Define the following terms risk, threat, vulnerability, asset, and impact of loss. 

Define the following terms risk, threat, vulnerability, asset, and impact of loss.  After you define each term, identify its role within an organization’s security posture. You must use at least one scholarly resource. Every discussion posting must be properly APA formatted.

Risk: Risk refers to the potential for an event or action to hurt an organization’s objectives or assets. It involves uncertainty and the possibility of harm, loss, or damage. Risks can arise from various sources, including internal and external factors, and they are typically evaluated based on the likelihood of occurrence and the potential magnitude of impact.

Threat: A threat is any circumstance, event, or entity that has the potential to exploit vulnerabilities and cause harm to an organization’s assets, operations, or individuals. Threats can be intentional (e.g., malicious attacks by hackers) or unintentional (e.g., natural disasters). They can originate from internal or external sources and may vary in capability, intent, and resources.

Vulnerability: Vulnerability refers to weaknesses or flaws in an organization’s systems, processes, or controls that threats can exploit to cause harm. It represents the absence or failure of safeguards that could otherwise prevent or mitigate the impact of a threat. Vulnerabilities can arise from technical, operational, or human factors and can be unintentional (e.g., misconfigurations) or intentional (e.g., insider threats).

Asset: An asset is any resource or entity of value to an organization, including physical assets (e.g., buildings, equipment), information assets (e.g., data, intellectual property), financial assets (e.g., cash, investments), or human assets (e.g., employees, skills). Assets are critical to an organization’s operations and can be targeted by threats. Protecting assets is a fundamental objective of an organization’s security posture.

Impact of Loss: Loss refers to the potential negative consequences or harm that can result from successfully exploiting a vulnerability by a threat. It encompasses tangible and intangible losses, such as financial damage, operational disruptions, reputational harm, legal liabilities, or loss of customer trust. The impact of loss can vary in severity, ranging from minor inconveniences to significant financial or operational setbacks.

Role within an organization’s security posture:

  1. Risk: Risk management is crucial to an organization’s security posture. Organizations can make informed decisions about allocating resources to mitigate, transfer, or accept risks by identifying, assessing, and prioritising risks. It involves establishing risk management frameworks, conducting risk assessments, implementing controls, and monitoring risk levels to meet the organization’s security objectives.
  2. Threat: Understanding the nature and sources of threats is essential for an organization’s security posture. Organizations can identify potential adversaries, capabilities, and motives by assessing threats. This information enables the development and implementation of appropriate security measures to detect, prevent, and respond to threats effectively.
  3. Vulnerability: Managing vulnerabilities is crucial to maintaining a strong security posture. Organizations must proactively identify and assess vulnerabilities in their systems, processes, and controls to address weaknesses. By implementing appropriate security measures, such as patches, access controls, and employee training, organizations can reduce their exposure to threats and minimize the potential impact of an attack.
  4. Asset: Assets form the foundation of an organization’s security posture. Organizations must identify and prioritize their critical assets and implement measures to protect them. This involves implementing physical security controls, access controls, encryption to protect information assets, and measures to safeguard human assets, such as employee training and awareness programs.
  5. Impact of Loss: Understanding the potential impact of loss helps organizations assess the consequences of security incidents and make informed decisions about risk tolerance and mitigation strategies. By quantifying the potential impact of loss, organizations can prioritize their security investments, develop incident response plans, and implement business continuity measures to minimize the impact and recover effectively in a security breach.

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Product Selection

My product is on Adidas in a 3- to 4-page Microsoft Word document with double spacing, 12-point Times  New Roman font, one-inch margins, and sources cited in APA format. Must include 2 resources. I have included an example for you to look at and follow

Product Selection

answer the following 

Specifically, the following critical elements must be addressed:

  1. Product/Service Selection
    1. Name and describe an existing or proposed product/service that would be a potential focus of your final marketing plan.
    2. Justify the need for a marketing plan surrounding the existing or proposed product/service.

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Why didn’t Betty want to get back on the road with the carnival/fair? What did Lester suggest would help their relationship?

Media Review Assignment

For this assignment, you are required to watch the video/movie, “An American Crime.” This movie is based on a true story. This assignment is to help the student understand how family violence is portrayed in the media. The free movie is posted under “Media Assignment Information,” then “Click here to Watch. . .” in the course on Brightspace. After viewing the video, you should do a correctly formatted PowerPoint (PPT) slides from the questions below; and, then will do your Voicethread Presentation. For instructions on HOW to do your Voicethread, please look under “Assignment Guidelines” in D2L for the course.

*Be sure to post your Voicethread Embed Code to the “Assignments” box on Brightspace by the due date; and, be sure to post at least three (3) audio comments to classmates in the

“Showcase” toward the end of the semester”

For your PPT presentation, you should answer the questions toward the end of this document, to be added to each of your slides. You will ONLY need to do a PPT presentation; NO paper is required for this assignment. ALSO, please note:

1. You MUST use and cite AT LEAST three (3) articles and watch the video to support your answers to the relevant questions below.

2. You MUST discuss topics related to your answers (ex., child abuse).

DO NOT JUST ANSWER THE QUESTIONS; BUT, SUPPORT YOUR ANSWERS WITH RESEARCH FROM YOUR ARTICLES. (For example, if you are talking about child abuse, then use a reference from and include a citation to an article on child abuse that matches your discussion/comment(s)

3. Do NOT use the video as a reference; it is assumed that you watched the video when answering the questions.

4. Hint: For each slide title, use your question’s topic. For example, if the question is asking you about neglect; then, use “Neglect” as your slide title.

AND, include each question on each of your slides so we know what questions you are presenting on for each slide.

5. Use a SEPARATE APA formatted references slide as your last slide(s).


An American Crime

*Please be sure to answer all questions thorough and substantially. Mediocre answers will result in mediocre grades.

1. In the beginning of the movie both Lester and Betty Likens were separated. Why didn’t Betty want to get back on the road with the carnival/fair? What did Lester suggest would help their relationship?

2. How did the Likens girls meet the Baniszewski children? How long did Lester Likens know Gertrude Baniszewski before he agreed to let the girls stay with her and her family? How much money per week did the Likens have to pay in order for the girls to stay? What Medical condition did Jenny Likens have?

3. What type of punishment did Sylvia and Jenna get because of the money order from their parents being late?

4. Gertrude’s daughter Paula ended up getting pregnant by a married man. How did Sylvia catch the brunt of it? What other lies did Paula tell in order to get Sylvia in trouble? How did Gertrude allow Paula to get even on the lies she allegedly told?

5. Why do you believe Gertrude threw away the letter the Likens had written to their daughters? Sylvia and Jenny called their parents from a pay phone after they found the letter and expressed concerns. Based on the short conversation in the phone booth, should it have been a red flag? If so, why? What was the punishment that Sylvia had to suffer because the girls called their parents?

6. How did the neighbors react to the abuse that they heard? Why do you think they reacted this way?

7. After locking Sylvia in the basement, what was the story that Gertrude has the children to tell everyone? How did the other kids treat Sylvia when they came over to see her in the basement?

8. Who helps Sylvia up the stairs to escape? Why did this person have a change of heart?

9. Gertrude stuck to her lies till the very end and received life in prison. She was paroled after 20 years, do you agree with her parole? Why or why not? The other children who took part in the assaults only received a few years, should they have gotten more time? Why or why not?

10. It’s not clear according to the movie if Lester and Betty Liken were held accountable for leaving the girls with the Baniszewski’s. Should they have been charged with neglect? Why or why not?

CRJU/SOCW 4220 Grading Rubric Media Review Presentation

20 points total Followed Instructions:

1. Submitted required media view date on time 2. Assignment addresses ALL assignment questions (if not grade will be substantially impacted) 3. Included all required assigned components 4. Embed code submitted on time

25% Overall

____/1 pts

____/1 pts; if not will lose bulk of pts _

____/1.5 pts

____/1.5 pts

Total: ____/5 pts

Demonstrated a creative approach in creating a presentation that covered all required areas:

1. Includes 1-10 of required assignment questions 2. Conveys what the student learned from the media 3. Integrates literature (ex. articles) findings 4. Uses APA formatting where required

25% Overall





Total: ______/5 pts

Speaker’s Presentation Style : 1. Clarity of content spoken, 2. Flow, 3. Public speaking presence, 4. Speaker uses a clear, audible voice

25% Overall ____/1.5 pts ____/1 pts ____/1 pts ____/1.5 pts Total: _____/5 pts

Overall quality of presentation format:

1. Content (all areas required) 2. Visually, is appealing 3. Length of presentation 4. Information is well organized

25% Overall

____/1 pts ____/1.5pts ____/1 pts ____/1.5 pts Total: _______/5 pts

Total 100% ____ /20 points

Instructor comments:

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Comparison between Plato’s and Cicero’s philosophies

Comparison between Plato’s and Cicero’s philosophies

Plato and Cicero are the earliest philosophers who played a phenomenal role in setting the stage for different political views that people still hold today. Plato lived when the city of Athens was experiencing political and social upheavals, which helped shape his political approach. On the other hand, Cicero was brought up at time when the Roman Republic was experiencing great decline and he viewed the decline to as one prompted by political events (Blitz, & Hoffpauir, 2016). However, most of the Plato’s philosophical approaches were original while Cicero’s approach was based on his earlier predecessors such as   Plato, Aristotle, and Socrates. The theoretical approach to politics of the two philosophers differs greatly. Each person’s approach was shaped by what a person had experienced during the process of growing up.

Comparison between Plato’s and Cicero’s philosophies

Plato approach was guided by the desire to ensure justice and equality for all people in the society. During the political and social upheavals in Athens, the political leaders both the democrats and rich were guided by the desire to acquire power in a bid to fulfill their selfish interests (Blitz, & Hoffpauir, 2016). Consequently, the interests of the public were absconded by those who were in powerful positions. To ensure that the needs of the community are fulfilled, Plato advocates for creation of a perfect state, where social structures address the interests of the public by unifying philosophy and politics (Bruell, 1994). Plato supports the ideology of traditional polis where he sees philosophy as the perfect solution in building a true society that values equality and justice for all. Therefore, Plato advocates for the division of society into three social classes, which are gold, silver and bronze (Bruell, 1994). The gold class is made up of the educated, which is the class of rulers in the society. The silver class is made up of the strategists who provide security to the rulers while the bronze class is made up of the laborers in the society. Each of the classes has its advantages and disadvantages. However, in the Plato asserts that the three classes are differentiated by their level of knowledge hence the silver and bronze class are predisposed to manipulation trough noble lies. Therefore, the different levels of classes are prompted to obey their situation in the community hence they conform to political control and censorship installed by the elite class in the society (Bruell, 1994). Additionally, Plato proposed a philosophical, political approach in the society akin to aristocratic rule. In The Republic, Plato advocate for a philosophical king who will emerge for the golden class in the society, which is akin to the aristocratic king who come from the privileged group in the society (Schofield, 2006). Plato viewed democracy as a system of direct participation of all individuals in the society indecision making process as opposed to the system where representatives made decisions for others in the society (Schofield, 2006). Plato believes that self-governance would instill a sense of soul and psychological emancipation from political subjectivity. The freedom would help the members of the society to acquire justice, morality, and positive morals that would create a natural state. However, Socrates asserts that each individuals’ decisions are a product of the contemplation and questioning of his surroundings (Schofield, 2006). Therefore, the proposal by Plato for a natural state is unachievable in a realistic society.

On the other hand, Cicero advocated for observation of moral standards as the basis for a society a natural society that observes the law. Unlike Plato who advocated for self-governance that capture equality and justice for all, Cicero advocates for the natural law where people are empowered to a push for their rights when their rights are breached (Maass, 2012). According to Cicero, the best rule was not the governmental rule but the law of the right reason. Cicero asserts that, the law of right reason existed even before the governmental laws were implemented and people had a common understanding of the law and it was binding, unchanging, and everlasting (Nicgorski, 1978). The law of right reason is consistent with the natural environment and needs of the people at a particular time. Cicero was religious man who recognized how the supreme law of God acted as the master rule that ruled over all people and anyone running away from the law was running away from the his human nature (Seagrave, 2009). Therefore, a natural law would bind the society together and safeguard the society against exploitation by those in superior positions in the society. Just like Plato, Cicero believed that, bad political ideologies were behind the declines of the Roman Republic hence political changes were needed (Maass, 2012). However, while Plato advocated for a philosophical political approach to achieve change in the political realm, Cicero was advocating for profound political measures to achieve change in the society (Seagrave, 2009). However, Cicero was using philosophy to castigate lack of inept leadership and lack of character among the leaders as the source of decline of the Roman Empire. Moreover, just like Plato, Cicero wanted to pass a message to the political leaders to change their approach to limit by putting the interests if the society before fame and personal interests (Nicgorski, 1978). Similar to Plato, Cicero advocated for the protection of the lesser parties in the society against exploitation by those who occupy top position in the society (Hawley, 2016). The top echelons of the Republic had a tendency of using their positions to force the weak in the society to work for them leading to slavery. According to Cicero, natural law would create a balance between the poor and the rich by observing common values and justice for all (Nicgorski, 1978). Consequently, Cicero advocated for a political ethic of self – abnegation and complete moral integrity consistent with the stoic-adherence and Roman patriotic adherence. Moreover, Cicero borrowed his ideas from the Plato’s idea of right and justice to create a natural state for all. Roman patriotic adherence helps in creation of a state as natural to man where everyone observes the natural law (Nicgorski, 1978). According to the Cicero, a state should be viewed as a common wealth for all the people. Despite the differences that exists among all the individuals no one can live alone hence the society needs each other to survive. Therefore, the community should live together and respect justice for others for the common good of the society. Therefore, for people to work towards a common good they have to be patriotic.


The political philosophies of Plato and Cicero share several similarities and differences. The two philosophers lived at different times marked by different political and social events. The events shaped the mindsets and opinions they manifested in the society. Plato’s philosophy was premised on equality and justice for all by changing the political regime from the aristocratic to philosophical nature. Plato believed that incorporation of aristocratic politics and philosophy would help to find solutions to most of the problems afflicting the society. Use of philosophy according to Plato would create a free state where the society would enjoy and find satisfaction of their souls.

On the other hand, Cicero advocate for a society that is governed by natural law. The natural law is supreme and contravention of the law would lead to injustice in the society. Both Plato and Cicero concur that political changes needed to be introduced in the society. However, Plato wanted a philosophical political approach to be introduced while Cicero used philosophy to manipulate political change in the society. Plato is original in his approach while Cicero uses the works of his predecessors such as Plato, Aristotle, Socrates, and others to shape his political perspectives. Therefore, Plato is original in his approach as compared to Cicero.


Blitz, M., Hoffpauir, J. (2016). Plato’s Political Thought. Oxford Bibliographies

The source explores Plato’s political life and his key political philosophies. The source is relevant to the study since it evaluates some of the Plato’s popular works and evaluates how Plato developed his political philosophies. The source provides a shrewd evaluation of the republic, which is one of the major Plato’s works that depicts the philosophy of politics. The approach used is relevant to the study since it makes it easier to compare the philosophical approach between Plato and Cicero.

Bruell, C. (1994). On Plato’s political philosophy. The Review of politics, 56(02), 261-282.

The source provides an insight on the republic and other of Plato and provides an examination on how they culminate to Plato’s political philosophy. The source is relevant since it cuts across the main works of Plato and analyzes how the sources add up to a common Plato’s philosophy. It helps in comparing the approach used by Plato and that used by Cicero. The author is a professor and a researcher in classical political philosophy.

Hawley, M. C. (2016). Individuality and hierarchy in Cicero’s De Officiis. European Journal of Political Theory, 1474885116657693.

The source is relevant to the study since it explore how Cicero highlighted the existence of man in the nature. It highlights the various hierarchies of human existence in the society. Human beings exist in two natures, which are the natural human nature and the natural moral hierarchy. The source divulge on how the two natures interact in shaping what human beings want in life. Moreover, the source explores how human diversity predisposes human beings to manipulation by those who are superior in the society.

Maass, R. W. (2012). Political Society and Cicero’s Ideal State. Historical Methods: A Journal of Quantitative and Interdisciplinary History, 45(2), 79-92.

The source evaluates the Cicero’s political theory and its interpretation in the society. The source is relevant since it explores the variations that existed in interpretation of what a state is by Cicero. The various concepts presented by Cicero are dissected to culminate to the context of natural law that upholds the values of justice, constitution, and active citizenship. Maass is an assistant Professor of Political Science at the University of Evansville (UE). He is a specialist in international relations and has illustrious experience to offer a profound approach to political theory.

Nicgorski, W. (1978). Cicero and the rebirth of political philosophy. The Political Science Reviewer,8, pp. 63-109

The source offers insight on the various approaches used by Cicero to present his case of political theory. The source explores how the ideas presented by Cicero contravened the ideas of great thinkers like Aristotle, Plato and others. The source explores the differences that existed between Cicero and his predecessors Plato and Aristotle. Precisely, the source provides evidence of the contradictions that existed in the Cicero’s approach to politics. Nicgorski is a classically trained political theorist who has developed several writings relating nature of America to Cicero’s approach.

Seagrave, S. A. (2009). Cicero, Aquinas, and Contemporary Issues in Natural Law Theory. The Review of Metaphysics, 491-523.

The source evaluates application of the natural law philosophy in the contemporary society. The link between the natural law and its classical foundation has elicited relevance in the current society. The source provides plausible evidence between the Cicero’s natural law and how it is utilized in the current society. The author is an experienced political scientist who specializes on the American political tradition and history of political thoughts.

Schofield, M. (2006). Plato: Political Philosophy. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

The source explores Plato’s political life and his key political philosophies. The source is relevant to the study since it evaluates some of the Plato’s popular works and evaluates how Plato developed his political philosophies. The source provides a shrewd evaluation of the republic, which is one of the major Plato’s works that depicts the philosophy of politics. The approach used is relevant to the study since it makes it easier to compare the philosophical approach between Plato and Cicero.


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Premium cruise lines

Premium cruise lines

Cruise ship industry is among the fasters growing segment in the hospitality industry all over the world, with an approximate annual growth rate of about 8.4%. According to darity (2008), in 2007 alone 12.6 million tourists cruise worldwide. This number grew the year after and it was approximately 80 million at end of 2013. At present, about 350 premium cruise lines are sailing the world’s seas. Premium cruise industry has a number of economic benefits to a port state. These benefits arise from five principles: cruise tourist and crew spending, employment by the Premium cruise lines companies, premium cruise lines expenditure on goods and service, which are necessary for cruise operation, cruise line expenditure for port services, and expenditure for premium cruiser maintenance.

Most tourist in the world chooses premium cruise lines because they are smaller as compared to the larger cruise ships and, therefore, take fewer cruisers. The space ratio of the premium cruise lines is greater than the larger one, who make premium cruise lines are less crowded as compared to the greater. Some premium cruise lines, sometimes, characterize themselves up premium cruise. Most premium cruise lines offer larger staterooms and more luxurious bathing facilities as compare to large cruise ship (Dickinson & Vladimir, 2008).

How currents affect premium cruise lines

With the current technologies, premium cruise lines trends are shaping up with a greater focus on multigenerational groups with more unique food offering. Most of these premium ships now offers about a quarter mile boardwalk. Mullins & Walker (2013) show that some Cruise lines carry up to 3600 passengers and still include a jogging track and space for walk. Unlike the ancient premium cruise, modern cruise reflects new trends of being outside all the time with outdoor restaurants, much on-deck seating and other things that will make you be outside most of the time.

Modern technology has made it possible for premium cruiser to offer most luxurious things such as skating rings, planetariums, climbing walls, among other new attractive activities that keep coming. Among the most modern is Crystal symphony, which includes a vertical garden. The other two most competitive premium cruises are carnival Cruise lines and Holland America line cruise. Carnival lines cruise offer TV game, which allows passengers to participate while watching it (Papathanassis, 2012). The carnival cruise lines also include 3-D movies, which are shown on theatres equipped with motion seats, which has special effects like wind and water. America cruise lines, on the other hand, include programming partnership, which are usually used for fitness workout and pool parties.

With advance technology, most premium cruises have expanded food option. Some such as Norwegian have everything from separate bars of Asian noodles, raw shellfish to churrascaria. Most cruise lines also are trying to accommodate diverse needs for youth and adults. They are expanding where youths can have enough exercises and at the same time creating cool places for adults where they can sun, read books, and nap (Peng, 2009).

Lastly in the current trends is the information technology, which has shifted the way travellers book cruise lines. Unlike sometimes back where travellers were forced to book cruise lines with some middlemen, they now book it directly online through cruise’s company branded website.

Effects of cruise industry on economy

The benefits of the cruise industry are derived from income generated from the spending at the port. These incomes, which include money received from dockage, wharfage, and passenger’s spending were originally earned somewhere. In fact, direct purchases by cruise lines and passengers from local business create income and jobs. Local government benefits from the cruise industry through taxes imposed on this sector. In most cases, taxes flow directly from the port authority rather than local government (Walker, 2012)..

Benefits derived from the cruise industry are usually measured by impact analysis, which is based on input-output model. An input-output model calculates effects on the income; employment on the region, and value added which resulted from the original input. Direct and indirect effects that arise from the passenger’s spending become an income the affected local firms. All these incomes are received from the services and goods rendered. That means for a firm to produce and distribute the requisite goods and services, needed by cruise lines, local firms must invest some money. Therefore, if a country’s economy is poor and has less to invest on the cruise business, then the amount obtained from the travellers, are also low. If a country is so poor and fails to invest on this industry, the number travellers wishing to visit such a country will also reduce dramatically (John, 2008).

Social impact of cruise industry:

Premium cruise industry has a social and cultural impact on the destination. This impact is as a result of the relationship between residents and guest. Premium cruise lines have both social and negative impacts and positive impacts.

Cruise lines impact the society positively through culture exchange, labour issues, and revitalization of culture and tradition. Destination gives an opportunity for travellers to learn by visiting museums, cultural centres, and heritage centres. On the other site, social exchange is likely to increase the chances for people to develop mutual sympathy, understanding and tolerance. Therefore, it is clear that tourism can be away for local people to trade he culture and knowledge. The culture of the community can improve cruise industry in many ways. For instance, festivals and events local communities can increase the number of the premium cruise lines visiting a country.

Another positive social effect of the cruise industry is on education. A research show that cruise tourism has promoted and increase educational opportunity. According to Henkens(2006), tourism can also bring a positive force toward peace, and fosters pride in traditional culture that can assist in avoiding urban relocation.

On the negative side, cruise industry may lead to misunderstanding and conflicts. Generally, social impacts of cruise vary from place to place. However, the result can be managed by regulating the number and timing of visitors to avoid disruption of social and economic cycle (Butler, 2010).                             


According to Cetron,  DeMicco, & Davies (2006), it is undeniable that the premium cruise industry brings money to the local economy, however, ensuring development of the cruise industry at the destination require much capital. Therefore, the question is, do the cruise lines bring fewer benefits that the initial cost?

As could be seen, we have to make a decision that pressure to promote cruise industry. However, there is no policy in most government imposed to control the impact of such activity. Lack of planning allows confronting the massive arrival of cruise tourism will eventually lead negative effects in the destinations. Ports too often say those cruises are more important to them than the way they are important to the cruise lines. With the recent growth in the cruise industry, more ports need to be build (Conrady & Buck, 2009).


Butler, M. (2010). Cruise tourism: current situation and trends.. Madrid: World Tourism Organization.

Cetron, M., DeMicco, F., & Davies, O. (2006). Hospitality 2010: The future of hospitality and travel.. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Prentice Hall.

Conrady, R., & Buck, M. (2009). Trends and issues in global tourism 2009. Berlin: Springer.

Customer-to-customer interaction : impact on cruise experience and overall vacation satisfaction. (2008). Oxford Press: John.

Darity, W. A. (2008). International encyclopedia of the social sciences (2nd ed.). Detroit, Mich.: Macmillan Reference USA.

Dickinson, B., & Vladimir, A. (2008). Selling the sea an inside look at the cruise industry (2nd ed.). Hoboken, N.J.: Wiley.

Mullins, J. W., & Walker, O. C. (2013). Marketing management: a strategic decision-making approach (8th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.

Papathanassis, A. (2012). Cruise tourism and society a socio-economic perspective. Berlin: Springer.

Peng, Q. (2009). International Conference on Transportation Engineering, 2009 Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Transportation Engineering, July 25-27, 2009, [Southwest Jiaotong University] Chengdu, China. Reston, VA: American Society of Civil Engineers.

Walker, J. R. (2012). Introduction to hospitality management. s.l.: Prentice hall.

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The Role of Self-Kindness and Self-Esteem in Children in Fostering Psychological Resilience and Positive Psychology

The Role of Self-Kindness and Self-Esteem in Children in Fostering Psychological Resilience and Positive Psychology


Psychological resilience is the capacity of an individual to avoid stress and adversity in order to prevent such problems as bad health. The other problems are depression, mental illness, and general body dysfunction (Cooper, Flint-Taylor & Pearn, 2013). People and children with psychological resilience can make good plans to execute it, and increase their self-confidence and self-esteem[G1]  (Cooper, Flint-Taylor & Pearn, 2013). [G2] 

Positive psychology is the use of scientific understanding and psychological intervention to bring happiness to individuals with mental disabilities and psychological stress (Fuller, Chapman & Jolly, 2009).  It is possible to achieve a satisfying life through positive psychology rather than treating mental disability (Fuller, Chapman & Jolly, 2009). One way of promoting positive living is by increasing the Child’s self-esteem and self-confidence through resilience (Fuller, Chapman & Jolly, 2009). This essay aims to analyze the ways to promote psychological resilience to help a child with mild learning disabilities and physical health problems[G3] . The limitations and any other issues related to clinical matters will be vital to the discussion.  Psychological resilience and positive psychology are two areas that help young children and adults to raise their self-esteem through avoiding stress to cope with the learning challenges (Fuller, Chapman & Jolly, 2009).[G4] 

Self-esteem is the way we perceive value to ourselves, to the world, and the way we think we are valuable to other people (Svebak, 2010). Self-kindness is the quality of being kind, having consideration for others, or having the urge to help other people (Svebak, 2010).  Kind people have compassion for others and do not show any selfish behaviour to the friends or neighbours (Hefferon & Boniwell, 2011). The connections in the terms are positive psychology helps individuals to tolerate, cope, and live well in spite of the stress and the adversities they are facing. Psychological resilience helps individuals, both the adults and the children to cope with stress and adversities while positive psychology deals with the treatment of mental disabilities to attain psychological resilience (Svebak, 2010). Positive psychology enhances self-esteem in individuals, and self-esteem promotes psychological resilience when individuals have a high regard for themselves (Svebak, 2010). Self-kindness results from having a positive attitude towards other people, which make them, cope with stressful situations, such as financial difficulties (Cope & Whittaker, 2013). From the definitions and the evaluation of all the terms, it is true that psychological resilience, positive psychology, self-esteem, and self-kindness have a connection (Seligman, 2006). A research by the Institute for Research and Society, on psychological resilience, showed that people with a high self-esteem and self-kindness have increased psychological resilience [G5] [G6] (Seligman, 2006). Positive psychology promotes self-esteem and self-kindness, which in turn, promote psychological resilience according to the National Institute of Health (Cope & Whittaker, 2013).[G7] [G8] 

Approaches to Positive Psychology

Positive psychology is a very pivotal intervention in stress management and the treatment of learning disabilities in both children and adults [G9] [G10] (Cope & Whittaker, 2013). The main approaches to positive psychology involve activities that make a person happy, have a meaningful life, and promote the mental well-being (Cope & Whittaker, 2013). The approaches are:[G11] [G12] [G13] 


Pleasures are those activities that cause happiness to a person easily and lead to delight of the individual (Coulson, Oades & Stoyles, 2012). The activities have a quick impact on peoples’ emotions and the senses, making them feel better within a very short time. In essence, a person does not require any efforts to feel the happiness; joy and delight just happen to the individual or child. Examples of the pleasures are body massages, which lead to the relaxation of the muscles and the mind. Relaxation helps in making a person happy, which in turn help him cope with stress [G14] [G15] (Coulson, Oades & Stoyles, 2012). Another example is good food that enhances the appetite, decorated rooms, swimming pools, bathtubs and many others, which relieve stress in a person or a child (Coulson, Oades & Stoyles, 2012).  [G16] [G17] 


Gratifications are those activities that are challenging and make people use more strength at the same time making them happy (Seligman, 2013). They require a lot of efforts to achieve, but their long-term effects are rewarding. One example of a gratification activity is long-term love relationship through kindness, listening, and doing good things for the people one loves. The activities require self-sacrifice and effort to impress the loved ones. For the case study, showing the boy some love and doing kind things will promote his self-esteem. His learning capability will also improve once he accepts and puts effort into the gratification activities, for example, by reading his favourite book more often (Hefferon & Boniwell, 2011). The other gratification activities are drawing, gardening, solving puzzles, volunteering and writing (Hefferon & Boniwell, 2011).

Doing Meaningful Activities

Meaningful activities are those activities that involve engaging in activities that promote the [G18] fulfilment to people’s lives, either personally or professionally (Svebak, 2010). These activities can bring happiness once the person achieves his/her objectives.  Everybody cherishes success and any time an individual attains his/her goals, he/she becomes very happy and satisfied.  Meaningful life activities require somebody, especially children to involve more in gratification activities (Svebak, 2010), which will strengthen the skills of the person. A researcher, Martin Seligman said,” Total immersion, in fact, blocks consciousness, and emotions are completely absent”(Seligman, 2013).In this, he encourages people to engage fully in the activities that bring satisfaction to their lives. Some of the activities may involve assisting the poor in legal representation to enable them acquire justice. For example, since the withdrawal of the legal aid in England in April 2013 (Stewart & Brennan, 2013), many low-income families cannot afford legal fees for[G19] in divorce cases. As a lawyer, one can offer his/her services to the poor families, which will be a gratification gesture (Stewart & Brennan, 2013). The activities make the individual forget many bad emotions and conscience reducing mental stress. The boy in the case study can benefit from the approach, as being active in many activities will enhance his mental capacity. Seligman, (2013) notes that the three approaches are important for mental, emotional, and physical development of individuals hence leads to psychological resilience.[G20] [G21] [G22] [G23] 

Psychological Interventions

Positive emotions are very important to help achieve happiness and excitement for both physical and emotional satisfaction that lead to happiness (Seligman, 2013). Some of the interventions improve a person’s well-being, growth, creativity, fulfillment and any other activity that brings joy and relaxation of the person. For the case study, the boy can apply some of the interventions to promote his mental and physical health and improve his learning capability. The positive psychological interventions are:


According to Fuller, Chapman & Jolly, (2009), gratitude can be a source of positive feelings to a child. The research shows that those people who express gratitude to other people feel a lot of inner satisfaction and happiness with their actions. Being grateful is a virtue that brings about the feeling of wellbeing to a person and reduces depression, increases happiness, and raises self-esteem. A study by Morgan, Gulliford, and Kristjánsson in 2014 on the effects of expressing gratitude showed that those who express gratitude are more relaxed  (Morgan, Gulliford & Kristjánsson, 2014). The boy in the case study can gain from gratification by receiving grateful notes and comments from the teachers and other stakeholders to improve his health. [G24] 

Best Possible Selves

Children can write the events in their lives and any actions they undertake and how they feel about them (Morgan, Gulliford & Kristjánsson, 2014). The activities create a lot of self-confidence to the individuals, and they can achieve their goals in life. Writing will always remind the child the experiences and can provide some comparison with the recent happenings.


According to Morgan, Gulliford & Kristjánsson, hope is the ability of individuals to pursue their goals in life, which make them feel excited, determined, and committed to their roles.  Hope brings harmony to different individuals, especially the one that results from spirituality or it may lead to the reduction of broodiness in individuals ([G25] Morgan, Gulliford & Kristjánsson, 2014). Hope enables people to seek advice from their peers and parents, which reduces stress and depression of the individuals seeking advice. [G26] 

Signature Strengths

Signature strengths refer to the exhibition of appreciation of bravery, beauty, gratitude, and forgiveness by individuals depending on their experiences. For example, individuals who recover from certain illnesses show positive characteristics than those who have never experienced severe illness (Morgan, Gulliford & Kristjánsson, 2014). The recovery makes them be strong and believe in their physical fitness. [G27] Thus, they do not worry about facing difficult situations. Some people possess emotional courage to face and counter challenges to achieve difficult goals in their lives through persistence and bravery.  The other forms of strengths are humanity, pursuit of justice and temperance, which lead to physiological toughness and reduce depression and stress.
[G28] [G29] [G30] 

Positive Psychology and its Relevance to Children Development

Positive psychology has a big effect on the human brain, especially that of a growing child (Fuller, Chapman & Jolly, 2009). The brain can master everything that the child experiences when he/she is very young, and as the child matures, the mastery improves. Positive teachings create optimistic thinking as the brain can register the actions that become habitual to the child [G31] (Schueller, 2010). Repeated actions make the child do the same thing repeatedly and unconsciously, which forms part of their character.

According to Dr Seligman positive psychology, helps in getting rid of learning difficulties in young children (Fuller, Chapman & Jolly, 2009). For example, consider the scale of -5 to +5. In many cases, education will move an individual from -5 to 0. In this case, 0 denotes that somebody is okay and getting from 0 to +5 is very difficult. Therefore, education does not assist so much in moving from 0 to +5, and the only way somebody can assist children to get there is by promotion of good habits and correcting their weaknesses.

Concepts or Clinical Approaches to Promoting Psychological Resilience

There are various concepts that help in promoting a healthy living for the children and adults, such as:

Mental Training

Mental training is a new approach for assisting people to relax the body and the brain to facilitate confidence in individuals and positive thinking (Fuller, Chapman & Jolly, 2009). The approach also assists people to solve problems and develop critical thinking. Through the method, individuals and children can improve their mood and lower anxiety levels while lowering depression and increasing the individual’s self-esteem (Fuller, Chapman & Jolly, 2009).

Strengthening the Human Spirit

The parents and caregivers should play a big role in strengthening the human spirit in children as they grow up to help them improve their psychological resilience (Fuller, Chapman & Jolly, 2009). As the children develop, the parents need to do many tasks, and their parents and caregivers should make sure they assist their children in that area. Engaging in various activities will help the children acquire a sense of responsibility and develop physically and intellectually (Fuller, Chapman & Jolly, 2009).

Teaching and Discussion

Teaching children from an early development stage help the child to acquire skills in various fields and become responsible. The child can control bad emotions at an early age by incorporating the ideas from the lessons taught (Fuller, Chapman & Jolly, 2009). Teaching can occur in various places such as  homes, worshiping centres, social places, or in schools. A child should learn how to remain positive and have the self-confidence to prevent any possibilities of stress and depression. Discussions are very important for any growing children as they assist the child to express him/herself at the same time acquiring self-confidence. Through resilience, a growing child can achieve many good qualities and abilities.[G32] 

Trusting Relationships

Trust is very important to growing children in enhancing positive thinking. Parents and caregivers should not expose their children to a dangerous environment, especially those children with disabilities[G33]  (Schueller, 2010). A good and trustworthy relationship should exist between the parents, teachers, and any other member to ensure that the children can share their problems and challenges. Parents should avoid issues that can lead to their divorce or separation as it brings agony to the children. Since many parents cannot afford the legal fees after the Ministry of Justice withdrew the legal aid to low-income earners in the UK [G34] [G35] (Stewart & Brennan, 2013), parents should try to live in harmony. In the case of a divorce or separation, many parents cannot afford to pay a lawyer to handle children cases involving their upkeep. The children end up traumatized and stressed[G36]  (Schueller, 2010), although positive psychology can help them to cope with the situation and make them attain psychological resilience.
[G37] [G38] 

Encouragement, the Children to be Autonomous

Children should learn how to be independent at an early stage to instill a sense of responsibility to the child. The environment should allow the child to do an activity on their own and seek guidance in case of any challenges (Schueller, 2010).

Setting Role Models

Children always imitate the actions of the parents and, therefore; parents should provide an environment free from people of unquestionable characters (Schueller, 2010). The children with learning disabilities can suffer both physical and psychological trauma if exposed to a dangerous environment, such as a divorced or a separated family.  The withdrawal of legal aid for low-income earners will affect families with children suffering from learning disabilities [G39] (Stewart & Brennan, 2013), as in the case of separation, these children end up suffering psychological stress. For such a case, the parents should struggle and maintain peace in their homes to avoid incidences that can cause trauma to the child.  [G40] However, in case of a separation or a divorce, the parents should struggle to raise the legal representation fees and not just depend on the government legal aid. The other approaches for enhancing resilience are home rules, problem-solving, and access to education.
[G41] [G42] 

Empirical Findings from Positive Psychology

Research by various scholars; show that there are variables that promote the well-being of children and adults (Schueller, 2010). The variables enable the children to manage stress and adversities to overcome any possible trauma. The factors are showing gratitude to other people, being selfless, and extraversion.  The other variables that lead to the well-being of young children are, exercising daily through plays, having goals for their life as they mature, and the existence of stable marriages for adults. Children who grow in stable marriages have less stress than the ones whose parents separated (Cope & Whittaker, 2013). Studies by Schueller show that attaining a good education, maintaining a healthy lifestyle, and maintaining a healthy weight will improve the wellbeing of children and adults (Schueller, 2010). The other activities that enable children cope with the challenges of life are having self-acceptance, being physically fit, perseverance during hard times, and having enough sleep [G43] (Schueller, 2010).

Limitations of the Empirical Findings

Some of the limitations of the empirical findings may include inadequate time to engage in some of the healthy activities (Cope & Whittaker, 2013). Such activities are playing and working for the attainment of individuals’ goals (Cope & Whittaker, 2013).  The issues of getting a good education may not bring resilience to the children as what matters are the children’s interests. Children with learning disabilities might not benefit from some of the findings, such as play due to their learning disabilities, such as recalling verses in play songs. Some children with disabilities can have self-acceptance, but the others might not accept them, leading to stress. Children with learning disabilities may not acquire a good education in some nations, where there are no special schools.


Psychological resilience is a good remedy for some conditions like stress and depression, according to the findings by the National Institute of Health (Cope & Whittaker, 2013). Through positive psychology, children and adults can heal from mental illnesses, live a good life, and have high self-esteem and self-kindness. Clinical and concepts approaches include mental training of the children and trustworthy relationships while psychological interventions include gratitude and hope. Some empirical findings, such as selflessness and exercises promote positive psychology. Some limitations such as the limited time to engage in play may hinder the achievement of positive psychology. The parents and the caregivers should make sure that their children have some spare time to play and socialize with their peers.


Cope, A., & Whittaker, A. (2013). The art of being brilliant. Chichester, UK: Capstone Pub.

Coulson, J., Oades, L., & Stoyles, G. (2012). Parents’ subjective sense of calling in childrearing: Measurement, development and initial findings. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 7(2), 83-94. doi:10.1080/17439760.2011.633547

Cooper, C., Flint-Taylor, J., & Pearn, M. (2013). Building Resilience for Success. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

Fuller, N., Chapman, J., & Jolly, S. (2009). Positive behaviour management in sport. Leeds: Coachwise.

 Hefferon., & Boniwell. (2011). Positive Psychology. Maidenhead: McGraw-Hill Education.

Morgan, B., Gulliford, L., & Kristjánsson, K. (2014). Gratitude in the UK: A new prototype analysis and a cross-cultural comparison. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 9(4), 281-294. doi:10.1080/17439760.2014.898321Seligman, M. (2006). Learned optimism. New York: Vintage Books.

Schueller, S. (2010). Preferences for positive psychology exercises. The Journal Of Positive Psychology, 5(3), 192-203. doi:10.1080/17439761003790948

Seligman, M. (2006). Learned optimism. New York: Vintage Books.

Seligman, M. (2013). Flourish. New York: Atria.

Stewart, C., & Brennan, F. (2013). Legal issues concerning withholding and withdrawal of dialysis. Nephrology, n/a-n/a. doi:10.1111/nep.12086

Svebak, S. (2010). The Sense of Humor Questionnaire: Conceptualization and Review of 40 Years of Findings in Empirical Research. Europe’S Journal of Psychology, 6(3). doi:10.5964/ejop.v6i3.218

nts that are not appropriate for children are clubs, fighting scenes, conflict, and abusive places.  The

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Positivist claim that any knowledge that is not empirical is unscientific, and thus invalid



Positivist claim that any knowledge that is not empirical is unscientific, and thus invalid. Most of the physical and natural sciences have adopted positivism as their method of acquiring knowledge. However this research philosophy has not been fully accepted in the field of social sciences. Social scientists argue that “positivistic method strips context from meanings in the process of developing quantified measures of phenomena” (Gephert 1999, p. 1). Social scientist claims that they would want an inclusive research method that does not exclude the qualitative meaning from the data collected. For instance, modern psychologist can not understand how positivism can ignore the unobservable issues like emotions and thoughts or the happenings in the inside of the human mind. Viewed from a social science perspective, positivism registers more weaknesses in the realm that it tends to generalise outcomes from samples taken from specific social groups. This is not to forget that it is not always that positivism methods yield consistent results. In such a situation a more advanced approach is needed to explain the inconsistency. In addition, the fact that positivism relies on testing existing theories rather than introducing new ones is a challenge to the field of discovery.

Beside the above shortcoming, the greatest challenge to positivism comes from the alternative research philosophies, mainly the constructivism/intepretist. This research philosophy is more common with the social science world, where the researchers believe that the subject matter in social science is different from that studied in natural science (Hatch and Cunliffe 2006). Constructionists believe that past experiences and memories influence the way people perceive their external world. According to this philosophy, researchers cannot rule out bias because both they and the researched subject make interpretations based on their prior experiences. In their research methods, constructivism prefers qualitative techniques such as observation, description and questioning (Eriksson and Kovalainen 2008). The main distinction between constructivist and positivist is that the former believe in multiple realities while the latter believe that there is only one stable reality. According to constructivist, knowledge is relative to the knower, and thus, various researchers can arrive at different conclusions. Due to the concept of relative knowledge, constructivism research philosophy holds that it is not possible to know the reality, although researchers should strive towards that goal (Greener 2008).

In social science, as well as in management and organisation research, constructivism has become common on the basis that it addresses timely social, political and economic issues which positivism had hitherto ignored. However, constructivism is challenged for its epistemological relativism. Its assertion that it is not possible to know the reality undermines the noble goal of research, that of pursuing the truth. Constructivism is not concerned with ontological reality but on constructed reality.

In the case of the research at hand – employee satisfaction- a constructionist research philosophy is the best to carry out the study. Since the primary aims of an employee satisfaction is to determine employee’s response to the various motivations and rewards measures existing in an organisation, a constructivist approach offer the best design. This kind of research is at best subjective, since it seeks to measure employees feeling and thoughts. As opposed to a positivist approach which would focus on testing existing theories through quantitative techniques, a constructionist approach will focus on building new knowledge by the use of qualitative techniques, mainly questionnaires and interviews.  A study on employee satisfaction is deductive rather than inductive. This kind of approach will also enable the study unearth the different factors that affect the employee’s interpretation of the existing motivation and reward framework such salary, promotion and career advancement. The constructivism emphasises on language and communication will come in handy in understanding the employees feeling towards the organisation. Qualitative approaches are more preferred since they allow the employees to be free to discuss their feeling towards a company and what they would wish the organisation to do for them.

Constructivism research philosophy will find basis in most of the employee’s satisfaction theories. The Maslow Hierarchy of needs theory argues that employee satisfaction is a general attitude that is determined by such factors as self actualisation, esteem needs, belongingness and love needs, safety needs and the biological and physical needs (Maslow 1943, p.370; Weihrich and Koontz 1999, p. 468). Such attitudes can only be understood through a qualitative study other than quantitative approach. Satisfaction in this case is the contentment that employees feel after an organisation meets their need (Robbins 1998, p.170).  Again, the constructivism approach fits well with Herzberg’s Theory of Motivation (Loiseau 2011). According to Herzberg’s theory, employee satisfaction can only be understood through looking at the “the two dimensions of employee satisfaction”: motivational and hygiene (Spector 1997). These two theories acknowledge that the factors that lead to employee satisfaction, or dissatisfaction thereof, are relative and not stable meaning that a qualitative approach is best suited to understand them.











Marshall MN (1996) Sampling for qualitative research. Family Practice Vol. 13 (6), p. 522-525

Maslow AH (1943) A theory of Human Motivation. Psychological Review Vol. 50. P.370-396

Patton MQ (1990) Qualitative Evaluation and Research Methods (2nd Edn). Newbury Park, CA: SAGE Publishers.

Resnik DB (2012) What is Ethics in Research & Why is it Important? Washington DC: The National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences.

Robbins SP (1998) Organisational Behaviour: Concepts, controversies and Applications. New York: Prentice-Hall.


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How do you explain Nasser’s triumph in the 1956 Suez conflict compared to his devastating loss in the 1967 War?

Please read and follow the instructions carefully. Respond to each instruction on the page.

QUESTION: How do you explain Nasser’s triumph in the 1956 Suez conflict compared to his devastating loss in the 1967 War? Explain what had changed for Nasser to make the outcomes of each war so different. See the uploaded document for all instructions.

Comparison of the 1956 War to the 1967 War

Please read and follow the instructions carefully. Respond to each instruction on the page.

QUESTION: How do you explain Nasser’s triumph in the 1956 Suez conflict in contrast to his devastating loss in the 1967 War? Explain what had changed for Nasser to make the outcomes of each war so different.


· Write 600 words at least to answer this question. It should be posted as a “Word” file. Read over the directions for writing your essays on the first page of the syllabus to make sure you are clear about what is necessary to do well on this essay. Make sure to use footnotes and to add a “List of Sources” at the end of your essay. Use quotes where appropriate and cite the main arguments from each reading in your work. Make sure to respond to each part of the question.

· These papers should be grammatically and syntactically correct and without typographical errors. Include the question you are answering on the title page so both you and I will be sure which question you are addressing. Special attention will be given to the thesis paragraph. Make it succinct and preview how you will argue your paper. Always end with a concluding paragraph that sums up your argument.

· Citations: Use footnotes, or what is called the “Notes and Bibliography” form of citation for your references (not the internal: “author-date” style common in the social sciences). The first citation of a work should be complete, and subsequent citations abbreviated. Read about how to use this citation form at Quick Guide of the Chicago Manual of Style. Learn how to use footnotes (not endnotes on “Word.”

· List of Sources: Be sure to add a “List of Sources” at the end of your essay, listing all the sources you cite. Each article must be referenced in full. Consult the website of the Chicago Manual of Style to do this correctly. Make sure you cite internet sources correctly as well.

Your list of sources and subtitles does not count toward 600 words. Ensure to cite lesson materials in the essay and reference them on the List of sources to ensure an A. All other sources must be correctly cited in Chicago style.


Geoffrey Wawro, Quicksand: Chaps 7, 8, 9 pp. 229-328 [99 pages]

Bickerton & Klausner, A History of the Arab–Israeli Conflict. Chaps 6, 7, 8. [45 pages]

Bruce Riedel, Kings and Presidents: Saudi Arabia and the United States since FDR. pp. 27-56. [28]

Philip Weiss, “Jimmy Carter believed he lost a second term because he opposed settlements, alienating Jews — Eizenstat,” February 7, 2019.

Documentary: [90 minutes] Six days in June, by Ilan Ziv about the Israeli-Arab Six days war in 1967.

Geoffrey Wawro, Quicksand: Chap 5, 6 & 7, pp. 153-228. [75]

Bickerton & Klausner, A History of the Arab–Israeli Conflict. Chap. 5

“The Suez crisis of 50 years ago marked the end of an era, and the start of another, for Europe, America and the Middle East,” The Economist, July 27th 2006.

Watch this 57 minute BBC documentary about Suez –


Roland Nikles, “Why a false understanding of the ‘Six Day War’ still matters,” June 17, 2014 Mondoweiss Blog

Israel Palestinian Conflict: The Truth About the West Bank – by Danny Ayalon, Uploaded on Jul 19, 2011,

The REAL truth about Palestine in response to Danny Ayalon, Youtube video, Nov 6, 2013.

Miko Peled, “Six days in Israel,” June 6, 2012, LA Times.

Jeffrey Goldberg, “Did Israel Actually Lose the 1967 War?” November 18, 2011 in the New York Times.

Shay Fogelman,The Palestinian state of Ishmael, as envisioned by Rehavam Ze’evi,” 15.10.2010 in Haaretz, ff. 5.

“Myths & Facts Online – an Israeli viewpoint: The 1967 Six-Day War,” Jewish Virtual Library, By Mitchell G. Bard.

“The 1967 War and the Israeli Occupation,” a Palestinian viewpoint.,395.0.html

Raymond Close, “The Mideast linkage factor” 1973

Jerry Taylor and Peter Van Doren, “Time to Lay the 1973 Oil Embargo to Rest,” October 17, 2003.

Lizette Alvarez, “Britain Says U.S. Planned to Seize Oil in ’73 Crisis,” New York Times, January 2, 2004.

Jimmy Carter, “colonization of Palestine precludes peace,” Council on Foreign Relations, Friday, March 10, 2006.

William B. Quandt, “Reflections on Camp David at 40,” The Cairo Review of Global Affairs, Winter 2019. The 1978 agreement was more than anyone could have hoped for, yet it’s still costing us peace.

Documentary [6 minutes long]: The 1973 October/Yom Kippur War was a war fought by a coalition of Arab states led by Egypt and Syria against Israel. Report by: Kevork Almassian

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Identify some of the social, ethical, and economic reasons for addressing immigration policy reform

Discussion Topic: Identify social, ethical, and economic reasons for addressing immigration policy reform.


 The discussion must address the topic

 Rationale must be provided

 Use at least 600 words (no included 1st page or references in the 600 words)

 May use examples from your nursing practice

 Formatted and cited in current APA 7

 Use 3 academic sources not older than five years. Not Websites are allowed.

 Plagiarism is NOT permitted 

Examine the science and art of theory development and evaluation.

Submission Instructions:

  • Your initial post should be at least 500 words, formatted and cited in the current APA style, with support from at least 2 academic sources. 

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Social phenomena, people & groups, social facts, social process, social institutions,social tructures, the social construction of reality, and social patterns

Sociological Research
• Subject? Social phenomena, people & groups, social facts, social
process, social institutions,social structures, the social construction of
reality, and social patterns…. Etc.
• How ppl act, think, feel, and interact in a certain period of time and
in specific situation or context. How social structures are involved in
the life of individuals and groups. How society is organized and how it
• Sociologists study society scientifically by following a methodological
approach =/= common sense or prejudgments and stereotypes.
• Sociologists explain the Why and How society is ordered (
assumption. The research aims to develop scientific laws,
theories, and observations about society. Sociologists look for the
nature and the causes of the patterns in society and groups that we
can observe. E.g., patterns of divorce, marriage, addiction, suicide…

Module 5 What Is the Scientific Method?
• Scientific method: a systematic, organized series
of steps that ensures maximum objectivity and
consistency in researching a problem. Science is a cyclic

  1. Defining the problem
  2. Reviewing the literature
  3. Formulating a testable hypothesis
  4. Selecting the research design and then collecting and
    analyzing data
  5. Developing the conclusion
    • A report is then prepared, with an executive summary

    Figure 5-1 The Scientific Method
    The scientific method allows sociologists to objectively and logically evaluate
    the data they collect. Their findings can suggest ideas for further sociological

    Defining the Problem
    • Any research starts with a question.
    • how schooling relates to income?
    • Operational definition: explanation of an abstract concept
    that is specific enough to allow researchers to assess the
    concept . What it is to be observed and how we will measure it. Listing
    characteristics or attributes of variable to be able to test and measure
    • Abstract—–> specific, concrete observations
    • Gender, Women, Men. Amount of hrs spent studying for sociology class= 0 h to 5 h
    • Status= membership in social club
    • Prejudice= person’s unwilling to hire or work with members of minority group
    • Altruism= giving money( charity), giving blood,….
    • Does it pay to get a college degree ? We need to define earnings and level
    of education. Education = numbers of years and earnings = income
    • Religiosity and suicide ( Durkheim)

    Reviewing the Literature
    • Literature review consists of relevant scholarly
    studies and information.
    – Refine the problem. Other factors (statuses of parents)
    – Clarify possible techniques for collecting data. State by
    state income.
    – Eliminate or reduce avoidable mistakes (the search for
    understanding reality is uncertain and unending)

    Formulating the Hypothesis
    • Hypothesis: speculative statement about the
    relationship between two or more factors known as
    • Variable: measurable trait or characteristic subject to
    change under different conditions.
    – Independent variable: variable hypothesized to cause or
    influence another
    – Dependent variable: variable whose action depends on
    influence of the independent variable( effect)

    Formulating the Hypothesis (2)
    • Causal logic: involves a relationship between a
    condition or variable and a particular consequence,
    with one leading to the other. See p.33
    • X —–> Y .
    • Correlation: exists when change in one variable
    coincides with change in the other.
    – Correlation does not necessarily indicate causation

    Collecting and Analyzing Data
    • Selecting the Sample
    – Sample: selection from a larger population( target) that is
    statistically representative (list of all cases) of that population
    – Random sample: when every member of an entire population
    being studied has the same chance of being selected. The whole
    population must be available for selection, if not the sample will not be random
    – Snowball or convenience samples: participants recruited through
    word of mouth or by posting notices on the Internet. When it is
    hard to find or identify. such as illegal drug users

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