Jose Garcia Villa Essay

Jose Garcia Villa Essay.

Jose Garcia Villa (August 5, 1908 – February 7, 1997) was a Filipino poet, literary critic, short story writer, and painter. He was awarded the National Artist of the Philippines title for literature in 1973,[1] as well as the Guggenheim Fellowship in creative writing by Conrad Aiken.[2] He is known to have introduced the “reversed consonance rime scheme” in writing poetry, as well as the extensive use of punctuation marks—especially commas, which made him known as the Comma Poet.[3] He used the penname Doveglion (derived from “Dove, Eagle, Lion”), based on the characters he derived from himself.

These animals were also explored by another poet e.e. cummings in Doveglion, Adventures in Value, a poem dedicated to Villa.

Early life

Villa was born on August 5, 1908, in Manila’s Singalong district. His parents were Simeon Villa (a personal physician of Emilio Aguinaldo, the founding President of the First Philippine Republic) and Guia Garcia (a wealthy landowner).He graduated from the University of the Philippines Integrated School and the University of the Philippines High School in 1925.

Villa enrolled on a Pre-Medical course in the University of the Philippines, but then switched to Pre-Law course. However, he realized that his true passion was in the arts. Villa first tried painting, but then turned into creative writing after reading Winesburg, Ohio by Sherwood Anderson.

Writing career

Villa was considered the leader of Filipino “artsakists”, a group of writers who believe that art should be “for art’s sake” hence the term. He once pronounced that “art is never a means; it is an end in itself.” Villa’s tart poetic style was considered too aggressive at that time. In 1929 he published Man Songs, a series of erotic poems, which the administrators in UP found too bold and was even fined Philippine peso for obscenity by the Manila Court of First Instance. In that same year, Villa won Best Story of the Year from Philippine Free Press magazine for Mir-I-Nisa. He also received P1,000,000 prize money, which he used to migrate to the United States. He enrolled at the University of New Mexico, wherein he was one of the founders of Clay, a mimeograph literary magazine.He graduated with a Bachelor of Arts degree, and pursued post-graduate work at Columbia University.Villa had gradually caught the attention of the country’s literary circles, one of the few Asians to do so at that time. After the publication of Footnote to Youth in 1933, Villa switched from writing prose to poetry, and published only a handful of works until 1942.

During the release of Have Come, Am Here in 1942, he introduced a new rhyming scheme called “reversed consonance” wherein, according to Villa: “The last sounded consonants of the last syllable, or the last principal consonant of a word, are reversed for the corresponding rhyme. Thus, a rhyme for near would be run; or rain, green, reign.” In 1949, Villa presented a poetic style he called “comma poems”, wherein commas are placed after every word. In the preface of Volume Two, he wrote: “The commas are an integral and essential part of the medium: regulating the poem’s verbal density and time movement: enabling each word to attain a fuller tonal value, and the line movement to become more measures.

Villa worked as an associate editor for New Directions Publishing in New York City between 1949 to 1951, and then became director of poetry workshop at City College of New York from 1952 to 1960. He then left the literary scene and concentrated on teaching, first lecturing in The New School|The New School for Social Research from 1964 to 1973, as well as conducting poetry workshops in his apartment. Villa was also a cultural attaché to the Philippine Mission to the United Nations from 1952 to 1963, and an adviser on cultural affairs to the President of the Philippines beginning 1968.


On February 5, 1997, at the age of 88, Jose was found in a coma in his New York apartment and was rushed to St. Vincent Hospital in the Greenwich area. His death two days later was attributed to “cerebral stroke and multilobar pneumonia”. He was buried on February 10 in St. John’s Cemetery in New York, wearing a Barong Tagalog.

New York Centennial Celebration

On August 5 and 6, 2008, Villa’s centennial celebration began with poem reading at the Jefferson Market Library, at 425 Avenue of the Americas (Sixth Avenue) at the corner of 10th St. In the launch of Doveglion, Collected Poems, Penguin Classics’ reissue of Jose Garcia Villa’s poems, edited by John Edwin Cowen, Villa’s literary trustee, will be read by book introducer Luis H. Francia. Then, the Leonard Lopate Show (on WNYC AM 820 and FM 93.9) will interview Edwin Cohen and Luis H. Francia on the “Pope of Greenwich Villages” life and work, followed by the Asia Pacific Forum show.


In 1946 Villa married Rosemarie Lamb, with whom he has two sons, Randy and Lance. They annulled ten years later. He also has three grandchildren.


As an editor, Villa first published Philippine Short Stories: Best 25 Short Stories of 1928 in 1929, an anthology of Filipino short stories written in English literature English that were mostly published in the literary magazine Philippine Free Press for that year. It is the second anthology to have been published in the Philippines, after Philippine Love Stories by editor Paz Márquez-Benítez in 1927. His first collection of short stories that he has written were published under the title Footnote to Youth: Tales of the Philippines and Others in 1933; while in 1939, Villa published Many Voices, his first collection poems, followed by Poems by Doveglion in 1941. Other collections of poems include Have Come, Am Here (1942), Volume Two (1949), and Selected Poems and New (1958).

In 1962, Villa published four books namely Villa’s Poems 55, Poems in Praise of Love, Selected Stories, and The Portable Villa. It was also in that year when he edited The Doveglion Book of Philippine Poetry in English from 1910. Three years later, he released a follow-up for The Portable Villa entitled The Essential Villa.Villa, however, went under “self-exile” after the 1960s, even though he was nominated for several major literary awards including the Pulitzer Prize for Poetry. This was perhaps because of oppositions between his formalism (literature)formalist style and the advocates of proletarian literature who misjudged him as a petty bourgeois.

Villa only “resurfaced” in 1993 with an anthology entitled Charlie Chan Is Dead, which was edited by Jessica Hagedorn Several reprints of Villa’s past works were done, including Appasionata: Poems in Praise of Love in 1979, A Parliament of Giraffes (a collection of Villa’s poems for young readers, with Tagalog language Tagalog translation provided by Larry Francia), and The Anchored Angel: Selected Writings by Villa that was edited by Eileen Tabios with a foreword provided by Hagedorn (both in 1999). Among his popular poems include When I Was No Bigger Than A Huge, an example of his “comma poems”, and The Emperor’s New Sonnet (a part of Have Come, Am Here) which is basically a blank sheet of paper.

You may also be interested in the following: ballad of a mother’s heart by jose la villa tierra

Jose Garcia Villa Essay

Instant Noodle Market: An Economic Indicator in the Philippines Essay

Instant Noodle Market: An Economic Indicator in the Philippines Essay.


Background of the Study

With the Philippines’ worsening economy, people are becoming more concerned with their expenditures and are shifting their consumption to cheaper alternatives. Such an alternative for food is instant because these instant noodles are not only tasty and filling, but also very cheap. These three qualities have made it very popular among consumers who are tightening their budget. This paper aims to show that the increasing popularity and sales of this instant noodles are directly related to the worsening condition of the Philippines’ economy.

When consumers experience lower income and lower level of spending power they tend to substitute cheaper, lower quality goods for relatively more expensive, higher quality goods. In this light, instant noodles are becoming an indicator of the country’s economic performance. Additionally, this increased consumption of instant noodles brings about many health and economic implications.

Statement of the Problem

In the current deteriorating state of the Philippine economy, instant noodles, because of their affordability and convenience, are slowly replacing traditional food staples and at the same time, becoming an economic indicator.

In this research, the author focus on how instant noodles are gaining popularity in the Philippines in relation to this product’s characteristics and the influences of the economy and income per capita. The paper would also solve the following questions: how the consumption level of instant noodles is indicative of the country’s economic activity? What are the implications that the growing consumption of instant noodles may have on the Philippine economy and the health of the population?

Importance of the study

More knowledge on this topic could prove useful to understanding how the instant noodle market could become an effective gauge of a country’s performance and the state of living. In addition, by delving into the subject, more information may be made available and would allow future studies to look more closely on how instant noodles may be improved to further benefit the general population. Also, the growing industry may be prove to be useful as a mechanism of providing labor and other forms of economic benefits for the country. As poverty continues to be rampant and resources remain scarce, instant noodles may prove to be a solution to some of the problems faced by the Philippines today.

Scope and Limitation of the Study

The research will focus on the consumer activity of households with relatively low income and how it would relate to the economy. The survey for this paper will be conducted with 30 respondents at Brgy. 617, a relatively impoverished urban community situated in Sampaloc, Manila. The interview will also take place in the said barangay.

Subject: Accounting
Subject of Topic: Instant Noodles
Topic: The effects of noodles to those family who has low income Purpose: The purpose of this research is to further increase the understanding of how the economic state of a country affects its consumers’ behaviors towards instant noodles or even similar products. Title: Instant Noodles Becoming a Replacement for Traditional Food Staples in Brgy. 617 Sampaloc, Manila and an Indicator of the Philippine Economy.

Instant Noodle Market: An Economic Indicator in the Philippines Essay

Cultural Diplomacy: a Filipino Perspective Essay

Cultural Diplomacy: a Filipino Perspective Essay.


Considered as a relatively new term in international relations and among governments, a commonly cited definition of cultural diplomacy is that of Milton Cummings, an American Political Scientist which defines Cultural Diplomacy as “the exchange of ideas, information, values, systems, traditions, beliefs, and other aspects of culture, with the intention of fostering mutual understanding” between or among nations (Kang, 2013) or simply put, it pertains to a cultural form of international communication between and/or among nations (Kieldanowicz).

It was only during the past decade when governments started to and have increasingly paid attention to the practice of Cultural Diplomacy and have acknowledged the growing importance of cultural dimensions in analyzing the ever-increasing complexity of foreign affairs (Kang, 2013).

Art and culture are two important aspects of cultural diplomacy, as these are the forefront of many countries’ promotional efforts. The showcasing of a country’s cultural heritage, as made possible by cultural diplomacy, provides a country with the opportunity of showing who they are and create a positive image which will help them achieve their political aims (Kieldanowicz).

This belief was echoed by Philippine DFA Secretary Albert del Rosario was quoted saying “DFA recognizes the impact of culture in modern diplomacy and sees it as an effective tool in protecting our national interest, in advancing our advocacies and in achieving the development agenda of the country in the international arena. Cultural diplomacy is described as “…a course of actions, which are based on and utilize the exchange of ideas, values, traditions and other aspects of culture or identity, whether to strengthen relationships, enhance socio-cultural cooperation or promote national interests; Cultural diplomacy can be practiced by either the public sector, private sector or civil society.” From this definition, we can gather that cultural diplomacy is similar to an agreement between two countries for the purpose of strengthening their relations through their cultures.


The first issue which the group considers significant in line with the establishment of cultural diplomacy is the young population’s patronization of Korean, Japanese and American pop culture. As previously mentioned, art and culture makes up our identity as Filipinos, however with the continuous and increasing “Japanesation, Koreanisation and Americanization” of our young generation, the young population is slowly losing its Filipino identity this then becomes a hindrance to the promotion of local Philippine culture, so the question is how could the Philippine local culture be promoted abroad if locally, there is difficulty in promoting, much less preserving it.


The ‘Japanesation’, ‘Koreanisation’ and ‘Westernization’ of the Filipino pop culture must be addressed by the Philippine government. We believe however, that action must first be taken in the local or domestic level and extend it later on to the international level by virtue of foreign policy. In line with this issue the government may sponsor students to study sociology with focus on Philippine culture, or establish art competitions such as song-writing and painting contests and the like. This will later on be reflected in the foreign policy by the establishment of government sponsorship of foreign students studying of Philippine culture and society.

As we know, globalization is defined as “worldwide integration and development” and it has helped in improving the economy of different countries. Nowadays, there is a need for all the countries need to improve their exports to be able to make it in the international market. But despite that, globalization has also caused problems such as in cultural diplomacy, an example of this is the Business Process Outsourcing Industry. Even though the pay is nice in such an industry, there is an issue concerning cultural clashes. Since most of the BPOs came from the western side of the earth and then merely outsourced, there is a clash of what are the ways of living in one certain country and the ways of doing things when brought to the receiving country. There would be a lot of issues that would need to be addressed which causes in problems in cultural diplomacy.

Let’s use the call center business as an example. Let’s us say that there is a new call center has been outsourced here in the Philippines. In the country where the call center originated they do no not celebrate Christmas or Lent but here in the Philippines we do celebrate these events. This is where the clash begins, because these are two different countries with two different cultures, it would be hard to make or form a cultural diplomacy. There is a need to have talks to address such issues and so that both parties can agree on decide on something to agree on to form a partnership through cultural diplomacy.

Cultural Diplomacy: a Filipino Perspective Essay

Water Pollution in the Philippines Essay

Water Pollution in the Philippines Essay.

The Philippines is an archipelago, which means it is made up of a group of islands and is rich in bodies of water such as the oceans, rivers, and lakes. However, according to the data released by Water Environment Partnership in Asia (WEPA) in 2005, 42.89% of the waters in the Philippines are contaminated. These contaminated waters have not only been continuously harming people, but also the aquatic ecosystem of the country. It is said that approximately 31 percent of illness monitored for a 5-year period were caused by water borne sources.

Moreover, more and more ecosystems are being polluted, causing serious diseases, water shortages, and extinction of aquatic animals and coral reefs. In this essay, I would like to discuss about three main sources of water pollution in the Philippines and its possible solutions: one, domestic waste; two, agricultural waste; and three, industrial waste.

The first reason concerns domestic waste. Domestic waste refers to the organic pollution that usually comes from our houses by generating activities such as using the toilet, doing the laundry, and washing dishes.

Unknown to many Filipinos, their homes are the biggest source of water pollution, contributing 48 percent of the organic pollution in the country. The reason for this is that most of the houses in the Philippines are not connected to a water sewerage system, which results to the contamination of groundwater with effluents and wastes from septic tanks. Exposure, ingestion, or contact with this contaminated water, which usually occur in the less fortunate area of the country, kill 1,997 people per 100,000 population by either cholera, bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, or typhoid fever, the Department of Health stated. Most Filipinos are not aware of this issue, and if they were, most would not be able to afford connecting on a sewerage system.

The next reason concerns the running off of agricultural waste. The Philippines is mainly an agricultural country with a land of 30 million hectares, 47 percent of which is agricultural. Having stated this, agricultural waste in the Philippines contributes 37 percent of the water pollution in the country. No one would question the critical value of water and food to human civilizations. However, these agricultural productions possess a serious threat to the rivers. The agricultural production of the Philippines has been based upon a large amount application of chemicals to the land. Fertilizers used for farming contain a large quantity of nitrogen and phosphorus. These enrich the soil near the lakes and rivers, and help algae grow at a considerable rate. These algae use all the oxygen and do not leave anything for the rest of the aquatic life around. Moreover, algae formation blocks the passage of light and air for the other aquatic animals. This has an adverse effect on the biological life of these aquatic animals, which is termed Eutrophication.

The third reason concerns the discharge of industrial waste. The industrialization of the Philippines has led to more and more infrastructure constructions and factories starting to line up along the rivers. These factories find rivers and oceans a convenient place to dump their waste materials such as acids, toxic metals, oil, and pesticides. For example, in Manila, the capital city of the Philippines, an oil depot built along the Pasig River has been releasing liquid and solid wastes that worsened the contamination of the river, making the river a huge sewer system. These toxic substances are quite harmful for humans as well as aquatic animals. Living near these contaminated rivers means surrounding one’s self with infected mosquitos that can give people dengue fever. In addition, with all these waste in the rivers, our fish get sick or are killed, leading to extinction of fish and decrease of food production in the Philippines.

It is important that action is taken to combat these problems. For example, to lessen the distribution of domestic wastes to the water pollution in the Philippines, proper sensitization of the masses about the need for proper disposal of domestic waste should be implemented. Educational projects where the people are taught about the importance and proper domestic waste disposal should be set up. This will deal with the problem of the ignorance of the masses. Setting up adequate waste handling, such as putting biodegradable and non-biodegradable trash cans in schools and public areas, disposal facilities and a proper disposal location with proper management will save people from carelessly disposing waste. Moreover, the government should enforce existing laws and restructure the budget for environmental issues and ensure at least 50 percent of the houses are connected on a water sewerage system.

To lessen and stop agricultural wastes that pollutes water, prevention of the usage of harmful chemical as fertilizers are needed. While people may find nitrogen and phosphorus helpful, much of their volume is being washed off on lawns and into the nearest waterways. These also tend to degrade the quality of the soil, causing more and more reliance on the chemicals over time. Eutrophication can be avoided by using minimal required amounts of chemical fertilizers and or by using natural fertilizers such us manure or compost. Making sure that the fields where these chemicals and fertilizers are not close to the rivers, taking extra care while using fertilizers during rainy seasons in the Philippines usually from June to September, which can run-off and transmitted to the waters and can cause blockage of waterways, death of marine life and breakage of food chain should be done immediately and seriously.

For the reduction of industrial wastes, the government should not permit factories and buildings to be built near or along the oceans or rivers. Building these infrastructures away from the waters will prevent the discharge of waste materials such as oil and toxic metals. These companies will have no other options, but to segregate their wastes and dispose it properly. Any offender shall be punished by the law and pay a big amount of fine, which will be then used to treat the contaminated water by filtration and sedimentation. This way, companies will be more careful about their decisions in choosing locations on where to build their factories. Moreover, this law will only have positive outcomes because the money that the offenders pay will be for a good and better cause.

In conclusion, the Philippines is a country enriched of seas, rivers, lakes, and other bodies of water that are now polluted due to different human activities. There are three main sources of water pollution in the Philippines. The first is domestic wastes which come from houses when people bathe, wash clothes, and wash dishes. Learning about proper waste disposal and enforcing laws should be done to lessen this pollution source. The second source is agricultural waste, which refers to the large amount of chemicals put in the land for food production, which after used, are washed away to the waters and produces algae that harms the aquatic ecosystem and pollutes it. Prevention of the usage of chemicals used in agricultural work will help decrease the amount of pollution. The third source is industrial waste. Industrial wastes are the effluents coming from big factories that are built and connected to the rivers and lakes. Making new laws that will punish these factories and companies will contribute to minimizing water pollution in the Philippines. To sum up, human activities in general are the main reasons for the severe water pollution in the Philippines and we humans, are also the only ones who can stop this critical environmental problem.

Water Pollution in the Philippines Essay

Filipino Patriotism Essay

Filipino Patriotism Essay.

As time passes by, a person’s traits, behavior and personality changes generation to generation, some changes are positive and some are negative, but does Filipino traits today a positive or a negative change when we relate it to the love for our country? Filipinos today are somehow unpredictable. Why? Of course we’re not god to predict what they can or will do that somehow can put the country to shame. But as you can see, we, Filipino’s can do everything now, thanks to our ancestors who successfully freed our country, but sadly some are abusing or overusing the gifts we received from our ancestors.

Feeling free and can do everything, Filipinos somehow became spoiled, that they only think and do things for theirselves, never for the country. Some says that all the Filipinos who work abroad are considered as Filipino patriots. Let’s see. Why do you think some Filipino’s went to other countries just to work? Is it for our country? Or is it because of our country? Many workers reasons are that they need to gain higher amount of money everyday to sustain their and their family needs that they have to sacrifice their lives for their family.

It’s really for their family not for the country, yes they are heroes: heroes of their own family. You see, nowadays, you’ll never hear these sentence anymore: “oh, I went to other countries for our own country. ” It’s just a sad thing that we make ourselves believe that when we work abroad we might be already a Filipino patriot, but the real thing is, we are leaving our country behind, we never know that maybe someone out there needs us so bad that when we cooperate with them to contribute in raising our country’s economy.

And have you ever noticed that some people, permanently leave this country after they earned enough money, and the worst, others, denies or are ashamed of their nationality. A Filipino in new York posted this, “Deep down inside every Filipino knows that there is a sense of patriotism soon to erupt. But now is not the time. There’s no sense of showing Filipino pride when we have a government as lame as this. Nakakahiya pa nga minsan eh. ”

And another Filipino posted this, “After the September 11 tragedy, you’ll see people wearing American Flag shirts, cars have American Flags hanging out, American tickers being given away free everywhere, and what not. Wow, do *I* have one on my car…. well yes, because I live in U. S. soil and I’m a Fil-Am.. but.. wait!!! Deep inside me I’m still a proud Filipino, I will stand behind my country till the end, and it hurts because it looks like no one else besides me thinks Philippines have a chance. ” It’s a sad thing hearing or reading posts like this. Is Filipino patriotism, really dying? How about the youth? Wouldn’t they do anything about it? Who is responsible enough to guide and pursue youth to do anything for our country?

Filipino Patriotism Essay

The Spanish Colonization in the Philippines Essay

The Spanish Colonization in the Philippines Essay.

The Philippines was very lucky because our country was rich in natural resources. And that is the reason why many foreign countries had colonized our country. Spain is one of the foreign countries that colonized our country for more than three hundred years. They are the reason why Filipinos experienced suffered, hardship, persecution etc. during their colonization. But the Spanish had also contributes good things in our country specially to us Filipinos. The Spanish colonization in the Philippines lead to us to make some questions in our mind on how does the Filipino survived? Even though they experienced the inhumanity of the Spaniards.

We can say that the Filipino during the time of the Spanish was so very poor and pity because the Spaniards treated the Filipino people not as human being but as their slaves. They abused the Filipino. The lives of the Filipinos during the Spanish colonization was so very difficult. They never experienced the “freedom”.

Even though there are many negative things that the Spaniards given to the Filipinos but there is still positive contributions that the Spanish government given to us.

And one of this positive contribution is their culture. The Spanish people introduced us what are their culture like they introduced us their Latin alphabet, the art of painting, the appearance of Theocratic Literature, the persistence of folk and colonial art and the Hispanic music and western musical instrument. This contributions brought such good things in the Filipinos because this things helped us to improved our culture and ourselves. The Spanish government also helped the Filipino in their educational situation. The Spanish teach the Filipino children not only about academics but also religious things. They teach them on how to become a God-fearing person. And also the Spanish government founded different schools.

There were primary, secondary, tertiary schools that the Spanish built in our country like the Ateneo, the University of Santo Tomas (UST), the Santa Isabel and many more. And we are very thankful because those schools were still teaching the Filipino people until now. And also the Spanish government transformed the Filipino people socially. Like the hispanization of Filipino surnames. Also the Spanish introduced to the Filipino to used the stone in building construction so that the bahay kubo was transformed into bahay na bato with balcony and we think that was the style of some houses today. And they also changed the mode of Filipino dressing. The Spanish introduced the wearing western coat and trousers or amiricana, which replaced their traditional jacket and bahag for men.

They also encourage the Filipino men to stop using the putong and instead wore hats and they even started wearing slippers and shoes instead of going around barefoot. And for women they started using saya and camisa, replacing their traditional sarong. The women also learned to used manton de manila or shawls and handkerchief and also like the men, the women started using slippers and shoes. The Spanish also influenced us to celebrate religious feasts honoring patron Saints because this is the consequence for being converted into Catholicism. The Spanish changed the lives of Filipino. Even though the Spanish was inhumanity but the Filipino was still lucky because the Spanish people exerted efforts to implement our country by sharing to us the way of their living and those things contributed a lot to us Filipino.

And we also give thanks to the Spanish because they converted the Filipino into Catholicism because if the Spain had not succeeded to colonized our country, then our country would have been a Muslim nation now. Catholicism is the most important contribution that the Spanish given to us. The Spanish colonization in the Philippines brought such poverty, violence, misery to us Filipino. But it also contributes us a lot of good things. They improved and helped our country in many ways.

Even though the Filipino experienced the inhumanity of the Spaniards but still they influenced us the way of their living and until today we still used and make those influences in our daily lives. The only thing that we can say in the Spanish colonization is that we felt different emotions. We felt angry because the Spaniards abused the Filipino they treated them as slaves. We felt sad because their are many Filipinos sacrificed their own lives just for the sake of the country man. And for the freedom of our country. And also we felt happy because the Spaniards contributes many good things in our country, the Philippines.

The Spanish Colonization in the Philippines Essay

Related Studies for Online Shopping Essay

Related Studies for Online Shopping Essay. is a classified ads website that caters primarily to Philippine market. It is an online marketplace where people buy and sell a wide variety of goods, products, and services under different categories such as real estate, automotives, careers, business products and services, and many more among Filipino individuals and business groups all over the world.[3] Launched on September 11, 2006, the free online classified ads website was named for 2 reasons: (1) “Sulit” is a Filipino word that means “worth it” in English, describing the affordability of items being sold by the site’s members; and (2) Sulit is an acronym for “Super Low Internet Trading.

In addition to the buy and sell platform, also provides an online community among Filipino web users. Through the forum, members interact with one another about various topics including business, lifestyle, current events, and health among many others. Thus, can also be translated to “Sulit Community in the Philippines.

” is an online classified-ads website catering to the Philippine market. It is owned and operated by 701Search Pte., Ltd., which is a joint venture between media giantsSingapore Press Holdings and Schibsted. Launched in March 2009,[2] AyosDito offers free posting of ads for items such as properties, cars, computers, cellphones, electronic gadgets, food, and even jobs.

The phrase “Ayos Dito” is Tagalog for “Ok here”.
Despite the rather plain site layout and design, people generally find the website very fast and simple to use.[3]

Related Studies for Online Shopping Essay

Mining in the Philippines Essay

Mining in the Philippines Essay.

A. Introduction

The Philippine Government believes that a well-developed minerals industry is an option that can catalyze economic development and community empowerment. Minerals are part of its national patrimony, hence there is a big responsibility to maximize the benefits that can be derived from their utilization with due regard to the protection of the environment and without sacrificing the interests of communities.

The legal and administrative framework governing the minerals industry in the Philippines is contained in Republic Act No. 7942 (otherwise known as the Philippine Mining Act of 1995) and given flesh by its revised implementing rules and regulations (Administrative Order No.

96-40) and its subsequent amendments. These policies advocate the sustainable development of mineral resources in the country.

While both the Mining Act and its regulations provide a strong focus on environmental and social management, they continue to be the subject of debate by some non-government organizations who are questioning the compatibility of extraction and utilization of minerals with sustainable development.

Also, they have questioned the constitutionality of the major provisions of the Mining Act governing the participation of foreign-owned corporations in the exploration, development and utilization of these mineral resources by filing a case at the Supreme Court in February, 1997.

After eight years of study, the high court initially decided to sustain the charge of the contesting parties. However, after successful presentation of arguments by Government and industry on the merits of allowing foreign investors to participate in the development of the minerals industry, the case was finally resolved in December 1, 2004 when the high court reversed its earlier decision and upheld the constitutionality of the contested provisions in the Mining Act. With this legal impediment removed, exploration and development activities in the Philippine minerals industry is due to become vibrant once again.

Compared to previous policy regimes on mining, the Mining Act calls for a greater responsibility from Government and the industry. Mining companies are expected to work closer with stakeholders to improve the quality of life within the communities where they operate. As regulator, Government, on the other hand, has the responsibility of establishing and maintaining the enabling environment for a sustainable development of the industry.

Minerals development in the country is led by no less than the President of the Republic of the Philippines. In her declaration of a policy shift in mining “from tolerance to promotion”, minerals development was elevated among the priority economic activities in the country during her presidential tenure. Early this year, she signed Executive Order No. 270 which approved a national policy agenda on revitalizing the minerals industry based on the principles of sustainable development. From this order, a Minerals Action Plan (MAP) was subsequently formulated by Government to chart a roadmap for the future development of the minerals industry. Minerals development is now an important component of the Medium Term Philippine Development Plan 2004-2010.

Mining in the Philippines Essay

The Inclusion of Transgender Women in the Miss Universe Essay

The Inclusion of Transgender Women in the Miss Universe Essay.

In a beauty-pageant-crazy country like the Philippines, the annual Miss Universe pageantry is a most-awaited event for many Filipinos. It is that time when many Filipino people gravitate towards their TV sets with their eyes wide open as though entranced on the pageant events as they unfold. Probably next to boxing, the Miss Universe pageant is the most-widely watched worldwide event in the Philippines. As evidence of the country’s penchant for this event, the country has fared quite well as far as producing winners is concerned.

Gloria Diaz copped the coveted crown in 1969. Margie Moran duplicated the feat in 1973. And not a few others almost brought home the crown in their respective attempts: Miriam Quiambao landed 1st runner-up in 1999; Desiree Verdadero made it to the final 5 and landed 3rd runner-up in 1983. Most recently, Venus Raj won 4th runner-up last year and Shamcey Supsup upped the ante by landing 3rd runner-up this year. The Miss Universe pageant of pulchritude draws everybody’s attention.

Any news about it is lapped up by both local and international media.

This beauty competition is indeed newsworthy – even by itself. A recent turn of events, however, has sent the entire beauty pageant-conscious members of the populace even more curious and intrigued by the recent amendments to the pageant rules. The pageant’s governing body – with its owner, Mr. Donald Trump nodding in approval himself – has decided in favor of a transgender woman from Canada by allowing her to compete among biologically-born female contestants in the said pageant. Subsequently, sentiments from different sectors go abuzz. Some give their nods of approval.

Others though sneered. The Miss Universe beauty pageant continues to stew in controversy over the appeals of disqualified Canadian candidate Jenna Talackova, a transgender woman, with a former Miss Universe finalist rejecting the notion of contestants who sport male genitals. The Miss Universe Organization (MUO) announced that they have lifted the disqualification and has decided to reinstate Talackova in the competition. The organization also said that they are going to revamp the pageant rules to accommodate transgender women in the contest beginning 2013.

According to MUO President Paula Shugart, who was quoted in an article published on the official website of the Gay and Lesbian Alliance Against Discrimination (GLAAD): “We want to give credit where credit is due, and the decision to include transgender women in our beauty competitions is a result of our ongoing discussions with GLAAD and not Jenna’s legal representation, which if anything, delayed the process. “We have a long history of supporting equality for all women, and this was something we took very seriously.

Is it fair including transgender women in the Miss Universe pageant or in any beauty pageants that originally allow only biological females, for that matter? Being a predominantly Catholic/Christian country, what is the impact of the inclusion of the transgender woman in the Miss Universe pageant to the population, especially the youth? How do different people react to this recent development? What do people think about the decision of the Miss Universe body to include a transgender woman in its competition?

The Inclusion of Transgender Women in the Miss Universe Essay

Same Sex Marriage in the Philippines Essay

Same Sex Marriage in the Philippines Essay.

Same-sex couples should be allowed to publicly celebrate their commitment in the same way as heterosexual couples. [40] The Human Rights Campaign Foundation states that many same-sex couples “want the right to legally marry [and] honor their relationship in the greatest way our society has to offer…”

Same-sex couples should have access to the same benefits enjoyed by heterosexual married couples. Many benefits are only available to married couples, such as hospital visitation during an illness, taxation and inheritance rights, access to family health coverage, and protection in the event of the relationship ending.

[6] An Oct. 2, 2009 analysis by the New York Times estimates that a same-sex couple denied marriage benefits will incur an additional $41,196 to $467,562 in expenses over their lifetime compared to a married heterosexual couple. [7]

The concept of “traditional marriage” being defined as one man and one woman is historically inaccurate. Given the prevalence of modern and ancient examples of family arrangements based on polygamy, communal child-rearing, the use of concubines and mistresses and the commonality of prostitution, heterosexual monogamy can be considered “unnatural” in evolutionary terms.


Marriage is redefined as society’s attitudes evolve, and the majority of Americans now support gay marriage. Interracial marriage was illegal in many US states until a 1967 Supreme Court decision. Coverture, where a woman’s legal rights and economic identity were subsumed by her husband upon marriage, was commonplace in 19th century America. No-fault divorce has changed the institution of marriage since its introduction in California on Jan. 1, 1970. With a May 2013 Gallup poll showing 53% of Americans supporting gay marriage, it is time for the definition of marriage to evolve once again. [72]

Gay marriage is protected by the Constitution’s commitments to liberty and equality. The US Supreme Court ruled in 1974’s Cleveland Board of Education v. LaFleur that the “freedom of personal choice in matters of marriage and family life is one of the liberties protected by the Due Process Clause.” US District Judge Vaughn Walker wrote on Aug. 4, 2010 that Prop. 8 in California banning gay marriage was “unconstitutional under both the Due Process and Equal Protection Clauses.” [41]

Denying same-sex couples the right to marry stigmatizes gay and lesbian families as inferior and sends the message that it is acceptable to discriminate against them. The Massachusetts Supreme Court wrote in an opinion to the state Senate on Feb. 3, 2004 that offering civil unions was not an acceptable alternative to gay marriage because “…it is a considered choice of language that reflects a demonstrable assigning of same-sex, largely homosexual, couples to second-class status.” [42]

Gay marriages can bring financial gain to state and local governments. Revenue from gay marriage comes from marriage licenses, higher income taxes (the so-called “marriage penalty”), and decreases in costs for state benefit programs. [4] The Comptroller for New York City found that legalizing gay marriage would bring $142 million to the city’s economy and $184 million to the state’s economy over three years. [43]

Gay marriage would make it easier for same-sex couples to adopt, providing stable homes for children who would otherwise be left in foster care. [68] In the US, 100,000 children are waiting to be adopted. [44] A longitudinal study published in Pediatrics on June 7, 2010 found that children of lesbian mothers were rated higher than children of heterosexual parents in social and academic competence and had fewer social problems. [45] A July 2010 study found that children of gay fathers were “as well-adjusted as those adopted by heterosexual parents.” [46] As Washington Post columnist Ezra Klein argues, “We should be begging gay couples to adopt children. We should see this as a great boon that gay marriage could bring to kids who need nothing more than two loving parents.” [68]

Marriage provides both physical and psychological health benefits, and banning gay marriage increases rates of psychological disorders. [5] The American Psychological Association, American Psychiatric Association, and others wrote in a Sep. 2007 amicus brief, “…allowing same-sex couples to marry would give them access to the social support that already facilitates and strengthens heterosexual marriages, with all of the psychological and physical health benefits associated with that support.” [47] A 2010 analysis published in the American Journal of Public Health found that after their states had banned gay marriage, gay, lesbian and bisexual people suffered a 37% increase in mood disorders, a 42% increase in alcohol-use disorders, and a 248% increase in generalized anxiety disorders. [69]

Legalizing gay marriage will not harm heterosexual marriages or “family values,” and society will continue to function successfully. A study published on Apr. 13, 2009 in Social Science Quarterly found that “[l]aws permitting same-sex marriage or civil unions have no adverse effect on marriage, divorce, and abortion rates, [or] the percent of children born out of wedlock…” [48] The Executive Board of the American Anthropological Association found that more than a century of research has shown “no support whatsoever for the view that either civilization or viable social orders depend upon marriage as an exclusively heterosexual institution. Rather, anthropological research supports the conclusion that a vast array of family types, including families built upon same-sex partnerships, can contribute to stable and humane societies.” [8]

Marriage is a secular institution which should not be limited by religious objections to gay marriage. Nancy Cott, PhD, testified in Perry v. Schwarzenegger that “[c]ivil law has always been supreme in defining and regulating marriage” and that religious leaders are accustomed to performing marriages only because the state has given them that authority. [41]

Gay marriage legalization is correlated with lower divorce rates, while gay marriage bans are correlated with higher divorce rates. Massachusetts, which became the first state to legalize gay marriage in 2004, had the lowest divorce rate in the country in 2008. Its divorce rate declined 21% between 2003 and 2008. Alaska, which altered its constitution to prohibit gay marriage in 1998, saw a 17.2% increase in its divorce rate. The seven states with the highest divorce rates between 2003 and 2008 all had constitutional prohibitions to gay marriage. [2]

If the reason for marriage is strictly reproduction, infertile couples would not be allowed to marry. Ability or desire to create offspring has never been a qualification for marriage. George Washington, often referred to as “the Father of Our Country,” did not have children with his wife Martha Custis, and neither did four other married US presidents have children with their wives. [9]

Same-sex marriage is a civil right. The 1967 Supreme Court case Loving v. Virginia confirmed that marriage is “one of the basic civil rights of man,” [60] and same-sex marriages should receive the same protections given to interracial marriages by that ruling. The NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People), on May 19, 2012, named same-sex marriage as “one of the key civil rights struggles of our time.” [61] CON Gay Marriage

The institution of marriage has traditionally been defined as between a man and a woman. In the Oct. 15, 1971 decision Baker v. Nelson, the Supreme Court of Minnesota found that “The institution of marriage as a union of man and woman, uniquely involving the procreation and rearing of children within a family, is as old as the book of Genesis.” [49]

Allowing gay couples to wed will further weaken the institution of marriage. Traditional marriage is already threatened with high divorce rates (between 40% and 50%) and with 40.6% of babies being born to unmarried mothers in 2008. Allowing same-sex couples to marry would further weaken the institution. [50] [51] As argued by Ryan T. Anderson, William E. Simon Fellow in Religion and a Free Society at The Heritage Foundation, “In recent decades, marriage has been weakened by a revisionist view that is more about adults’ desires than children’s needs… Redefining marriage to include same-sex relationships is the culmination of this revisionism, and it would leave emotional intensity as the only thing that sets marriage apart from other bonds.” [70]

Gay marriage could potentially lead down a “slippery slope” giving people in polygamous, incestuous, bestial, and other nontraditional relationships the right to marry. [10] Glen Lavy, JD, senior counsel with the Alliance Defense Fund, argued in a May 21, 2008 Los Angeles Times Op-Ed, “The movement for polygamy and polyamory is poised to use the successes of same-sex couples as a springboard for further de-institutionalizing marriage.” [11] In April 2013, Slate published a plea for legal polygamy by writer Jillian Keenan: “Just like heterosexual marriage is no better or worse than homosexual marriage, marriage between two consenting adults is not inherently more or less ‘correct’ than marriage among three (or four, or six) consenting adults.” [71]

People should not have their tax dollars used to support something they believe is wrong. Gay marriage would entitle gay couples to typical marriage benefits including claiming a tax exemption for a spouse, receiving social security payments from a deceased spouse, and coverage by a spouse’s health insurance policy. On Dec. 17, 2009, the Congressional Budget Office estimated that the cost to the federal government of extending employment benefits to same-sex domestic partners of certain federal employees (making no mention of additional costs such as Social Security and inheritance taxes) would be $596 million in mandatory spending and $302 million in discretionary spending between 2010 and 2019. [37]

Gay marriage may lead to more children being raised in same-sex households, which are not an optimum environment because children need both a mother and father. Girls who are raised apart from their fathers are reportedly at higher risk for early sexual activity and teenage pregnancy. [52] Children without a mother are deprived of the emotional security and unique advice that mothers provide. An Apr. 2001 study published in American Sociological Review suggesed that children with lesbian or gay parents are more likely to engage in homosexual behavior. [53] In the 1997 book Growing up in a Lesbian Family: Effects on Child Development, Fiona Tasker, PhD, and Susan Golombok, PhD, observed that 25% of sampled young adults raised by lesbian mothers had engaged in a homoerotic relationship, compared to 0% of sampled young adults raised by heterosexual mothers. [13]

Gay marriage will accelerate the assimilation of gays into mainstream heterosexual culture to the detriment of the homosexual community. The gay community has created its own vibrant culture. By reducing the differences in opportunities and experiences between gay and heterosexual people, this unique culture may cease to exist. As M.V. Lee Badgett, PhD summarizes, “marriage means adopting heterosexual forms of family and giving up distinctively gay family forms and perhaps even gay and lesbian culture.” [14]

The institution of marriage is sexist and oppressive; it should not be expanded but weakened. Paula Ettelbrick, JD, Professor of Law and Women’s Studies, wrote in 1989, “Marriage runs contrary to two of the primary goals of the lesbian and gay movement: the affirmation of gay identity and culture and the validation of many forms of relationships.” [15] The leaders of the Gay Liberation Front in New York said in July 1969, “We expose the institution of marriage as one of the most insidious and basic sustainers of the system. The family is the microcosm of oppression.” [16]

Same-sex marriage has undermined the institution of marriage in Scandinavia. Sweden began offering same-sex couples benefits in 1987, followed by Denmark in 1989 and Norway in 1993. According to a Feb. 29, 2004 report by Stanley Kurtz, PhD, from 1990 to 2000, Norway’s out-of-wedlock birthrate rose from 39% to 50% and Sweden’s rose from 47% to 55%. Unmarried parenthood in Denmark rose 25% during the 1990s, and approximately 60% of first born Danish children have unmarried parents. As Kurtz states, “Marriage is slowly dying in Scandinavia.” [17]

Marriage is a privilege, not a right. Society can choose to endorse certain types of sexual arrangements and give support in the form of benefits to these arrangements. Marriage was created to allow society to support heterosexual couples in procreation and society can choose not to give the same benefits to same-sex couples. [18]

Marriage should not be extended to same-sex couples because they cannot produce children together. Allowing gay marriage would only further shift the purpose of marriage from producing and raising children to adult gratification. [19]

Marriage is a religious rite between one man and one woman. According to a July 31, 2003 statement from the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith and approved by Pope John Paul II, marriage “was established by the Creator with its own nature, essential properties and purpose. No ideology can erase from the human spirit the certainty that marriage exists solely between a man and a woman…” [54]

Gay marriage is incompatible with the beliefs, sacred texts, and traditions of many religious groups. The Catholic Church, Presbyterian Church, Islam, United Methodist Church, Southern Baptist Convention, Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, National Association of Evangelicals, and American Baptist Churches USA all oppose same-sex marriage. Expanding marriage to include same-sex couples may lead to churches being forced to marry couples and children being taught in school that same-sex marriage is the same as opposite-sex marriage. [12]

Same-sex marriage is not a civil rights issue, and conflating the issue with interracial marriage is misleading. Matthew D. Staver, JD, Dean of the Liberty University School of Law, explained: “The unifying characteristics of the protected classes within the Civil Rights Act of 1964 include (1) a history of longstanding, widespread discrimination, (2) economic disadvantage, and (3) immutable characteristics… ‘Sexual orientation’ does not meet any of the three objective criteria shared by the historically protected civil rights cat

Same Sex Marriage in the Philippines Essay