Comparison between Plato’s and Cicero’s philosophies

Comparison between Plato’s and Cicero’s philosophies

Plato and Cicero are the earliest philosophers who played a phenomenal role in setting the stage for different political views that people still hold today. Plato lived when the city of Athens was experiencing political and social upheavals, which helped shape his political approach. On the other hand, Cicero was brought up at time when the Roman Republic was experiencing great decline and he viewed the decline to as one prompted by political events (Blitz, & Hoffpauir, 2016). However, most of the Plato’s philosophical approaches were original while Cicero’s approach was based on his earlier predecessors such as   Plato, Aristotle, and Socrates. The theoretical approach to politics of the two philosophers differs greatly. Each person’s approach was shaped by what a person had experienced during the process of growing up.

Comparison between Plato’s and Cicero’s philosophies

Plato approach was guided by the desire to ensure justice and equality for all people in the society. During the political and social upheavals in Athens, the political leaders both the democrats and rich were guided by the desire to acquire power in a bid to fulfill their selfish interests (Blitz, & Hoffpauir, 2016). Consequently, the interests of the public were absconded by those who were in powerful positions. To ensure that the needs of the community are fulfilled, Plato advocates for creation of a perfect state, where social structures address the interests of the public by unifying philosophy and politics (Bruell, 1994). Plato supports the ideology of traditional polis where he sees philosophy as the perfect solution in building a true society that values equality and justice for all. Therefore, Plato advocates for the division of society into three social classes, which are gold, silver and bronze (Bruell, 1994). The gold class is made up of the educated, which is the class of rulers in the society. The silver class is made up of the strategists who provide security to the rulers while the bronze class is made up of the laborers in the society. Each of the classes has its advantages and disadvantages. However, in the Plato asserts that the three classes are differentiated by their level of knowledge hence the silver and bronze class are predisposed to manipulation trough noble lies. Therefore, the different levels of classes are prompted to obey their situation in the community hence they conform to political control and censorship installed by the elite class in the society (Bruell, 1994). Additionally, Plato proposed a philosophical, political approach in the society akin to aristocratic rule. In The Republic, Plato advocate for a philosophical king who will emerge for the golden class in the society, which is akin to the aristocratic king who come from the privileged group in the society (Schofield, 2006). Plato viewed democracy as a system of direct participation of all individuals in the society indecision making process as opposed to the system where representatives made decisions for others in the society (Schofield, 2006). Plato believes that self-governance would instill a sense of soul and psychological emancipation from political subjectivity. The freedom would help the members of the society to acquire justice, morality, and positive morals that would create a natural state. However, Socrates asserts that each individuals’ decisions are a product of the contemplation and questioning of his surroundings (Schofield, 2006). Therefore, the proposal by Plato for a natural state is unachievable in a realistic society.

On the other hand, Cicero advocated for observation of moral standards as the basis for a society a natural society that observes the law. Unlike Plato who advocated for self-governance that capture equality and justice for all, Cicero advocates for the natural law where people are empowered to a push for their rights when their rights are breached (Maass, 2012). According to Cicero, the best rule was not the governmental rule but the law of the right reason. Cicero asserts that, the law of right reason existed even before the governmental laws were implemented and people had a common understanding of the law and it was binding, unchanging, and everlasting (Nicgorski, 1978). The law of right reason is consistent with the natural environment and needs of the people at a particular time. Cicero was religious man who recognized how the supreme law of God acted as the master rule that ruled over all people and anyone running away from the law was running away from the his human nature (Seagrave, 2009). Therefore, a natural law would bind the society together and safeguard the society against exploitation by those in superior positions in the society. Just like Plato, Cicero believed that, bad political ideologies were behind the declines of the Roman Republic hence political changes were needed (Maass, 2012). However, while Plato advocated for a philosophical political approach to achieve change in the political realm, Cicero was advocating for profound political measures to achieve change in the society (Seagrave, 2009). However, Cicero was using philosophy to castigate lack of inept leadership and lack of character among the leaders as the source of decline of the Roman Empire. Moreover, just like Plato, Cicero wanted to pass a message to the political leaders to change their approach to limit by putting the interests if the society before fame and personal interests (Nicgorski, 1978). Similar to Plato, Cicero advocated for the protection of the lesser parties in the society against exploitation by those who occupy top position in the society (Hawley, 2016). The top echelons of the Republic had a tendency of using their positions to force the weak in the society to work for them leading to slavery. According to Cicero, natural law would create a balance between the poor and the rich by observing common values and justice for all (Nicgorski, 1978). Consequently, Cicero advocated for a political ethic of self – abnegation and complete moral integrity consistent with the stoic-adherence and Roman patriotic adherence. Moreover, Cicero borrowed his ideas from the Plato’s idea of right and justice to create a natural state for all. Roman patriotic adherence helps in creation of a state as natural to man where everyone observes the natural law (Nicgorski, 1978). According to the Cicero, a state should be viewed as a common wealth for all the people. Despite the differences that exists among all the individuals no one can live alone hence the society needs each other to survive. Therefore, the community should live together and respect justice for others for the common good of the society. Therefore, for people to work towards a common good they have to be patriotic.


The political philosophies of Plato and Cicero share several similarities and differences. The two philosophers lived at different times marked by different political and social events. The events shaped the mindsets and opinions they manifested in the society. Plato’s philosophy was premised on equality and justice for all by changing the political regime from the aristocratic to philosophical nature. Plato believed that incorporation of aristocratic politics and philosophy would help to find solutions to most of the problems afflicting the society. Use of philosophy according to Plato would create a free state where the society would enjoy and find satisfaction of their souls.

On the other hand, Cicero advocate for a society that is governed by natural law. The natural law is supreme and contravention of the law would lead to injustice in the society. Both Plato and Cicero concur that political changes needed to be introduced in the society. However, Plato wanted a philosophical political approach to be introduced while Cicero used philosophy to manipulate political change in the society. Plato is original in his approach while Cicero uses the works of his predecessors such as Plato, Aristotle, Socrates, and others to shape his political perspectives. Therefore, Plato is original in his approach as compared to Cicero.


Blitz, M., Hoffpauir, J. (2016). Plato’s Political Thought. Oxford Bibliographies

The source explores Plato’s political life and his key political philosophies. The source is relevant to the study since it evaluates some of the Plato’s popular works and evaluates how Plato developed his political philosophies. The source provides a shrewd evaluation of the republic, which is one of the major Plato’s works that depicts the philosophy of politics. The approach used is relevant to the study since it makes it easier to compare the philosophical approach between Plato and Cicero.

Bruell, C. (1994). On Plato’s political philosophy. The Review of politics, 56(02), 261-282.

The source provides an insight on the republic and other of Plato and provides an examination on how they culminate to Plato’s political philosophy. The source is relevant since it cuts across the main works of Plato and analyzes how the sources add up to a common Plato’s philosophy. It helps in comparing the approach used by Plato and that used by Cicero. The author is a professor and a researcher in classical political philosophy.

Hawley, M. C. (2016). Individuality and hierarchy in Cicero’s De Officiis. European Journal of Political Theory, 1474885116657693.

The source is relevant to the study since it explore how Cicero highlighted the existence of man in the nature. It highlights the various hierarchies of human existence in the society. Human beings exist in two natures, which are the natural human nature and the natural moral hierarchy. The source divulge on how the two natures interact in shaping what human beings want in life. Moreover, the source explores how human diversity predisposes human beings to manipulation by those who are superior in the society.

Maass, R. W. (2012). Political Society and Cicero’s Ideal State. Historical Methods: A Journal of Quantitative and Interdisciplinary History, 45(2), 79-92.

The source evaluates the Cicero’s political theory and its interpretation in the society. The source is relevant since it explores the variations that existed in interpretation of what a state is by Cicero. The various concepts presented by Cicero are dissected to culminate to the context of natural law that upholds the values of justice, constitution, and active citizenship. Maass is an assistant Professor of Political Science at the University of Evansville (UE). He is a specialist in international relations and has illustrious experience to offer a profound approach to political theory.

Nicgorski, W. (1978). Cicero and the rebirth of political philosophy. The Political Science Reviewer,8, pp. 63-109

The source offers insight on the various approaches used by Cicero to present his case of political theory. The source explores how the ideas presented by Cicero contravened the ideas of great thinkers like Aristotle, Plato and others. The source explores the differences that existed between Cicero and his predecessors Plato and Aristotle. Precisely, the source provides evidence of the contradictions that existed in the Cicero’s approach to politics. Nicgorski is a classically trained political theorist who has developed several writings relating nature of America to Cicero’s approach.

Seagrave, S. A. (2009). Cicero, Aquinas, and Contemporary Issues in Natural Law Theory. The Review of Metaphysics, 491-523.

The source evaluates application of the natural law philosophy in the contemporary society. The link between the natural law and its classical foundation has elicited relevance in the current society. The source provides plausible evidence between the Cicero’s natural law and how it is utilized in the current society. The author is an experienced political scientist who specializes on the American political tradition and history of political thoughts.

Schofield, M. (2006). Plato: Political Philosophy. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

The source explores Plato’s political life and his key political philosophies. The source is relevant to the study since it evaluates some of the Plato’s popular works and evaluates how Plato developed his political philosophies. The source provides a shrewd evaluation of the republic, which is one of the major Plato’s works that depicts the philosophy of politics. The approach used is relevant to the study since it makes it easier to compare the philosophical approach between Plato and Cicero.


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Premium cruise lines

Premium cruise lines

Cruise ship industry is among the fasters growing segment in the hospitality industry all over the world, with an approximate annual growth rate of about 8.4%. According to darity (2008), in 2007 alone 12.6 million tourists cruise worldwide. This number grew the year after and it was approximately 80 million at end of 2013. At present, about 350 premium cruise lines are sailing the world’s seas. Premium cruise industry has a number of economic benefits to a port state. These benefits arise from five principles: cruise tourist and crew spending, employment by the Premium cruise lines companies, premium cruise lines expenditure on goods and service, which are necessary for cruise operation, cruise line expenditure for port services, and expenditure for premium cruiser maintenance.

Most tourist in the world chooses premium cruise lines because they are smaller as compared to the larger cruise ships and, therefore, take fewer cruisers. The space ratio of the premium cruise lines is greater than the larger one, who make premium cruise lines are less crowded as compared to the greater. Some premium cruise lines, sometimes, characterize themselves up premium cruise. Most premium cruise lines offer larger staterooms and more luxurious bathing facilities as compare to large cruise ship (Dickinson & Vladimir, 2008).

How currents affect premium cruise lines

With the current technologies, premium cruise lines trends are shaping up with a greater focus on multigenerational groups with more unique food offering. Most of these premium ships now offers about a quarter mile boardwalk. Mullins & Walker (2013) show that some Cruise lines carry up to 3600 passengers and still include a jogging track and space for walk. Unlike the ancient premium cruise, modern cruise reflects new trends of being outside all the time with outdoor restaurants, much on-deck seating and other things that will make you be outside most of the time.

Modern technology has made it possible for premium cruiser to offer most luxurious things such as skating rings, planetariums, climbing walls, among other new attractive activities that keep coming. Among the most modern is Crystal symphony, which includes a vertical garden. The other two most competitive premium cruises are carnival Cruise lines and Holland America line cruise. Carnival lines cruise offer TV game, which allows passengers to participate while watching it (Papathanassis, 2012). The carnival cruise lines also include 3-D movies, which are shown on theatres equipped with motion seats, which has special effects like wind and water. America cruise lines, on the other hand, include programming partnership, which are usually used for fitness workout and pool parties.

With advance technology, most premium cruises have expanded food option. Some such as Norwegian have everything from separate bars of Asian noodles, raw shellfish to churrascaria. Most cruise lines also are trying to accommodate diverse needs for youth and adults. They are expanding where youths can have enough exercises and at the same time creating cool places for adults where they can sun, read books, and nap (Peng, 2009).

Lastly in the current trends is the information technology, which has shifted the way travellers book cruise lines. Unlike sometimes back where travellers were forced to book cruise lines with some middlemen, they now book it directly online through cruise’s company branded website.

Effects of cruise industry on economy

The benefits of the cruise industry are derived from income generated from the spending at the port. These incomes, which include money received from dockage, wharfage, and passenger’s spending were originally earned somewhere. In fact, direct purchases by cruise lines and passengers from local business create income and jobs. Local government benefits from the cruise industry through taxes imposed on this sector. In most cases, taxes flow directly from the port authority rather than local government (Walker, 2012)..

Benefits derived from the cruise industry are usually measured by impact analysis, which is based on input-output model. An input-output model calculates effects on the income; employment on the region, and value added which resulted from the original input. Direct and indirect effects that arise from the passenger’s spending become an income the affected local firms. All these incomes are received from the services and goods rendered. That means for a firm to produce and distribute the requisite goods and services, needed by cruise lines, local firms must invest some money. Therefore, if a country’s economy is poor and has less to invest on the cruise business, then the amount obtained from the travellers, are also low. If a country is so poor and fails to invest on this industry, the number travellers wishing to visit such a country will also reduce dramatically (John, 2008).

Social impact of cruise industry:

Premium cruise industry has a social and cultural impact on the destination. This impact is as a result of the relationship between residents and guest. Premium cruise lines have both social and negative impacts and positive impacts.

Cruise lines impact the society positively through culture exchange, labour issues, and revitalization of culture and tradition. Destination gives an opportunity for travellers to learn by visiting museums, cultural centres, and heritage centres. On the other site, social exchange is likely to increase the chances for people to develop mutual sympathy, understanding and tolerance. Therefore, it is clear that tourism can be away for local people to trade he culture and knowledge. The culture of the community can improve cruise industry in many ways. For instance, festivals and events local communities can increase the number of the premium cruise lines visiting a country.

Another positive social effect of the cruise industry is on education. A research show that cruise tourism has promoted and increase educational opportunity. According to Henkens(2006), tourism can also bring a positive force toward peace, and fosters pride in traditional culture that can assist in avoiding urban relocation.

On the negative side, cruise industry may lead to misunderstanding and conflicts. Generally, social impacts of cruise vary from place to place. However, the result can be managed by regulating the number and timing of visitors to avoid disruption of social and economic cycle (Butler, 2010).                             


According to Cetron,  DeMicco, & Davies (2006), it is undeniable that the premium cruise industry brings money to the local economy, however, ensuring development of the cruise industry at the destination require much capital. Therefore, the question is, do the cruise lines bring fewer benefits that the initial cost?

As could be seen, we have to make a decision that pressure to promote cruise industry. However, there is no policy in most government imposed to control the impact of such activity. Lack of planning allows confronting the massive arrival of cruise tourism will eventually lead negative effects in the destinations. Ports too often say those cruises are more important to them than the way they are important to the cruise lines. With the recent growth in the cruise industry, more ports need to be build (Conrady & Buck, 2009).


Butler, M. (2010). Cruise tourism: current situation and trends.. Madrid: World Tourism Organization.

Cetron, M., DeMicco, F., & Davies, O. (2006). Hospitality 2010: The future of hospitality and travel.. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Prentice Hall.

Conrady, R., & Buck, M. (2009). Trends and issues in global tourism 2009. Berlin: Springer.

Customer-to-customer interaction : impact on cruise experience and overall vacation satisfaction. (2008). Oxford Press: John.

Darity, W. A. (2008). International encyclopedia of the social sciences (2nd ed.). Detroit, Mich.: Macmillan Reference USA.

Dickinson, B., & Vladimir, A. (2008). Selling the sea an inside look at the cruise industry (2nd ed.). Hoboken, N.J.: Wiley.

Mullins, J. W., & Walker, O. C. (2013). Marketing management: a strategic decision-making approach (8th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.

Papathanassis, A. (2012). Cruise tourism and society a socio-economic perspective. Berlin: Springer.

Peng, Q. (2009). International Conference on Transportation Engineering, 2009 Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Transportation Engineering, July 25-27, 2009, [Southwest Jiaotong University] Chengdu, China. Reston, VA: American Society of Civil Engineers.

Walker, J. R. (2012). Introduction to hospitality management. s.l.: Prentice hall.

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The Role of Self-Kindness and Self-Esteem in Children in Fostering Psychological Resilience and Positive Psychology

The Role of Self-Kindness and Self-Esteem in Children in Fostering Psychological Resilience and Positive Psychology


Psychological resilience is the capacity of an individual to avoid stress and adversity in order to prevent such problems as bad health. The other problems are depression, mental illness, and general body dysfunction (Cooper, Flint-Taylor & Pearn, 2013). People and children with psychological resilience can make good plans to execute it, and increase their self-confidence and self-esteem[G1]  (Cooper, Flint-Taylor & Pearn, 2013). [G2] 

Positive psychology is the use of scientific understanding and psychological intervention to bring happiness to individuals with mental disabilities and psychological stress (Fuller, Chapman & Jolly, 2009).  It is possible to achieve a satisfying life through positive psychology rather than treating mental disability (Fuller, Chapman & Jolly, 2009). One way of promoting positive living is by increasing the Child’s self-esteem and self-confidence through resilience (Fuller, Chapman & Jolly, 2009). This essay aims to analyze the ways to promote psychological resilience to help a child with mild learning disabilities and physical health problems[G3] . The limitations and any other issues related to clinical matters will be vital to the discussion.  Psychological resilience and positive psychology are two areas that help young children and adults to raise their self-esteem through avoiding stress to cope with the learning challenges (Fuller, Chapman & Jolly, 2009).[G4] 

Self-esteem is the way we perceive value to ourselves, to the world, and the way we think we are valuable to other people (Svebak, 2010). Self-kindness is the quality of being kind, having consideration for others, or having the urge to help other people (Svebak, 2010).  Kind people have compassion for others and do not show any selfish behaviour to the friends or neighbours (Hefferon & Boniwell, 2011). The connections in the terms are positive psychology helps individuals to tolerate, cope, and live well in spite of the stress and the adversities they are facing. Psychological resilience helps individuals, both the adults and the children to cope with stress and adversities while positive psychology deals with the treatment of mental disabilities to attain psychological resilience (Svebak, 2010). Positive psychology enhances self-esteem in individuals, and self-esteem promotes psychological resilience when individuals have a high regard for themselves (Svebak, 2010). Self-kindness results from having a positive attitude towards other people, which make them, cope with stressful situations, such as financial difficulties (Cope & Whittaker, 2013). From the definitions and the evaluation of all the terms, it is true that psychological resilience, positive psychology, self-esteem, and self-kindness have a connection (Seligman, 2006). A research by the Institute for Research and Society, on psychological resilience, showed that people with a high self-esteem and self-kindness have increased psychological resilience [G5] [G6] (Seligman, 2006). Positive psychology promotes self-esteem and self-kindness, which in turn, promote psychological resilience according to the National Institute of Health (Cope & Whittaker, 2013).[G7] [G8] 

Approaches to Positive Psychology

Positive psychology is a very pivotal intervention in stress management and the treatment of learning disabilities in both children and adults [G9] [G10] (Cope & Whittaker, 2013). The main approaches to positive psychology involve activities that make a person happy, have a meaningful life, and promote the mental well-being (Cope & Whittaker, 2013). The approaches are:[G11] [G12] [G13] 


Pleasures are those activities that cause happiness to a person easily and lead to delight of the individual (Coulson, Oades & Stoyles, 2012). The activities have a quick impact on peoples’ emotions and the senses, making them feel better within a very short time. In essence, a person does not require any efforts to feel the happiness; joy and delight just happen to the individual or child. Examples of the pleasures are body massages, which lead to the relaxation of the muscles and the mind. Relaxation helps in making a person happy, which in turn help him cope with stress [G14] [G15] (Coulson, Oades & Stoyles, 2012). Another example is good food that enhances the appetite, decorated rooms, swimming pools, bathtubs and many others, which relieve stress in a person or a child (Coulson, Oades & Stoyles, 2012).  [G16] [G17] 


Gratifications are those activities that are challenging and make people use more strength at the same time making them happy (Seligman, 2013). They require a lot of efforts to achieve, but their long-term effects are rewarding. One example of a gratification activity is long-term love relationship through kindness, listening, and doing good things for the people one loves. The activities require self-sacrifice and effort to impress the loved ones. For the case study, showing the boy some love and doing kind things will promote his self-esteem. His learning capability will also improve once he accepts and puts effort into the gratification activities, for example, by reading his favourite book more often (Hefferon & Boniwell, 2011). The other gratification activities are drawing, gardening, solving puzzles, volunteering and writing (Hefferon & Boniwell, 2011).

Doing Meaningful Activities

Meaningful activities are those activities that involve engaging in activities that promote the [G18] fulfilment to people’s lives, either personally or professionally (Svebak, 2010). These activities can bring happiness once the person achieves his/her objectives.  Everybody cherishes success and any time an individual attains his/her goals, he/she becomes very happy and satisfied.  Meaningful life activities require somebody, especially children to involve more in gratification activities (Svebak, 2010), which will strengthen the skills of the person. A researcher, Martin Seligman said,” Total immersion, in fact, blocks consciousness, and emotions are completely absent”(Seligman, 2013).In this, he encourages people to engage fully in the activities that bring satisfaction to their lives. Some of the activities may involve assisting the poor in legal representation to enable them acquire justice. For example, since the withdrawal of the legal aid in England in April 2013 (Stewart & Brennan, 2013), many low-income families cannot afford legal fees for[G19] in divorce cases. As a lawyer, one can offer his/her services to the poor families, which will be a gratification gesture (Stewart & Brennan, 2013). The activities make the individual forget many bad emotions and conscience reducing mental stress. The boy in the case study can benefit from the approach, as being active in many activities will enhance his mental capacity. Seligman, (2013) notes that the three approaches are important for mental, emotional, and physical development of individuals hence leads to psychological resilience.[G20] [G21] [G22] [G23] 

Psychological Interventions

Positive emotions are very important to help achieve happiness and excitement for both physical and emotional satisfaction that lead to happiness (Seligman, 2013). Some of the interventions improve a person’s well-being, growth, creativity, fulfillment and any other activity that brings joy and relaxation of the person. For the case study, the boy can apply some of the interventions to promote his mental and physical health and improve his learning capability. The positive psychological interventions are:


According to Fuller, Chapman & Jolly, (2009), gratitude can be a source of positive feelings to a child. The research shows that those people who express gratitude to other people feel a lot of inner satisfaction and happiness with their actions. Being grateful is a virtue that brings about the feeling of wellbeing to a person and reduces depression, increases happiness, and raises self-esteem. A study by Morgan, Gulliford, and Kristjánsson in 2014 on the effects of expressing gratitude showed that those who express gratitude are more relaxed  (Morgan, Gulliford & Kristjánsson, 2014). The boy in the case study can gain from gratification by receiving grateful notes and comments from the teachers and other stakeholders to improve his health. [G24] 

Best Possible Selves

Children can write the events in their lives and any actions they undertake and how they feel about them (Morgan, Gulliford & Kristjánsson, 2014). The activities create a lot of self-confidence to the individuals, and they can achieve their goals in life. Writing will always remind the child the experiences and can provide some comparison with the recent happenings.


According to Morgan, Gulliford & Kristjánsson, hope is the ability of individuals to pursue their goals in life, which make them feel excited, determined, and committed to their roles.  Hope brings harmony to different individuals, especially the one that results from spirituality or it may lead to the reduction of broodiness in individuals ([G25] Morgan, Gulliford & Kristjánsson, 2014). Hope enables people to seek advice from their peers and parents, which reduces stress and depression of the individuals seeking advice. [G26] 

Signature Strengths

Signature strengths refer to the exhibition of appreciation of bravery, beauty, gratitude, and forgiveness by individuals depending on their experiences. For example, individuals who recover from certain illnesses show positive characteristics than those who have never experienced severe illness (Morgan, Gulliford & Kristjánsson, 2014). The recovery makes them be strong and believe in their physical fitness. [G27] Thus, they do not worry about facing difficult situations. Some people possess emotional courage to face and counter challenges to achieve difficult goals in their lives through persistence and bravery.  The other forms of strengths are humanity, pursuit of justice and temperance, which lead to physiological toughness and reduce depression and stress.
[G28] [G29] [G30] 

Positive Psychology and its Relevance to Children Development

Positive psychology has a big effect on the human brain, especially that of a growing child (Fuller, Chapman & Jolly, 2009). The brain can master everything that the child experiences when he/she is very young, and as the child matures, the mastery improves. Positive teachings create optimistic thinking as the brain can register the actions that become habitual to the child [G31] (Schueller, 2010). Repeated actions make the child do the same thing repeatedly and unconsciously, which forms part of their character.

According to Dr Seligman positive psychology, helps in getting rid of learning difficulties in young children (Fuller, Chapman & Jolly, 2009). For example, consider the scale of -5 to +5. In many cases, education will move an individual from -5 to 0. In this case, 0 denotes that somebody is okay and getting from 0 to +5 is very difficult. Therefore, education does not assist so much in moving from 0 to +5, and the only way somebody can assist children to get there is by promotion of good habits and correcting their weaknesses.

Concepts or Clinical Approaches to Promoting Psychological Resilience

There are various concepts that help in promoting a healthy living for the children and adults, such as:

Mental Training

Mental training is a new approach for assisting people to relax the body and the brain to facilitate confidence in individuals and positive thinking (Fuller, Chapman & Jolly, 2009). The approach also assists people to solve problems and develop critical thinking. Through the method, individuals and children can improve their mood and lower anxiety levels while lowering depression and increasing the individual’s self-esteem (Fuller, Chapman & Jolly, 2009).

Strengthening the Human Spirit

The parents and caregivers should play a big role in strengthening the human spirit in children as they grow up to help them improve their psychological resilience (Fuller, Chapman & Jolly, 2009). As the children develop, the parents need to do many tasks, and their parents and caregivers should make sure they assist their children in that area. Engaging in various activities will help the children acquire a sense of responsibility and develop physically and intellectually (Fuller, Chapman & Jolly, 2009).

Teaching and Discussion

Teaching children from an early development stage help the child to acquire skills in various fields and become responsible. The child can control bad emotions at an early age by incorporating the ideas from the lessons taught (Fuller, Chapman & Jolly, 2009). Teaching can occur in various places such as  homes, worshiping centres, social places, or in schools. A child should learn how to remain positive and have the self-confidence to prevent any possibilities of stress and depression. Discussions are very important for any growing children as they assist the child to express him/herself at the same time acquiring self-confidence. Through resilience, a growing child can achieve many good qualities and abilities.[G32] 

Trusting Relationships

Trust is very important to growing children in enhancing positive thinking. Parents and caregivers should not expose their children to a dangerous environment, especially those children with disabilities[G33]  (Schueller, 2010). A good and trustworthy relationship should exist between the parents, teachers, and any other member to ensure that the children can share their problems and challenges. Parents should avoid issues that can lead to their divorce or separation as it brings agony to the children. Since many parents cannot afford the legal fees after the Ministry of Justice withdrew the legal aid to low-income earners in the UK [G34] [G35] (Stewart & Brennan, 2013), parents should try to live in harmony. In the case of a divorce or separation, many parents cannot afford to pay a lawyer to handle children cases involving their upkeep. The children end up traumatized and stressed[G36]  (Schueller, 2010), although positive psychology can help them to cope with the situation and make them attain psychological resilience.
[G37] [G38] 

Encouragement, the Children to be Autonomous

Children should learn how to be independent at an early stage to instill a sense of responsibility to the child. The environment should allow the child to do an activity on their own and seek guidance in case of any challenges (Schueller, 2010).

Setting Role Models

Children always imitate the actions of the parents and, therefore; parents should provide an environment free from people of unquestionable characters (Schueller, 2010). The children with learning disabilities can suffer both physical and psychological trauma if exposed to a dangerous environment, such as a divorced or a separated family.  The withdrawal of legal aid for low-income earners will affect families with children suffering from learning disabilities [G39] (Stewart & Brennan, 2013), as in the case of separation, these children end up suffering psychological stress. For such a case, the parents should struggle and maintain peace in their homes to avoid incidences that can cause trauma to the child.  [G40] However, in case of a separation or a divorce, the parents should struggle to raise the legal representation fees and not just depend on the government legal aid. The other approaches for enhancing resilience are home rules, problem-solving, and access to education.
[G41] [G42] 

Empirical Findings from Positive Psychology

Research by various scholars; show that there are variables that promote the well-being of children and adults (Schueller, 2010). The variables enable the children to manage stress and adversities to overcome any possible trauma. The factors are showing gratitude to other people, being selfless, and extraversion.  The other variables that lead to the well-being of young children are, exercising daily through plays, having goals for their life as they mature, and the existence of stable marriages for adults. Children who grow in stable marriages have less stress than the ones whose parents separated (Cope & Whittaker, 2013). Studies by Schueller show that attaining a good education, maintaining a healthy lifestyle, and maintaining a healthy weight will improve the wellbeing of children and adults (Schueller, 2010). The other activities that enable children cope with the challenges of life are having self-acceptance, being physically fit, perseverance during hard times, and having enough sleep [G43] (Schueller, 2010).

Limitations of the Empirical Findings

Some of the limitations of the empirical findings may include inadequate time to engage in some of the healthy activities (Cope & Whittaker, 2013). Such activities are playing and working for the attainment of individuals’ goals (Cope & Whittaker, 2013).  The issues of getting a good education may not bring resilience to the children as what matters are the children’s interests. Children with learning disabilities might not benefit from some of the findings, such as play due to their learning disabilities, such as recalling verses in play songs. Some children with disabilities can have self-acceptance, but the others might not accept them, leading to stress. Children with learning disabilities may not acquire a good education in some nations, where there are no special schools.


Psychological resilience is a good remedy for some conditions like stress and depression, according to the findings by the National Institute of Health (Cope & Whittaker, 2013). Through positive psychology, children and adults can heal from mental illnesses, live a good life, and have high self-esteem and self-kindness. Clinical and concepts approaches include mental training of the children and trustworthy relationships while psychological interventions include gratitude and hope. Some empirical findings, such as selflessness and exercises promote positive psychology. Some limitations such as the limited time to engage in play may hinder the achievement of positive psychology. The parents and the caregivers should make sure that their children have some spare time to play and socialize with their peers.


Cope, A., & Whittaker, A. (2013). The art of being brilliant. Chichester, UK: Capstone Pub.

Coulson, J., Oades, L., & Stoyles, G. (2012). Parents’ subjective sense of calling in childrearing: Measurement, development and initial findings. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 7(2), 83-94. doi:10.1080/17439760.2011.633547

Cooper, C., Flint-Taylor, J., & Pearn, M. (2013). Building Resilience for Success. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

Fuller, N., Chapman, J., & Jolly, S. (2009). Positive behaviour management in sport. Leeds: Coachwise.

 Hefferon., & Boniwell. (2011). Positive Psychology. Maidenhead: McGraw-Hill Education.

Morgan, B., Gulliford, L., & Kristjánsson, K. (2014). Gratitude in the UK: A new prototype analysis and a cross-cultural comparison. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 9(4), 281-294. doi:10.1080/17439760.2014.898321Seligman, M. (2006). Learned optimism. New York: Vintage Books.

Schueller, S. (2010). Preferences for positive psychology exercises. The Journal Of Positive Psychology, 5(3), 192-203. doi:10.1080/17439761003790948

Seligman, M. (2006). Learned optimism. New York: Vintage Books.

Seligman, M. (2013). Flourish. New York: Atria.

Stewart, C., & Brennan, F. (2013). Legal issues concerning withholding and withdrawal of dialysis. Nephrology, n/a-n/a. doi:10.1111/nep.12086

Svebak, S. (2010). The Sense of Humor Questionnaire: Conceptualization and Review of 40 Years of Findings in Empirical Research. Europe’S Journal of Psychology, 6(3). doi:10.5964/ejop.v6i3.218

nts that are not appropriate for children are clubs, fighting scenes, conflict, and abusive places.  The

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Positivist claim that any knowledge that is not empirical is unscientific, and thus invalid



Positivist claim that any knowledge that is not empirical is unscientific, and thus invalid. Most of the physical and natural sciences have adopted positivism as their method of acquiring knowledge. However this research philosophy has not been fully accepted in the field of social sciences. Social scientists argue that “positivistic method strips context from meanings in the process of developing quantified measures of phenomena” (Gephert 1999, p. 1). Social scientist claims that they would want an inclusive research method that does not exclude the qualitative meaning from the data collected. For instance, modern psychologist can not understand how positivism can ignore the unobservable issues like emotions and thoughts or the happenings in the inside of the human mind. Viewed from a social science perspective, positivism registers more weaknesses in the realm that it tends to generalise outcomes from samples taken from specific social groups. This is not to forget that it is not always that positivism methods yield consistent results. In such a situation a more advanced approach is needed to explain the inconsistency. In addition, the fact that positivism relies on testing existing theories rather than introducing new ones is a challenge to the field of discovery.

Beside the above shortcoming, the greatest challenge to positivism comes from the alternative research philosophies, mainly the constructivism/intepretist. This research philosophy is more common with the social science world, where the researchers believe that the subject matter in social science is different from that studied in natural science (Hatch and Cunliffe 2006). Constructionists believe that past experiences and memories influence the way people perceive their external world. According to this philosophy, researchers cannot rule out bias because both they and the researched subject make interpretations based on their prior experiences. In their research methods, constructivism prefers qualitative techniques such as observation, description and questioning (Eriksson and Kovalainen 2008). The main distinction between constructivist and positivist is that the former believe in multiple realities while the latter believe that there is only one stable reality. According to constructivist, knowledge is relative to the knower, and thus, various researchers can arrive at different conclusions. Due to the concept of relative knowledge, constructivism research philosophy holds that it is not possible to know the reality, although researchers should strive towards that goal (Greener 2008).

In social science, as well as in management and organisation research, constructivism has become common on the basis that it addresses timely social, political and economic issues which positivism had hitherto ignored. However, constructivism is challenged for its epistemological relativism. Its assertion that it is not possible to know the reality undermines the noble goal of research, that of pursuing the truth. Constructivism is not concerned with ontological reality but on constructed reality.

In the case of the research at hand – employee satisfaction- a constructionist research philosophy is the best to carry out the study. Since the primary aims of an employee satisfaction is to determine employee’s response to the various motivations and rewards measures existing in an organisation, a constructivist approach offer the best design. This kind of research is at best subjective, since it seeks to measure employees feeling and thoughts. As opposed to a positivist approach which would focus on testing existing theories through quantitative techniques, a constructionist approach will focus on building new knowledge by the use of qualitative techniques, mainly questionnaires and interviews.  A study on employee satisfaction is deductive rather than inductive. This kind of approach will also enable the study unearth the different factors that affect the employee’s interpretation of the existing motivation and reward framework such salary, promotion and career advancement. The constructivism emphasises on language and communication will come in handy in understanding the employees feeling towards the organisation. Qualitative approaches are more preferred since they allow the employees to be free to discuss their feeling towards a company and what they would wish the organisation to do for them.

Constructivism research philosophy will find basis in most of the employee’s satisfaction theories. The Maslow Hierarchy of needs theory argues that employee satisfaction is a general attitude that is determined by such factors as self actualisation, esteem needs, belongingness and love needs, safety needs and the biological and physical needs (Maslow 1943, p.370; Weihrich and Koontz 1999, p. 468). Such attitudes can only be understood through a qualitative study other than quantitative approach. Satisfaction in this case is the contentment that employees feel after an organisation meets their need (Robbins 1998, p.170).  Again, the constructivism approach fits well with Herzberg’s Theory of Motivation (Loiseau 2011). According to Herzberg’s theory, employee satisfaction can only be understood through looking at the “the two dimensions of employee satisfaction”: motivational and hygiene (Spector 1997). These two theories acknowledge that the factors that lead to employee satisfaction, or dissatisfaction thereof, are relative and not stable meaning that a qualitative approach is best suited to understand them.











Marshall MN (1996) Sampling for qualitative research. Family Practice Vol. 13 (6), p. 522-525

Maslow AH (1943) A theory of Human Motivation. Psychological Review Vol. 50. P.370-396

Patton MQ (1990) Qualitative Evaluation and Research Methods (2nd Edn). Newbury Park, CA: SAGE Publishers.

Resnik DB (2012) What is Ethics in Research & Why is it Important? Washington DC: The National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences.

Robbins SP (1998) Organisational Behaviour: Concepts, controversies and Applications. New York: Prentice-Hall.


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How do you explain Nasser’s triumph in the 1956 Suez conflict compared to his devastating loss in the 1967 War?

Please read and follow the instructions carefully. Respond to each instruction on the page.

QUESTION: How do you explain Nasser’s triumph in the 1956 Suez conflict compared to his devastating loss in the 1967 War? Explain what had changed for Nasser to make the outcomes of each war so different. See the uploaded document for all instructions.

Comparison of the 1956 War to the 1967 War

Please read and follow the instructions carefully. Respond to each instruction on the page.

QUESTION: How do you explain Nasser’s triumph in the 1956 Suez conflict in contrast to his devastating loss in the 1967 War? Explain what had changed for Nasser to make the outcomes of each war so different.


· Write 600 words at least to answer this question. It should be posted as a “Word” file. Read over the directions for writing your essays on the first page of the syllabus to make sure you are clear about what is necessary to do well on this essay. Make sure to use footnotes and to add a “List of Sources” at the end of your essay. Use quotes where appropriate and cite the main arguments from each reading in your work. Make sure to respond to each part of the question.

· These papers should be grammatically and syntactically correct and without typographical errors. Include the question you are answering on the title page so both you and I will be sure which question you are addressing. Special attention will be given to the thesis paragraph. Make it succinct and preview how you will argue your paper. Always end with a concluding paragraph that sums up your argument.

· Citations: Use footnotes, or what is called the “Notes and Bibliography” form of citation for your references (not the internal: “author-date” style common in the social sciences). The first citation of a work should be complete, and subsequent citations abbreviated. Read about how to use this citation form at Quick Guide of the Chicago Manual of Style. Learn how to use footnotes (not endnotes on “Word.”

· List of Sources: Be sure to add a “List of Sources” at the end of your essay, listing all the sources you cite. Each article must be referenced in full. Consult the website of the Chicago Manual of Style to do this correctly. Make sure you cite internet sources correctly as well.

Your list of sources and subtitles does not count toward 600 words. Ensure to cite lesson materials in the essay and reference them on the List of sources to ensure an A. All other sources must be correctly cited in Chicago style.


Geoffrey Wawro, Quicksand: Chaps 7, 8, 9 pp. 229-328 [99 pages]

Bickerton & Klausner, A History of the Arab–Israeli Conflict. Chaps 6, 7, 8. [45 pages]

Bruce Riedel, Kings and Presidents: Saudi Arabia and the United States since FDR. pp. 27-56. [28]

Philip Weiss, “Jimmy Carter believed he lost a second term because he opposed settlements, alienating Jews — Eizenstat,” February 7, 2019.

Documentary: [90 minutes] Six days in June, by Ilan Ziv about the Israeli-Arab Six days war in 1967.

Geoffrey Wawro, Quicksand: Chap 5, 6 & 7, pp. 153-228. [75]

Bickerton & Klausner, A History of the Arab–Israeli Conflict. Chap. 5

“The Suez crisis of 50 years ago marked the end of an era, and the start of another, for Europe, America and the Middle East,” The Economist, July 27th 2006.

Watch this 57 minute BBC documentary about Suez –


Roland Nikles, “Why a false understanding of the ‘Six Day War’ still matters,” June 17, 2014 Mondoweiss Blog

Israel Palestinian Conflict: The Truth About the West Bank – by Danny Ayalon, Uploaded on Jul 19, 2011,

The REAL truth about Palestine in response to Danny Ayalon, Youtube video, Nov 6, 2013.

Miko Peled, “Six days in Israel,” June 6, 2012, LA Times.

Jeffrey Goldberg, “Did Israel Actually Lose the 1967 War?” November 18, 2011 in the New York Times.

Shay Fogelman,The Palestinian state of Ishmael, as envisioned by Rehavam Ze’evi,” 15.10.2010 in Haaretz, ff. 5.

“Myths & Facts Online – an Israeli viewpoint: The 1967 Six-Day War,” Jewish Virtual Library, By Mitchell G. Bard.

“The 1967 War and the Israeli Occupation,” a Palestinian viewpoint.,395.0.html

Raymond Close, “The Mideast linkage factor” 1973

Jerry Taylor and Peter Van Doren, “Time to Lay the 1973 Oil Embargo to Rest,” October 17, 2003.

Lizette Alvarez, “Britain Says U.S. Planned to Seize Oil in ’73 Crisis,” New York Times, January 2, 2004.

Jimmy Carter, “colonization of Palestine precludes peace,” Council on Foreign Relations, Friday, March 10, 2006.

William B. Quandt, “Reflections on Camp David at 40,” The Cairo Review of Global Affairs, Winter 2019. The 1978 agreement was more than anyone could have hoped for, yet it’s still costing us peace.

Documentary [6 minutes long]: The 1973 October/Yom Kippur War was a war fought by a coalition of Arab states led by Egypt and Syria against Israel. Report by: Kevork Almassian

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Identify some of the social, ethical, and economic reasons for addressing immigration policy reform

Discussion Topic: Identify social, ethical, and economic reasons for addressing immigration policy reform.


 The discussion must address the topic

 Rationale must be provided

 Use at least 600 words (no included 1st page or references in the 600 words)

 May use examples from your nursing practice

 Formatted and cited in current APA 7

 Use 3 academic sources not older than five years. Not Websites are allowed.

 Plagiarism is NOT permitted 

Examine the science and art of theory development and evaluation.

Submission Instructions:

  • Your initial post should be at least 500 words, formatted and cited in the current APA style, with support from at least 2 academic sources. 

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Social phenomena, people & groups, social facts, social process, social institutions,social tructures, the social construction of reality, and social patterns

Sociological Research
• Subject? Social phenomena, people & groups, social facts, social
process, social institutions,social structures, the social construction of
reality, and social patterns…. Etc.
• How ppl act, think, feel, and interact in a certain period of time and
in specific situation or context. How social structures are involved in
the life of individuals and groups. How society is organized and how it
• Sociologists study society scientifically by following a methodological
approach =/= common sense or prejudgments and stereotypes.
• Sociologists explain the Why and How society is ordered (
assumption. The research aims to develop scientific laws,
theories, and observations about society. Sociologists look for the
nature and the causes of the patterns in society and groups that we
can observe. E.g., patterns of divorce, marriage, addiction, suicide…

Module 5 What Is the Scientific Method?
• Scientific method: a systematic, organized series
of steps that ensures maximum objectivity and
consistency in researching a problem. Science is a cyclic

  1. Defining the problem
  2. Reviewing the literature
  3. Formulating a testable hypothesis
  4. Selecting the research design and then collecting and
    analyzing data
  5. Developing the conclusion
    • A report is then prepared, with an executive summary

    Figure 5-1 The Scientific Method
    The scientific method allows sociologists to objectively and logically evaluate
    the data they collect. Their findings can suggest ideas for further sociological

    Defining the Problem
    • Any research starts with a question.
    • how schooling relates to income?
    • Operational definition: explanation of an abstract concept
    that is specific enough to allow researchers to assess the
    concept . What it is to be observed and how we will measure it. Listing
    characteristics or attributes of variable to be able to test and measure
    • Abstract—–> specific, concrete observations
    • Gender, Women, Men. Amount of hrs spent studying for sociology class= 0 h to 5 h
    • Status= membership in social club
    • Prejudice= person’s unwilling to hire or work with members of minority group
    • Altruism= giving money( charity), giving blood,….
    • Does it pay to get a college degree ? We need to define earnings and level
    of education. Education = numbers of years and earnings = income
    • Religiosity and suicide ( Durkheim)

    Reviewing the Literature
    • Literature review consists of relevant scholarly
    studies and information.
    – Refine the problem. Other factors (statuses of parents)
    – Clarify possible techniques for collecting data. State by
    state income.
    – Eliminate or reduce avoidable mistakes (the search for
    understanding reality is uncertain and unending)

    Formulating the Hypothesis
    • Hypothesis: speculative statement about the
    relationship between two or more factors known as
    • Variable: measurable trait or characteristic subject to
    change under different conditions.
    – Independent variable: variable hypothesized to cause or
    influence another
    – Dependent variable: variable whose action depends on
    influence of the independent variable( effect)

    Formulating the Hypothesis (2)
    • Causal logic: involves a relationship between a
    condition or variable and a particular consequence,
    with one leading to the other. See p.33
    • X —–> Y .
    • Correlation: exists when change in one variable
    coincides with change in the other.
    – Correlation does not necessarily indicate causation

    Collecting and Analyzing Data
    • Selecting the Sample
    – Sample: selection from a larger population( target) that is
    statistically representative (list of all cases) of that population
    – Random sample: when every member of an entire population
    being studied has the same chance of being selected. The whole
    population must be available for selection, if not the sample will not be random
    – Snowball or convenience samples: participants recruited through
    word of mouth or by posting notices on the Internet. When it is
    hard to find or identify. such as illegal drug users

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Literature review: Reducing the rate of SSBs consumption

Literature review: Reducing the rate of SSBs consumption

Table of Contents

1.    Introduction. 3

2.    History of sugar sweeteners. 3

3.    Sugar-sweetened beverages in America. 4

4.    Correlation between sugar-sweetened beverages and obesity. 6

5.    Reducing the rate of SSBs consumption. 7

5.1 Moderate taxation of sugar sweetened beverages. 8

5.2 Extreme tax on SSBs. 9

6.    Media influence in SBBs consumption. 10

7.    Banning of SSBs in schools. 14

8.    Participation of beverage manufacturers. 14

9.    Conclusion. 15

The available statistics on the consumption of caloric sweeteners indicates that between 1977 and 19996, the consumption of SSBs increased by 22% while between 1994 and 1996 the consumption increased by 30% (John & Chad, 2012). Currently, the most common source of the added sugar is non-diet soft drinks which account for half of the total added sugars in the American diet. Soft drink includes products as fruit drinks, lemonade and iced tea. Beside soft drinks, fruit drinks and fruitades are equally common especially in children and young children. The literature review focuses on the potential that can be used to reduce the rate of SSBs consumption, in the American context.

2.   History of sugar sweeteners

According to Apovian (2004) sugar derived from sugar cane was first developed in India and New Guinea and then the concept spread to Europe and Americas. Sugarcane was brought to the Americas and the Caribbean Islands by the Christopher Columbus. At the time, sugar was a very precious commodity, but afterwards mass production, increased its availability to the public. Today, sugar is a common ingredient in foods and drinks. Before introduction of sugar in diet, people normally depended on starch-based alternatives such as barley, wheat, oats, and rye. High-fructose corn syrup was introduced in the American market in 1970s and is preferred to normal sugar due to its long shelf life and is used in soft drinks, fruit punches, pastries and processed foods. According to Apovian (2004) both sugar and high fructose corn syrup have increased calories intake among the Americans population by 30% over the pat 40 years. With increased consumption of sugar, researchers have started becoming wary of its effects on peoples’ lives.

3.   Sugar-sweetened beverages in America

Sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) contain added sugar, high-fructose corn syrup and caloric sweeteners. They have become prevalent in America, where they are found to provide the general population with empty-calories besides being a major contributor to the current obesity epidemic. According to Babey, Wolstein and Goldstein (2013) for the pasts 50 years consumption of Sugar Sweetened Beverage has increased by 500% and the rate of consumption of SSBs in children is higher than that of milk. The available statistics suggest that SSBs account for 10-15% of total daily calories in children. Given the negative effects of Sugar Sweetened Beverage in children past efforts have bee taken by organizations such as the American Heart Association and Clinton Foundation to remove sweetened products in schools and replacing them with lower-calorie drinks.

Looking globally, the consumption of SSBs has been on the rise. In Mexico, the rise in the consumption of the SBBs has forced the government to take serious interventions while in China, India, Vietnam, and South Asian countries positive consumption trajectories have been reported. Incidences of obesity vary according to many factors including age, gender, education, and geographic distribution. In this regard, obesity menace is likely to affect elderly patients and thus consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages for members of this group should be discouraged. On the other hand, women have higher obesity rates than men. This means that adults, especially women should limit their daily SSBs consumption because they are more likely to gain weight than men. The level of family income also determines the level of SSBs consumption and ultimately the risk of obesity. In this regard, person from poor backgrounds are more predisposed to using sugar-sweetened beverages and hence are more susceptible to becoming overweight and obese. Babey, wolstein and Goldstein (2013) attribute this outcome to the fact that persons from poor backgrounds have low education and food knowledge, compared to their counterparts from high income families.

The available literature has investigated the prevalence of SSBs consumption in the society. Data released by the World Health Organization indicates that more one billion adults are overweight with a BMI of more ≥25 while 300 million people are obese with a BMI of ≥ 30. In the U.S. about 130 million are obese, and indication that the country accounts for a huge proportion of obesity cases in the world.  These trends are worrying given that obesity is associated with negative outcomes such as hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, prostrate cancer and depression. A study conducted by Ogden and Carrol (proposal) indicates that in America is obese and suggests that increased consumption of SSBs is likely to increase the already high obesity rates. The high levels of obesity in the country negatively impacts on the resources available. Already, the U.S. government spends more than $147 billion for the treatment of obesity-related ailments and this account for almost 10% of the total health care expenditure. At the same time, obesity is associated with lost of productivity costs. This ie because obese employees are more likely to miss work more that health works due to health-related problems and work for less hours. The employers are affected by the obesity menace as they are forced to pay higher in premium for employees diagnosed with obesity. A recent study conducted by John and Chad (2012) provides us with worrying statistics which illustrate the gravity of the obesity menace. According to John and Chad (2012) obesity-related ailments account for a fifth of the national health expenditures and while another one conducted by Rappange, Brouwer, Hoogenveen and Baal (2009) suggest that life-time drug expenditures for the obese persons is higher than for the healthy ones. This comprehensive study further concluded that obesity prevention significantly reduces drug expenditures and this one of the ways in which the government can be able to reduce the increasing health-care expenditure.

4.   Correlation between sugar-sweetened beverages and obesity

There are many studies that have examined the associations between consumption of SSBs and risk of diabetes. Schulze et al. (2004) used a sample of 116,671 women aged between 22-44 to examine the relation between SSBs consumption and weight change. Follow up studies were carried out between 1991 and 1999, and Schulze et al. (2004) concluded that there is a positive relation between SSBs consumption and weight gain and incidences of obesity. On the other hand, Vasanti, Mathias and Fran (2007) conducted a systematic review to investigate the effects of SSBs consumption on the health of the consumers. The systematic review included fifteen cross-sectional studies, all of which confirmed the positive association between consumption of SSBs and body weight gain, and risk of obesity. The studies involved in this systematic review all had strong methodologies and underwent a strict selection criterion. In addition, all the studies have large sample population, thus allowing the researchers to obtain conclusive evidence. The effects of the SSBs are also captured in a study by Dubois, Framer, Girard and Peterson (2007). In the study, a sample population of 1,944 schools going children was used and the data was collected through qualitative methods and then a multivariate regression analysis was conducted. As expected, the study conduced that regular SSBs consumption puts young children at a higher risk for obesity. The study challenge parents to limit the number of SSBs they give to their children. Research evidence for reducing SSBs in children is again given by Bellisle and Drewnowski (2007) in a study who sample population was aged between 2 and 5 years. Bellisle and Drewnowski (2007) evaluated the longitudinal and cross-sectional relationships between SSBs consumption and weight gain and found out children in this age bracket should decrease SSBs consumption for healthy living.

While the available studies have established a positive association between SSBs consumption and obesity, a few have examined the biological mechanisms leading to weigh gain. Bellisle and Drewnowski (2007) believe that SSBs lead to decreased satiety and incomplete compensatory reduction in energy intake in the subsequent meals. On the other hand, sucrose, and high-fructose corn syrups, lead to high dietary glacemic load and hence a higher risk for diabetes mellitus type 2 and cardiovascular diseases. The available literature has also found out that SSBs promotes accumulation of intra-abdominal adiposity and other unintended consequences. To prevent the high risk for obesity, the American Hearty Association recommends a daily intake of 100-5150 kcal and other alternatives such as consumption of water. Beside obesity, consumption sugar-sweetened beverages are associated with multiple obesity-related co morbidities such as hypertension, and cardiovascular diastase. Experts believe that increased calorie intake, not only leads to hypertension and also stroke, heart failure and myocardial infraction.

5.   Reducing the rate of SSBs consumption

It is apparent that there is strong epidemiologic and clinical evidence linking SSBs and increased risk of obesity and obesity-related co-morbidities. From the above section, it is also apparent that there is need to provide school children with proper diet with low calories. This fact is exemplified by Babey, wolstein and Goldtsein (2013) in an article titled, still bubbling: California adolescents drinking more soda and other sugar-sweetened beverages. In this study, which was conducted in California, Babey, wolstein and Goldstein (2013 found out that consumption of SSBs in adolescents and children is still unacceptably high and SSBs are inferior compared to solid foods because they are associated with decreased intake of nutritious and more healthy foods. The study further found out that social and environmental factors are contributing to the increased consumption of SSBs. The article offers helpful suggestions such as educating children and parents about the health effects of SSBs. Despite these findings, it is apparent that there is limited literature on the interventions that can be used to reduce the higher obesity rates. This literature review, seeks to feel gaps by critically examining some of the potential measures that could prove helpful.

5.1 Moderate taxation of sugar sweetened beverages

Brownell et al. (2009) gives us irrefutable evidence on the adverse effects of sugar-sweetened beverages and then goes ahead to propose a tax system that could promote good nutrition and the national government to recover the additional healthcare costs associated with their consumption. According to Brownwell et al. (2009) an appropriate tax system has a potential of reducing the intake of beverages and this conclusion is based on the fact that changes in relative prices of foods and beverages will lead to changes in how much people consume. In this regard, Brownell et al. (2009) observes that a 10% increase in prices of sugar-sweetened beverages will translate to a 11% reduction in the consumption rate while Apovian (2004) argues that a 10% increase in the price of fast food, is associated with a 6% reduction in adolescent obesity. At the same time, researchers have established that an increase in SSB prices could increase consumption of healthier beverages such as milk and tea. Ultimately, increased consumption of healthier diets will reduce the prevalence of overweight among adults and children.

At the moment, most of the states only levy a sales tax on SSBs products and this situation can be improved on by placing an excise tax of 1% per ounce for beverages. Alternatively as Brownell et al. (2009) suggests the government could levy an excise tax on SSBs that exceed a threshold of grams of added caloric sweetener. The extra revenue generated could then be used to run obesity-prevention programs. While this idea could be appropriate, it could be prove inadequate as obesity-related prevention programs should be multipronged rather than increasing taxes on SSBs only.

 Although research indicates that modest taxation on SSBs products could lead to a reduction in obesity levels, some studies tend to differ. A study by Powell, Chriqui, and Chaloupka (2009) found no association between modest taxes and adolescent weight outcomes. Just to illustrate this point, it is well acknowledged that in most states, SSBs attract higher sales tax, than other food products at 5.2%. However, despite this higher tax relative to other products in the same category, the level of consumption of SSBs is still high. The results of this study are reinforced by Kim (2009) who argues that modest taxes may not be result in a relative change in SSBs consumption. The results of these two studies, suggests that the government the needs to use stricter tax regimes in order to achieve tangible results as far as reduction of obesity in the society is concerned.

5.2 Extreme tax on SSBs

The limited research available shows that moderate taxation may not be effective in obesity prevention. These findings suggest that maybe states and government should consider levying extremely high taxes, either through excise tax to increase sales tax. The effectiveness of such a strategy is discussed in an article titled, 20% tax on sugary drinks would help cut obesity researchers say. In this article, medical researchers from the Academy of Medical Royal Colleges support a high tax on coca-cola, Pepsi, Fanta and other sugar-sweetened products. While supporting this move, researchers associate the 20% tax increase with a 1 % reduction in obesity cases. Those who are most likely to benefit from this strategy are those aged between 16 and29 while the government would be able to realize higher revenue. The additional revenue would be used to subsidize the prices of nutritional foods such as fruits and vegetable. Already countries such as Hungary, Finland and France have introduced high taxes on SSBs. While the information contained in this article is important, the information it contains is not supported by hard data.

It seems manufacturers do not support the proposal to levy SSBs high taxes as they would loose profitability due to high customer churn rate. To examine the likely impact of charging high taxes rather than modest prices, Maria et al. (2013) conducted a systematic review. In the study, Maria et al. (2013) used research articles from credible databases published between January 2000 and January 2013. Majority of the articles satisfied the selection criteria and showed that higher taxes on SSBs would translate to a decrease in BMI and the prevalence of overweight and obesity.

The effectiveness of high taxation on SSBs is revisited in an article titled, taxation prevention and as a treatment for obesity: the case of sugar-sweetened beverages. The article supports the introduction of high taxes on nutrient-poor products in order to nudge the customers towards healthier feeds. Novak and Brownell (2011) are disappointed that currently, the level of taxation on SSBs is very low, to affect consumer behavior. According to Novak and Brownell (2011) tax reduction of 20% would lead to an average weight reduction of 3.8 pounds per year for adults. In addition, this level of taxation would result in a 30% to 33% reduction of obesity incidences in the country. From these results, it is apparent that the obesity epidemic in the country can only be resolved through introduction of high taxes and not moderate taxes. However, the strategy is unlikely to work due to the stiff opposition from the players in the beverage industry.

6.   Media influence in SBBs consumption

One of the powerful tools that have been used to market the SBBs is the media. The importance of the media to businesses is well investigated by Berger (2004). Advertising is an important part of the American society and is a useful tool in portraying a particular attribute about a product or a service. Whether print or non-print, advertisements are supposed to attract consumers within a particular segment, and then stimulate action that results in the actual purchase of products and services being advertised. SSBs manufacturers will go to any extent to sell their products and services. As of now, consumers are becoming increasingly careful of what they eat, and some of manufacturers are advertising their products to be healthy while they are not. This whole issue is related to the concept of branding and the use of marketing mix elements, which are important in conveying the right information to the buyers to help them make healthier food choices. According to Chrysochou (2010) most of the media tools that are used during branding of foods are primary communication channels and secondary channels. At the same time, the manufacturers use innovative strategies such as celebrity endorsements to endear their products to the consumers.

One of fundamental questions concerning the consumption of the SSBs is why consumers continue using the products, knowing too well their harmful effects. The answer to this question can be found in the article titled, communication on food, health and nutrition. According to Gram, De la Ville, Le Roux, Boireau and Rampnoux (2010) the beverage industry uses a lot resource in marketing their products. One of the common strategies used by the large companies such Coca-Cola is differentiation of their products. Currently, the company offers a wide range of products to suit the needs of different customers’ needs. The company has sizable market share in the fruit drinks, energy drinks, sports drinks, iced tea and vitamin-enriched water markets.

To increase the penetration of their products, the players in the food industry depends on the market segmentation. Through micro-segmentation they are able to fulfill particular characteristics of the target population and according to Gram, De la Ville, Le Roux, Boireau and Rampnoux (2010) the young population is segmented by gender, lifestyles and values. The other concept, as discussed by Gram, De la Ville, Le Roux, Boireau and Rampnoux (2010) is the use marketing positioning concept which allows consumers to identify products or bands. The players in the beverage industry depend on the functional and symbolic dimensions to sell different products and services to their wide clientele. The symbolic dimension is particularly important among the young people as they are sensitive to particular characteristics and values unlike the consumers in the other age groups. The marketing mix used by the beverages industries vary according to the type of the product being sold. In this regard, the soft drinks market targets the young consumers and to increase the consumption of products and service in this segment, the players in the food industry use multi-platform marketing. Likewise, energy drinks target the young population, and to increase their consumption, the food industry primarily uses the celebrity endorsement strategy. To promote the consumption of the soft drinks beverage manufacturers uses the similar strategy of celebrity endorsements.

While media can be used to popularize the use of SSBs it can also be used to influence good consumer choices. The effectiveness of the media in the reduction of SSBs consumption is well discussed in the article titled, developing media interventions to reduce household sugar-sweetened beverage consumption. In this article Jordan, Piotrowski, Bleakley and Mallya (2012) used a sample drawn from Philadelphia and the researchers used an integrative model to determine the most cost-effective message content. Jordan, Piotrowski, Bleakley and Mallya (2012) determined that effective messages should highlight concerns such as child weight gain in order to increase the intention to reduce SSBs.

Beside the use of mainstream media, studies have investigated whether social media could be used in the promotion of health behaviors in children and school going children. It is well acknowledged that consumers have huge access to the internet and social media tools and these social networks can be used to disseminate information to the most affected persons in the society. The results of 8 randomized trials support the use of internet-base interventions especially among children and adolescents who are heavy consumers of SSBs. The results of these studies indicate that social interventions can effectively be used to promote positive behaviors such as weight loss, reduction of the BMI, physical activity and natural diet intake. However, these studies used small samples, and the length of follow-ups was short hence the need to conduct further research using larger samples.

An alternative to using social media tools would be to regulate initiate federal regulations to limit consumption of SSBs. Only recently, the Council of the Better Business Bureau established guidelines to direct child-related advertisements. The use of federal regulation to regulate children-related advertisements is reinforced by Wiecha, Peterson, Ludwig, Kim, Sobol, and Gortmaker (2006) in a study conducted among 6th and 7th grade studies. According to Wiecha, Peterson, Ludwig, Kim, Sobol, and Gortmaker (2006) high rates of TV viewing translates to higher total calories, while low rates of TV viewing leads to lower total calories intake among the adolescents. The other available research on this issue concur that television marketing influences the short-term consumption of children aged between 2 and 11 years. Wiecha, Peterson, Ludwig, Kim, Sobol, and Gortmaker (2006) proposed a model to examine the likely effect if SSBs advertisements were banned, and found out that it would reduce prevalence of obesity by 2% and BMI by 0.38 kg/m2. Based on these results, some of the schools have taken deliberate measures to limit TV exposure to children and a good example is the State of Maine School Advertising Policy which prohibits brand-specific advertising in school building. Likewise in San Francisco, the Commercial Free School Act prohibits adverting of commercial products including SSBs within San Francisco Unified School District.

7.   Banning of SSBs in schools

For long, school children have had unfettered access to SSBs but for the past few years some states and school districts have initiated policies to restrict these younger users. However, while such policies could limit access to SSBs they do not reduce their consumption. These findings are supported by a study performed by researchers led by Taber, Chriqui, Powell, and Chaloupka (2012). In this study, 6,900 students were surveyed in 40 different states and concluded state and school police are not associated with a reduction in consumption sweetened beverages (Taber, Chriqui, Powell, & Chaloupka, 2012). The results of these finding suggest that maybe schools and the authorities should rather use education programs to inform potential consumers about the negative effects of the SSBs. The effects of the school education programs are well documented in the study by James, Thomas, Cavan and Kerr (2004). In the study, use of school education programs led to a significant decrease in SSBs consumption and other positive outcomes. These results are replicated in a different study performed in sample drawn from the Midwestern families. Use of public education programs was found to increase consumption of health foods while reducing consumption of SSBs (Lawrence, Boyle, Craypo, & Samuels, 2009).

8.   Participation of beverage manufacturers

While the available literature has focused on the role of the media and taxation, in the reduction of SSBs consumption, few studies have investigated the potential role of the food industry in reducing consumption of unhealthy drinks especially among the youths and the adolescents. Despite the health concerns resulting from the use of SSBs, companies in the food industry have not take sincere steps to promote healthy behaviors among the consumers. Lack of commitment from the SSBs raises the issue of whether they can be able to cut calories in their products while maintaining profits. This issue is revisited by Kleiman and Popkin (2012) where they observe that some of the 16 biggest food and beverage companies in America have come together with the goal of reducing the number of calories consumed by the Americans. This partnerships, is intended to cut down calories consumption by 1.5 trillion by 2015. As Kleiman and Popkin (2012) observes, as a result of this initiative, positive effects are already being experienced, but more empirical studies need to be conducted to investigate the validity of these results.

9.   Conclusion

For the past few decades the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages has increased considerably and is one of the major contributors to the current obesity epidemic. The intake of sugary diet has also been linked to obesity-related co-morbidities such as hypertension, stroke, heart failure and myocardial infraction. Due to the strong epidemiologic and clinical evidence linking SSBs with adverse health outcomes, the available research has proposed introduction of higher taxes or decreasing the relative costs of more healthful beverage alternatives. The available literature seems to suggest that higher taxation is more effective than moderate taxation. Other alternatives are: regulating child-directed advertisements, increasing the participation of the beverage manufacturers and initiation of education programs. However, there is consensus on whether limiting access of SSBs in school could reduce obesity, and other related outcomes.


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Kleiman, S., Ng, S., &Popkin, B. (2012). Drinking to our health: Can beverage companies cut calories while maintaining profits? Obesity Reviews13(3), 258-274.

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MGMT704: Foundations of Leadership Assignment

MGMT704: Foundations of Leadership Assignment RESEARCH & CASE NO. 1 (WEEK 3)

Assignment Description

This assignment is designed to allow you to demonstrate your knowledge of the roles and responsibilities of leaders in the management and operations of an organization, including the critical roles of decision-making and communication. You will conduct a leadership analysis to apply concepts learned throughout the course and explore aspects of motivation, conflict and change management, and diversity in contemporary organizations.

MGMT704: Foundations of Leadership Assignment

Assignment Instructions

Choose a publicly traded organization. Research the leadership practices and style of a senior leader in the company. Write a leadership analysis that explores the leader’s function in the organization and his/her leadership style(s).

Assignment Length and Content

Your written assignment should be a minimum of 1,500 words in length and include the following information:

· Company name, company function (product or service), leader name, title, etc.

· A description of the chosen leader’s leadership style.

· A summary of the primary role and responsibilities of the leader within the company.

· A description of the functions of planning, organizing, commanding, staffing, and controlling in leadership.

· An analysis that explains whether the chosen leader does or does not aspire to be a leader within the chosen company. Provide supporting detail as to why or why not.

Assignment Suggestions

· Develop a list of questions to guide your research and response to each component of this assignment so that you can meet the criterion present in the rubric.

· Select a company in which you have an invested interest, such as a corporation in which you are a stockholder.

· Select a company that you frequent often, such as a bank, restaurant, or a select a company within an industry of choice.

Using Sources

You may refer to the course material for supporting evidence, but you must also use  at least two credible, outside sources and cite them using APA format. Please include a mix of both primary and secondary sources, with at least one source from a scholarly peer-reviewed journal. If you use any lessons as sources, please also cite them in APA (including the lesson title and instructor’s name).

· Primary sources are first-hand accounts such as interviews, advertisements, speeches, company documents, statements, and press releases published by the company in question.

· Secondary sources come from peer-reviewed scholarly journals, such as the Journal of Management. You may use like JSTOR, Google Scholar, and Social Science Research Network to find articles from these journals. Secondary sources may also come from reputable websites with .gov, .edu, or .org in the domain. (Wikipedia is not a reputable source, though the sources listed in Wikipedia articles may be acceptable.)

OPTOPN 1: The Nature of Managerial Work, Leadership in Organizations 

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Sufficient skills to carry out credible research

Question and Answer

Part A:

Before taking this course, I thought conducting successful research was a tough task. Furthermore, I believed that undertaking field research is boring because of the presumed negative attitudes researchers get from respondents. Research, from my point of view, was time-consuming and a mere waste of my time because the findings would not significantly affect my well-being. Further, I believed that the research was outdated as the targeted audience seldom utilizes documented findings. Before the course, I thought that research entailed reading what previous writers have documented and compared these to the field findings. However, these thoughts changed during the course of study and upon completion, I now have sufficient skills to carry out credible research.

Sufficient skills to carry out credible research

I now believe that I can undertake serious research and develop a quality paper using the acquired skills. The availability of various resources makes the research a simple and exciting rather than a difficult and daunting task. I also understand that research is very complex and goes beyond causal relationships or statistical equivalence. Further, I believe researchers need to exercise extreme care when undertaking research. There is no need to place undue emphasis on ‘bigger’ findings. Smaller findings can in most cases be equally insightful and helpful to society. Currently, I know that there are various types of research including qualitative and quantitative methods. I appreciate that research is not confined to statistics and data; rather it also involves opinions and reactions.

Part B:

Research is used for various purposes in social science. In psychology, research is used to understand the role of external and developmental factors on an individual’s mental health. Findings of this are important because they are employed in ensuring that individuals live in safe environments. Then, research is useful for understanding the impact and complexity of various psychological disorders and their symptoms and characteristics. Also, psychological research is used for developing viable treatment approaches geared towards enhancing an individual’s quality of life. This goes a long way in enhancing the quality of life of an individual. Finally, research is employed for developing tests that are then used for measuring specific psychological phenomena.

In social work, research is useful for understanding the perceptions of individuals towards certain social problems. This ensures that proposed solutions reduce rather than increase the negative impacts of the social problems. In addition, research plays an important role in informing policy formulation. Basically, viable decision making in this regard needs to be reflective of the social problems that individuals grapple with. Research in social work also ensures alignment of social practices to the expectations of the society. This is instrumental in avoiding conflicts that can undermine the effectiveness of the social practice.

Various cultural concerns need to be put in consideration when undertaking research in social science. The research methods need to be in line with the cultural expectations of the society. For example, aspects related to language and general conduct of the researchers should be culturally acceptable. For optimal results, interventions should also reflect the values, culture as well as perceptions of the respective society.

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