moreover, Debus (1978) also presents the important role of philosophical concepts and religion on getting the attention and interest of many young scholars to continuously seek deeper knowledge. Specifically, Debus (1978) talks about the contribution of the traditional study of nature including alchemy, astrology and natural magic which paved the way to the recognition of mathematics as a concrete tool for the interpretation of nature. The mathematical knowledge was then propagated by Galileo.

Generally, the book discusses the development of medicine and science from being unknown until it became a concrete knowledge that rooted from mere observation of nature and man’s activity. This knowledge, which originated in Western Europe, reached the world through the efforts of early scientists and philosophers who were seeking concrete explanation to the occurrence of different events around. Response and Analysis The present education system has gone far to teaching students about the many new knowledge, information and innovation relating to medicine and science.

The medical and scientific curriculum mostly focused on explaining how these new knowledge and invention functions when applied to our practical ways of living. However, only few studies had devoted time to critically discuss the origins of this important knowledge in detail. Debus’ work tries to fill this thirst for knowledge for he was able to discuss and analyze the root of medicine and science before these two fields claim acceptance from the early education system. Renaissance is one of the very important periods in our history.

During this time many developments had occurred and many branches of knowledge were unearthed. Indeed, before the Renaissance period, people used to believe about the power and influence of natural magic, occult, alchemy and astrology (Debus, 1978). These “branches of knowledge” are even included in their education curriculum from elementary to university level. Their attempts to understand the nature are generally expressed in almost all school subjects which are repeatedly being studied by scholars without arriving to a more concrete explanation.

In fact, most scholars preferred Aristotelian’s studies about the moral and physical improvement of man rather than seeking ways to logically and scholastically dispute the traditional higher learning. They had focused more on the improvement of elementary education rather than the development of knowledge at university education. Vittorino da Felte, a humanist, even built a school that would enhance children’s sports and military skills where most subjects are traditional and plainly about grammar, history, rhetoric and logic (Debus, 1978).

Thus early students received a course of learning that was only related to nature. Mathematics and science were not given importance to early students’ learning. Yet, if this kind of education has continued to flourish until today, we would not be able to survive the tests of nature. Progressively, the call to justify the pursuit of natural magic has introduced ways to the new investigation of nature through fresh observational evidence.

Galileo pioneered the importance of mathematics in understanding and interpreting the nature which then contradicts traditional Aristotelian search for causes. Later, this act was pursued by many Renaissance scholars. Technology became an important tool to the dissemination of new branches of knowledge divorced from traditional naturalistic studies. For example, through the invention of printing press, the quest for a new and concrete knowledge gained popularity among early scholars.

In addition, having the works of scholars, who then regarded themselves as scientist, published in vernacular through religious pamphlets resulted to acceptance since this approach was nationalistic. Thus the investigation for new higher learning became widespread. The development of medicine and science as fields of knowledge broke the monopoly of studying the past and the nature per se. More to this, many artisans and scientists became interested on inventing tools that require scientific application.

This then implied revolt against the traditional authority of the ancient since most ancient studies of nature were detached from processed being utilized by workmen (Debus, 1978). Indeed, since man naturally posses a thirst for knowledge and has the tendency to seek perfection this then explains how improvement and development take into places. The search for concrete knowledge encourages early scholars to deviate to traditional studies of nature thus embracing the new concept of science, mathematics and medicine.

Lastly, another characteristic of the Renaissance’s period of scientific and medical development was the growing reliance on observation and experiment as a carefully planned test of theory (Debus, 1978). Most Renaissance scholars have utilized the existence of Aristotelian studies in order to develop a more evidence-based study. Through the continuous effort to concretely explain the nature, early beliefs on magic, astrology and alchemy became unacceptable knowledge and were replaced by scientific and medical knowledge through the employment of evidence-based studies.

Yet, whatever imperfections antiquity has impacted on the early people, we should not disregard the important role ancient studies have played to the development of new branches of knowledge. In general, Debus (1978) was able to present historically and academically the origin and the development of science and medicine as new fields of knowledge on a way that readers could easily relate since he imparted the works of some renowned Renaissance scientists who until now are being studied in every school and university due to their important contributions in our society.

In conclusion, the impact of naturalism or humanism on the development of sciences, the scholars’ search for a new method of science and the continued debates between the proponents of a “mystical-occult world view” and those who believe in mathematical-observation approach to nature have paved way to the development of science and medicine which presently are regarded as important field of knowledge (Debus, 1978).

However, to be able to fully understand these fields of knowledge we, as present scholars, must be able to comprehend how this knowledge started and developed over time. In addition, the early beliefs on humanism and the high value imparted on the study of nature were indeed helpful to the development of many studies and new knowledge that we have today. Studying the historical Renaissance period is also important because during this period there are many important developments that occurred which are helpful on explaining present events and knowledge that we have.

Man and Nature in the Renaissance Essay

A True Depiction of Italian Renaissance Essay

A True Depiction of Italian Renaissance Essay.

Robert Browning is known as the master of dramatic monologue. One of the most popular works of the English playwright is My Last Duchess. It was published in what was considered his finest collection of poems in 1842, Dramatic Lyrics. He belong to a generation where Charles Darwin’s theory of natural selection shook the foundations of religion; even science and the arts were in a constant state of flux. Browning was born in England in 1812 to a wealthy family. His father has a huge collection of books, which the young Browning took interest in.

He learned various languages, music, horsemanship, and other things from being tutored at home, but he also attended the University College in London for a year and then decided to study on his own. At the age of 12, he was already writing poetry. His rich parents supported him in all his literary endeavors. In 1846, he married fellow poet Elizabeth Barrett. For many critics, My Last Duchess is the perfect dramatic monologue.

It clearly separates the speaker from the poet, there is a clear suggestion of an audience who never actually appeared in the poem, and the disclosure of the speaker’s character while he was discussing the portrait.

The poem is radiating with brilliance, written by a man with Renaissance values. Thus, it reflects the intrigue, greed, and the flourishing of the arts, characteristic of the Italian Renaissance. This 56-line poem definitely captures the spirit of the era. The setting of the poem is Ferrara, located in northern Italy. The ruling family, the Este family, built a magnificent castle and made the city a center of learning and the arts. Members of the Este family were patrons of great painters such as Leonardo da Vinci and Raphael (Lancashire 32). The characters of the poem resemble characters that exist during the period.

The speaker of the poem is loosely based on the life of Alfonso II, the last duke of the city, and his first wife, Lucrezia de’ Medici, who died at a young age. Similar with the duchess in the poem, Lucrezia died under suspicious conditions. There were speculations that she may have been poisoned. In the poem, the duke is about to marry the count’s daughter. Historically, Alfonso II married the count’s niece. Historically, Louis Friedland, a poetry critic, published an article discussing how Browning came across a similar plot to the My Last Duchess, the story of Alfonso II’s marriage with Lucrezia.

Because of his fascination with the Renaissance period, he visited Italy in 1838 where he could read the biography of the duke (Lancashire 45). The themes of My Last Duchess is another example of the presence of Italian Renaissance in the poem. It exemplifies the attitudes of a Renaissance duke—proud, arrogant, and authoritative. Moreover, the speaker is depicted as a lover of the arts. He treats his wife, the duchess, as a possession whose mere job is to please him. He likes the portrait not because it reminds him of his wife but because of its aesthetic beauty, being painted by a renowned artist, Fra Pandolf.

He was proud of the portrait in the same material way as he is proud of that “Which Claus of Innsbruck cast in bronze for me! ” The duchess is now just an image under his total control. The duchess now becomes an art object, as can be seen in the line, “I call that piece a wonder, now” (Brooks et al. 291). Now emphasizes his appreciation of his wife only as an object, nothing more, nothing less. Indeed, the word my in the title reveals a sense of ownership and last that duchesses are sequence of collections, which can be replaced once outdated.

His arrogance is evident by his unconcern in justifying whatever he actions he had done to the duchess and his “standards” of how a wife should act. Browning is one of the poets of his generation who was heavily influenced by the Italian Renaissance and vice versa. He represented the flourishing of the aesthetic and the discussion of humans, not solely focused on morality and religion. In My Last Duchess, the sins of humans are lurking throughout. The duke’s justification of the implied killing of the duchess is to control her (Brooks et al. 292).

In a society which was becoming increasingly complex, it was important for people to gain control to obtain stability. It was nothing short of natural for a duke at the time of Renaissance to have absolute power. By reading the poem, readers are confronted by issues essential in the Renaissance period. They are caught between the horror of what happened to the duchess and the beauty of the poem. They must decide whether the subject or the method of portrayal dominates the poem. The question arises of whether art is purely aesthetic or whether art has to have a moral component.

Renaissance is a period where there is a humanistic revival of the influence of the classical expressed in the richness of literature and arts along with the emergence of modern science (Brooks et al. 292). Robert Browning, in his My Last Duchess, portrayed a scene of Renaissance Italy. He was not concerned primarily in recounting a historical incident, he even used fictitious names. The plot is simple, but he wanted to add a touch of the Renaissance flavor through the medium of presentation, his characters, and the psychological impulses. The poem was not didactic as it never passed judgment on any of the characters.

Clearly, Italian Renaissance acts as the setting of My Last Duchess. It can be inferred from as simple as the chosen location where the plot transpired to the historical resemblance of the story with the marriage of an actual duke. Importantly, the dominant themes of the poem undoubtedly characterize the period. It gives the readers a picture of how a Renaissance duke actually behaves and what are the important concepts of the time—control, beauty, humanity, and the arts. Works Cited Brooks, Cleanth, Purser, John, and Robert Warren. An Approach to Literature. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts. 1939. Lancashire, Ian.

Robert Browning: My Last Duchess. Toronto: University of Toronto. 2005. Professor Anderson English Essay outline I. The topic of the article is My Last Duchess which is written by Robert Browning. a. Robert Browning grew up in a family who valued learning and supported his literary pursuits. b. My Last Duchess is a perfect dramatic monologue that is heavily influenced by Renaissance values. II. There are many reasons that point that Italian Renaissance acts as the setting of My Last Duchess. a. The plot of the poem transpired in Ferrara, a city in northern Italy which was a center of arts and learning.

b. The characters of the poem resemble historical figures who lived in the era. c. The themes of the poem resonate the concepts of the Renaissance period. i. The Duke of Ferrara has the attitudes of a Renaissance duke; he is a lover of the arts and is possessive and arrogant. ii. The poem discusses humanity, not just morality and religion. iii. The poem depicts a humanistic revival of the classical. iv. Robert Browning’s choice of portrayal of the subject displays his desire to add Renaissance flavor to the poem. III. Clearly, Italian Renaissance acts as the setting of My Last Duchess.

A True Depiction of Italian Renaissance Essay

Did Charlemagne deserve the title “Great”? Essay

Did Charlemagne deserve the title “Great”? Essay.

A great ruler is a different concept for different people. It can include great skill in battle, or great administration strategy. www.dictionary.com Explains Great as:1.Powerful; influential: one of the great nations of the West.

2.Eminent; distinguished: a great leader.

3.Grand; aristocratic.

Charlemagne was a ruler who ruled over the Frankish Empire in the middle-dark ages. Many historians regard him as great, for he did many things for the Christian Religion. We do not specifically know when Charlemagne was called great.

Charlemagne was an accomplished conqueror and good with bribes. In one sense, Charlemagne did more than just restore the empire. He added to it which Roman arms never reached (64, The Times: Illustrated History of Medieval Europe, Felipe Fernandez-Armando). From this source, we can tell that Charlemagne was an accomplished conqueror, which could be considered as great. Charlemagne conquered many new lands, and he took over Saxony, a huge piece of land, with tough, strong people.

This would make Charlemagnes court admire him, for the far-reaches of his empire would bring them riches and wealth.

He could then use this new-found wealth to shower the Catholic Church with money and riches. Einhard wrote: He provided [it] with a great number of vessels of gold and silver. It seems (for we do not know for certain when this title was given) as though the title great was given by the Catholic Church for they admired Charlemagne as he had helped defend and spread Christianity. This would lead the Catholic Church to think that he was great.

Charlemagne tried to revive the old Roman ways of Law, standardization, learning and hygiene. Charlemagne was also the creator of the Carolingian Renaissance. He revitalised learning in the courts, took interest in books and made sure that all the books of earlier generations were kept for the future. This would give the scholars a reason to call Charlemagne great, for he had revived learning from a period of Darkness where learning was forgotten and thrown away. Charlemagnes rule marked the end of the Dark ages, and the middle ages had begun. With this, Charlemagne also standardised currency using silver, while earlier there were many different types making the country run amok in confusion. He could have been called great from historians later on, who would consider this a great feat.

Charlemagne could be a cruel and harsh ruler. He had many Saxons massacred in his campaign for Saxony, and he did not see it as either cruel or harsh. The Catholic Church approved of this, for the massacred Saxons were not Christian, and the Catholic Church had been earlier bribed. This was not a great thing from Charlemagne, in the Saxons eyes, for it was an unnecessary and costly move to massacre them.

In summary, Charlemagne did deserve the title great, for he revived (to an extent) learning, standardization and law. He had also conquered many different lands for the Frankish empire. To many people, Charlemagne was a bad ruler, but even though he had been cruel and harsh, his good achievements overshadow his cruel times. Therefore, Charlemagne deserved the title great.

Bibliography

McGrath, F. (n.d.). The Longevity of The Saxon Wars [Adobe PDF]. RetrievedNovember 18, 2008, from http://www.leeds.ac.uk/history/studentlife/e-journal/McGrath.pdfReference Source Armesto, F. F. (Ed.). (n.d.). Illustrated History of Europe. Times Books.

great. (n.d.). Dictionary.com Unabridged (v 1.1). Retrieved November 17, 2008, from Dictionary.com website: http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/greatFearns, J. (2008, November 17). Year 8 History. Lecture presented at ChineseInternational School, 2406.

Economic and Legal Reforms. (2008, November 2). Carolingian Renaissance.

Retrieved November 17, 2008, from Wikipedia Web
site:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carolingian_RenaissanceMacMullen, R. (1997). Christianity and Paganism in the Fourth to EighthCenturies. Yale University Press. (Original work published 1997)

Did Charlemagne deserve the title “Great”? Essay

Printing Press Essay Essay

Printing Press Essay Essay.

Inventions of the Renaissance had a very big impact on people’s life. In order to get more knowledge and to make real life more interesting and creative, people started to invent. There were many inventions of the Renaissance: telescope, compass, printing press, etc. But the most important technological advance of all was the development of printing, with movable metal type, about the mid-15th century in Germany. A German named Johannes Gutenberg invented the printing press in 1436. Printing press invention had a large impact on the value of the books, religion and reformation and education.

Before the invention of printing press, multiple copies of a manuscript had to be made by hand. Hand written books took months or years to hand print. This made books very expensive. Printing press made it possible to produce more copies in a few weeks than formerly could have been produced in a lifetime by hand. This made books cheaper. With the printing press they could do thousands copies of books.

According to the Encyclopedia Britannica, by 1500 the presses of Europe produced some six million books.

This reflects through the church. The Bible was the first book to be mass-produced. Two hundred copies of the two-volume Gutenberg Bible were printed; this information is presented on the web site www.historyguide.org/intellect/press.html. People could buy the Bible and they did not go to churches anymore. This leads to Reformation and new religions. People realized that they could prey and confess at their homes. People set up the rules when, where and how they can pray and confess. Hundreds of new religions started to form. Some of them where thinking that the church was not right and that is why Reformation occurred.

In the Middle Ages, the only educated people in Europe were church leaders. But with the invention of printing press everybody could afford to buy a book and become more educated. Education was very important in the Renaissance because it opened people’s minds to thinking. The power of the books and educated people were more important than the church. People were reading as much as they could and spreading their knowledge everywhere.

In conclusion, without the development of the printing press, the Renaissance may never have happened. Without inexpensive printing to make books available to a large portion of society, the son of John Shakespeare, a minor government official in rural England in the mid-1500s, may never have been inspired to write what are now recognized as some of history’s greatest plays. What civilization gained from Gutenberg’s invention is incalculable.

Printing Press Essay Essay