Crop Protection and Pest Control Essay

Crop Protection and Pest Control Essay.

“Plant protection” may be defined as all measures taken to protect cultivated plants against diseases, pests as well as competing weed and grasses. We – the staff of Kwizda Agro – always endeavour to support farmers with innovative andenvironment-friendly products to enable them to protect their cultivated plants against pests,diseases and weed and to produce on a more sustainable basis. Besides the best productsolutions, we also offer them know-how and advice. Agriculture faces tremendous challenges as the world population will grow from 6.

7 billion people today to 8. billion in 2030. Usable agricultural areas will, however, hardly expand.

In addition to food, animal feeding stuffs, renewable resources and energy crops have to beplanted on these areas. Plant protection products guarantee that these scarce resources areused optimally. They are therefore indispensable for ecological, economic and socialsustainability in agriculture. Modern farmers rely on “integrated plant protection,” keeping agricultural crops safe from pests, diseases and weed in an eco-friendly way and withoutdetrimental effects on health.

Chemical plant protection products form part of a modern, sustainably managed agriculture.

They help to ensure the high yield that today has become possible thanks to efficient varieties, good supply of the plants with nutrients and innovative agricultural engineering. Without plant protection products, cultivated plants are defenceless against pests and diseases. Fungi, animal pests and weed competing for nutrients, water and light endanger agricultural production, diminish the yield and impair quality. The result: The supply with and range of plant-based foodstuffs is reduced.

The consequence: Prices go up and the supply with foodstuffs is threatened. If the use of plant protection products is reduced by 75%, the production of fruit and vegetables drops by more than 30%, the production of grain by 40% and that of oil seeds even by more than 50%. (Michael Schmitz, University of Gie? en, 2002). To protect agricultural crops in an eco-friendly way against pests and diseases as well as to safeguard the quality and availability of the foodstuffs, optimised chemical plant protection is required.

In the past few decades, the plant protection industry has developed products that have targeted effects, are quickly biodegradable and do not pose any excessive risks to human beings and the environment. “Pest control” may be defined as chemical, physical or biological measures taken to combat plants, animals and micro-organisms regarded as pests which infest flora and fauna as well as people, their homes, workplaces and storage rooms. The principal task of a professional pest controller is to keep our present civilised environment as pest-free as possible.

Despite comprehensive measures in the health and hygiene sector, pests cannot be exterminated but may only be reduced to minimum levels by taking well-aimed measures. Nowadays, we constantly have to “master” new challenges – in the literal sense of the word – due to globalisation in every-day life. SARS, bird flu or other global phenomena are spreading rapidly. As a pest controller, we therefore have to make a contribution to minimising modern threats to human life. Pests are always involved in all these diseases, plagues or epidemics.

From history we know the famous rat flea, which in reality spread the plague and frightened people over centuries. As a pest controller, we have to do our share on a daily basis to make sure that this will never happen again. At Kwizda Agro, we declare quality, environmental compatibility and the connection with people to be the indispensible prerequisites for our successful work. This is because, as a reliable partner of European agriculture, we want to experience secure growth together.

Crop Protection and Pest Control Essay

A Beautiful Place Essay

A Beautiful Place Essay.

Everyone has their favorite place, if it’s in their heads or in real life. This is about one of my favorite places. This place would be the place I’d always go to whenever I had the free time. Even if I didn’t, I’d take the project I was working on and finish it there. No one ever went to the place or did I tell them where I was going so I was all alone in complete solitude.

I used to live on a farm, out where no one could see. When you step outside you will see never ending acers of farm crops, dry land, and small patches of woods scattered at the edge properties. However, there was a trail biking trail a couple miles away despite the lack of people. I would go to this trail every day, alone.

On my walk there I would memorize my surroundings, the cracked abandoned roads until I knew every pot hole and split in the pavement.

To both of my sides were deep, dry ditches with knee high grass that sways in the wind. These ditches were rather ugly, spots of the grass were dead with chemicals or hideous weeds would pop out making the ditch look even more unkempt.

Only on occasion would a car bounce by me, making me snap out of my self-consumed dream, scaring me to making me cautious. That didn’t last very long, I’d slip right back into that comfortable place where if felt like I was invisible. I’d continue to stare at my feet, only paying attention to the ground under them. Then, look up for a second to see how far I walked or where my next turn was.

Right next to the opening of the trail was a giant house. This house was four stories and twelve windows just on one of the faces. This house intimidated me, the flacking paint to the missing stones one the chimney. I always felt foolish walking fast to escape the presence of this house, but the way is sat there made it look like it was alive, watching anyone that passed by. I made sure that a kept away from it because I thought if I got too close it would come alive and attack me. This again made me feel irrational for thinking a house could come alive and hurt me. I didn’t what to find out “rather safe than sorry” right?

When leaving the horrific house I’d enter the trail, this was nothing like the beginning of the trip. This had a paved strip that never curved and never had one stone out of place. At either sides had deep beautiful ditches, healthy grass with colorful flowers sprinkled randomly. As I would get deeper into the path the number of trees would increase, first there would be a neat line, then would gradually add more and more trees until you would walk through a full forest.

If you would walk a couple more miles, you’d come upon a small bridge. What’s under this bridge was my favorite place. Declining through trees and tall grass would be a little place to sit under. I’d rest on stones that had been washed up by the stream, they were small and comfortable. Looking at the fish in the water was the most peaceful thing you have ever experienced. Looking at an animal in its natural habitat, watching it and trying to understand what it must be feeling was so calming. Just watching the soft wrinkles flow through the water.

Looking up through the grass was more interesting than you would think. Would see a lot more things that you wouldn’t see looking down at it. For example all the bugs and hidden flowers, the skunks, muskrats and wood chucks, but my most favorite, was deer that would wonder alone the water’s edge. Occasionally they would be followed by fauns awkwardly trying to keep up. Not being spooked by my presence because they knew I was a harmless animal that wouldn’t think of hurting another.

This is my favorite place because I view it as the most peaceful place I have encountered. This always made me happy no matter had happened or what the weather was. This place made me forget about the bad and think positively for my life and the future. It made me feel like time or other manmade items weren’t invented. Felt like there was no hatred or suffering in the world, this is the happiest place for me and I loved it.

A Beautiful Place Essay

Plant Pigment Chromatography Essay

Plant Pigment Chromatography Essay.

1. Describe what each of your chromatography strips looked like. Specifically, identify the pigments on each strip and compare their positions to one another. Plants have four types of pigments, namely chlorophyll, carotenoids, anthocyanins, and xanthophylls. These pigments have different polarities and chemical properties. In paper chromatography, the pigments will separate based on their affinity to the medium (paper), and affinity for the solvent. The solvents used in this experiment are water (polar) and acetone (mid-polar). Therefore, the different pigments will migrate based on their respective polarities too.

The pattern of migration will be similar for acetone and distilled water. The fastest to migrate (or found at the topmost of the paper strip) will be anthocyanin, followed by carotenoids, then xanthophylls and lastly chlorophyll. Chlorophyll is insoluble in polar solvents therefore it will migrate slowest in both water and acetone and will be found closest to the bottom of the paper strip. 2. Which pigments did the spinach and the red leaf lettuce have in common? Propose an explanation for this.

Spinach and red lettuce will have the same pigments, only they will be in different concentrations.

Plants have different pigments to maximize their photosynthesizing capability. With different pigments, all the photosynthetically active radiation emitted by the different light wavelengths will be absorbed. For example, the green pigment chlorophyll will not absorb the green wavelength; therefore, the carotenoids and the xanthophylls will absorb light in that region to increase absorption rate. 3. Which pigments were soluble in water? In acetone? Why are some pigments carried further from their original position than others? Chlorophyll is not soluble in water and only slightly soluble in acetone.

Carotenes and anthocyanins are highly soluble in water. Some pigments travel further away from their original position compared to others because these specific pigments are more soluble in water or acetone than the others are. The differences in solubility are attributed to their different chemical structures and composition. 4. In the fall, leaves often change colours as the day shortens. Propose an explanation for this colour change. What do you think happens to the green pigments? Why don’t we see the other pigments during the summer? In some trees, changes in leaf colour occur in autumn.

Changes in day and night temperatures, daylength and light intensity will signal that autumn is about to set in. In autumn, the production of food, through the process of photosynthesis, is minimized to conserve energy and resources. With this, the plant will stop manufacturing chlorophyll, the photosynthetic pigment responsible for the green colour in plants. Without any chlorophyll, the other pigments that are present in the leaf, like anthocyanin and carotene, become exposed. These pigments do not absorb red and yellow in the light spectrum, therefore leaves with high carotenes show yellow, red, and orange colours.

5. Which pigments are most crucial to plant survival? Outline the functions of these pigments. Chlorophyll a and b are the pigments that are most crucial to the survival of the plants. These two pigments are present in the highest amount in the leaves compared to other pigments. The pigments absorb light and transmit the energy from this light to other chlorophyll molecules towards the photochemical reaction centre in the dark reaction phase of photosynthesis (Mathews & Van Holde, 1996). Chlorophyll therefore plays a very important role in photosynthesis.

Conclusion Plants have a large number of pigments to carry out photosynthesis to ensure that the absorption of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) is maximized. Individually, the different pigments will absorb only a certain range of wavelengths in the PAR. For example, chlorophyll will not absorb the blue green region while carotenoids will try to absorb energy in the green region of the light spectra. References Mathews, C. K. , & Van Holde, K. (1996). Biochemistry (Second ed. ). Menlo Park: The Benjamin Cummings Publishing Company, Inc. ,.

Plant Pigment Chromatography Essay

How light intensity effects the rate of photosynthesis Essay

How light intensity effects the rate of photosynthesis Essay.

In my investigation I am going to establish the effect of changing light intensity on the rate of photosynthesis. What is Photosynthesis? Photosynthesis is how plants get their food. The reason why plants have leaves, roots or being green is all linked to photosynthesis. In photosynthesis, a plant takes carbon dioxide from the air and water from the soil and uses the light from sunlight to turn them into food. Photosynthesis occurs only in the presence of light, and takes place in the chloroplasts of green plant cells.

Photosynthesis can be defined as the production of simple sugars (glucose) from carbon dioxide and water causing the release of sugar and oxygen. Oxygen is also produced in photosynthesis, plants don’t really need oxygen so they give it out as a waste product but saves a little bit to use for respiration. The sunlight is absorbed by a green pigment called chlorophyll. Most of the glucose is turned into a substance called starch.

Word equation for photosynthesis:

Light energy

Carbon dioxide + Water Glucose + Oxygen


Word equation for photosynthesis:

Light energy

6CO + 6H O C H O + 6O

2 2 Chlorophyll 12 6 2

My aim:

My aim is to determine the effect of light intensity on the rate of photosynthesis. To accomplish this I will have to control the amount of water, carbon dioxide and light. Also the distance of the light will have to be controlled by undertaking this there should be different levels of oxygen escaping the plant. The plant will be soaked into water so the oxygen can be measured easily. The oxygen will be measured by the amount of bubbles produced from the plant for a certain amount of time.

Investigate the factors of – Independent variable – I am changing the light intensity.

– Dependent variable – I am measuring the rate of photosynthesis.

– Controlled variable – I am going to keep the level of carbon dioxide the same.

Preliminary experiment

Before doing my actual experiment I have decided to do a preliminary investigation; I have done this to overcome errors and mistakes. I have produced a table and graph to show the effect on the rate of photosynthesis when light intensity is increased or decreased.


For this experiment I predict that the further the light is from the leaf the fewer bubbles will be produced. I have come about this answer because for a fact photosynthesis occurs in light only and the rate of reaction is quicker in a warmer condition, so therefore if this condition is colder then the results will be the opposite which is that fewer bubbles (oxygen) will be produced.


Distance Amount of bubbles Average Rate

1 2 3 4

3cm 18 18 19 18 18.25 36.5

6cm 18 20 19 17 18.5 36.5

9cm 17 18 15 17 16.75 33.5

12cn 11 15 9 11 11.5 23

15cm 11 11 12 12 11.5 23

The table above shows my results after I completed the preliminary experiment. I counted the bubbles 4 times as you can see on the tables to be sure and make the experiment fair, the table shows that the higher the light intensity the faster the rate of reaction, this tables proves my prediction for the actual experiment.

Problems occurred

1) Background light – Light from other sources such as room light may have affected the results.

2) Thermometer – I did not have a thermometer therefore I couldn’t measure the temperature.

3) Miscount of bubbles – I may have miscounted the bubbles therefore my result can be inaccurate.

4) Distance of light – The distance of the light from the plant may not have been accurate; this can be due to that no one else verified that the distance was accurate.


To overcome the problems above I will have to make sure to block off all other light entering the room other than the lamps light, to use a thermometer for accurate temperatures, use more pupils to count the bubbles with me and to make sure the distance of the light from the plant is accurate.

The graph above is an interpretation of the tables above the graph. The graph, in a simpler way, shows that the higher the light intensity the faster the rate of photosynthesis. This is clearly shown when, the light is 3cm away from the plant, the rate of the bubbles is 36.5 and when the light is further away at 15cm the rate of bubbles is 23, as you can see there appears to be a less amount of bubbles produced when the light is further away from the plant, this backs up my prediction which is the higher the light intensity the higher the amount of bubbles produced.


Now I have done my preliminary experiment I will do the actual experiment, hoping it to be more accurate and efficient.

Prediction: – I forecast that the increase in the light intensity will increase the rate of photosynthesis by giving out more oxygen via bubbles. I come about this prediction because I know that the higher the temperature the faster the rate of photosynthesis is and the light produces the heat so I think the higher the intensity of the light the faster reaction there is.

Factors effecting photosynthesis

There are a few factors that effect photosynthesis, they are as follows:

Background light – The amount of light in the room, I won’t be able to do a perfect experiment each time but can get the light in the room around the same level each time we do the experiment this can be done by making sure the whole room is dark and the only light source is the lamp we are using for the test.

Heat from other sources – Heat from sunlight which comes through the window into our classroom also can alter our experiment because it gives out heat which speeds up the reaction making our experiment unfair.

Carbon dioxide – The concentration of Carbon dioxide is another factor that can affect our experiment. This can affect the rate of photosynthesis, since if there is too little or more or carbon dioxide, this matter cannot be solved in any particular way.


Table lamp


Ruler (used to measure the distance between the lamp and the leaf)

Stop watch



Here I have drawn out my method; I was not able to do it on computer as I didn’t know how to so I’ve drawn it instead.


Distance from

Lamp in CM Light intensity

Temperature oC Distance, travel

-length in double Rate distance Amount of oxygen

1 2 3 Avg 1 2 3 Avg 1 2 3 Avg 1 2 3 Avg

3cm 5.7 5.7 5.7 5.7 30 30 30.5 30.1 3.5 19 15.9 12.8 1.2 3% 3% 3% 3%

6cm 5.8 5.8 5.8 5.8 30 30 30 30 7.5 9 19.5 12 1.2 3% 3% 3% 3%

9cm 5.7 5.7 5.7 5.7 30.5 30 30 30.1 20.2 19.5 15.5 18.4 1.8 3% 3% 3% 3%

12cm 5.7 5.7 5.7 5.7 30 30 30 30 11 17.8 20 16.2 1.6 3% 3% 3% 3%

15cm 5.6 5.6 5.6 5.6 30 30 30 30 19.9 13.3 17.7 16.8 1.6 3% 3% 3% 3%

This table shows my results after I completed the actual experiment; I filled in the table as I went along and ended up with good results. In this table compared to the preliminary experiment table has more data, also compared to the table for the preliminary experiment this table shows the amount of light intensity, temperature, distance, travel length in double, rate distance and amount of oxygen all of this data also shows an “Avg” sign after the numbers this sign means average, so, this table is more detailed and accurate than the table for the preliminary experiment.


The two graphs below is an interpretation of the table above, this graph is simpler to read. Graph 1.1 shows the rate distance by light intensity, this graph shows the less amount of light intensity the higher the rate distance. Graph 1.2 shows the amount of bubbles (oxygen) by distance (cm), clearly you can see that the oxygen level remains the same as the distance from the lamp is changed; this was not expected to happen therefore this graph maybe incorrect.


After I have carried out my experiment I have discovered that the light intensity has an effect on the rate of photosynthesis. The effect is that the higher the light intensity the increase in the amount of bubbles produced, this bubble produced from the plant is oxygen.

Why is this? This is because light plays a major role in photosynthesis, it helps the leaf to give out oxygen and take in carbon dioxide from the atmosphere which is polluting our world. Also light helps photosynthesis to produce food for the plants and makes the plant produce fruits or vegetables such as apples and tomatoes.

Photosynthesis comes about when trapped light energy turns into carbon dioxide and water into a solution called glucose and oxygen. During this whole process some oxygen is given off.

About my graph

After I have completed my experiment, I produced a graph which shows that when the light was 3cm away from the plant 18 bubbles were produced and when the light was 6cm away from the plant 17 bubbles were produced. This clearly shows that the higher the light intensity the higher the amount of oxygen (bubbles) produced and the lower the light intensity (the further the light is away from the plant) the lower the amount of oxygen (bubbles) produced.


I feel that my experiment was positive overall; however I thought there were many points at which the accuracy was not perfect such as my preliminary experiment which was not accurate enough to justify being used as my main experiment, mostly due to the fact that I was relying on all the bubbles being the same size, which they clearly weren’t, (I did realise during the experiment there was no way round this matter) however many of the smaller inaccuracies also apply to my main experiment.

Firstly, the distance between the light sources and the plant were not measured to a very high degree of accuracy, especially when you note the fact that the distance should have been measured exactly from the filament of the light bulb to the centre of the plant( I couldn’t actually measure from the filament of the light bulb as glass was around it and the light bulb was very hot), and it is possible to find a percentage error. I estimate that the error could have been up to 0.5cm.

Few other problems that occurred

Background light, heat from other sources and carbon dioxide all played a nuisance during my investigation; background light may have a affected the rate of photosynthesis and heat from other sources may have speeded up the reaction, I realised all this factors above during my preliminary experiment which help me overcome other errors as well so when it came down to the actual experiment itself I knew what errors to overcome and made sure background light and other factors effecting my investigation were dealt with so ill have a fair investigation.

What was learnt?

I and my group all learnt that after an intensive investigation into how the rate of photosynthesis is affected by the amount of light intensity that the higher the light intensity the faster the rate of reaction. We also learnt that if the light intensity was too high than the rate of photosynthesis will not work this is because the enzymes denature if the temperature was to be too high, I did not find this out by doing my investigation, this information was found on the internet after some research.

How light intensity effects the rate of photosynthesis Essay

Freshwater Biome Essay

Freshwater Biome Essay.

The Freshwater Biome By Lauren Finnis The freshwater biome is a complex biome that can be found all over the world.

There are two major types of freshwater biomes. The first type is lotic or running which include rivers and streams. Lentic or standing is the second type; those include lakes and ponds. Since this biome is found worldwide, the species that reside in it can vary extensively, but usually it contains several species of fish, plants, and insects.

Predation is a way of life in the freshwater biome.

It is the main way food and energy are obtained by most of the organisms. The plankton, algae, and weeds that produce their own food through photosynthesis are eaten by the smaller fish like the minnows. Then larger fish like bass, trout, and pike eat these smaller fish. Finally birds, large mammals, and humans catch the large fish.

In the freshwater biome, there are several examples of symbiosis. The relationship between the freshwater sponge and spongillafly is an example of paratism.

The spongillafly lays its eggs on the sponge, and then they hatch and feed off the sponge.

Another parasite is the flatworm. It resides in organisms such as the snail and can infect them with deadly diseases. There are also examples of commensalism in this biome. First is the relationship between small fish and the pond weeds; the fish hide between these weeds from larger fish. Another relationship of this type is the one between oysters and the mangrove trees. The oyster anchor and protect themselves with the roots of the tree.

Finally there are also examples of mutaulistic relationships. For example some small fish enter clean the mouths of larger fish, and in exchange, they may eat whatever they clean out.

There are several limiting factors in the freshwater biome. One of the most important is the availability of sunlight. In areas with little sunlight, photosynthesis can not occur; therefore, most plants can not live. Since plants are the base of the food chain the whole ecosystem falls apart. Salinity is also a limiting factor. In freshwater areas, there must be a salinity of .05% or less for most organisms to survive. Humans are actually limiting factors also. We destroy and pollute habitats and eat the animals and plants in the biome.

Population density in the freshwater biome varies greatly. In rivers or streams, density is usually lower in the faster moving biomes because organisms must fight the current. In lakes and ponds, the topmost areas usually are more dense because there is an ample supply of light for photosynthesis. The highest densities will probably be found in the more temperate areas that organisms can adapt to more easily.

The carrying capacity of the freshwater biome depends on the size, location, and availability off light. Biotic potentials in the biome are most likely extremely large. This is because the main organisms are fish, which lay eggs in numerous amounts. Of course the carry and the biotic potential are rarely met because there are natural enemies and predator. There are also billions of one of the most deadly predator to the biome, humans.

Freshwater Biome Essay