Existential Therapy Essay

Existential Therapy Essay.

The existential approach is more of a collective group of thoughts rather than a concrete therapy. The existential approach guides the counseling practices. The premise is that individuals guide their own lives and create their own paths.

The existential approach unlike psychoanalytical therapy of unconscious boundaries and limitations is based on the fundamental belief that “we are what we choose to be (Corey 2009).” The key concepts are known as the 6 propositions of the 1) Capacity for Self-Awareness, 2) Freedom and Responsibility 3) Striving for Identity and Relationships to Others 4) The Search for Meaning 5) Anxiety as a Condition of Living 6) Awareness of Death and Nonbeing (Corey 2009).

Historical/Contextual development of the theory.

The existential theory was not created by any one in particular although it was influenced by both philosophers/writers and psychoanalysts in response for the need to assist people in resolving issues of life such as isolation, alienation and meaninglessness. This occurred spontaneously throughout Europe during the 1940’s and 1950’s (Corey 2009).

Role of the therapist
The role of the therapist is to prompt and empower clients to take a look at life, past and present.

In doing so, the client can review what worked and did not work in their lives. Once the best course of action is discovered the client can move towards making better choices and governing a life path completely within the client’s control and satisfaction. Research support for the theory.

According to Corey, Sharf, 2008, stated that there is a distinct lack of studies that directly evaluate and examine the existential approach. This is due largely to the fact that the existential approach uses techniques from other theories in its application. Gestalt Theory

Key Concepts/Unique Attributes
The concepts of Gestalt Theory are that of the expectation that all human’s must grow, mature and take responsibility for their own lives. Additionally it is of the premise that we all have the power and ability to do so. This theory further promotes the idea that we are motivated by and deal with external and internal drives that influence our behavior and actions. Some things we may be aware of and some things we may not.

Historical/Contextual development of the theory
Role of the therapist The therapist must guide the client to the point of becoming fully present, in the here and now. By fully living in the now the client and begin to understand who they truly are and instead of futilely trying to work at not being something, they can work and strengthen who they are. The therapist will introduce new ideas and concepts to the client in order to get the client to try new behavior approaches and discover how the new behaviors affect their lives. Research support for the theory.

A number of studies and reviews have been done by various members in the field of counseling but there is no concrete data proving that Gestalt is either the best or that outcomes support or refute its effectiveness (Gestalt Theory, 2012).

Corey, G. (2009). Case approach to counseling and psychotherapy (8th ed.). Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole. Gestalt Theory Oneness and Intergrated Wholeness. Retrieved March 29, 2012 from www.gestalttheory.com.

Existential Therapy Essay

Principles Of Guidance Essay

Principles Of Guidance Essay.


History and development of guidance around the world varies greatly based on how each country and local communities perceived its role and importance in every individual as well as in building a nation. Lack of trained personnel and sympathetic administrators, lack of funds, and misconception about guidance were some of the factors which resulted into the sluggish progress of guidance. But despite of these hindrances, guidance has come to stay as a newer field of educational psychology. The movement of guidance has been spread in some countries, including the Philippines.

This report is aimed to discuss the history and development of guidance specifically its present status in some countries particularly in the Philippines.


Guidance in the United States

In the United States, the school counselling profession began as a vocational guidance movement in the beginning of 20th century. Jesse B. Davis is considered the first to provide systematic school guidance program. In 1907, he became a principal of a high school and encouraged the school English teachers to use compositions and lessons to relate career interests, develop character and avoid behavioural problems.

The first organized guidance movement which assist young people was started by a civic-minded leader, Frank Parsons, Father of Vocational Guidance, in Boston, Massachussetts.

He started as a volunteer in the Civic Service House in Boston to observe maladjusted young men and women. Most of them were out of school and performed work which they were not qualified. He organized the Breadwinners’ Institute in 1905 with a planned program for vocational guidance. Parsons together with Meyer Bloomfield next organized the Vocational Bureau of Boston where “vocational counselor” and “vocational guidance” were used for the first time.

From the 1920s to the 1930s, school counseling and guidance grew because of the rise of progressive education in schools. This movement emphasized personal, social, moral development. Many schools reacted to this movement as anti-educational, saying that schools should teach only the fundamentals of education. This, combined with the economic hardship of the Great Depression, led to decline in school counseling and guidance.

In the 1940s, the U.S. used psychologists and counselors to select, recruit, and train military personnel which propelled the counseling movement in schools by providing ways to test students and meet their needs. Schools accepted these military tests openly.

Guidance Movements in Europe

In Great Britain, placement work is carried out for boys and girls who leave the elementary school, having reached the age of 14 or 15 which is the end of the compulsory education period, or 16 years which is the secondary-school-leaving age. This is undertaken by the Ministry of Labor through the Juvenile Employment Exchange.

Same with the United States, province in Great Britain suffered a setback during the World War II because young workers could readily obtain employment without vocational guidance. In France, schools are highly regimented subject to strict supervision, and under the Ministry of Education in Paris. There is no provision for guidance in the secondary schools Vocational guidance was recognized in 1922 when guidance services became established offices. The National Institute for Vocational Guidance founded in 1930 served as the guiding force in Vocational Guidance which aims to train vocational counselors. In Germany, the movement has a longer history than in other European countries.

During the first Reich, vocational guidance enabled boys to find jobs and aided the government to relocate workers where they were needed. Under the second Reich, individuals were given a taste of freedom of personality in a democracy. But during the third Reich, guidance was given only in the interests of the State. Today, elementary school pupils receive the most benefits in vocational guidance. However, Germany does not have a systematic training program for guidance workers. Counselors are appointed if they are successful in their respective occupations.

In Russia, the entire philosophy behind their educational system is work, work, and more work. Work activities are integrated in every school program in order to produce efficient and loyal workers. The vocational guidance bureau handles counseling programs. Each bureau serves a definite number of schools through arrangements among the guidance bureau, the Commissariat of Education, and agricultural and industrial enterprises sponsoring the schools.

Guidance Movement in the Philippines

In the Philippines, guidance is said to have both an accidental and incidental origin. Teachers and principals have assisted pupils to make choices and to make self-adjustments. They also treat problems of misbehavior among pupils in the classroom and on the playground, including the cutting of classes or low or inconsistent grades.

In 1932, with so much concern with cases of student discipline, emotional, academic, and vocational problems, Dr. Sinforoso Padilla started a Psychological Clinic and was operates until 1941. About the same time, counseling tests were administered to the convicts in Bilibid Prison in 1934 and to the inmates at Welfareville in 1939. Psychological tests were also used for guidance purposes in private schools. In school year 1939-1940, the deans from four public schools were chosen and assigned to look after the behavior and conduct of students who were referred to them by the classroom teachers.

In November, 1945, the first Guidance Institute was opened and the Bureau of Public School Teachers started to send teachers as pensionados for observation and study of guidance services abroad. Behind its success that helped much in making Filipino education officials guidance-conscious were the guidance experts like Dr. Roy G. Bone, George H. Bennett, UNESCO specialists in guidance, Edward S. Jones, and Dr. Henry McDaniel of Stanford University.

In its report of 1951, Congress proposed the establishments of a functional guidance and counseling program to assist students in choosing their course and help them solve their personality problems.

In 1952, division superintendents of schools recommended the establishment of guidance services in the public schools. It was the Division of City Schools, Manila who has the best developed guidance program, and provincial divisions have started to set up similar programs.

In 2004, Guidance and Couseling Act is hereby declared as a policy of the state to promote the improvement, advancement, and protection of the guidance and counseling profession by undertaking and instituting measures that will result in professional, ethical, relevant, efficient, and effective guidance and counseling services for the development and enrichment of individuals and group lives. The state recognizes the important role of guidance counselors in nation-building and promotes the sustained development of a reservoir of guidance counselors whose competence have been determined by honest and credible licensure examinations and whose standards of professional practice and service are world-class and internationally recognized, globally competitive through preventive regulatory measures, programs and activities that foster their continuing professional growth.

At present, the so-called guidance counselor is very important in academic institutions who would provide necessary services to the students with problematic situations personally and academically. But not all schools can provide a guidance counselor because of the lack of competent and registered guidance counselor. In some schools, the school head serves as an administrator at the same time a guidance counsellor. While in some other school, designated a values education teacher as their guidance counselor.


Countries where guidance originated has found useful and benefited its importance in shaping every individual and in the whole nation-building. As discussed earlier, there were misconceptions in guidance eventually during its first implementations in schools. This is because of the beliefs that schools should only teach fundamentals of education. But for those people who founded the need of guidance in the life of every person, they organized certain institutions where proper guidance shall be treated and shall provide necessary actions that would help a person who needed guidance.

They found out that guidance in schools are very vital hence, the Philippines in particular, declared an Act that would strengthen Guidance and Counseling that ensure effective guidance that would empower people in nation-building. Guidance is an act or process of guiding. It is a process by which students are given advice on how to deal with emotional conflicts and personal problems both in school and how to incorporate the same in their daily life. Indeed, the efforts of guidance experts who founded it are immeasurable.


Fundamentals of Guidance and Counseling, pp. 19-23
www.answers.com/Q/What_is_the_brief_history_of_guidance_and_counseling_in_the_Philippines www.studymode.com/essays/History_of_Guidance_Movement_437444.html by nivrazur, October 14, 2010

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Principles Of Guidance Essay

Personal Theory Paper Essay

Personal Theory Paper Essay.

Throughout my experience my current course, Theories and Practices: Human Services in Criminal Justice, I have learned plenty of information about the various theories of psychotherapy in counseling. Some of these theories operate on the basis of recognizing errors in thinking and correcting those errors. Other theories operate on the basis of multiculturalism and the fact that all clients are unique and deserve to be treated as such. As a result of learning from my readings and of my discussions with class mates, I was able to create my own intervention theory for counseling.

Explanation of Theory and why I believe in it

Any student in a human service course should be able to develop his or her own intervention theory by the time the course ends. My personal theory will involve both cognitive and multicultural approaches to therapy. Cognitive approaches to therapy operate on the assumption that by correcting the clients’ faulty beliefs, they can learn to behave more appropriately, how to think differently, and how to act on these learnings (Jones-Smith, 2012).

On the other hand, Multicultural approaches to therapy suggest that counseling theories represent various views of the world with their own values, biases, and assumptions about human behavior, and that all clients are unique in some way and that their individual differences must be both accepted and respected (Jones-Smith, 2012).

I believe in combining these approaches to therapy for my theory for a few reasons. First, I have always thought that offenders within the criminal justice system need to recognize their errors in thinking before they will be able to change their behaviors to be in accordance with the law. Plus, as a future employee of the criminal justice system who will most likely be working in human services, I need to be able to work with clients from various cultural backgrounds and to accept and recognized their differences. Combining these two theories is the best way for me to be able to help all of my future potential clients in the best way possible.

Theories and Theorists I Relate the Most to and why

After reading all of the material for this course, I found that I relate to a few of the theories and theorist better than I do others. For instance, I found that I can relate to Albert Ellis and his Rational Emotive Behavior Theory or REBT. One of the reasons that I can relate to this theory and theorist is because it is a cognitive approach to therapy, which I think is very important for offenders to take part in for the best chances of living a crime-free life. Plus, REBT is based on the belief that people are born with a potential for irrational or rational thinking (Jones-Smith, 2012). In addition, REBT maintains that people are born constructivists and have a great deal of resources for human growth (Jones-Smith, 2012). I have always made these assumptions about people, which is also why I can relate to this theory.

I can also relate to Ho’s theory of internalized culture, which suggests that the formations of our worldviews are influenced by eternalized culture (Jones-Smith, 2012). In addition, the theory suggests that effective multicultural counseling is based on the counselor’s ability to go beyond the boundaries and limitations of his or her personal culture (Jones-Smith, 2012). I can relate to this because I think that it is necessary to be able to look past my personal beliefs and experiences to be able to help a wide range of clients. Relating to these theories and theorists has helped me to develop my own personal intervention theory that I will be able to use in my future career.

What Surprised me most about the Theories and why

Some of the theories and concepts from this course took me by surprise. For instance, it took me by surprise that there are theories and theorists created specifically for feminist and the LGBT communities. Although I realize that all types of people have issues that they need to address in therapy, I never thought that specific therapeutic techniques were developed for feminist and LGBT communities. However, it does make sense that the LGBT community would have certain issues that other people may not have to face. In addition, I was a bit surprised at the variety of theories and approaches that are used for Asians, Muslims, and Arabs.

What surprised me about these theories is that they were very different from many of the theories generally used by our culture. In addition, I did not fully understand how the differences in these cultures played such a large role in how to approach these populations with therapy. However, I did find them interesting, and considered many of the concepts for use in my personal intervention theory. Even though these theories took me by surprise, I recognize their importance in psychotherapy approaches to counseling.


All of the theories of psychotherapy discussed in this course are effective for specific people with specific needs. Despite the fact that some of the theories were surprising, they all have merit and can be effective with the right client. Even though I recognize the importance of all of the theories and theorists, I was able to relate to some more than others. After relating to certain theories and theorists, I was able to develop my own personal intervention theory based on cognitive and multicultural approaches to therapy. My personal intervention theory, along with the rest of the theories and concepts discussed in this course will guide me along my journey of employment as a juvenile probation officer in the future.

Jones-Smith, E. (2012). Theories of Counseling and Psychotherapy: An Integrative Approach. Sage Publications.

Personal Theory Paper Essay

Therapeutic Relationships Essay

Therapeutic Relationships Essay.

This essay will explore the use of the Gibbs reflective cycle upon the development of therapeutic relationships within health and social care contexts. The Gibbs reflective cycle will be described and applied as a tool to an experience with a patient within health and social care. The Gibbs reflective cycle will then be evaluated for its efficacy and placed in context with the importance of reflective practice within health and social care.

The development of therapeutic relationships in health and social care are important in order to create and maintain a successful, professional relationship between staff and service user.

This helps to promote congruence between intervention planning and treatment, increasing the likelihood of success when implementing a treatment or care plan. The Gibbs cycle (Gibbs, 1988) is a tool with which health and social care professionals and employees apply to enable reflective practice within their workplaces. Reflective practice is particularly important in health and social care contexts due to the high frequency and sensitive level of interactions between staff, patients and third parties.

Reflective practice is an integral part of health and social care, particularly within nursing care (Bulman and Schutz, 2008).

The Gibbs cycle is frequently used within the National Health Service (NHS) and is utilised as a part of employee supervision to enable the individual to successfully reflect on their experiences. The outcome of these reflections can then be applied to their future practice. Reflection also contributed to continuing professional development (CPD), an integral part of the employee supervision process in the NHS and other health and social care employers. The Gibbs cycle is a particularly effective reflection tool due to its applied analysis of specific experiences, rather than arbitrarily discussing particular skills or strengths. For example, a worked Gibbs cycle example would identify specific sections of a specific scenario that may be improved upon in the future, such as ‘have more patience with an individual with a hearing impairment’. This is easier for the individual to apply rather than a general statement such as ‘have more confidence’.

The Gibbs cycle has six stages which are worked through systematically. The stages combine to form a cycle, indicating the continuous process of evidence-based learning and personal development. In breaking an experience into stages, the Gibbs cycle enables the individual to distinguish the different aspects of a process that led to a particular outcome in a particular context. For example, if an individual identifies that they felt nervous before the experience they then may be able to identify whether this had an impact upon their subsequent behaviour. Creating links between feelings, thoughts and outcomes is a fundamental purpose of the Gibbs cycle.

The first stage of the Gibbs cycle is DESCRIPTION- what happened. This is followed by identifying FEELINGS, what the person was thinking or feeling at the time of the event. Thoughts and feeling can be positive, negative or neutral. EVALUATION follows, identifying positive and negative aspects of the experience. This stage helps the individual to focus upon positives instead of just the negatives which can help to promote self-esteem, demonstrating the positive value of the person’s contribution to the situation.

A second stage of DESCRIPTION follows to establish what sense the individual can make of the experience. A CONCLUSION identifies if there was anything further the individual could do if the situation were to arise again. The individual then creates an ACTION PLAN to put these points into practise for the next time the situation happens. These points can also be transferable to other contexts and scenarios, for example, ‘ensuring read patients’ medical notes are read before meeting with them’.

The six stages of the Gibbs cycle will be applied to a real life example from practice within health and social care. Shirley is an 83 year old woman whom lives independently with her partner in her own home, receiving care twice a day from external agencies. Shirley has experienced several strokes and has hearing loss due to meningitis as a child. She has motor weaknesses in her arms and legs, associated problems with co-ordination and cognitive difficulties due to the strokes. Shirley is resistant to engaging with services and is keen to retain as much independence for as long as possible. Shirley is also a bariatric patient which increases the level of support she requires when carrying out activities of daily living and increasing her dependence on others, partly due to the unsuitability of her current living environment.

I will apply the Gibbs cycle to my first interactions with Shirley to evaluate the role of reflective practice in developing a therapeutic relationship with a service user. The first step of the cycle is description: I met with Shirley at her own home with my mentor, whom had previously met with Shirley several times. The second stage is to describe my thoughts and feelings. Before I met with Shirley I felt slightly apprehensive and thought I may be out of my depth working with a service user with such complex needs. I was also worried that I would find it difficult to understand her speech and communicate with her effectively. I had previous experience of working with service users who have a hearing impairment, but not with service users who have speech production difficulties. When I first met with Shirley I felt nervous and panicked at first when it was difficult to understand what she was saying due to her facial muscle weakness.

This also made me rather self conscious. As time passed and I acclimatised to her speech I relaxed, increasing in confidence when communicating with her and applying my active listening skills. Each time I have met with Shirley since then has helped to further develop my abilities to communicate effectively with her as an individual. I also knew it was important to be aware of the Mental Capacity Act- assuming full capacity unless proven otherwise (Mental Capacity Act, 2005). I knew that Shirley had difficulties with motor co-ordination and ensured that I was sensitive of this and did not rush her in any way. I was aware that Shirley was a bariatric patient before I met her and was unsure if she may be embarrassed of this, so I ensured not to refer to this unless it was entirely relevant. I was also aware that she has been resistant to health and social care services in the past and wondered if she may present with challenging behaviour towards myself or my mentor.

When reflecting on the development of a therapeutic relationship with Shirley it is important to identify positive and negative aspects in accordance with the third stage of the Gibbs cycle to develop reflective practice. Positive aspects included using my previous experiences with other service users to help think on my feet as I continued to communicate with Shirley, noticing particular sounds that had significant meaning to her and remembering these for future reference. Other positive aspects included observing my mentor in how she communicated effectively with the service user and mirroring these techniques myself. My mentor also discussed used open-ended questions to discuss particular topics with Shirley that she clearly enjoyed and witnessing these conversations provided me with ideas for what to talk about in the future. Negative aspects of the experience included being unable to understand Shirley at first due to her difficulties with speech production and also feeling self-conscious when I was unsure of what to say to her.

Completing the previous stages of reflection also helped me to make sense of the situation, the fourth stage of the Gibbs cycle. In highlighting the positives and negatives it is clear that my preconceptions may have compounded my nerves and uneasiness when presented with a situation that I was unfamiliar with. However, by following my mentor’s example and modelling her behaviour, my confidence increased and my proficiency with it. Future exposure to situations like this will help to develop my active listening skills further.

There are other things I could have done to improve both my and Shirley’s experience. I could have been more assertive and confident on our first meeting, which may have helped to ease my nerves and would have helped her also feel more at ease. This would have helped develop our therapeutic relationship, confirming her faith in me as a healthcare professional and providing her with the confidence that I was fully capable of confidently carrying out my assigned duties. I could have been more honest with Shirley and asked her politely to repeat herself if I did not understand. I believe that if I hadn’t anticipated difficulties in understanding Shirley before I had even met her than I may have felt more at ease when first communicating with her. Whilst I knew Shirley was resistant to engaging with services, this shouldn’t have led to my prejudgment that she may be difficult to talk to or communicate effectively with.

The final part of the Gibbs cycle is to create an action plan to identify what could be done if the situation were to arise again. When developing a therapeutic relationship with Shirley, I feel in the future it would be beneficial to address my concerns in further depth with my mentor prior to meeting a service user. This would enable me to obtain advice that I could then implement to improve my ability in developing therapeutic relationships. For example, Shirley has associated language comprehension difficulties. If I had discussed her case further in depth with my mentor, this would have enabled me to gain strategies on how to best overcome this, such as repeating information or using different language styles. I could also improve my knowledge as to the difficulties the service user may experience.

For example, whilst I was aware that Shirley experienced ‘cognitive difficulties’ prior to meeting her, I was unsure as to the specifics of this and the true impact that these may have upon her ability to live independently within the community. Identifying the different aspects of cognition such as word production and comprehension, memory and processing skills would have helped me to understand fully the difficulties she may have experienced, particularly when communicating with others. Researching relevant topics would also help me to identify a possible relationship between Shirley’s cognitive difficulties and her subsequent disengagement with services.

Completing the Gibbs cycle with a patient example from my experiences of working in health and social care highlights the necessity and importance of reflective practice. Reflecting on an experience in a structured way enables the individual to become self critical, increasing self awareness of thoughts, feelings, behaviours and actions for future practice (Ghaye, 2011). Reflective practice increases staff competency and can be completed alone or within a structured supervision session.

However, the accurate recording of reflective practice can be limited despite its great value to service improvement (Norrie et al, 2012). It also opens channels to create peer discussion on how best to improve the service and experience for service users. Receiving an external opinion by discussing completed self-reflective tasks with others can be beneficial by gaining insight and experience from an alternative source. Due to the personal nature of reflective practice it can be difficult to be self-critical and objectively identify areas of improvement.

In many health and social care professions reflection is a required process that must be continually carried out throughout employment as a registered professional, including social workers, adult, learning disability and mental health nurses and occupational therapists. This can also be a requirement of the associated professional bodies as reflection is considered to demonstrate the individual’s ability to continually improve their ongoing professional development as an employee. Reflection encourages professionals to develop appropriate therapeutic relationships with their service users. The continuation of evidence-based practice is vital to the consistent improvement of health and social care services and helps each practitioner to continue their personal and professional development in a person-centred way.


Bulman, C. and Schutz, S. (2008). Reflective practice in nursing, 4th edition, Blackwell publishing: Oxford.

Ghaye, T. (2011). Teaching and learning through reflective practice: a practical guide for positive action. Second edition. Routledge: New York.

Gibbs, G. (1988). Learning by Doing: _A guide to teaching and learning methods_. Further Education Unit. Oxford Polytechnic: Oxford.

Mental Capacity Act 2005. C.9. London: HMSO

Norrie, C., Hammond, J., D’Avray, L., Collington, V. and Fook, J. (2012). Doing it differently? A review of literature on teaching reflective practice across health and social care professions. Reflective practice:
International and Multidisciplinary perspectives. 13 (4), pp. 565-578

Therapeutic Relationships Essay

Comparison of Adler, Freud, and Jung Essay

Comparison of Adler, Freud, and Jung Essay.

The theories of Freud, Adler, and Jung are considered classic theories because of theirhistorical significance and comprehensiveness (Nystul, M. S., 2006 p. 202). These men have had a vast influence on the art of counseling (Nystul, M. S., 2006). These psychologists differed on their beliefs of dreams as in many other beliefs. Freud and Jung believed that dreams had ameaning; Alder believed that dreams told how a person was living.

Freud’s Dream BeliefsFreud wrote that dreams contained both manifest and latent content. The manifest content is the material that the dreamer is aware in relating the details of the dream.

The manifest content is a disguise for the true meaning of the dream, or the latent content, which is comprised of unconscious sexual and aggressive wishes and fantasies unacceptable to the conscious ego. These unconscious wishes and fantasies find expression in dreams. Consequently, Freud believed that the meaning of dreams is almost always wish fulfillment. To discover the meaning of dreams, Freud used a process of free association, asking his patients to free associate to various dream symbols.

Invariably, he found symbols to be related to sexual or aggressive themes (Gardner, M, 1995, p.11).

Jung’s Dream BeliefsJung differed from Freud in that he believed that dreams can reveal other themes besides aggression and sexuality. According to Jung, dreams can also reveal archetypal material, creativity, and a drive toward individuation. Jung viewed the manifest content of dreams as not being disguises but being metaphors (Van De Castle, 1994). The psyche’s libido is a more general form of energy which pulls us toward individuation, a process of developing greater insight in one’s inner self. Dreams reveal material from either the personal unconscious or the collective unconscious, the source of archetypes.

Jung’s approach to dream interpretation involved amplification, the process of asking the dreamer to focus on various symbols in the dream and provide as many associations as possible about the particular symbol; whereas Freud used free association to have the dreamer create a chain of associations beginning with the dream symbol. Dream symbols could represent an actual person in the dreamer’s life or a part of his or her psyche. Amplification includes exploration of feelings connected to dream images, cultural meanings of dream images, and possible archetypal meanings of the dream images such as the mandala representing the archetype of the self (Van De Castle, 1994). Jung also encouraged the dreamer to use active imagination, reliving the dream and allowing it to continue in conscious imagination.

Adler’s dream BeliefsAdler viewed the personality as being holistic; the conscious and unconscious are not separate. He did not place as much focus on dream interpretation as did Freud and Jung, although he believed that dreams provided insight into one’s lifestyle and social interest. In particular, Adler noted the significance of repeated dreams as keys to understanding life challenges and their unique meaning for the individual. Alder is best known for his theory of personality (Nystul, M.S. 2006).


These men have been criticized for their work; they have even criticized each others theories. They belonged to a psychoanalytic group but their differences in theory made them go on their own. The classic psychological theories of Sigmund Freud, Alfred Adler, and Carl Jung have laid the foundation for modern clinical practice (Nystul, M. S. 2006, p174). Their work has laid the foundation for many merit programs and studies in psychology.


Gardner, Martin (1995, November). Waking up from Freud’s theory of dreams. The Skeptical Inquirer, 19(6), 10. Retrieved January 10, 2007, from ProQuest Psychology Journals database. (Document ID: 8671329).

Nystul, M. S. (2006). Introduction to Counseling An Art and Science Prespective 3rd Edition. Boston: Pearson.

Van De Castle, R. (1994). Our Dreaming Mind. New York: Ballantine Books.

Comparison of Adler, Freud, and Jung Essay