Diet Analysis Project Essay

Diet Analysis Project Essay.

1. How does your daily caloric intake stack up compared to what is recommended?
Unfortunately, after completing my diet analysis, I found out that my daily caloric intake is 1,5 times higher than it is recommended. According to the USDA website my caloric intake should be 1880 per day, by in reality it is 2972 (about 3000 per day). Now I understand why I started to gain weight, even though I don’t eat much or often.

2. What nutrients do you consume the most? Does this pattern reflect a healthy diet? Compare your results to dietary recommendations provided on the website.

After reviewing my nutrient intakes, I discovered that I consume too much carbohydrates, cholesterol and sodium. While acceptable range of carbohydrates is 130, I consume about 300 per day. Similarly, instead of recommended <300 of cholesterol I consume 443. The worst situation is in my sodium intake – instead of acceptable 1500-2300 I consume 6634. As I clearly see now, my diet can not be considered as healthy, as I thought before completing this assignment.

3.Look at your results on the food pyramid. What are the sources of your calories? Should you be on the high or low side of recommended serving sizes in the categories? And why?
According to My Food Pyramid I consume, I am mostly on the high side of recommended serving sizes. My protein intake takes the highest place, what I believe is not healthy because my intake is 3 times higher than it is recommended. My vegetables and fruits intake is almost equal to the recommended serving size, but it is a little bit higher. I am glad that I do a good job with these products. My grains intake is also on the high side, but I think that it is a good thing for me. The only food I am on a low side is milk intake. However, it does not affect my calcium intake which is 962.6 while the recommended range is 1000.

4. Make 4 specific dietary recommendations based on these reports.
**For each recommendation, include a diet change that is based on sound nutrition. The true value of this assignment comes when your initiate your recommendations. Suggest changes that would work for you. 1) I would recommend myself to increase milk intake, to increase my calcium and Vitamin A level (which was half of what is recommended) by making milk shake with fruit juice, which use to be my favorite when I was a child. 2) I need to decrease carbohydrates (which are now 3 times higher than it is recommended) in my diet by using sweeteners with my morning tea and sugar free products, such as sugar free yogurts, candies and pies. 3) I need to decrease protein intake by decreasing quantity of meat in my diet. 4) Definitely, I need to eat less salty food such as chips, pretzels and french-fries because my sodium intake is 3 times higher than it is recommended.

Diet Analysis Project Essay

Reflection of Daily Nutrition Intake Essay

Reflection of Daily Nutrition Intake Essay.

Hypothesis:

My daily caloric intake is anticipated to be higher than the recommended allowance of carbohydrates, lipids and sodium; however, it is expected to be lower than the recommended allowance for proteins, minerals, and vitamins.

Research:

In the United States, people use almost their entire food budget on processed foods which often have been treated with chemicals after being harvested or butchered. These chemicals are additives and preservatives which are substances intended to change the food before it is purchased by customers.

Additives can be flavorings that enhance the food’s taste, dyes that alter the color, and dietary additives, such as vitamins, minerals, fatty acids and other supplements. Preservatives are used to extend a products shelf life by preventing bacterial or fungal growth, oxidation (which can lead to the discoloration or rancidity), or inhibiting the natural ripening of fruits and vegetables. Packaging is considered an “Indirect Food Additive” because it can add substances to the food it protects. A common preservative in the food that I eat is called propionic acid, which prevents mold in bread.

Also, most processed foods rely on additives to restore the flavor that is lost in processing or create new flavors altogether.

For example McDonald’s chicken products like Chicken McNuggets® add “chicken flavor”. A food additive is considered fit for human consumption after the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approves it. However, this decision can prove to be poor because when certain chemicals are added to processed food products, some of these food and color additives provoke an allergic reaction or other critical health problems. For example, monosodium glutamate (MSG) causes headaches, nausea, weakness, difficulty breathing, drowsiness, rapid heartbeat, and chest pain. This can be avoided because it is required for all of the ingredients to be listed on the food label. Unfortunately, additives and preservatives are often unclear as to what they include. Saturated fat is found in foods from animals and certain types of plants. Foods from animals include beef, lamb, pork, lard, poultry fat, and other dairy products made from milk. Foods from plants that contain saturated fat include coconut, tropical oils, and cocoa butter.

Two types of unsaturated fat are polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fats. They are found mostly in fish, nuts, seeds and oils from assorted plants. Trans-fatty acids are found in small amounts in various animal products such as beef, pork, lamb and the butterfat in butter and milk. Both polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fats are considered to be healthy because they may help lower one’s blood cholesterol level when replacing saturated and trans fats. Unsaturated fatty acids are found in two different types: “cis” and “trans.” These terms refer to the hydrogen atoms physical positioning around the carbon chain. The cis form is more common than the trans form. In some studies hydrogenated fats, or trans fats, mostly raised the total LDL cholesterol level and lower the HDL cholesterol levels. This could result in the heightened risk of heart disease.

Essential Vitamins and Minerals are often called micronutrients because only a small portion is needed to live a healthy lifestyle. Without these micronutrients one is almost guaranteed to become infected with a disease like scurvy, blindness or rickets. Although they are both considered micronutrients, vitamins and minerals differ in basic ways. Vitamins are organic and can be broken down by heat, air, or acid. Minerals on the other hand are inorganic and hold on to their chemical structure. Essential Vitamins include Fat-Soluble and Water-Soluble Vitamins. The water-soluble vitamins are B and C and the fat-Soluble Vitamins are A, D, E, and K. The fat-soluble vitamins include A, D, E, and K. Firstly, Vitamin A is vital for good vision, prevents night blindness, keeps mucous membranes healthy and is necessary for healthy skin and hair growth. Next, Vitamin D is found in foods obtained from the sun.

It helps bones use the mineral calcium to build strong bones and it prevents rickets. Also, Vitamin E helps breakdown polyunsaturated fats. It is an antioxidant that protects blood cell membranes from too much oxygen. Finally the fat-soluble Vitamin K is essential for the clotting of blood. It can be found in foods or produced in bacteria in the small intestines. The water-soluble vitamins are B and C. C is the most famous vitamin, and is also referred to as ascorbic acid. It helps form collagen, grow and repair body tissue and blood vessels, and prevent scurvy. However, too much Vitamin C can lead to the creation of Kidney stones and the breakdown of red blood cells.

Vitamin B is complex and has several different types such as B1 (Thiamine), B2 (Riboflavin), Naicin, B6, B12, and Folacin. Amino Acids are organic compounds. They are the monomers of proteins and consist of both an amino group and a carboxyl group. The human body is unable to synthesize certain amino acids called “essential amino acids,” “the human body can synthesize all of the amino acids necessary to build proteins except for the ten called the “essential amino acids.””(Nave 1) For example, some of the “essential amino acids are Leucine(leu) and Phenylalanine.

Conclusion:

My hypothesis was correct because as I cataloged my daily nutritional intake I found that the recommended allowance of carbohydrates, lipids and sodium is lower than what I eat and the recommended allowance for proteins, minerals, and vitamins is higher than what I eat. I am supposed to take in approximately 2000 calories a day and, on average, I only eat 900 calories a day. As I reflect on my daily nutritional intake I realize that in order to have a completely healthy lifestyle I must have more essential vitamins and minerals as well as proteins in my diet.

Works Cited
American Heart Association . “Cholesterol.” www.heart.org. American Heart Association , n.d. Web. 11 Nov. 2012. <http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/Conditions/Cholesterol/Cholesterol_UCM_001089_SubHomePage.jsp>. “Helpguide helps you help yourself and others.” Helpguide helps you help yourself and others. N.p., n.d. Web. 11 Nov. 2012. <http://www.helpguide.org/index.htm>. Nave, R. “Essential Amino Acids.” Essential Amino Acids. University of Arizona’s Biology Project , n.d. Web. 11 Nov. 2012. <hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/organic/essam.html>. Sustainable Table. “Food Additives, food additives pose threat – The Issues –

You may also be interested in the following: daily allowance of students

Reflection of Daily Nutrition Intake Essay

Speech On Vegetarianism Essay

Speech On Vegetarianism Essay.

Informative speech on vegetarianism/ Advantages of vegetarianism speech/ Topic on vegetarianism/ Speaking about vegetarianism/ Speech on the topic everyone should be vegetarian/ Vegetarianism essay introduction/ Speech on veganism/ Argumentative essay on vegetarian food is good for

Specific Purpose: To persuade the audience to choose vegetarianism. Main message: The world would be a happier, healthier, more humane place if everyone were vegetarian.

I. Introduction

– Shock them- Imagine going out to eat at a restaurant, and you read entrees like “fried human legs” and “human baby parmesan”. – I believe the world would be a happier, healthier, more humane place if everyone were vegetarian. – Today I am going to enlighten you all about the animal cruelty involved with food processing that goes on behind closed doors, and the healthier lifestyle of being vegetarian.

– Many people believe that humans are the superior species because of our intelligence. Because of their lack of intelligence, animals are tortured and killed. Transition statement: [First let me tell you a little bit about what else you are eating when you choose to eat meat.]

II. Body

A. Every year billions of animals are raised and slaughtered for human consumption. In today’s factory farms animals are confined to extremely small spaces so farmers can concentrate on maximizing production.

1. This over crowding breeds disease, so the animals are fed antibiotics and sprayed with pesticides.

2. The animals are also fed growth hormones.

3. So, the chemicals, antibiotics and hormones are passed on to the consumers. 4. USDA fact sheet, bacterial contamination of animal products often causes illness and death. Salmonella poisoning can be fatal. 5. According to Time Magazine, bad chicken is responsible for at least 1,000 American deaths each year. Transition Statement: [Now, here are some more disturbing facts you should know about meat production. ] B. According to the Animal Protection Institute, in the U.S. alone, every year 41.8million beef cattle, 115 million pigs, and 8.785 billion chickens are slaughtered for human consumption. The animals endure much more. 1. Beef cattle called “downers” are prodded or dragged to the slaughterhouse, or left without food or water to die. 2. Pigs are stunned, hung upside down before their throats are cut and bled to death.

If missed, they go to the scalding tank where they may be boiled alive. 3. Crowed, chickens peck each other to death. Instead of providing space farmers “debeak” them by cutting off their upper beak with a hot blade. 4. I would like to show you some photos taken inside a slaughterhouse. Transition Statement: [If animal cruelty is not enough to change your mind, then maybe your own health concerns will make a difference.] C. Studies show meat-eaters are twice as likely to die from heart disease, and 60% more likely to die from cancer than vegetarians. 1. Meat consumption has been linked to many diseases, osteoporosis, diabetes, kidney disease, hypertension, and obesity.

2. Quoted by William Roberts, MD, editor and chief of The American Journal Of Cardiology, “When we kill animals to eat them, they end up killing us because their flesh, which contains cholesterol and saturated fat, was never intended for human beings, who are natural herbivores.” 3. Vegetarian foods are low in fat, contain no cholesterol, and are rich in fiber. 4. Vegetarians get all the protein they need from beans, tofu, rice, and pasta; all the calcium they need from broccoli and juices; all the iron they need from spinach and pinto beans.

III. Conclusion

A. I hope that I have enlightened you all about the matters of vegetarianism, and I hope you all will make the right moral and health decisions as I have. B. Many people are making the right choices, and this includes famous celebrities like Natalie Portman, and Tobey Maguire. C. You don’t have to be a vegetarian overnight. Start with eliminating red meat, then white, then fish until everything with a face has been eliminated from your diet. D. Quote by Leonardo de Vinci, “I have, from an early age renounced eating meat. The time will come when we will look upon the murder of animals as they now look upon the murder of humans.”

Speech On Vegetarianism Essay

Sugar May Be Killing You Essay

Sugar May Be Killing You Essay.

In “Eating too much added sugar may be killing you”, Nanci Hellmich argues that sugar not only makes you fat, it may be killing you. I completely agree with her stance on the subject. I believe that the food industry has purposefully made products with sugar that they know are addicting just to make money regardless of how it affects the people. I myself most definitely consume too much sugar, I know it to be true. I drink soda like there’s no tomorrow.

But, I also drink milk, a lot of it. So at least the calcium deficiency that soda causes is negated by that fact. The American Beverage Associations statement “This is an observational study which cannot and does not show that cardiovascular disease is caused by drink sugar-sweetened beverages” is just what any company would say if something they make or are affiliated with is found out to be dangerous for your health. Deny, deny, deny.

That’s all these big companies do until they can’t anymore, usually that point comes way to slowly unfortunately.

I found it interesting that in the third paragraph of Nanci’s paper she discusses how most people in the USA consume much more calories from sugar than they should; and that woman actually should consume less sugar than men. I found this interesting because I didn’t think it would make a difference what gender you were. I mean calories are calories right? Or are they? The calories from sugar are actually empty calories and provide no nutritional benefit whatsoever. It wouldn’t be so bad with all this sugar if that weren’t the case but it is and people need to recognize that it’s more than just the calories you consume, it’s the type of calories as well.

Sugar May Be Killing You Essay

My most prized possesion Essay

My most prized possesion Essay.

My initial thought was how could i possibly narrow that down to just one single item? After fifteen minutes of staring at a blank piece of paper trying to figure out what exactly i cherish most in my life, it hit me. The one thing in my life that plays the biggest and most important role in my everyday story is my health. When people hear the word possession they automatically think of an object belonging to one. However, it is often forgotten that a possession isn’t always just a physical material but can be anything from a trait to a physical attribute.

From a very young age you are taught the many steps needed to live a healthy lifestyle and maintain one’s health. These steps have become part of our everyday routine that many people often begin to take their health for granted as good health is viewed as something that’s just expected in life, particularly amongst young people.

It often doesn’t cross the minds of people when they’re trying to undergo a busy schedule everyday however, its our health that keeps us going, it’s our health that enables us to live our lives everyday without having to worry about dropping dead in the middle of the street or having a heart attack whilst doing the groceries. Good health is the real jewel of life.

My mother always taught me to eat well. We would often reach a negotiation whereby if I ate all of my vegetables at dinner, In return, I would be allowed out on the green to play. My mother understood the importance of healthy eating whereas I always thought she was forcing me to eat “green balls of slime” to be malicious. My father enrolled me into my local soccer club and I could never grasp why. However, as the years flew by and I began to grow as a child, I learnt that this was all for my own good as he just wanted what’s best for me which was maintaining a good physical health. As I matured and became more aware of the world around me, I saw that health is apart of my everyday routine and although I may not have understood it at the time, I can see that the role it plays is more vital than anything else in the world. Due to the sheer egotistical and self-centred actions of many people around the world today, people are growing up thinking that money can solve everything.

To keep good health, no money is needed. This fact is often abandoned due to common phrase often used- “money makes the world go round”. Even if you have all the money in the world, health will always swoop in and take first place when it comes to importance. Steve Jobs was one of the world’s richest men, owning one of the biggest companies in the world and having a total net worth of about 7 billion dollars. However, that did not stop his cancer from heartlessly taking away his life, at the young age of 56. Despite owning a tremendous portion of the world’s money, he could not buy health, proving that wealth is irrelevant if you don’t have the air in your lungs.

If health is lost, everything is lost such as the capacity to work which can lead to many catastrophes such as poverty and misery. if good health was abolished, we would simply fade away along with the rest of the world. To conclude, my health will always be my main focus on life- mentally and physically. I believe that if i don’t live life with a good mental outlook, i will achieve nothing.I perfectly agree with the maxim ‘health is wealth’. Unfortunately, very few care about this ‘wealth’. People spend sleepless days and nights, running after material wealth forgetting that the first step to acquire material wealth is to have good health.

My most prized possesion Essay

Welfare requirements Essay

Welfare requirements Essay.

1.1 Explain in your own words what the welfare requirements are. The welfare requirements cover many areas.

We protect the children by having policies and procedures for safeguarding children. Practitioners are attending safeguarding courses to understand and know how to respond appropriately to signs of abuse. Ofsted is informed if any form of abuse was noticed in the nursery or at home. People working with children must be able to fulfil the requirements of their role. Every person employed working with children must have a recent CRB to make sure the suitable people are employed for the role.

Staff must not consume alcohol or any other substances that can affect their abilities. A setting must have a great amount of level 3 qualified people; on the setting there must be first aid trained practitioners. Rooms need to be in ratio at all times to ensure the children’s safety. A key person needs to be given to each child. They need to ensure that all the children are cared for and their profile folders are up to date and planned after the children’s interests.

A key person is a named member of staff with responsibilities for a small group of children who helps those children to feel safe and cared for. In our nursery we refer to the key person as a mentor- a member of staff who helps a child to develop in a way that maximises the individual child’s needs, talents, interests and abilities and truly earns the respect of their mentor children through leading by example. Mentors are responsible for planning, observation and assessment for each of their mentor children. A setting must have policies and procedures in place for administering medicine to the children; medicine needs to be prescribed, a written permission needs to be in place, a written record needs to be kept when administering a medicine. A behaviour management policy should be in place for all the nurseries. Risk assessments must be carried out on a daily basis to make sure children are kept safe.

1.2 Explain who you report concerns about health and safety or safeguarding to within your setting. In our nursery it runs a policy called the whistleblowing policy. Whistleblowing occurs when a person raises a concern about dangerous, illegal activity or any wrong doing within the setting. Our nursery has issued this policy to facilitate the reporting of any reasonable suspicion we may have about malpractice or unlawful conduct. If we are aware of malpractice or we believe it is likely to occur we should let the nursery know so they can investigate. Someone raising a concern under this policy is not risking in losing their job. If we have a concern about malpractice we should contact the Line Manager or the Principal. If we believe that having raised our concern and the matter hasn’t been addressed we should contact a Regional Principal, Head of Operations, the HR Manager, or a Director. We can raise our concern orally (although this should be confirmed in writing as well) or in writing. When raising a concern we must state that we are using the whistleblowing policy and if we wish our identity to be kept confidential.

2.2 Tell me how you ensure children’s safety as they arrive, at the end of the session/day and when you go off site. Before the children arrive at the nursery we must carry out a morning risk assessment. At the beginning of every morning I need to do a morning risk assessment that includes checking the room if everything is safe for the children to be in. I need to look around the room to make sure there are no cleaning materials left by the cleaners, or to check if there are no unused staples from the board or on the floors, to check if the room is clear of plastic bags, if there are no hanging cables around the room, if the shelves are not overloaded and that the fire extinguisher is available. At the end of the day I need to implement an afternoon risk assessment. I need to check if all the windows are locked, if all the electrical equipment is unplugged, if all the lights are off, I need to stock up the nappy changing area with gloves, blue aprons, paper rolls.

I need to check if all the resources are put away in the garden and nothing is left outside and the sand pit lid needs to be on. Every time we take the children in the garden we need to implement a garden risk assessment. I need to check the grass area for hazards, the climbing frame, the gardening area, the mud pit, and the sandpit if it’s clean. We ensure children safety by signing every child in when they enter the room and at the end of the day sign them out; we have a signing out form for the parents or carers to sign when they pick up. If an unknown person comes to collect a child and is not recognised by any of the members of staff, this needs to be checked at reception if a password has been given; our nursery is using the password policy; when a new person will collect a child then he needs have a password agreed by the parents and management, so he can enter the premises. A person that is not recognised by any of the members of staff, is not present on the ID form on a photo at reception and has no password is not able to enter the premises and collect a child.

We carry out headcounts every 10 minutes to make sure all the children are present. We ensure children’s safety off site by: taking pictures of every child before leaving the premises, take all the children’s parents contact numbers, taking first aid bag, water, nappies, wipes, gloves, aprons, nappy sacks to avoid the spread of infections, wrist straps if children are old enough to walk. If we are taking children with allergies on a trip we need to make sure that the child’s medication and adrenalin injections are taken. When we go off site we need to have a supernumerary person with us, the members of staff needs to be first aid trained, and a safeguarding officer needs to be present. And children need to be supervised at all times and not let them climb on very high climbing equipment.

2.4 Tell me about the space requirements and adult: child ratios you have at your setting and explain why the minimum requirements are necessary. It’s important to have sufficient staff in place to ensure the safety of the children and that the adults are suitable to undertake these tasks. The ratios in my setting are: for children under the age of two, there must be 1 member of staff for every 3 children; for children aged 2 years old there must be 1 member of staff for every 4 children; for children aged 3 or above there must be a member of staff for every 8 children. It is really important to follow the ratio so we make sure the children receive the right amount of support. The minimum requirements are necessary to ensure that children have the right space to learn to their full capacity. It is really important to the size of the room and to know how many children the room can take. For example we can’t put 20 children in a room that can take only 12; the risk of accident is much higher and children can’t learn to their full capacity in an overcrowded room.

3.1 Health and wellbeing is not just about safety and risk management it is all about how you care for the children. Tell me how you do this in your setting. We need to care for children physically as well; good hygiene is very important in a child’s development. The children need to wash their hands and faces during the day, we need to apply cream for children that need it, we need to ensure that their hair is tied up to avoid getting into their eyes and into their food. We need to look after the children’s skin as well; we need to make sure the nappies are changed very often, cream used if needed and we need to do it carefully to avoid infection by wearing an apron and gloves.

We need to wash or wipe their sweat off their bodies regularly to avoid sore areas and inflammation. We need to show the children how to wash hands, use soap carefully and praise them well; we need to ensure the flannels or wipes that we use for face wiping are used only once. We need to use recommended product if children have allergies or skin conditions such as eczema. The role of a mentor is very important in a child’s life. A mentor is a member of staff with responsibilities for a small group of children to help them feel safe and cared for. The mentor helps a child develop in a way that maximises the child’s needs, talents, interests and abilities.

3.2 Explain the role of other professionals you work with in your setting and how this impacts on children’s health and wellbeing. There are many workers in my setting. There are many nursery nurses in the setting that are looking after the children and are in charge of the children’s profile folders and they will make sure everything is planned after the children’s interests. There are senior mentors that are in charge of the rooms, each room must have a senior mentor that supports our nursery nurses. There is some staff that work only part tine that are called bank staff. They are in the nursery to support us and be in ratio when we need to take our lunch break. We have SENCO workers that have a great impact on children’s development. A SENCO worker is a member of staff that will give additional support for children with special needs and will work hand in hand with parents and teachers.

4.3 Provide a reflective account of how to prepare and store food, formula and breast milk according to health and safety guidelines. We need to make sure bottles are clean and sterilised before every feeding. The child’s formula milk is prepared by mixing water and the appropriate amount of formula powder and consumed immediately. We should not store formula milk for any length of time as it may be unsafe. This is because formula milk powder is not sterile and when mixed into a solution may allow bacteria to grow if not consumed immediately. We should dispose of any surplus of formula milk because it is unsafe to use it again. In my setting the formula powder milk is used for only one month after opening. After one month we need to dispose of it because it is not safe for the children to drink it anymore. The breast milk can be stored in a number of ways: at room temperature for no longer than 6 hours, in a fridge for up to five days, in a fridge’s freezer compartment for two weeks or in a home freezer for up to six months.

The food must be cooked and stored in a clean environment to reduce the risk of food poisoning. The food must not be consumed or served to the children if it’ out of date. In my setting there is a separate fridge for storing dairy and meat. Meat is kept in sealed containers on the bottom shelf of the fridge so they can’t touch or drip on other foods. It’s very important to prepare food safely, to help stop harmful bacteria from spreading and growing. Hands can easily spread bacteria around the kitchen and onto food so it’s very important to wash hands thoroughly with soap and warm water before starting to prepare food, after touching raw meat, after going to the toilet, after touching bins or pets. It’s very important to make sure the worktops, kitchen utensils and chopping boards are clean. The kitchen can be provided with colour coded chopping boards.

5.1 Identify balanced meals, snacks and drinks for children in their early years, following current government guidance on nutritional needs. To ensure a child’s balanced diet we need to follow the basic nutritional requirements. In our setting we provide a meat course and a vegetarian course every day and the food that we serve is organic. The right foods for a balanced diet are: potatoes and cereals that include high energy foods like pasta, rice, potatoes, bread; the milk and dairy product are important in a child’s diet because it contains protein for the healthy working of the nervous system and it’s a rich source of calcium for forming healthy bones and teeth.

The fruits and vegetables have a strong place in a child’s diet. Fruits and vegetables provide rich sources of vitamins and minerals; the fibre found in the fruits and in the vegetables helps digestion and can prevent bowel problems such as constipation. The citrus fruits have high vitamin C that helps children have a healthy skin and helps blood formation. In the children’s diet we need to find space for the high protein foods such as: meat, fish, eggs, nuts and seeds; they contain iron and help a healthy blood formation. The only drink that we serve is water and is available at all times at the water station.

5.2 Recognise why it is important to follow carer’s instructions in respect of their child’s food allergies or intolerances. It’s really important to follow the parents or carer’s instructions regarding their child’s allergies and intolerances. Some children might not be able to eat different types of food like milk, eggs, nuts because their body react to them and intolerance can cause children to develop health problems. For children with allergies it can be fatal, their body can go into anaphylactic shock, which causes throat to swell and can cause breathing difficulty. The reaction might be fatal if emergency treatment is not given immediately. 5.3 Identify the dietary requirements of different cultural or religious groups. When a child is enrolled in the nursery the child care provider need to ask parents about food needs, family eating patterns and about any cultural or religious preferences. As we have the traffic light system in our nursery all the children have their own placemats. Colour green for children that can eat everything, yellow for preferences and red for allergies. The yellow placemats are done specially for children that have cultural or religious preferences.

A dietary requirement is filled in every morning to let kitchen staff know that the children with special preferences will attend the nursery that day. We need to work together with parents to ensure that children with special dietary needs receive appropriate food. For example in my setting I have Jewish children that can’t eat pork or mix meat with dairy. It depends of the parent preference and of how they follow the religion. For example in the room that I work in I have Jewish children that can mix the meat with dairy and there are children that can’t. There is another child that is Muslim and we have been asked by the parents to not serve him pork.

We are a pork free nursery so we explained the parent that a yellow placemat won’t be needed because we don’t serve pork in the nursery. There are some Muslim children in the nursery that are vegetarians. Their parents chose that the child should not be served meat in the nursery because we don’t provide halal meat. So the child will have a yellow placemat and served vegetarian meals only. There are different religions that avoid different types of food because of their beliefs; like Hindu people don’t eat beef, eggs, white fish and don’t drink alcohol; Buddhist people don’t eat chicken, lamb, pork, beef, shellfish and don’t consume alcohol.

5.4 Describe methods of educating children and adults in effective food management. As early years practitioners we have to provide healthy and nutritionally appropriate food for the children that we care for. When planning meals for children, there are several things to take into consideration to ensure that meals contain sufficient nutrients and calories. We need to look at the food labels to see how much salt, sugar, calories and fat are in the foods and weather the foods are rich in nutrients. Giving children healthy food is just a part of encouraging children to eat healthy. We need to be aware of how much food the children needs over the day. Too much food can make the child gain weight and too little food can make the child lose weight and become undernourished. Portion control is important to ensure the child is having the correct amount of food. Parents are advised early on if their child’s weight becomes an issue.

There are a lot of helpful websites and leaflets that offer parents help to understand what a healthy weight is for a child’s height. A good plan for helping parents know how much food does a child needs is to prepare a chart or a table about each day’s food and work out its overall calorie content using food labels. Parents should not force their children to eat types of food that the child refuses to eat. This is how children can develop food phobias. Parents can encourage their children to join in, in preparing the food. Children would be more likely to try new foods if they helped in the preparation. We have set up an activity at my setting. It was about eating healthy and making fruit kebabs. There was a child that refused to eat fruits since he joined the nursery. We encouraged them to wash the fruits, to use a knife to cut the fruits and slowly put the fruits on the stick. That child got so excited that he was able to wash the fruits, cut them and do all the work by himself that he got very interested in how the fruit kebab tastes like. The thing that he did everything by himself made him want to eat the fruits.

6.2 Explain the regulations concerning management of medicines and how these are interpreted in the work setting. Medicine needs to be kept far from children’s reach. The setting must provide a fridge used specially for medicine that needs to be kept in the fridge like antibiotics, or a first aid box; for example the setting that I work in has a special fridge for medicine, kept in the manager’s office and can’t be reached without the managers permission, and a box for medicine that doesn’t need to be kept in the fridge, is kept at nursery’s reception away from children’s and strangers reach. Every nursery should have a clear policy that is understood and accepted by staff, to make sure children receive proper care in a setting. The parents need to have access to the nursery’s policies through prospects or emails or through other information for parents. The manager has the responsibility to share the policy. All the medicines taken to the nursery should be prescribed by a doctor or pharmacist, and should always be provided in the original container that includes the prescriber’s instructions for administration and dosage.

Nurseries should never accept medicine, that have been removed from the original package and practitioners should never change the dosage of the medicine. In the nursery that I work in we have a strict medication policy; every medication given to us by the parent needs to be prescribed by the doctor, a medication form needs to be filled and signed by the parent; on the medication form parents needs to provide us with information about the dosage of the medicine and the time that needs to be administered. The medicine can be given to the child only by a room leader or a member of management team; a witness is needed to make sure the right medicine and the right dosage has been given to the child. The medication form needs to be signed by the person administering the medicine and by the person witnessing. The medicine needs to be taken home every day when collecting the child. A form must be signed by parents, when a child starts nursery if they agree us to give the child medicine (Calpol) in case of child having temperature.

If a child has very high temperature in the nursery, a member of team needs to call a parent to inform them and check with them in case medicine has been administered to the child in the last 4 hours and to check if medicine can be administered to the child. If the temperature hasn’t dropped within 30 minutes the child needs to be collected by the parent or career. When a child suffering from allergies joins the nursery, the parents need to provide a note from the doctor containing the types of the allergies suffered by the child. A health care plan must be in place for every child suffering from allergies. The kitchen staff must be informed about it and provided with a copy of the health care plan. Every morning a dietary requirement sheet must be filled in to let the kitchen chef know how many children are present in the room and how much food she needs to provide the children. The names and the types of the allergies that the children is suffering of, must be written down clearly so the chef doesn’t make any mistakes because this can be followed by very bad circumstances.

The food coming from the kitchen for the children with allergies needs to be prepared separately from the rest of the food and needs to come on a different plate (red plate) clearly labelled with the child’s name. As our nursery follows the traffic light system with green placemats for children that are able to eat everything, yellow for children with food preferences, and red for children with allergies. The food consumed by a child suffering from allergies MUST come clearly labelled in a red plate ONLY. The child needs to be supervised while eating in case they pick up food from the floor. A child suffering from allergies must have medicine and adrenaline injections with medication forms filled in and signed by the parents. Staff must be first aid trained so they can administer the injection in case the injection is needed. 6.3 Explain how to protect yourself when lifting and handling children and equipment in the work setting.

When lifting something we need to plan the lift before we do it. When we do a long lift we can consider resting the load midway on a table. We need to keep the load as close to the body as possible, we need to try to slide it towards our body before trying to lift it; we need to adopt a stable position where the feet should be apart with one leg slightly forward to maintain balance. We need to get a good hold of the load and where possible the load should be hugged as close as possible to the body because this will make the lifting better then gripping it tightly with hands only.

We need to start the lift in a good posture; at the start of the lift, slight bending of the back, hips and knees is preferable to fully flexing the back. We should not flex our backs any further while lifting. This can happen if the legs begin to straighten before starting to raise the load. We need to avoid twisting our backs or leaning sideways, especially if the back is bent. We need to keep our heads up when handling, we need to move slowly and smoothly to avoid injury. We should not lift more than can be easily managed. There is a big difference between what we can lift and what we can safely lift.

Welfare requirements Essay

Nutrition programs Essay

Nutrition programs Essay.

Traditionally, nutrition programs were targeted to the indigent and poor populations in developing countries. Many of today’s Americans are malnourished also, but they are inundated with unhealthy foods and require a multidisciplinary approach to nutrition education. What would be the three most important points to include in a public nutrition program? Provide current literature to support your answer and include two nutritional education community resources.

Malnourishment is no longer an issue seen only in the indigent population and developing countries.

Many Americans are also plagued with this issue, largely due to unhealthy food choices. Providing a multidisciplinary approach to public nutrition education will help in combating the problem. There are many aspects which should be covered in these programs, however, we will look at three top points.

1.) The relationship between eating behaviors and chronic diseases Several chronic diseases can occur in relationship to unhealthy eating. Cardiovascular disease, obesity and diabetes are a few. Eating foods high in fat can lead to coronary artery disease which can lead to heart blockage which can lead to death.

High fat foods as well as over eating can lead to obesity, which can lead to cardiovascular disease and/or diabetes which can lead to death. Though most complications and/or diseases will manifest themselves in adulthood, looking back most will find the risk factors began in early childhood with poor food choices. As stated by Green Facts (n.d.), “The risks of developing chronic diseases begin in fetal life and continue into old age. Thus, adult chronic diseases reflect the combined effects of prior exposure to damaging environments.” As you can see, it is a vicious cycle we must be cognizant of throughout every stage of life.

2.) Mindful Eating

Each time you prepare a meal your first thoughts should be on the nutritional value of the food and then “am I really hungry, or am I eating for some other reason?” For example, it is mid-afternoon at work and you are hungry and unable to wait until dinner time. Your choices are high calorie, high fat, nutrient dense items from the vending machine or a granola bar, fruit or yogurt. An appropriate snack choice would be the granola bar, fruit or yogurt. Another example: you are sitting at home at 8:00pm on a Thursday night watching television. You go to your pantry and retrieve a bag of chocolate chip cookies. At this point, stop and ask yourself, “am I hungry or am I choosing to eat right now because I am bored?”

If you are going to eat them out of boredom find something else to do to occupy your time, such as read a book, do a craft, or play a game with your family. As stated by Harris (2013), “The core principles of mindful eating include being aware of the nourishment available through the process of food preparation and consumption, choosing enjoyable and nutritious foods, acknowledging food preferences nonjudgmentally, recognizing and honoring physical hunger and satiety cues and using wisdom to guide eating decisions.”

3.) Cooking demonstrations

When talking to individuals about healthy eating often times they say they do not know the proper foods to prepare or how to prepare them to maintain their nutritional value. Offering cooking demonstrations would offer a hands on approach to the issue. We also make sure we are teaching about foods that are affordable and easily accessible in the area.

Nutritional education community resources in the greater Houston, Texas area:
Houston Food Bank
Portwall Headquarters
535 Portwall Street
Houston, Texas 77029
713-223-3700

Texas Department of State Health Services, Women, Infants and Children Program (WIC) 711 N. Velasco, Ste. A
Angleton, Texas 77515
1 (800) 942-3678

Reference:
Harris, C. (2013). Mindful eating. Today’s Dietitian, 15. Retrieved from http://www.todaysdietitian.com/newarchives/030413p42.shtml
Green Facts: Diet and nutrition prevention of chronic diseases. Retrieved
November 17, 2014 from http://www.greenfacts.org/en/diet-nutrition/l-2/3-childhood-eating-habits.htm#1 Houston Food Bank: Nutrition education. Retrieved November 16, 2014 from http://www.houstonfoodbank.org/programs/nutrition-education/ Texas Department of State Health Services, Women, Infants and Children Program (WIC). Retrieved November 16, 2014 from http://www.dshs.state.tx.us/wichd/

Nutrition programs Essay

Nutrition and Fitness Essay

Nutrition and Fitness Essay.

Healthy nutrition and fitness are critical to superior wellbeing and are vital for the strong growth of children and adults alike. A large number of deaths in the United States each year are related to unhealthy nutrition and an inactive standard of living. This paper will discuss my current fitness and nutritional habits and ways that I can improve them by implementing new activities into my daily lifestyle.

a.Explain your current fitness and nutritional habits. Also, briefly explain some of the health risks associated with obesity.

For starters, my current fitness and nutritional habits are in a roller-coaster effect. During the last four months my fitness habits have consisted of exercising for two or three weeks then not exercising for two or three weeks again. However, what I was doing for five weeks straight up until last week was a 90 day fitness program called P90x. P90x is an at-home workout that uses the term “muscle confusion” to increase results.

Whether “muscle confusion” truly exists or not can be argued, but the fitness term “muscle tension” has been confirmed through numerous fitness experts.

Here is an example of one week’s workout: Monday-60 minutes of push-up/pull-up alternating exercises, followed by a 15 minute abdominal workout; Tuesday-60 minutes of plyometrics cardio (fancy term for “jump training”); Wednesday-60 minutes of back and bicep workout alternating exercises, followed by a 15 minute abdominal workout; Thursday-90 minutes of Yoga; Friday-60 minutes of legs and back workout, followed by a 15 minute abdominal workout; Saturday-Kenpo X (another form of Tae-Bo); Sunday-rest.

For the first time in a very long time, I believe that my fitness habits have been much better than previous times. However, my nutritional habits have been devastating to my workouts and achieving the results that I am looking for. My breakfast and lunch eating habits have not been unhealthy. My breakfast typically consists of two Kellog’s Nutrigrain Bars with a glass of 2% milk. I am not a big breakfast person and my appetite is always minimal when I wake up. If I do not have a Nutrigrain bars for breakfast I will have either a protein shake or a bowl of Raisin Bran. For lunch I either have some type of carbohydrate (spaghetti/pasta) or a cold sandwich, such as tuna or turkey accompanied with a small side of potato chips. For dinner I eat whatever my wife or I cook (all nutritional rules are out the window for dinner). On top of all the previous mentioned, I consume approximately one gallon (128 fl. Oz.) of water a day beginning in the morning up until the time I go to bed.

Some of the health risks associated with obesity are cholesterol and triglyceride levels, impaired heart function, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, cancer, impaired immune function, gallbladder and kidney diseases, skin problems, impotence, sleep and breathing disorders, back pain, arthritis, other bone and joint disorders, complications of pregnancy, menstrual irregularities, urine leakage, increased surgical risk, and psychological disorders and problems such as depression, low self-esteem, and body dissatisfaction (Insel & Roth, 2008).

b.Identify and describe three new fitness habits that you could reasonably incorporate into your lifestyle. How could these new habits improve your health?Three new fitness habits that I could incorporate into my lifestyle are getting more sleep at night, attempting to run in the morning for 20-30 minutes prior to going to work, and on my rest day (Sunday) doing a stretching routine for approximately 30 minutes. Sleeping more at night will result in more energy throughout the day, running in the morning will give me a more alert approach to starting my day, and stretching will improve my overall ability for muscle growth by increasing flexibility in my body.

c.Identify and describe three new nutritional habits that you could reasonably incorporate into your lifestyle. How could these new habits improve your health?Three new nutritional habits that I could incorporate into my lifestyle would be eating a healthier and more plentiful breakfast, as breakfast has been said to be the most important meal of the day, eating more fruits and vegetables, and to not eat after 6:00 PM. Eating a healthier and more fulfilling breakfast will increase energy and alertness throughout the day. Eating more fruits and vegetables is important because they are important sources of dietary fiber, vitamins, and minerals which is crucial for a healthy diet (Insel & Roth, 2008), and not eating after 6:00 PM will improve the way I feel prior to going to bed, as in not feeling overstuffed with food.

d.Discuss how each new habit would promote healthy weight.

Sleeping at least seven hours at night would increase the likelihood of higher weight loss (Bouchez, 2007). Running is a form of cardiovascular fitness and since metabolism in the body is strongest when a person first wakes up, with the exception of sleeping, this exercise in the morning will most likely increase my metabolism throughout the day compared to not running in the morning. In short, the higher the metabolism is in the body will result in the higher probability of weight loss (Woodward, 2009). Stretching on what would typically be my rest day would allow my body to be better at physical fitness activities such as weight training and cardiovascular fitness. In addition to less likelihood of pulling or straining a muscle, stretching would increase my ability to burn more calories, therefore, simplifying my ability to sustain a healthy weight.

Additionally, Elisabetta Politi, RD, MPH, nutrition manager for the Duke Diet and Fitness Center at Duke University Medical School (2005) states, “When you don’t eat breakfast, you’re actually fasting for 15 to 20 hours, so you’re not producing the enzymes needed to metabolize fat to lose weight.” Eating more fruits and vegetables throughout the day would help balance my intake of foods according to the food pyramid. Last, not eating after 6:00 PM is crucial to weight loss (Levinson, 2008). People tend to eat more at night without realizing it. One major cause for this is evenings are when most people lounge around the house or watch a movie or their favorite television program, and eat mass amounts of calories without noticing. Making an extra effort to not eat after 6:00 PM would help reduce these types of unhealthy eating habits.

e.Discuss how each new habit would benefit your health in general.

Sleeping at least seven hours at night, running in the morning before work, stretching on my rest days, eating breakfast everyday, ensuring I eat fruits and vegetables, and not eating after 6:00 PM will collectively have an overall benefit on my health. To endure a healthy life one must eat right according to the food pyramid suggestions, get plenty of sleep, exercise regularly, eat the proper foods at the proper times of the day, avoid unhealthy foods and detrimental health choices such as smoking, and develop constructive ways to deal with stress. By performing all the previously mentioned activities in this paper, I, along with other who follow these or other healthy habits, will improve overall health in general.

Conclusion

This paper discussed my current lifestyle and how I can incorporate new ways of improving my overall health. Although I will not make any promises that I will change my current fitness habits, as I do not wish to exercise twice a day everyday, I do acknowledge my lack of nutrition and the need for improvement. Therefore, I will do my best starting today, to improve my overall health by following my own suggestions for a healthier lifestyle.

References

Bouchez, Colette. (2005). The Dream Diet: Losing Weight While You Sleep. WebMD. Retrieved July 28, 2009, from http://www.webmd.com/sleep-disorders/guide/lose-weight-while-sleepingInsel, Paul M., & Roth, Walton T. (2008). Core Concepts of Health. Retrieved from https://ecampus.phoenix.edu/content/eBookLibrary2/content/ereader.aspx?assetmetaid=0888a650-2b5a-4424-b9ae-57b032e4b83a&assetdataid=b2ae1aa0-300e-4fe0-8c52-3d1500fd0d59.

Levinson, Mike. (2008, October 13). Eating After 6 pm: Why It’s Bad For You [blog]. Message posted to http://www.diet.com/dietblogs/read_blog.php?title=Eating+After+6+pm%3A+ Why+It%5C’s+Bad+For+You&blid=12884Politi, Elisabetta. (2005). Lose Weight: Eat Breakfast. WebMD. Retrieved July 28, 2009, from http://www.webmd.com/diet/features/lose-weight-eat-breakfastWoodward, Susan. (2009). Boosting Metabolism. MSN Health & Fitness. Retrieved July 28, 2009, from http://health.msn.com/fitness/articlepage.aspx?cp-documentid=100096731

Nutrition and Fitness Essay

Milk – Nutrition Essay

Milk – Nutrition Essay.

Got Milk? “Milk is a white fluid secreted by the mammary glands of female mammals for the nourishment of their young, consisting of minute globules of fat suspended in a solution of casein, albumin, milk sugar, and inorganic salts” (milk). Humans have been consuming milk for thousands of years. As humans we usually consume milk beyond childhood getting it from our animal counterpart’s goats, sheep, and cattle, and using it as a food product. Nine out of ten of the milk consumed in the United States comes from cattle.

There has been numerous debates on rather drinking milk is healthy for humans.

Milk is present in numerous of humans all time favorite foods such as ice cream, yogurt, cheese, and butter, these products are known as dairy products. Milk comes in many different forms. For example: organic, conventional, homogenized, flavored, and non-dairy milk. Contrary to what many may think, there is no known difference between organic and raw milk. “Homogenization is a process that gives milk its rich, white color and smooth texture.

Milk that has not been homogenized contains a layer of cream that rises to the top of a glass”. (Wokenfuss).

Flavored milk is any milk with artificial flavoring including strawberry, chocolate, and vanilla flavored milks. Flavored milks contain more sugar and fat calories than unflavored milks, but it’s still contains the essential nutrients available in the milk. It was once said that “milk is one-stop shopping for nutrition”. Milk contains nearly all the nutrients that a growing child would need. It contains fats, carbohydrates, proteins, vitamins and minerals, all these nutrients are essential in not only growing children but human beings in general. Milk is known as being very rich in calcium.

Numerous studies were conducted and it was shown that four out of five serving of foods rich in calcium such as milk, cheese, and other dairy products are needed to optimize peak bone mass during teenage years. “Calcium plays an important role in building stronger, denser bones early in life and keeping bones strong and healthy later in life. ” It has been said that dairy foods rich in calcium could possibly increase the speed of weight loss and also reduce the amount of body fat. Milk also has a high quality in protein. Protein helps increase energy, and it also helps build and prepare

muscle tissue. “Vitamins are organic substances essential for many life processes. Milk includes fat soluble vitamins A, D, E, and K… Because milk is an important source of dietary vitamin A, fat reduced products which have lost vitamin A with the fat are required to supplement the product with vitamin A. ” (Douglas). Many critics argue the fact that milk is more harmful to humans than helpful. Dairy products add to numerous health problems. Milk doesn’t possess iron of its own, so it’s possibly could harm a child’s ability to absorb iron. Iron makes up a large amount of proteins in the body.

Having low amount of it could result in deficiency anemia. Large amounts of the American people are lactose intolerant, meaning they can’t consume large amounts of lactose which is highly present in milk. “Studies have suggested that some of the nutritional benefits of milk may be lost when a lactase-deficient [lactose intolerant] individual consumes milk. Not only does this person fail to receive the calories normally supplied by the undigested carbohydrates; resultant diarrhea may lead to loss of protein as well. ” ( Oski). We all have heard the saying “Milk creates strong bones”.

There have been numerous debates on whether the calcium in dairy products really does assist the bones. Statistics show that teenagers bone health is not contributed to the amount of consumed calcium, but the amount of physical activity they partaken in their earlier years. There also hasn’t been any evidence to support the claim that consuming dairy products on a daily basis can contribute to weight loss. Consuming milk also hasn’t proved to be to any assistance later in life. It has been proven that the consumption of milk does increase the risk of ovarian cancer.

“Many researchers say dairy products are high in saturated fat and cholesterol and have been linked to numerous illnesses and diseases such as diabetes, prostate cancer, heart disease, various allergies and Crohn’s disease. ” (Garcia). In conclusion, I believe that the consumption of milk is not an important factor in living a healthy and normal life. Large amounts of research and studies were conducted, and I’ve reviewed the pros and cons of milk and dairy products, and I conclude that there are more harmful after effects from drinking milk than beneficial for human beings.

Milk – Nutrition Essay

Testing for Biomolecules Essay

Testing for Biomolecules Essay.

Aim:

The objective is to identify specific chemical substances within a cell and to be able to verify the presence or absence of each one in a cell or food substance for future testing.

Hypothesis:

The identification of each biomolecular chemical substance should be verified successfully, as well as determining if it is present or absent in the cell(s).

Theoretical Base:

A biomolecule is a substance that naturally occurs in living organisms. Biomolecules consist primarily of carbon and hydrogen, along with nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorus and sulfur.

Other elements sometimes are incorporated but these are much less common.

Biomolecules are necessary for the existence of all known forms of life. For example, humans possess skin and hair. The main component of hair is keratin, an agglomeration of proteins which are themselves polymers built from amino acids. Amino acids are some of the most important building blocks used in nature, to construct larger molecules.

Another type of building block is the nucleotides, each of which consists of three components: either a purine or pyrimidine base, a pentose sugar and a phosphate group.

These nucleotides, mainly, form the nucleic acids.

Besides the polymeric biomolecules, numerous small organic molecules are absorbed or synthesised by living systems. Many biomolecules may be useful or important drugs.

Types of biomolecule

A diverse range of biomolecules exist, including:

Small Molecules:

Lipids, Phospholipids, Glycolipids, Sterols

Vitamins

Hormones, Neurotransmitters

Carbohydrates, Sugars

Disaccharides

Monomers:

Amino acids

Nucleotides

Phosphate

Monosaccharides

Polymers:

Peptide, Oligopeptide, Polypeptide, Protein

Nucleic acid, i.e. DNA, RNA

Oligosaccharide, Polysaccharide

Macromolecules:

Prions

Nucleosides & Nucleotides

Nucleosides are molecules formed by attaching a nitrogenous base to a ribose ring. Examples of these include cytidine, uridine, adenosine, guanosine, thymidine and inosine.

Nucleosides can be phosphorylated by specific kinases in the cell, producing nucleotides, which are the molecular building blocks of DNA and RNA.

Saccharides

Monosaccharides are carbohydrates in the form of simple sugars.

Disaccharides are formed from two monosaccharides joined together. Monosaccharides and disaccharides are sweet, water soluble, and crystalline. Examples of monosaccharides include the hexoses (glucose, fructose, and galactose) and pentoses (ribose, deoxyribose). Examples of disaccharides include sucrose, maltose, and lactose.

Polysaccharides are polymerized monosaccharides, complex unsweet carbohydrates. They are, generally, large and often have a complex, branched, connectivity. They are insoluble in water and do not form crystals. Examples include starch, cellulose, and glycogen. Shorter polysaccharides, with 2-15 monomers, are sometimes known as oligosaccharides.

Lipids

Lipids are chiefly fatty acid esters, and are the basic building blocks of biological membranes. Another biological role is energy storage (e.g., triglycerides). Most lipids consist of a polar or hydrophilic head and one to three nonpolar or hydrophobic fatty acid tails, and therefore they are amphiphilic. Fatty acids consist of unbranched chains of carbon atoms that are connected by single bonds alone (saturated fatty acids) or by both single and double bonds (unsaturated fatty acids). The chains are usually 14-24 carbon groups long.

For lipids present in biological membranes, the hydrophilic head is from one of three classes:

Glycolipids, whose heads contain an oligosaccharide with 1-15 saccharide residues.

Phospholipids, whose heads contain a positively charged group that is linked to the tail by a negatively charged phosphate group.

Sterols, whose heads contain a planar steroid ring, for example, cholesterol.

Hormones

Hormones are produced in the endocrine glands, where they are excreted into the bloodstream. They perform a wide range of roles in the various organs including the regulation of metabolic pathways and the regulation of membrane transport processes.

Hormones may be grouped into three structural classes:

The steroids are one class of such hormones. They perform a variety of functions, but they are all made from cholesterol.

Simple amines or amino acids.

Peptides or proteins.

Amino acids

Amino acids are molecules that contain both amino and carboxylic acid functional groups. ( In biochemistry, the term amino acid is used when referring to those amino acids in which the amino and carboxylate functionalities are attached to the same carbon, plus proline which is not actually an amino acid).

Amino acids are the building blocks of long polymer chains. With 2-10 amino acids such chains are called peptides, with 10-100 they are often called polypeptides, and longer chains are known as proteins. These protein structures have many structural and functional roles in organisms.

There are twenty amino acids that are encoded by the standard genetic code, but there are more than 500 natural amino acids. When amino acids other than the set of twenty are observed in proteins, this is usually the result of modification after translation (protein synthesis). Only two amino acids other than the standard twenty are known to be incorporated into proteins during translation, in certain organisms:

Selenocysteine is incorporated into some proteins at a UGA codon, which is normally a stop codon.

Pyrrolysine is incorporated into some proteins at a UAG codon. For instance, in some methanogens in enzymes that are used to produce methane.

Besides those used in protein synthesis, other biologically important amino acids include carnitine (used in lipid transport within a cell), ornithine, GABA and taurine.

Protein structure

The particular series of amino acids that form a protein is known as that protein’s primary structure. Proteins have several, well-classified, elements of local structure and these are termed secondary structure. The overall 3D structure of a protein is termed its tertiary structure. Proteins often aggregate into macromolecular structures, or quaternary structure.

Metalloproteins

A metalloprotein is a protein that contains a metal cofactor. The metal may be an isolated ion or may be coordinated with an nonprotein organic compound, such as the porphyrin group found in hemoproteins. In some cases, the metal is coordinated with both a side chain of the protein and an inorganic nonmetallic ion. This type of protein-metal-nonmetal structure is found in iron-sulfur clusters.

Vitamins

A vitamin is a compound that can not be synthesized by a given organism but is nonetheless vital to its survival or health. These compounds must be absorbed, or eaten, but typically only in trace quantities.

Apparatus:

Boiling Water

Water

Ethanol

Potassium Hydroxide

Copper Sulphate

Benedict’s Reagent

Dilute Iodine

Solution of Protein

Oil

Glucose

Starch Solution

Test Tubes

Method:

Testing for Starch

Get aproximately 4.0cm3 of starch suspension.

Add 2 drops of dilute iodine.

If a blue-black colour develops, starch is present.

Testing for Glucose

Get 4.0cm3 of glucose in a test tube.

Add an equal quantity of Benedict’s Reagent and shake.

Put it on Marry’s Bath (Boiling Water) until a precipitate develops.

If the precipitate is green, there’s a relatively small amount of sugar.

If the colour is brown or red, there’s a relatively high amount of sugar.

Testing for Lipids

Get a small amount of oil in a test tube.

Add 5cm3 of ethanol and shake until the fat dissolves.

Add on equal volume of water.

If a cloudy white precipitate develops, indicates the presence of a lipid.

Testing for Proteins

Get a small amount (2.0cm3 aproximately) of a solution of protein into a test tube.

Add a little potassium hydroxide until the solution clears.

Add a drop of copper sulphate.

If there is a blue ring at the surface of the substance, protein is present. After shaking the ring dissapears and the solution turns purple.

Control:

In order to verify that the results obtained are positive. A negative control must be taken. All of the testing procedures above must be repeated, but instead of adding the respective biomolecules (starch, glucose, lipids and proteins) they must be replaced with water.

Analysis & Evaluation:

The biomolecule presence was tested succesfully, as the positive test results were correct. For the positive starch test, a blue-black colour was achieved indicating the presence of starch, as for the negative test a yellowish-brown was shown indicating the absence of the biomolecule. For the positive glucose test a light green colour was achieved indicating the presence of glucose, as for the negative test a transparent blue was shown indicating the absence of the biomolecule. For the positive lipids test a cloudy white precipitate with a transparent bottom was ahieved indicating the presence of lipids, as for the negative test a transparent liquid was shown indicating the absence of the biomolecule. For the positive proteins test a dark purple colour was achieved indicating the presence of proteins, as for the negative test a light blue colour was shown indicating the absence of the biomolecule.

Conclusion:

It was learnt from this experiment and its results that the indentification of a chemical substance in a cell is achievable and the verification of biomolecular presence in the cell is acomplished succesfully. This knowledge and applicational skills are very useful to posses because it can be furtherly tested directly on foods and such to observe if this biomolecules are present or not and consequently being able to compare them.

Errors and Improvements:

No mistakes were perfomed throughout the carrying out of this laboratory activity, no flaws were observed nor no extra needs are to be added and therefore the lack of errors does not allow for any improvements whatsoever.

Althought for further testing and expansion of knowledgeable capabilities, the tests can be performed on simple raw foods such as egg, bread and milk in order to verify the biomolecular presence of any of the chemical substances tested above (starch, glucose, lipids and proteins).

Bibliography (Theoretical Base and further knowledge):

– Encyclopaedia Britannica 2003

– http://www.fact-index.com/b/bi/biomolecule.html

Testing for Biomolecules Essay