Poverty during the French Revolution Essay

Poverty during the French Revolution Essay.

France’s history is peppered with enthusiasm of the good life. Just as the French are known for their passionate nature, so too are the events that constitute France’s socio-political history. Many of France’s great thinkers have contributed a number of concepts that are used in modern society such as the concept of property and the state. However, the country’s most notable contribution is its historical accounts of successful revolutions since it has inspired other countries to follow the same route.

During the late 17th century, France’s budding economy was reaping the benefits of capitalism; the state of its people in general was not in good condition, particularly those who lived in the rural areas. This has led many of its destitute citizens to question the direction of the monarch’s rule and its intention to stay in power. As a result, people from the bourgeoisie and the urban poor had opted to go against the oppressive ruling classes in the hopes of toppling down the power and distributing it to the people, creating a balanced society.

Still, after countless revolutions and reform programs, the destitute were still large in numbers, whilst the ruling classes remained to be in control of all the changes proposed during the reformation. The outcome of such revolutionized efforts in the old regime has brought into light the grounds to which extremist ideas did not seem to help the poor in France win the battle over property and human rights. The impoverished citizens in France constitute a large part of the population.

In William Doyle’s book The Oxford History of the French Revolution, it was noted that 20 million people are found in the rural areas, accounting for about 90 % to 95 % of the population. About 80 % were said to have resided in villages of 2,000 or less during the reign of Louis XVI. This was due to the fact that in the past, the French society had practiced the concept of feudalism in managing the lands, dividing its citizens by three orders: the clergy, nobility and commoners.

The clergy was the overseer of most of the lands though they share land entitlements with the nobility or the upper classes. The commoners were said to have been the general poor who worked for the nobles and clergy. They are not given the right to own the land as they are considered as property of their masters. This kind of stratification was already marked in birth, and is one of the triggers that fueled the French revolution since the tension created in the communities where specific privileges were bestowed upon certain individuals or groups isolated the peasant majority.

At the onset of capitalism in the country, overseas trade became the forerunner that pushed the country into expanding its economy, which was set for its long-term development. Though progression has given opportunities for the poor to obtain work, especially in the urban areas, it did little to uplift the poverty rate since most often; a strict criterion was enforced that limited those who could avail the jobs in the cities. The wages were also not reasonable enough to sustain the living of most workers since the bourgeoisie class controlled most of the profits earned in their businesses and are often only circulated amongst them.

In Doyle’s book, the inconsistency of the price increases in bread was said to have caused riots in the urban communities since most of the urban poor depended upon bread for their diets. This has led many of the urban workers to protest and instigate revolts against the factory owners. In effect, most of the urban poor suffered from poor health since the environment and the working conditions in which they were subjected to were not beneficial to them.

After the onslaught of the bourgeoisie revolution that took over Bastilles, the peasant majority started to hope for the attainment of social inequity since they thought that most of the middle classes shared the same sentiments but they did not foresee that the change brought about by the revolution would still not favor them. In reference to Lynn Hunt’s book The French Revolution and Human Rights: A Brief Documentary History, the commencement of the French revolution gave way to the establishment of a new set of laws that was inclusive of the marginalized poor.

In 1789, a National Assembly was conducted in response to the growing chaos that had swept the country’s social systems wherein it discussed injustices experienced by both the rural and urban poor. Propositions to the King were made via the Estates-General elections, which was aided by the representatives from the three different class orders to determine the distributions of the land. However, the discussion did not reach a consensus as most of them could not agree on how to vote and what is deemed to be viable for the community.

The following year, a Civil Constitution for the Clergy was administered, which intended to obtain the church lands that accounted for about 10 % of whole land area of the country. This did not sit well with most of the clergy as they did not want to give up the privileges accorded to them, harboring great resentment from the peasantry. The assembly also argued about the technicalities that comprise legal rights wherein a distinction is made between active citizens, who were granted full rights to vote and hold office, and passive citizens who were under the same laws, but could not vote or hold office.

While the three order division was not being considered, another form of class stratification took its place, as it determined the status of a citizen based on one’s income level, gender, race, religion, and profession. To add more insult to injury, the Le Chapelier Law of 1791 further differentiated workers from property owners. This action was said to have banned worker associations or unions from developing since the upper and middle classes thought it would be a hindrance to national unity.

According to Boyle, the reluctance for distributing power to the poor communities was due to the likelihood of widespread fear of further unrest. Another reason was said to have been inclined to those who understood the aims of the enlightenment since they believe that only those who are knowledgeable could be trusted to exercise reason, or to think for themselves. Furthermore, many of those free-thinking nobilities argued that economic-based perceptions of the workers mirrored corporate guilds which would encumber individual freedom.

The role that poverty has played at the beginning of the French revolution was used mostly as a tool for the bourgeoisie to control the finances of the country. The revolution was used as a means to an end, not as an end in itself, which offered the peasantry as bait in the scheme of things. While the revolution did produce a great deal of change for the state of France, the presence of the bourgeoisie and the stance of the few privileged has contributed to the stagnation of what the revolution could have been.

Poverty during the French Revolution Essay

Housing Problems Essay

Housing Problems Essay.

1 Population growth and urban problem in Mumbai, India According to G.Tyler(1994), the more poor people move from rural to urban area the more poverty is becoming urbanized. A lot of cities have damage because of the extreme poverty and social and environment in stead of being centers of commerce and industry. In this article I will discuss the problem of slum clearance in Mumbai, India. I am interested in poor people in urban area. First I will refer about population growth which is related to urban problem.

Second, I suggest that slum clearance is not good enough for solving the problem. Third, as a conclusion, I suggest that India government should keep providing various kinds of social services to needed people. Population growth is related to urban problem.

According to Tyler (1994),at least 1 billion people -18% of the world’s population-live in the crowded slums of inner cities and in the vast, mostly illegal squatter settlements or shantytowns that ring the outskirts of most cities in LDCs(Less Developed Country)(bookÖ@,p.

26). I agree with Tyler’s explanation. India government has done slum clearance since early 70s when the Slum clearance Act was passed the Mumbai city (artic.Ö@,para.2). In the name of beautification India government did renewal the city. India government has a vision to develop her country like Singapore. I think the slum clearance is very strict for the poor people and the policy does not work well. Because slum clearance only makes other squatted area. People have no way with dwelling in bad habitat environment. In my opinion this is also an ethical issue because people have the rights to live. I believe everyone has the rights to live even they live in slum. Unfortunately, poor people are regarded as a part of bad environment.

So the real problems are in the human rights and the government policy. India Government should face with the roots of problem and provide some policy. So they should keep provide various kinds of social services for needed people. Some private organizations provide health care program and family planning. One of the organization has maternal and child healthcare program. To save poor people they should focus on each person who is involved in serious conditions. They have a lot of need. I think such social service and education are very important to fulfill the needs of poor people. They need clean water, foods, housing etc.

So I suggest that India government should keep welcoming NGO from foreign countries and support their activity. As a conclusion, Population growth is related to urban problem. Slum clearance is not enough for solution of the problem. India government should keep providing various kinds of social services for needed people. To provide social service to those area is a kind of investigation to children for the future. I believe when people change, nation change. This issue should be developed to the quality of life of poor people in slum area.

2 Air Pollution

Construction activities that contribute to air pollution include: land clearing, operation of diesel engines, demolition, burning, and working with toxic materials. All construction sites generate high levels of dust (typically from concrete, cement, wood, stone, silica) and this can carry for large distances over a long period of time. Construction dust is classified as PM10 – particulate matter less than 10 microns in diameter, invisible to the naked eye. Research has shown that PM10 penetrate deeply into the lungs and cause a wide range of health problems including respiratory illness, asthma, bronchitis and even cancer.

Another major source of PM10 on construction sites comes from the diesel engine exhausts of vehicles and heavy equipment. This is known as diesel particulate matter (DPM) and consists of soot, sulphates and silicates, all of which readily combine with other toxins in the atmosphere, increasing the health risks of particle inhalation. Diesel is also responsible for emissions of carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxides and carbon dioxide. Noxious vapours from oils, glues, thinners, paints, treated woods, plastics, cleaners and other hazardous chemicals that are widely used on construction sites, also contribute to air pollution.

Water Pollution

Sources of water pollution on building sites include: diesel and oil; paint, solvents, cleaners and other harmful chemicals; and construction debris and dirt. When land is cleared it causes soil erosion that leads to silt-bearing run-off and sediment pollution. Silt and soil that runs into natural waterways turns them turbid, which restricts sunlight filtration and destroys aquatic life. Surface water run-off also carries other pollutants from the site, such as diesel and oil, toxic chemicals, and building materials like cement. When these substances get into waterways they poison water life and any animal that drinks from them. Pollutants on construction sites can also soak into the groundwater, a source of human drinking water. Once contaminated, groundwater is much more difficult to treat than surface water.

Noise Pollution

Construction sites produce a lot of noise, mainly from vehicles, heavy equipment and machinery, but also from people shouting and radios turned up too loud. Excessive noise is not only annoying and distracting, but can lead to hearing loss, high blood pressure, sleep disturbance and extreme stress. Research has shown that high noise levels disturb the natural cycles of animals and reduces their usable habitat.

Housing Problems Essay

Why the Rich Are Getting Richer and the Poor Poorer Essay

Why the Rich Are Getting Richer and the Poor Poorer Essay.

Throughout the Article, Robert Reich talks about the growing gap between the upper half of society and the lower half of society. The main narrator of this article is the author, Robert Reich who is telling a story about America’s social classes. Reich uses a metaphor to explain how the economy is going down and up for the rich and the poor. He says that it’s a boat we’re all in, “one sinking rapidly one sinking more slowly and the third rising steadily” (1).

Reich is referring to the three social classes, the lower class, the middle class, and the upper class. The lower class keeps getting poorer because of job loss, due to more automation and competition from other countries that are willing to work for less money. The middle class is kind of staying where they are but are still going down economically.

This is because of machinery, which is replacing workers, lower salaries because of the increased social security the government is taking out for the retired, and competition from immigrants who are looking for a job.

The upper class is doing well and rising above everyone else because they are the ones who are thinking about selling their ideas to foreign countries who couldn’t think of them on their own. The upper class consists of engineers and architects who are in charge of designing and building the major structures for transportation and living. It is because of this that they are earning greater salaries and are getting richer than the middle and lower classes. Reich talks about how these things are designed to keep the lower class salaries from dipping too low. But this is put into place only so they can continue buying the goods.

This article is entirely true. There is a growing gap between the rich and the poor and it’s blooming more visible as the years pass. The rich are getting richer because they are the ones taking over the lower class jobs and doing what they want with them. Usually they fire all the workers and put in automatic machinery because it’s more effective and costs less. They have also put an increase on immigrants over the past decade and it’s still rising today. They come to America and they need jobs so they can support themselves and their families. This is why there is a loss of jobs in the United States. If the economy keeps up with this downhill slide there will be people in extreme poverty and people who are filthy rich. And many of the rich people will refuse to help the poor, even if they are more than capable of doing so.

Works Cited
1. Reich, Robert B. The Work of Nations: Preparing Ourselves for 21st-century Capitalism:Why the Rich Are Getting Richer and the Poor, Poorer New York: A.A. Knopf, 1991. N. pag. Print.

Why the Rich Are Getting Richer and the Poor Poorer Essay

Reflection Paper : Bunso (The Youngest) Essay

Reflection Paper : Bunso (The Youngest) Essay.

Bunso is a documentary film about three boys struggling to survive in an overpopulated jail somewhere in Cebu. The film showed three different stories of minor offenders named Tony short for Anthony, Diosel, and Bunso. This is a very heartbreaking film that can make you see the reality.

When I was still eleven, I wake up and eat my breakfast prepared by my mother after that I play and sleep and play again. I complain because my clothes aren’t new I always demand for a new clothes to wear.

When I’m sick, mom will give everything that can make me feel better, she will rush me to the clinic with her worried face. I felt bad, really bad I don’t have the right to complain because I am living the life that those kids are dreaming of. Anthony, a thirteen year old boy who has to find his own food for him and his siblings. No one will bother to give him money or food so he decided to just steal money/ jewerleys from the rich people.

I felt really bad for him because his parents are always quarelling. His father who keeps on beating him up and his mother who is concerned for him but cannot do anything so she just drink all her problems.

Diosel, aged eleven has to sing a song on the highways just for coins to surpass his hunger. I am very worried for him and his friends because they might be hit by a rushing car or worse trucks. Bunso, the neglected child that begs for the love of his family. Of all the three children, I feel worst for Bunso because his mother looks like she doesn’t even love him. His mother always promise to set him free from the jail but she never really cared to get him. At the young age he has to suffer all the hard things just to survive he should be studying for his future but he is at the jail living with the criminals unsure if he will be able to eat tomorrow.

I can feel the pain, need, and anger of Bunso with his mother. He is in pain because he is living a hard life in the jail and is longing for his mother’s love and angry because of the way his mother have treated him. He is very angry and in pain that he said “You call yourself a mother?” I also remember he said that on his past birthday he didn’t even get a single penny from his mother. I am very sad because this hardship shouldn’t be experienced by a minor child I mean no one should experience this kind of suffering.

For me the main problem of the film is their parents. If you can’t even provide your children’s needs then you don’t deserve one! One prisoner said “Why do you have to born if you’ll just live like this and grow up criminals?” I strongly agree from what he said. Second one is education if only their parents have an education background they wouldn’t have to face hardships like this because they can have a decent job and provide their children’s needs.

Children doesn’t fit in the prison. They shouldn’t be there living in a filthy room with over 157 prisoners. They are not safe there. Different viruses are in the air and they can be sick anytime. There are no proper medicine to relieve their pain like Diosel gas shouldn’t be used as a medicine for a stomach ache. When it’s raining they can’t sleep because the roof isn’t good. They drink water that’s not even clean. Food supply isn’t sufficient for them and they have to share it with their group.

I realized that my life is very good and learned that I should be happy and contented because there are other people that can smile when they are living a miserable life. I shouldn’t be irritated to street children because they have different stories and hardships. And also I felt sad that the two children was born and died poor. They didn’t get a chance to enjoy their lives because they died at a young age. This is the bitter and sad reality that we are facing in the Philippines I just hope that God would lead them and doesn’t let them do immoral things.

Reflection Paper : Bunso (The Youngest) Essay

You should not give money to beggars Essay

You should not give money to beggars Essay.

We can often see beggars At the corners of streets or roads with shabby clothes sitting on the ground, stretching out their hands And there would also be a bowl or something concave with some coins in it . Some of them seem to be disabled, some of them carry their children and beg money for them, others sing sadly in front of you. we would feel sorrow while we see such people and cannot help having compassion for these beggars, so we give money to them.

Nevertheless, It would be better not giving money or to pay sympathy to the beggars because we do not know if they are really beggars or homeless or most of them are just too lazy without devoting their strength to work and also some of them are drug addicted who will spend the money on drugs or alcohol.

As the word beggar means a person that begs for money or food, it does not mean the same as homeless or poverty stricken.

There is no proof that those who are lying on the streets are actually homeless. They could go home, into the warmth, with their loving family but they don’t do it. According to some news reports some beggars are even richer than other people who give them money. These people make money readily by cheating on other kind people. such people do not beg , but make their living by other means. By giving money you are encouraging those who are homeless to stay on the streets,

The beggars are doing the beggary as they are lazy to work. The main causes for them are that they’re poor and being unable to hold a regular job due to all sorts of problems like mental,emotional, physical, educational, and so on. Easy money is an extreme attraction for the lazy one sitting around all day collecting spare money off of passersby. With such an easy come they don’t eager to work at all . By giving money to these sorts of people, far from helping them not only you are encouraging them to be lazy but also you are encouraging others to do the same.

Your kind offer will lead them to more serious laziness than ever. we can’t know how the beggars use the money they received. We give them money for the purpose that they can buy food and clothes . However, some of them don’t buy necessities but they use it on alcohol, tobacco and drugs. Thus, we are encouraging them to continue their bad habits using too much drugs and alcohol or helping them commit crimes and may cause them to die.

It’s foolish Just making you feeling better be the reason of helping beggars . After all, the most helpful way to assist beggars is according to this Chinese proverb that it is better to teach them fishing than giving them fish.

You should not give money to beggars Essay

Poverty is a state of mind Essay

Poverty is a state of mind Essay.

Even though some people make millions, poverty is still a problem in today’s society. There is an increasing gap between the wealthiest and the poorest people. This is also a problem in Britain. But is poverty really a state of mind? That is the controversial statement made by freelance writer Bernard Hare who in an essay from 2012 writes about his childhood in poverty in a mining family in Leeds. As an adult, he experiences a different kind of poverty. Bernard Hare was born in 1958 into a poor mining family in Leeds, but he never felt the poverty as a child.

His explanation for this is that their house was warm, the neighbors were welcoming, and that he spent a lot of time with his grandmother who lived across the street. Because he did not want to end up in poverty like his parents and also after being encouraged by his grandmother, he got into grammar school and later college. He started to get into fights at stadiums because he supported the football club, Leeds United.

He was also arrested on more than one occasion. When Hare got to college, he started to drink and smoke. But he turned it around and became a successful social worker in London until he also had to provide for his father due to mining strikes. After that it all went downhill for Hare. He took drugs, drank, and sold drugs and stolen items. This changed in 1995 when he met the Shed Crew who was a group of 10 to 14 year olds living in an old shed in Hare’s old neighborhood. It put things in perspective and in 1997 he decided to become a writer because he wanted to tell the world the story about the Shed Crew. The final product was a memoir called Urban Grimshaw and the Shed Crew. Hare uses contrasts in this essay to get his point across. First of all, there is the contrast between his childhood life and his adult life and the differences between the two kinds of poverty he has experienced.

Secondly, there is the contrast between the poverty he lived in as a child and the poverty he sees with the Shed Crew. Bernard Hare has lived in poverty for the most of his life, but it has been two kinds of poverty. As a child he lived in absolute poverty where there was not always food at the end of the week. His parents drank and smoked occasionally but according to himself he had a good childhood anyway. He was loved and cared for even though the means were limited. However as a young adult, he went down the wrong path which included drugs, drinking, and criminal behavior. There he experienced a different kind of poverty. In a way, he chose to be poor. As he also says so himself, he was capable of making good money but he chose the criminal way of life. You can take the boy out of poverty, but you can’t take poverty out of the boy. (P 3 ll. 163-164) As previously said, Hare was loved as a child even though they were poor. That is the biggest difference between Hare’s childhood and the Shed Crew’s childhood. The Shed Crew had nobody to care for them, and they had been let down by society.

Nobody is there to take care of them and to make sure that they will get a decent childhood. He uses his own experiences to shed light on how horrible the Shed Crew’s childhood has been. Hare was poor in terms of money but was rich on love and supporting company – mostly from his grandmother. However, the Shed Crew is poor both in terms of money, but they are also lacking love and support from responsible adults. They are lacking both in the spiritual and the materialistic way whereas Hare’s childhood was safe and good. Throughout the entire essay, Hare uses a lot of pathos in this essay while reflecting on his life story. He shares little, happy anecdotes from his childhood which are written in a humorous way, and he tries to create a mental picture of his childhood. As the years go by, the stories get darker and darker.

There is not as much humor in his teenage and adult stories as there is in the childhood stories. This shows that the childish ignorance has disappeared from his mind and that he is now more aware of what is going on around him. Hare also writes that sometimes the decisions you make can effect whether or not you end up in poverty and more importantly how sometimes your choices in life can prevent you from getting out of poverty. For instance, Hare’s grandmother, who was teetotal, said this to him because his parents drank and smoked. “You’ll never have any money if you drink or smoke” (…) I was becoming aware that there might be a self-inflicted element to some people’s poverty. (P 2 ll. 93-94, ll. 98-100)

Is poverty really just a state of mind? The state of mind of the person in question might be a contributing factor to whether or not that person is in poverty. However, to say that it is exclusively the state of mind is an exaggeration. There are a lot of contributing elements to why people are poor and the mindset of the person could be an important factor. In some cases it is and in other cases it’s just a matter of not having enough money to live. At least, it was a question of a state of mind for Bernard Hare.

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Poverty is a state of mind Essay

The Challenges Of Globalization Essay

The Challenges Of Globalization Essay.

Answer each question using your new knowledge of current global trends. Each question is worth 6 points, for a total of 30 possible points. (6 points)

1. Many workers throughout the world make such low wages that they have a difficult time simply surviving. How can people laboring for starvation wages address the economic problems they face? Write a letter, talk about it and or protest .

(6 points)

2. There’s a widening gap between rich and poor countries. What could an international organization such as the IMF, World Bank, or WTO do to address this problem? The IMF could provide loans to help the countries handle a shot term financial problems.

The World bank could give them loans 15 to 20 yrs at lower interest rates than those charged by commercial banks.

(6 points)

3. Many developing countries are experiencing “brain drain” as their educated and skilled workers leave in search of the better pay and higher standard of living available in developed countries. What can these countries do to address this problem?

Increasing international trade, significant economic growth, and reduced poverty will address this problem.

(6 points)

4. Despite global media attention, protests, and boycotts, many governments around the world continue to commit and tolerate human rights abuses. How could the U.S. government help address this problem? The U.S government should prohibit commerce and trade with those governments around the world.

(6 points)

5. The world is facing greater and greater pollution, along with the depletion of natural resources. Every person in every country is affected by damage to the earth’s environment. What can be done to address this problem and to either reverse the damage or at least try to limit the amount of damage that will be done in the future? Reduce the production of produces that are contributing to the pollution. Such as plastic in our water systems, coal burning in air, and plant more trees. The country should educate people about is actually happening to the earth.

The Challenges Of Globalization Essay

Causes and Effects of Homelessness Essay

Causes and Effects of Homelessness Essay.

Homelessness is living without a home, be it on the streets or in shelters. There are many causes for people becoming homeless, and the combination of factors that lead to homelessness are different for every individual. Some of the factors that contribute to homelessness for youth, single adults, and families are poverty, domestic violence, substance abuse and mental illness, limited assistance services, and personal choice. The effects are also varied and can pertain to communities, businesses, other people and the homeless themselves.

Some of the effects of homelessness are health, personal, families, abuse, and the society. Although there are many reasons why people become homeless, this paper will only include the top five causes. Poverty is the number one leading cause of people becoming homeless, according to the National Coalition for the Homeless. Poverty is best known as that state of being poor. When people lack income to meet all of their needs, they are forced to choose between housing, utilities, transportation, childcare, healthcare, and food.

Nationally, homeless who have been surveyed by the U.S. Bureau of the Census, high proportions of homeless individuals were found to be employed. However, wages are often not sufficient to ensure housing stability and many people do not have jobs that provide living wages, health insurance, or high job security. Roughly half of homeless adults have incomes of less than $300 per month, (National Coalition for the Homeless). A lack of educational opportunities limits access to living-wage jobs and contributes to poverty. Another issue related to poverty is high cost and shortage of housing. It is difficult, if not impossible, for low-income individuals and families to find affordable housing. It’s no wonder with the limited scale of housing assistance programs, and other services of aid. With growing poverty levels and more people becoming homeless, public assistance services are unable to keep up with the demand. Public assistance can be described as government aid (publicly funded) or privately funded agencies (churches, and/or other charities) to needy, aged, or disabled persons and to dependent children.

Assistance programs do exist, but many have regulations and requirements that many people don’t qualify for. There are also the issues of waiting lists that might be as long as six months or a year. Shelters are available, but may have limited space and are only temporary (usually measured by weeks, some only lasting two weeks). Even with the programs out there, most don’t have adequate funding for prevention of homeless. Whether people are abused, mentally ill, or have disabilities, assistance is becoming more scarce and strict including health care necessities. While homeless people consist of mentally ill people and addicts, this only makes up a small portion of the entire homeless population. Mentally illness is foreseen as various psychiatric conditions, usually characterized by impairment of an individual’s normal cognitive, emotional, or behavioral functioning, and caused by physiological or psychosocial factors.

Addicts consist of alcohol and drug users/abusers, which are considered of having habits of consuming either or both. According the U.S. Conference of Mayors (2005), about 16% of single adults are mentally ill homeless, and addicts make up less than this (addicts are more complex). It is difficult for either (mentally ill or addicts) to keep a job and often have trouble finding housing and treatment. Both, mentally ill and addicts, have a hard time finding services when living on the streets, thereby creating a cycle of homelessness and addiction from which it’s almost impossible to escape. Other homeless who need escape are the people of domestic violence. Domestic violence will consist of women and/or children whom are or have been physically, mentally, and/or emotionally abused (battered). Nationally, studies indicate that up to half of homeless women with children have experienced domestic violence, including children who are homeless. With specific shelters available for battered women, more women are fleeing their abusers, thus creating more homeless.

Children, too, run away because of being battered and end up homeless. Children often encounter more abuse while on the streets to acquire food, shelter or clothing. Both, battered women and children are often forced with choosing between being abused or becoming homeless From interviews that I have conducted over the years, there are still homeless people that just choose to become/stay homeless. I interviewed a homeless veteran back in 2009 whose name is Jim, and again in 2011. Jim informed me that he became homeless shortly after the Vietnam War because he chose to. He didn’t have family waiting for him, and had no desire of getting a job after serving his country. After being homeless for more than 15 years, he states that “it is easier”. He doesn’t have the hardships of paying bills such as rent, utilities, insurance, car fuel, and other bills. He also doesn’t have the responsibilities of caring for dependents, but living only for himself.

Because of this advantage, he is able to survive on very little money. Jim says that “I focus on only the basics of food and hygiene”. With charities providing free food, soup kitchens, camping equipment, clothing and restroom facilities (including showers), Jim is able to survive without much begging. He claims that “being homeless gives me freedom” because he lives for the today and only planning for tomorrow. Though hard at times, simplicity can be blissful. Homelessness has a huge effect on an individual’s physical and emotional health. Homeless men and women suffer from colds that they cannot get rid of because they have no access to medicine. They suffer from vitamin deficiencies and often don’t get adequate sleep. Exposure to the elements and unsanitary living conditions can lead to frostbite, leg ulcers and upper respiratory infections. Serious illnesses like HIV/AIDS, diabetes and tuberculosis are more common in homeless people than among the general population.

They also are more at risk for dependency on drugs and alcohol. Homeless individuals have no housing to protect them from physical violence and even rape. At the time when a homeless person realizes that he/she won’t have a roof to live under, it is hard for them to believe. It is this fact of not dealing with reality that makes homeless people less able to take actions, but they suffer psychologically as a result. Being without a home takes a terrible toll on children as well. Homeless children have higher rates of ear infections, stomach problems and asthma than other children their age. These children are also more likely to be depressed, anxious, or withdrawn, and have more difficulty in school than their peers. Homelessness tears families apart because some shelters won’t take boys and others won’t accept children. A mother may have to watch helplessly as her children are taken from her and placed with relatives or in foster care, which highly affects the children.

These can lead to emotional breakdowns that lead them to become institutionalized or they can begin to develop behavioral problems that land them in front of a judge. There is also the economic impact that homelessness has on society. Operating and maintaining homeless support services programs are costly ventures. The funding for these programs comes in the form of taxpayer dollars and private donations. Yet, most of these programs are generally unfunded, which means that only the most basic of services can be offered. This in turn means that many homeless are forced to seek alternate methods of getting their basic needs met. Subsequently, those homeless who cannot find employment will turn to recycling or panhandling as a means of putting money in their pockets. As the numbers of homeless who dig through garbage cans and dumpsters in search of recyclable items and as the number of homeless who panhandle increases there are the inevitable complaints to the community’s government to do something about the homeless.

This usually causes the city to adopt stricter laws concerning – and in some instances, prohibiting – these activities. Then, because of the need to enforce these ordinances, local law enforcement must be on the look-out for violators. For those homeless who are caught, the officer must then take the time to stop, check the person’s ID, and write the person a ticket. Which costs more money, because then it has to go through the local court system. Paperwork has to be filled out, court appearances must be set, and for those homeless who either don’t pay the fine or show up in court, additional paper work is created. If a warrant is issued, then the next time the person is caught, there is a possibility that they will be given a trip to the local jail – at taxpayer’s expense, of course – which means more paperwork.

There is also an environmental impact that homelessness has on a society. Since most communities do not have anywhere near the amount of supportive resources needed for the numbers of homeless in their areas, the homeless will be forced to find alternate places to live and sleep. In more urbanized areas, this could be in the doorways of businesses after closing hours, behind buildings, public benches, bus shelters, building hallways and the like. In other, less urbanized communities, the homeless may seek shelter in “green belt” areas. Since every person has a need to heed the call of nature, and because many businesses deny the homeless the use of bathroom facilities, the homeless are forced to use whatever convenient location they may find to tend to those needs. The cost of clean-up, once again comes out of taxpayer dollars.

Since the 1940’s, the issue of homelessness has remained a growing concern within the U.S. Factors contributing to the problems are varied and deep-set within the make-up of our economy, and affect the economy as a whole. Not all homeless people chose to live in the streets or shelters. If a person believes this, then their perceptions are ignorant and unaware. Whatever the causes of an individual’s homeless, the consequences can be brutal. There is no one cause of homelessness and as a result there is no one solution. The solutions needed to eliminate homelessness are the same ones needed to prevent its occurrence. An understanding of the population and the causes of homelessness provides the background necessary to begin developing a strategy to end homelessness.


About the Homeless: Snapshot of homelessness. National Alliance to End Homelessness, 2011. Web. 2011 October 3. www.endhomelessness.org/section/about_homelessness/snapshot_of_homelessness

On this web page, I accessed several inner links to gain additional information for more specifications. The National Alliance to End Homelessness gives lots of details pertaining to homelessness. There are statistics, characteristics and reasons of homelessness. This site focuses on educating people about homeless and offers homeless people resources. It gives common geographical areas of homeless, the types of people who are homeless, how often people become homeless and the reoccurrences. The National Alliance to End Homelessness is a non-profit organization committed to preventing and ending homelessness with updated and current information. This source helps emphasize the causes of my paper’s main topic, and reinforces the effects of homelessness based on facts.

Jim. Personal interview. May 2009.

Jim was a homeless veteran at the time of interview and has been homeless for more than 15 years. He was actually part of a “camp” community, consisting of seven other homeless people. I talked with several of them, but he is the one with the most to say. This interview is about some people choosing to be homeless for no particular reason, other than it being easier. Jim talked about when he became homeless shortly after the Vietnam War. He hadn’t had family before the war, and didn’t have anyone/anywhere to turn to afterward. Society didn’t offer much support and government didn’t offer any help. So he became homeless. Now, it’s his way of life and he has no desire to change it. He has adapted to being homeless and finds that it’s easier (the others agreeing that it’s an easier way of life).

Jim is still homeless as of August 2011, when I ran into him this summer. He mentioned that as a veteran and Obama’s help with veteran services, he now receives some assistance (food, cash, and METRO bus tickets for transportation). Even with new veteran’s laws passed to help homeless veterans, he remains homeless and claims to be too old to go back to work. This information supports my theory on some people choosing to be and stay homeless. USHUD 2010 Annual Homeless Assessment Report to Congress: SUMMARY OF KEY FINDINGS and STATISTICS. National Coalition for the Homeless, 2011 June 20. Web. 2011 October 1. www.nationalhomeless.org

Why Are People Homeless? National Coalition for the Homeless, July 2009. Web. 2011 October 1. www.nationalhomeless.org/factsheets/why.html The National Coalition for the Homeless gives statistics and information about homeless people. Both web sites talk about what types of people become homeless and reasons why they become homeless. The main reasons described in detail pertain to poverty and housing statistics, but also give some examples of other factors. Information also includes characteristics of homeless persons. The information provided is factual and is as accurate as can be expected (homelessness cannot be known precisely). The National Coalition for the Homeless is a national network that is working toward ending homelessness with current and updated information. The organization consists of many services that all fight for the rights’ of homeless people and report to congress. These sources give factual information about the causes and effects of homeless people, and support the topic of my paper.

Causes and Effects of Homelessness Essay

Summary “UK develops taste for fair trade” Essay

Summary “UK develops taste for fair trade” Essay.

The article is published on the “The Guardian” official web page. It is written by unknown author from The Guardian company. The Guardian is a British national daily newspaper which was 1821, developed through centuries and is now one of the most popular daily news source of Great Britain. As the headline implies it is devoted to the free trade which has developed since 60s and is helping farmers and poor people not to go bankrupt by exporting their products to another countries.

In the introductory part the author touches upon the problem that European Union market is not open for everybody and is ruled by WTO. It is explained that fruit farmers, for example, in a little island in Caribbean Sea can not compete with giant US corporations that fulfill world’s fruit market and the World Trade Organization has reenabled old quota system in EU.

Moving on the reader is introduced to Juan Valverde Sanchez, a sugar cane grower who sells to a local farmers in Costa Rica and is worried if he and other rather little farmers will make one more year.

It is impossible to export to the US and EU because of the high tariffs and subsidies that western farmers get. The next paragraph is about the “fair trade” market which protects little farmers and helps them selling produce form giant multinationals. In this paragraph the main idea of fair trade is explained. It is thought to be right that all producers must be a part of democratically-run association. This association deals directly with first-world companies and suggests them to add a premium to products price which afterwards goes to farmers.

The consumers would not suffer because they would only pay a penny extra for a cup of coffee or a single banana. Therefore the money that farmers get could save them from bankruptcy and could give the possibily to send their children to school. Moving on it is said that the fair trade has a huge influance on farmers and countries. It started in Dutch as a small support for local farmers and now has grown to $500m a year global niche market with more that 400 northern companies that produces all sorts of foods. Half a million small farmers in 36 poorest countries worldwide have benefited from fair trade and it scales to $40m extra to producers. Further on the author touches upon the statistic numbers of fair trade food sales. Each year it is growing by more than 25% internationally and it is already 100%

Summary “UK develops taste for fair trade” Essay

Differences and Inequalities Essay

Differences and Inequalities Essay.

This essay will provide examples of inequalities and differences using information from City Road (The Open University, 2014) and the observations I have made which are similar on my street and how they affect society. Class, age, wealth, education, disability and even sexuality are seen as differences among those who lack access to these resources and therefore experience inequalities.

Inequality is when a person is unable to do the same as someone else due to barriers. As seen in Connecting Lives (The Open University, 2014a) the inequalities that Stephen Sweetman (who uses a wheelchair) endures are due to the design of the built environment and due to this I see the physical exclusion this has on his life.

One of the main issues on my street is most shop entrances have steps. This makes it inaccessible for people who have a disability and these impact their choices and their access to resources.

The recent location change to our Bus Station which use to be located in the town centre where easy access to the high street and all the shops was quick and virtually obstacle free, now it has been moved outside the high street and to get to the main shops you now have to walk along way and it is harder on the elderly, disabled and families with young children in pushchairs.

The new location is a lot smaller but has the same volume of people using the area, currently the pathway is being used as a waiting area bringing disorder and people’s safety is at risk the pathway is crowded and you have to walk in the road to get by. Local councils can help to ensure differences do not develop in to inequalities by clearing rubbish frequently and making sure the streets are clean from things like dog mess, chewing gum and that the street lights are maintained and bollards, signage and road markings are visible.

John Arthur’s story The Life and Times of the Street: Part 1 [Video], (The Open University, 2014a) is another clear example of inequalities and differences on City Road. He is a homeless person but his life experiences connect with other people in similar circumstances. Looking at these connections I see patterns of inequalities and differences but also on a wider scale within the homeless, unemployed and people on a low wage in British society. On my street homeless people are often seen in doorways, sleeping rough, begging for money or food. What, how and why have their individual experiences led them to live their lives this way and make them feel excluded from society? The Mackintosh Centre, The Life and Times of the Street: Part 1 (The Open University, 2014a) explains that the sports centre is perceived by some local people as an exclusive place and they know its history, how it was transformed from the home of a wealthy landowner to a community sports centre.

However the stigma of the wealth surrounded by the history of the building and the financial inequality barrier has lead to people assuming they would not be welcome. Changes in individual circumstances can lead to variations in differences which also affect how they see themselves within the society. The Food Bank (The Open University, 2014a) offers people help while they have financial misfortune. The people that use the food bank do so out of necessity and do not have a choice in the food they are given. This is in great contrast to the people who go to the supermarkets or the farmers’ markets and choose what they like. City Road has many different businesses and over time as on my street these businesses have changed making and remaking the street introducing different ethnic groups.

One building on my street was once a bank, now it is run as an American themed restaurant and sells food and beverages based on America. Their clientele who frequent this establishment do so as a choice, whereas people who are less fortunate and have limited or no income have to use food banks. This essay has covered Differences and Inequalities on City Road (The Open University, 2014) and how these are comparable or diverse to my street. I have found patterns in social life regarding individual stories and how people’s life experiences change how they perceive their belonging to the street. I have looked at Inequalities and how the order and disorder on the street can influence how people go about their everyday lives.

Blakeley, G. and Staples, M. (2014) ‘The life and times of the street’, in Allen, J. and Blakeley, G. (eds) (2014) Understanding Social Lives, Part 1,
Milton Keynes: The Open University. The Open University (2014a) ‘The Life and Times of the street: Part 1’ [Video], DD102 Introducing the social sciences. Available at https://learn2.open.ac.uk/mod/oucontent/veiw.php?id=443760§ion=2.3 (Accessed 4 November 2014). The Open University (2014a) ‘Inequalities on the street’: Part 2’ [Video], DD102 Introducing the social sciences. Available at https://learn2.open.ac.uk/mod/oucontent/veiw.php?id=443760§ion=2.2 (Accessed 4 November 2014).

Differences and Inequalities Essay